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Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716719/metacyclic-vsg-expression-site-promoters-are-recognized-by-the-same-general-transcription-factor-that-is-required-for-rna-polymerase-i-transcription-of-bloodstream-expression-sites
#1
Nikolay G Kolev, Arthur Günzl, Christian Tschudi
Infectious metacyclic Trypanosoma brucei cells develop in the salivary glands of tsetse flies. A critical aspect of the developmental program leading to acquisition of infectivity is the synthesis of a variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. Metacyclic VSG genes are transcribed from a set of specialized VSG expression sites (ESs) that differ from bloodstream VSG ESs by being monocistronic, being significantly shorter, lacking long stretches of 70-bp repeats, and having distinct promoter sequences. Both metacyclic and bloodstream VSG ESs are transcribed by the multifunctional T...
July 14, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651963/conversion-of-procyclic-form-trypanosoma-brucei-to-the-bloodstream-form-by-transient-expression-of-rbp10
#2
Elisha Mugo, Franziska Egler, Christine Clayton
Bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei can lose the ability to differentiate to the procyclic form during prolonged in vitro culture. This can pose a problem during complicated genetic manipulation experiments, especially when the differentiation phenotype is under investigation. Ideally, to preserve differentiation competence, parasites should be cycled after every genetic manipulation step. Conversion of bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei to the procyclic form in vitro is routine, but conversion of procyclic forms to bloodstream forms has hitherto only been achieved in transgenic parasites with tetracycline-inducible expression of proteins with RNA-binding domains - either RBP6 or RBP10...
June 23, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651962/fatty-acid-composition-of-free-living-and-parasitic-stages-of-the-bovine-lungworm-dictyocaulus-viviparus
#3
Ann-Christin Becker, Ina Willenberg, Andrea Springer, Nils Helge Schebb, Pablo Steinberg, Christina Strube
The development of parasitic nematodes proceeds via multiple stages, often implicating the necessity to adapt to different environments. Especially the transition from free-living to parasitic stages is accompanied by a significant change in the environmental conditions. To shed light on possible adaptations to these transitions, the fatty acid composition of different developmental stages of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus was investigated. Fatty acids of D. viviparus eggs, the free-living first, second and third larval stage (L1-L3) as well as the parasitic preadult stage and adult male and female worms residing in the lungs of infected hosts were quantified by gas chromatography after transesterification to their fatty acid methyl esters...
June 23, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645481/subcellular-localization-of-glycolytic-enzymes-and-characterization-of-intermediary-metabolism-of-trypanosoma-rangeli
#4
Rocío Rondón-Mercado, Héctor Acosta, Ana J Cáceres, Wilfredo Quiñones, Juan Luis Concepción
Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagellate protist that infects wild and domestic mammals as well as humans in Central and South America. Although this parasite is not pathogenic for human, it is being studied because it shares with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, biological characteristics, geographic distribution, vectors and vertebrate hosts. Several metabolic studies have been performed with T. cruzi epimastigotes, however little is known about the metabolism of T. rangeli. In this work we present the subcellular distribution of the T...
June 20, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633997/nicotinamide-inhibits-the-growth-of-p-falciparum-and-enhances-the-antimalarial-effect-of-artemisinin-chloroquine-and-pyrimethamine
#5
Sergey O Tcherniuk, Olga Chesnokova, Irina V Oleinikov, Andrew V Oleinikov
Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) - is a water soluble amide derivative of nicotinic acid, which has been used at high doses for a variety of therapeutic applications. However, its antimalarial effect has not been intensively explored. In this work we analysed the effect of nicotinamide alone and in combination with artemisinin, chloroquine andpyrimethamine on the growth of blood stages of P. falciparum. Our results demonstrate that nicotinamide effectively inhibits the growth of blood stage parasites with IC50 of 6...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629935/a-dicre-recombinase-based-system-for-inducible-expression-in-leishmania-major
#6
Renato E R S Santos, Gabriel L A Silva, Elaine V Santos, Samuel M Duncan, Jeremy C Mottram, Jeziel D Damasceno, Luiz R O Tosi
Here we present the establishment of an inducible system based on the dimerizable Cre recombinase (DiCre) for controlled gene expression in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Rapamycin-induced DiCre activation promoted efficient flipping and expression of gene products in a time and dose-dependent manner. The DiCre flipping activity induced the expression of target genes from both integrated and episomal contexts broadening the applicability of the system. We validated the system by inducing the expression of both full length and truncated forms of the checkpoint protein Rad9, which revealed that the highly divergent C-terminal domain of Rad9 is necessary for proper subcellular localization...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629934/recent-advances-in-leishmania-reverse-genetics-manipulating-a-manipulative-parasite
#7
REVIEW
Samuel M Duncan, Nathaniel G Jones, Jeremy C Mottram
In this review we describe the expanding repertoire of molecular tools with which to study gene function in Leishmania. Specifically we review the tools available for studying functions of essential genes, such as plasmid shuffle and DiCre, as well as the rapidly expanding portfolio of available CRISPR/Cas9 approaches for large scale gene knockout and endogenous tagging. We include detail on approaches that allow the direct manipulation of RNA using RNAi and protein levels via Tet or DiCre induced overexpression and destabilization domain mediated degradation...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627360/the-plasmodium-falciparum-exported-protein-pf3d7_0402000-binds-to-erythrocyte-ankyrin-and-band-4-1
#8
Bikash Shakya, Wesley D Penn, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Douglas J LaCount
Plasmodium falciparum extensively modifies the infected red blood cell (RBC), resulting in changes in deformability, shape and surface properties. These alterations suggest that the RBC cytoskeleton is a major target for modification during infection. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are largely unknown. To begin to address this question, we screened for exported P. falciparum proteins that bound to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton proteins ankyrin 1 (ANK1) and band 4.1 (4.1R), which form critical interactions with other cytoskeletal proteins that contribute to the deformability and stability of RBCs...
June 13, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602728/the-fluorescent-protein-ilov-outperforms-egfp-as-a-reporter-gene-in-the-microaerophilic-protozoan-trichomonas-vaginalis
#9
Shuqi E Wang, Anna E S Brooks, Bronwyn Cann, Augusto Simoes-Barbosa
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan causing a notorious urogenital infection in humans. Due to its anaerobic metabolism, an alternative fluorescent protein that can be readily expressed in oxygen-deprived conditions is ideal. This study assessed the performance of iLOV, which does not require oxygen to function, as compared to the conventional enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in T. vaginalis. The results indicated that iLOV outperforms eGFP in both transient and stable expression, being detectable earlier and producing higher fluorescent intensity than eGFP in T...
June 9, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522152/anti-trypanosomal-activity-of-cationic-n-heterocyclic-carbene-gold-i-complexes
#10
Isabel Winter, Julia Lockhauserbäumer, Gertrud Lallinger-Kube, Rainer Schobert, Klaus Ersfeld, Bernhard Biersack
Two gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes 1a and 1b were tested for their anti-trypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei parasites. Both gold compounds exhibited excellent anti-trypanosomal activity (IC50=0.9-3.0nM). The effects of the gold complexes 1a and 1b on the T. b. brucei cytoskeleton were evaluated. Rapid detachment of the flagellum from the cell body occurred after treatment with the gold complexes. In addition, a quick and complete degeneration of the parasitic cytoskeleton was induced by the gold complexes, only the microtubules of the detached flagellum remained intact...
May 15, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623962/editorial
#11
EDITORIAL
Patrick Skelly, Philip T LoVerde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188804/metabolite-profiling-of-infection-associated-metabolic-markers-of-onchocerciasis
#12
Sasisekhar Bennuru, Sara Lustigman, David Abraham, Thomas B Nutman
The global efforts for onchocerciasis elimination may require additional tools (safe micro and macrofilaricidal drugs, vaccines and biomarkers) as elimination efforts move toward the "end game". Efforts toward the identification of suitable biomarkers have focused on specific protein(s) and/or nucleic acids, but metabolites present an alternative option as they have limited half-lives and are the result of combinatorial effects. In comparison to previously used methodology of LC-MS for metabolomic approaches, we used a non-targeted capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) to analyze the serum metabolic profiles of Ov-infected and -uninfected individuals (n=20)...
July 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126543/lessons-from-the-genomes-and-transcriptomes-of-filarial-nematodes
#13
Alexandra Grote, Sara Lustigman, Elodie Ghedin
Human filarial infections are a leading cause of morbidity in the developing world. While a small arsenal of drugs exists to treat these infections, there remains a tremendous need for the development of additional interventions. Recent genome sequences and transcriptome analyses of filarial nematodes have provided novel biological insight and allowed for the prediction of novel drug targets as well as potential vaccine candidates. In this review, we discuss the currently available data, insights gained into the metabolism of these organisms, and how the filaria field can move forward by leveraging these data...
July 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011341/how-schistosomes-alter-the-human-serum-proteome
#14
Akram A Da'dara, Giles Siddons, Melissa Icaza, Qiang Wang, Patrick J Skelly
Schistosomes are intravascular parasitic worms that cause the debilitating disease schistosomiasis. To better understand how these long-lived parasites may subvert host immune and hemostatic capabilities, we examine here the impact of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms on the human serum proteome. Normal human serum (150μl) was incubated at 37°C for one hour either in the presence or absence of adult worms (∼50 pairs). Thereafter parasites were removed, serum samples were labeled and their proteins resolved for comparative analysis by 2D-Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)...
July 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939587/helminth-glycomics-glycan-repertoires-and-host-parasite-interactions
#15
Cornelis H Hokke, Angela van Diepen
Glycoproteins and glycolipids of parasitic helminths play important roles in biology and host-parasite interaction. This review discusses recent helminth glycomics studies that have been expanding our insights into the glycan repertoire of helminths. Structural data are integrated with biological and immunological observations to highlight how glycomics advances our understanding of the critical roles that glycans and glycan motifs play in helminth infection biology. Prospects and challenges in helminth glycomics and glycobiology are discussed...
July 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899279/wormbase-parasite-a-comprehensive-resource-for-helminth-genomics
#16
Kevin L Howe, Bruce J Bolt, Myriam Shafie, Paul Kersey, Matthew Berriman
The number of publicly available parasitic worm genome sequences has increased dramatically in the past three years, and research interest in helminth functional genomics is now quickly gathering pace in response to the foundation that has been laid by these collective efforts. A systematic approach to the organisation, curation, analysis and presentation of these data is clearly vital for maximising the utility of these data to researchers. We have developed a portal called WormBase ParaSite (http://parasite...
July 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887974/perusal-of-parasitic-nematode-omics-in-the-post-genomic-era
#17
Jonathan D Stoltzfus, Adeiye A Pilgrim, De'Broski R Herbert
The advent of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing methods combined with advances in computational biology and bioinformatics have greatly accelerated discovery within biomedical research. This "post-genomics" era has ushered in powerful approaches allowing one to quantify RNA transcript and protein abundance for every gene in the genome - often for multiple conditions. Herein, we chronicle how the post-genomics era has advanced our overall understanding of parasitic nematodes through transcriptomics and proteomics and highlight some of the important advances made in each major nematode clade...
July 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485556/schistosoma-bovis-host-interplay-proteomics-for-knowing-and-acting
#18
REVIEW
Eduardo de la Torre-Escudero, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ana Oleaga
Schistosoma bovis is a parasite of ruminants that causes significant economic losses to farmers throughout Africa, Southwestern Asia and the Mediterranean. Additionally, recent studies have reported its zoonotic potential through the formation of S. bovis×Schistosoma haematobium hybrids. As observed in the Schistosoma species infecting humans, it is assumed that S. bovis has also evolved host regulatory molecules that ensure its long-term survival in the bloodstream of its host. Since these molecules could be potential targets for the development of new drugs and anti-schistosome vaccines, their identification and functional characterization were undertaken...
July 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414172/lccl-protein-complex-formation-in-plasmodium-is-critically-dependent-on-lap1
#19
Annie Z Tremp, Vikram Sharma, Victoria Carter, Edwin Lasonder, Johannes T Dessens
Successful sporogony of Plasmodium berghei in vector mosquitoes requires expression of a family of six modular proteins named LCCL lectin domain adhesive-like proteins (LAPs). The LAPs share a subcellular localization in the crystalloid, a unique parasite organelle that forms during ookinete development. Here, LAP interactions in P. berghei were studied using a series of parasite lines stably expressing reporter-tagged LAPs combined with affinity purification and high accuracy label free quantitative mass spectrometry...
June 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356223/the-role-of-the-pi-3-5-p2-kinase-tbfab1-in-endo-lysosomal-trafficking-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#20
Julia K Gilden, Khan Umaer, Emilia K Kruzel, Oliver Hecht, Renan O Correa, John M Mansfield, James D Bangs
Protein trafficking through endo/lysosomal compartments is critically important to the biology of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, but the routes material may take to the lysosome, as well as the molecular factors regulating those routes, remain incompletely understood. Phosphoinositides are signaling phospholipids that regulate many trafficking events by recruiting specific effector proteins to discrete membrane subdomains. In this study, we investigate the role of one phosphoinositide, PI(3,5)P2 in T...
June 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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