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Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322872/plasmodium-hsp40-and-human-hsp70-a-potential-cochaperone-chaperone-complex
#1
Payal Jha, Shyamasree Laskar, Swati Dubey, Mrinal K Bhattacharyya, Sunanda Bhattacharyya
Out of the total forty four members of Plasmodium falciparum Hsp40 protein family, nineteen of them possess a PEXEL motif, and are predicted to be exported into the cytosol of an infected RBC. It is speculated that the human Hsp70 (hHsp70), which resides into the cytosol of the host erythrocyte, along with the exported PfHsp40s assists in the folding of parasitic proteins, thus playing a crucial role in the establishment of virulence. However, till date no experimental evidence supports this hypothesis. Our work establishes that the PEXEL motifs containing Type II PfDNAJ proteins specifically interact with hHsp70 (HSPA1A)...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322871/recurrent-emergence-of-structural-variants-of-ltr-retrotransposon-csrn1-evolving-novel-expression-strategy-and-their-selective-expansion-in-a-carcinogenic-liver-fluke-clonorchis-sinensis
#2
Seon-Hee Kim, Yoon Kong, Young-An Bae
Autonomous retrotransposons, in which replication and transcription are coupled, encode the essential gag and pol genes as a fusion or separate overlapping form(s) that are expressed in single transcripts regulated by a common upstream promoter. The element-specific expression strategies have driven development of relevant translational recoding mechanisms including ribosomal frameshifting to satisfy the protein stoichiometry critical for the assembly of infectious virus-like particles. Retrotransposons with different recoding strategies exhibit a mosaic distribution pattern across the diverse families of reverse transcribing elements, even though their respective distributions are substantially skewed towards certain family groups...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286026/clonorchis-sinensis-excretory-secretory-products-promote-the-migration-and-invasion-of-cholangiocarcinoma-cells-by-activating-the-integrin-%C3%AE-4-fak-src-signaling-pathway
#3
Jhang Ho Pak, Qudsia Bashir, In Ki Kim, Sung-Jong Hong, Sejung Maeng, Young Yil Bahk, Tong-Soo Kim
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a slow-growing but highly metastatic cancer. Its metastatic potential largely explains its high mortality rate. A recognized risk factor for CCA development is infection with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis. We previously reported that the excretory-secretory products (ESPs) of C. sinensis promoted the three-dimensional aggregation and invasion of CCA cells. In the present study, a quantitative real-time PCR array of extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules was used to examine the regulatory mechanism of ESP-mediated CCA cell migration and invasion...
March 8, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274857/bapta-am-decreases-cellular-ph-inhibits-acidocalcisome-acidification-and-autophagy-in-amino-acid-starved-t-brucei
#4
Feng-Jun Li, Kevin S W Tan, Cynthia Y He
To investigate the role of Ca(2+) signaling in starvation-induced autophagy in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, we used cell-permeant Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and cell impermeant chelator EGTA, and examined the potential involvement of several intracellular Ca(2+) signaling pathways in T. brucei autophagy. The results showed an unexpected effect of BAPTA-AM in decreasing cellular pH and inhibiting acidocalcisome acidification in starved cells. The implication of these results in the role of Ca(2+) signaling and cellular/organellar pH in T...
March 6, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232060/zinc-finger-nuclease-technology-a-stable-tool-for-high-efficiency-transformation-in-bloodstream-form-t-brucei
#5
Gabriela Schumann, Monica M Kangussu-Marcolino, Nicholas Doiron, Sandro Käser, Gabriela de Assis Burle-Caldas, Wanderson D DaRocha, Santuza M Teixeira, Isabel Roditi
In Trypanosoma brucei, the generation of knockout mutants is relatively easy compared to other organisms as transfection methods are well established. These methods have their limitations, however, when it comes to the generation of genome-wide libraries that require a minimum of several hundred thousand transformants. Double-strand breaks with the meganuclease ISce-I dramatically increase transformation efficiency, but are not widely in use as cell lines need to be generated de novo before each transfection...
February 20, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223095/palmitoylation-of-plasmodium-alveolins-promotes-cytoskeletal-function
#6
Annie Z Tremp, Fatimah S Al-Khattaf, Johannes T Dessens
S-palmitoylation is a post-translational lipid modification that is widespread among Plasmodium proteins and essential for parasite development. Little is known about the contribution of palmitoylation to the function of individual parasite molecules and structures. Alveolins are major components of the subpellicular network (SPN), a cortical cytoskeleton primarily involved in providing mechanical strength to the cell. We show here that the alveolin IMC1c is palmitoylated on a conserved cysteine motif, and that non-palmitoylated IMC1c displays normal expression, stability and trafficking...
February 20, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213174/evidence-of-the-presence-of-a-calmodulin-sensitive-plasma-membrane-ca-2-atpase-in-trypanosoma-equiperdum
#7
María Carolina Pérez-Gordones, José Rubén Ramírez-Iglesias, Vincenza Cervino, Graciela L Uzcanga, Gustavo Benaim, Marta Mendoza
Trypanosoma equiperdum belongs to the subgenus Trypanozoon, which has a significant socio-economic impact by limiting animal protein productivity worldwide. Proteins involved in the intracellular Ca(2+) regulation are prospective chemotherapeutic targets since several drugs used in experimental treatment against trypanosomatids exert their action through the disruption of the parasite intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Therefore, the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) is considered as a potential drug target...
February 14, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188804/metabolite-profiling-of-infection-associated-metabolic-markers-of-onchocerciasis
#8
Sasisekhar Bennuru, Sara Lustigman, David Abraham, Thomas B Nutman
The global efforts for onchocerciasis elimination may require additional tools (safe micro and macrofilaricidal drugs, vaccines and biomarkers) as elimination efforts move toward the "end game". Efforts toward the identification of suitable biomarkers have focused on specific protein(s) and/or nucleic acids, but metabolites present an alternative option as they have limited half-lives and are the result of combinatorial effects. In comparison to previously used methodology of LC-MS for metabolomic approaches, we used a non-targeted capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) to analyze the serum metabolic profiles of Ov-infected and -uninfected individuals (n=20)...
February 8, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159665/first-characterization-of-smopg1-a-novel-protein-involved-in-gonad-associated-processes-in-schistosoma-mansoni
#9
Steffen Hahnel, Richard Parker-Manuel, Colette Dissous, Katia Cailliau, Christoph G Grevelding
In the context of investigating the exceptional reproductive biology of schistosomes, several studies have focused on the identification and characterization of involved molecules. Among these are cellular tyrosine kinases (CTKs) which control differentiation processes in the female gonads. On the way to unravel CTK-mediated signaling processes in more detail, several upstream- and downstream partners of these CTKs were identified. In this context we present here first data characterizing the novel orphan gene Sm opg1...
January 31, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137629/prostaglandins-e2-and-d2-regulators-of-host-immunity-in-the-model-parasite-diphyllobothrium-dendriticum-an-immunocytochemical-and-biochemical-study
#10
Ivan A Kutyrev, Natalia M Biserova, Daniil N Olennikov, Janetta V Korneva, Olga E Mazur
The spectrum of immunomodulating molecules produced by tapeworms is not yet well understood. The aims of this study, on the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, were: 1) detection and quantification of prostaglandins (PGs) E2 and D2 by high performance liquid chromatography; 2) visualization of PGE2 and PGD2 in specific cells, using methods of immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy; and 3) investigation of the ultrastructure of the cells potentially producing PGE2 and PGD2. The PGE2 immunoreaction (IR) was found in the apical terminals of the frontal glands and sensory organs in the tegument and in small neurons belonging to the main cords and commissures...
January 27, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137628/effect-of-ionizing-radiation-exposure-on-trypanosoma-cruzi-ubiquitin-proteasome-system
#11
Paula G Cerqueira, Danielle G Passos-Silva, João P Vieira-da-Rocha, Isabela Cecilia Mendes, Karla A de Oliveira, Camila F B Oliveira, Liza F F Vilela, Ronaldo A P Nagem, Joseane Cardoso, Sheila C Nardelli, Marco A Krieger, Glória R Franco, Andrea M Macedo, Sérgio D J Pena, Sérgio Schenkman, Dawidson A Gomes, Renata Guerra-Sá, Carlos R Machado
In recent years, proteasome involvement in the damage response induced by ionizing radiation (IR) became evident. However, whether proteasome plays a direct or indirect role in IR-induced damage response still unclear. Trypanosoma cruzi is a human parasite capable of remarkable high tolerance to IR, suggesting a highly efficient damage response system. Here, we investigate the role of T. cruzi proteasome in the damage response induced by IR. We exposed epimastigotes to high doses of gamma ray and we analyzed the expression and subcellular localization of several components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system...
January 27, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126544/population-parameters-and-mito-nuclear-mosaicism-of-anisakis-spp-in-the-adriatic-sea
#12
Ivona Mladineo, Ivana Bušelić, Jerko Hrabar, Anamarija Vrbatović, Ivana Radonić
Recombinant genotypes of A. simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffii, two species of Anisakis simplex complex found in sympatric waters of the Mediterranean Sea, are believed to be a product of interspecific hybridisation and/or DNA introgression. In contrast, such events within an allopatric area as the Adriatic Sea are unlikely to occur and therefore observed recombination should be assessed more closely. We have genotyped 525 anisakids collected from migratory and non-migratory fish of the southern part of the Adriatic Sea, inferring its omniparentage at nuclear (ITS locus) and matrilineage at mitochondrial locus (cox2)...
January 23, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126543/lessons-from-the-genomes-and-transcriptomes-of-filarial-nematodes
#13
Alexandra Grote, Sara Lustigman, Elodie Ghedin
Human filarial infections are a leading cause of morbidity in the developing world. While a small arsenal of drugs exists to treat these infections, there remains a tremendous need for the development of additional interventions. Recent genome sequences and transcriptome analyses of filarial nematodes have provided novel biological insight and allowed for the prediction of novel drug targets as well as potential vaccine candidates. In this review, we discuss the currently available data, insights gained into the metabolism of these organisms, and how the filaria field can move forward by leveraging these data...
January 23, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108186/editing-the-trypanosoma-cruzi-genome-with-zinc-finger-nucleases
#14
Gabriela Assis Burle-Caldas, Viviane Grazielle-Silva, Melissa Soares-Simões, Gabriela Schumann Burkard, Isabel Roditi, Wanderson Duarte DaRocha, Santuza M Teixeira
Gene function studies in Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, have been hindered by the lack of efficient genetic manipulation protocols. In most organisms, insertion and deletion of DNA fragments in the genome are dependent on the generation of double-stranded DNA break (DSB) and repair. By inducing a site-specific DSB, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) have proven to be useful to enhance gene editing in many cell types. Using a pair of ZFNs targeted to the T. cruzi gp72 gene, we were able to generate gp72 knockout parasites with improved efficiency compared to the conventional gene knockout protocol...
January 17, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082182/cytosine-dna-methylation-at-promoter-of-non-ltr-retrotransposon-and-heat-shock-protein-gene-hsp70-of-entamoeba-histolytica-and-lack-of-correlation-with-transcription-status
#15
Mridula Agrahari, Amit Kumar Gaurav, Alok Bhattacharya, Sudha Bhattacharya
Non LTR retrotransposons (EhLINEs and EhSINEs) occupy 11% of the Entamoeba histolytica genome. Since promoter DNA methylation at cytosines has been correlated with transcriptional silencing of transposable elements in model organisms we checked whether this was the case in EhLINE1. We located promoter activity in a 841bp fragment at 5'-end of this element by luciferase reporter assay. From RNAseq and RT-PCR analyses we selected a transcriptionally active and silent copy to study cytosine DNA methylation of the promoter region by bisulfite sequencing...
January 9, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069429/the-nuclear-rna-binding-protein-rbp33-influences-mrna-and-spliced-leader-rna-abundance-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#16
Olivera Cirovic, Roman Trikin, Anneliese Hoffmann, Nicholas Doiron, Martin Jakob, Torsten Ochsenreiter
RNA recognition motif (RRM) containing proteins are important regulators of gene expression in trypanosomes. Here we expand our current knowledge on the exclusively nuclear localized RRM domain containing protein RBP33 of Trypanosoma brucei. Overexpression of RBP33 leads to a quick growth arrest in G2/M in bloodstream form cells likely due to an overall mRNA- and spliced leader abundance decrease while the ribosomal RNAs remain unaffected. The recombinant RBP33 binds to poly(A) and random sequence RNA in vitro confirming its role as a RNA binding protein...
January 6, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012847/echinococcus-granulosus-evidence-of-a-heterodimeric-glutathione-transferase-built-up-by-phylogenetically-distant-subunits
#17
Paula Arbildi, Silvana La-Rocca, Veronica Lopez, Natalia Da-Costa, Veronica Fernandez
In the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus, three phylogenetically distant cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) (EgGST1, 2 and 3) were identified. Interestingly, the C-terminal domains of EgGST3 and EgGST2 but not EgGST1, exhibit all amino acids involved in Sigma-class GST dimerization. Here, we provide evidence indicating that EgGST2 and EgGST3 naturally form a heterodimeric structure (EgGST2-3), and also we report the enzymatic activity of the recombinant heterodimer. EgGST2-3 might display novel properties able to influence the infection establishment...
January 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988301/leishmania-and-its-quest-for-iron-an-update-and-overview
#18
REVIEW
Amir Zaidi, Krishn Pratap Singh, Vahab Ali
Parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of complex neglected diseases called leishmaniasis and continue to be a significant health concern globally. Iron is a vital nutritional requirement for virtually all organisms, including pathogenic trypanosomatid parasites, and plays a crucial role in many facets of cellular metabolism as a cofactor of several enzymes. Iron acquisition is essential for the survival of parasites. Yet parasites are also vulnerable to the toxicity of iron and reactive oxygen species...
January 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986452/proteomic-investigation-of-human-cystic-echinococcosis-in-the-liver
#19
Rémi Longuespée, Rita Casadonte, Mark Kriegsmann, Petra Wandernoth, Katharina Lisenko, Gabriel Mazzucchelli, Michael Becker, Jörg Kriegsmann
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a pandemic infectious disease caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus that forms cysts in different organs such as lungs and liver. Imaging examination and serological tests have some drawbacks such as low sensitivity. In this study, we used an up-to-date workflow of laser microdissection-based microproteomics and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry in order to depict the proteomic pattern of CE in the liver. This investigation revealed specific markers of a parasitic cyst in liver...
January 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986451/involvement-of-an-rna-binding-protein-containing-alba-domain-in-the-stage-specific-regulation-of-beta-amastin-expression-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#20
Leticia Pérez-Díaz, Tais Caroline Silva, Santuza M R Teixeira
Amastins are surface glycoproteins, first identified in amastigotes of T. cruzi but later found to be expressed in several Leishmania species, as well as in T. cruzi epimastigotes. Amastins are encoded by a diverse gene family that can be grouped into four subfamilies named α, β, γ, and δ amastins. Differential expression of amastin genes results from regulatory mechanisms involving changes in mRNA stability and/or translational control. Although distinct regulatory elements were identified in the 3' UTR of T...
January 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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