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Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Luiz H P Vieira, Sérgio A Cunha, Renato Moraes, Fabio A Barbieri, Rodrigo Aquino, Lucas de P Oliveira, Martina Navarro, Bruno L S Bedo, Paulo R P Santiago
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the kicking performance of young soccer players in the U9 to U20 age groups. METHOD: Three hundred and sixty-six Brazilian players were evaluated on an official pitch using three-dimensional kinematics to measure (300 Hz) ball velocity (Vball ), foot velocity (Vfoot ), Vball /Vfoot ratio, last stride length, and distance between the support foot and the ball. Simultaneously, a two-dimensional procedure was also conducted to compute (60 Hz) the mean radial error, bivariate variable error, and accuracy...
March 7, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Sebastian Ludyga, Markus Gerber, Serge Brand, Uwe Pühse, Flora Colledge
PURPOSE: Acute benefits of aerobic exercise on executive functioning have been reported frequently under laboratory conditions. However, to date, a beneficial effect on long-term memory has been less well supported and no data are available regarding nonlaboratory conditions in young adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in a university classroom setting. METHOD: Using a cross-over design, 51 participants performed a bout of moderately intense running (RUN) and read an article while seated (CON)...
March 7, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Alicia L Fedewa, Elizabeth Fettrow, Heather Erwin, Soyeon Ahn, Minnah Farook
PURPOSE: This study investigated the academic achievement and physical activity differences between types of activity breaks implemented in elementary school classrooms. This study evaluated whether there was a difference between the impact of purely aerobic-based movement breaks and the impact of academic-based breaks on children's academic achievement outcomes. METHOD: Participants included 460 children in 3rd grade through 5th grade at 4 elementary schools. There were 176 children in the schools that engaged in academic-based breaks and 284 in the schools that engaged in aerobic-only breaks...
February 23, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Alexandra Pizzera, Carsten Möller, Henning Plessner
Gymnastics judges and former gymnasts have been shown to be quite accurate in detecting errors and accurately judging performance. PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study was to examine if this superior judging performance is reflected in judges' gaze behavior. METHOD: Thirty-five judges were asked to judge 21 gymnasts who performed a skill on the vault in a video-based test. Classifying 1 sample on 2 different criteria, judging performance and gaze behavior were compared between judges with a higher license level and judges with a lower license level and between judges who were able to perform the skill (specific motor experience [SME]) and those who were not...
January 19, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Vera Limpens, Tim Buszard, Emma Shoemaker, Geert J P Savelsbergh, Machar Reid
PURPOSE: The net height in tennis (0.91 m) is approximately 50% of a professional tennis player's height. Children are also expected to play with this net height, even though it is approximately 70% of the average 10-year-old's height. This study examined the immediate effect of lowering net height on the performance characteristics of skilled junior tennis players aged 10 years and younger. METHOD: Sixteen players were matched in 8 pairs of even tennis ability and same sex...
January 19, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Sara Santos, Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Wolfgang Schöllhorn, Jaime Sampaio, Nuno Leite
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the effects of a differential-learning program, embedded in small-sided games, on the creative and tactical behavior of youth soccer players. Forty players from under-13 (U13) and under-15 (U15) were allocated into control and experimental groups and were tested using a randomized pretest to posttest design using small-sided games situations. METHOD: The experimental group participated in a 5-month differential-learning program embodied in small-sided games situations, while the control group participated in a typical small-sided games training program...
January 19, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Ben D Kern, Kim C Graber
Physical education is critical to addressing childhood obesity, yet many school-based programs do not meet established quality standards and teachers are called upon to change. Little is known about how change is initiated and its associated internal and external factors. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate physical education teacher change that was self-initiated and externally initiated and to examine dispositions toward the change process relative to initiation. METHOD: A random national sample of physical educators representing each SHAPE America - Society of Health and Physical Educators regional district participated in a survey measuring past programming changes, primary initiators of change, and teachers' dispositions toward change...
January 15, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Fernando K Borszcz, Artur F Tramontin, Kristopher M de Souza, Lorival J Carminatti, Vitor P Costa
PURPOSE: Several studies have demonstrated that physiological variables predict cycling endurance performance. However, it is still unclear whether the predictors will change over different performance durations. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between physiological variables and cycling time trials with different durations. METHODS: Twenty trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 60.5 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) performed 4 separate experimental trials during a 2-week period...
January 15, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Karina L R Canabrava, Fernanda R Faria, Jorge R P de Lima, Dartagnan P Guedes, Paulo R S Amorim
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the energy expenditure and intensity of active video games to that of treadmill walking in children and adolescents. METHOD: Seventy-two boys and girls (aged 8-13 years) were recruited from local public schools. Energy expenditure and heart rate were measured during rest, during 3-km/hr, 4-km/hr, and 5-km/hr walks, and during active games (Adventure, Boxing I, Boxing II, and Dance). During walking and active games, we also assessed physical activity using an accelerometer...
January 15, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Elizabeth A Easley, W Scott Black, Alison L Bailey, Terry A Lennie, Wilma J Sims, Jody L Clasey
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate recovery (HRRec) and oxygen consumption recovery (VO2 recovery) between young healthy-weight children and children with obesity following a maximal volitional graded exercise test (GXTmax). METHOD: Twenty healthy-weight children and 13 children with obesity completed body composition testing and performed a GXTmax. Immediately after the GXTmax, HRRec and VO2 recovery were measured each minute for 5 consecutive minutes...
December 20, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Julene Ensign, Amelia Mays Woods, Pamela Hodges Kulinna
PURPOSE: Given the significant challenges facing today's physical educators, the purpose of this study was to examine the expectations of induction teachers and identify the factors in both their personal and organizational environments enhanced or constrained their assimilation into the field during their 1st year. METHOD: Using occupational socialization theory as a guide, data from demographic surveys and a series of formal interviews with participants at the beginning, middle, and end of the school year were inductively analyzed for theme development...
December 20, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
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December 20, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Jesús Vera, Raimundo Jiménez, José Antonio García, José Cesar Perales, David Cárdenas
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the effect of physical effort (cycling for 60 min at 60 ± 5% of individually computed reserve heart-rate capacity), combined with 2 different levels of cognitive demand (2-back, oddball), on intraocular pressure (IOP) and subjective judgments of perceived exertion (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]), affect (Affective Valence subscale of the Self-Assessment Manikin [SAM]), and mental workload (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index [NASA-TLX]); and (b) ascertain whether baseline IOP, measured before exercise, is associated with individual differences in subjective assessments of effort and affective response during exercise...
December 20, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Jordan L Fox, Robert Stanton, Aaron T Scanlan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare training and competition demands in basketball. METHODS: Fifteen semiprofessional male basketball players wore microsensors during physical conditioning training (PCT), games-based training (GBT), and competition to measure absolute and relative (·min-1) PlayerLoadTM (PL) and estimated equivalent distance (EED). Internal responses were calculated using absolute and relative session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and summated heart rate zones (SHRZ)...
March 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Cláudio Farias, Isabel Mesquita, Peter A Hastie, Toni O'Donovan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher's peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches' instruction, and the students' gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. METHOD: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding...
March 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Keston G Lindsay, David L Nichols, Ronald W Davis, David D Marshall
PURPOSE: This study explored the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) using accelerations of 2.56 g to 7.68 g on lower-body detraining. METHODS: All participants (N = 20) were trained using a lower-body resistance-training program for 30 min twice per week from Week 0 to Week 6. At the end of the program, they were randomly assigned to a control group that performed no further training or a WBV group that performed a progressive static WBV program. Data for the 5-repetition-maximum (5RM) squat and extensors and flexors of the knee and ankle were collected at Weeks 0, 6, 8, 10, and 12 for all participants...
March 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Thomas L McKenzie, Nicole J Smith
PURPOSE: An objective database for physical education (PE) is important for policy and practice decisions, and the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) has been identified as an appropriate surveillance tool for PE across the nation. The purpose of this review was to assess peer-reviewed studies using SOFIT to study K-12 PE in U.S. schools. METHOD: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses informed the review, and 10 databases were searched for English-language articles published through 2016...
December 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Lee Smith, Cornelia H M van Jaarsveld, Clare H Llewellyn, Alison Fildes, Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez, Jane Wardle, Abigail Fisher
PURPOSE: Variability in the timing of infant developmental milestones is poorly understood. We used a twin analysis to estimate genetic and environmental influences on motor development and activity levels in infancy. METHOD: Data were from the Gemini Study, a twin birth cohort of 2,402 families with twins born in the United Kingdom in 2007. Parents reported motor activity level for each of the twins at age 3 months using the Revised Infant Behavior Rating Scale and reported the ages at which they first sat unsupported, crawled, and walked unaided...
December 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Rachel L Hutt, Ginger A Moore, Micah A Mammen, Danielle Symons Downs
PURPOSE: Marital dissatisfaction and conflict often increase for couples after the birth of a child and are evident in fewer positive family interactions and more negative family interactions. Because exercise is known to increase positive emotions and decrease negative emotions, the current study examined the extent to which higher levels of mothers' exercise during the postpartum period were related to more positive and fewer negative emotion-expressive behaviors with their infants' fathers...
December 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Ali Brian, Jacqueline D Goodway, Jessica A Logan, Sue Sutherland
PURPOSE: Children from disadvantaged settings are at risk for delays in their object-control (OC) skills. Fundamental motor skill interventions, such as the Successful Kinesthetic Instruction for Preschoolers (SKIP) Program, are highly successful when led by motor development experts. However, few preschools employ such experts. This study examined the extent to which Head Start teachers delivering an 8-week teacher-led SKIP (T-SKIP) intervention elicited learning of OC skills for Head Start children...
December 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
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