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Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986699/anisotropic-mechanosensitive-pathways-in-the-diaphragm-and-their-implications-in-muscular-dystrophies
#1
REVIEW
Patricia S Pardo, Michael A Lopez, Junaith S Mohamed, Aladin M Boriek
The diaphragm is the "respiratory pump;" the muscle that generates pressure to allow ventilation. Diaphragm muscles play a vital function and thus are subjected to continuous mechanical loading. One of its peculiarities is the ability to generate distinct mechanical and biochemical responses depending on the direction through which the mechanical forces applied to it. Contractile forces originated from its contractile components are transmitted to other structural components of its muscle fibers and the surrounding connective tissue...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918606/kinetic-coupling-of-phosphate-release-force-generation-and-rate-limiting-steps-in-the-cross-bridge-cycle
#2
Robert Stehle, Chiara Tesi
A basic goal in muscle research is to understand how the cyclic ATPase activity of cross-bridges is converted into mechanical force. A direct approach to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between Pi release and the force-generating step is provided by the kinetics of force response induced by a rapid change in [Pi]. Classical studies on fibres using caged-Pi discovered that rapid increases in [Pi] induce fast force decays dependent on final [Pi] whose kinetics were interpreted to probe a fast force-generating step prior to Pi release...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918572/spot-light-on-skeletal-muscles-optogenetic-stimulation-to-understand-and-restore-skeletal-muscle-function
#3
Tobias van Bremen, Thorsten Send, Philipp Sasse, Tobias Bruegmann
Damage of peripheral nerves results in paralysis of skeletal muscle. Currently, the only treatment option to restore proper function is electrical stimulation of the innervating nerve or of the skeletal muscles directly. However this approach has low spatial and temporal precision leading to co-activation of antagonistic muscles and lacks cell-type selectivity resulting in pain or discomfort by stimulation of sensible nerves. In contrast to electrical stimulation, optogenetic methods enable spatially confined and cell-type selective stimulation of cells expressing the light sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 with precise temporal control over the membrane potential...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905159/are-there-two-different-binding-sites-for-atp-on-the-myosin-head-or-only-one-that-switches-between-two-conformers
#4
Chiara Tesi, Tom Barman, Corinne Lionne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803268/proteomic-profiling-of-the-dystrophin-complex-and-membrane-fraction-from-dystrophic-mdx-muscle-reveals-decreases-in-the-cytolinker-desmoglein-and-increases-in-the-extracellular-matrix-stabilizers-biglycan-and-fibronectin
#5
Sandra Murphy, Heinrich Brinkmeier, Mirjam Krautwald, Michael Henry, Paula Meleady, Kay Ohlendieck
The almost complete loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin and concomitant drastic reduction in dystrophin-associated glycoproteins are the underlying mechanisms of the highly progressive neuromuscular disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In order to identify new potential binding partners of dystrophin or proteins in close proximity to the sarcolemmal dystrophin complex, proteomic profiling of the isolated dystrophin-glycoprotein complex was carried out. Subcellular membrane fractionation and detergent solubilisation, in combination with ion exchange, lectin chromatography and density gradient ultracentrifugation, was performed to isolate a dystrophin complex-enriched fraction...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733815/structure-of-isolated-z-disks-from-honeybee-flight-muscle
#6
Mara Rusu, Zhongjun Hu, Kenneth A Taylor, John Trinick
The Z-disk is a complex structure comprising some 40 proteins that are involved in the transmission of force developed during muscle contraction and in important signalling pathways that govern muscle homeostasis. In the Z-disk the ends of antiparallel thin filaments from adjacent sarcomeres are crosslinked by α-actinin. The structure of the Z-disk lattice varies greatly throughout the animal kingdom. In vertebrates the thin filaments form a tetragonal lattice, whereas invertebrate flight muscle has a hexagonal lattice...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707142/myosin-ii-sequences-for-lethocerus-indicus
#7
Lanette Fee, Weili Lin, Feng Qiu, Robert J Edwards
We present the genomic and expressed myosin II sequences from the giant waterbug, Lethocerus indicus. The intron rich gene appears relatively ancient and contains six regions of mutually exclusive exons that are alternatively spliced. Alternatively spliced regions may be involved in the asymmetric myosin dimer structure known as the interacting heads motif, as well as stabilizing the interacting heads motif within the thick filament. A lack of negative charge in the myosin S2 domain may explain why Lethocerus thick filaments display a perpendicular interacting heads motif, rather than one folded back to contact S2, as is seen in other thick filament types such as those from tarantula...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667428/the-secretory-leukocyte-protease-inhibitor-mrna-expression-is-involved-with-inflammatory-control-after-downhill-exercise-in-the-triceps-brachii-intermediary-head-in-wistar-rats
#8
André Luis Araujo Minari, Lila Missae Oyama, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli Dos Santos
After severe skeletal muscle damage, communication between inflammatory macrophages, myogenic cells, and modulatory secretion factors is essential to induce re-establishment of skeletal muscle structure. To analyze when characteristic gene expression of macrophages, myogenic cells, and SLPI are modulated after an exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) downhill protocol. Twenty-six rats were exposed to an experimental protocol of exercise and euthanized before (CTRL), immediately after (G0), and 24 (G24) and 48 (G48) hours after the exercise...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638997/follistatin-treatment-suppresses-serca1b-levels-independently-of-other-players-of-calcium-homeostasis-in-c2c12-myotubes
#9
János Fodor, Adrienn Gomba-Tóth, Tamás Oláh, János Almássy, Ernő Zádor, László Csernoch
Follistatin (FS) is a high affinity activin-binding protein, neutralizing the effects of the Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily members, as myostatin (MSTN). Since MSTN emerged as a negative regulator, FS has been considered as a stimulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. Here, we studied the effect of FS administration on the Ca(2+)-homeostasis of differentiating C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. FS-treatment increased the fusion index, the size of terminally differentiated myotubes, and transiently elevated the expression of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin, at the beginning of differentiation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634643/acute-high-caffeine-exposure-increases-autophagic-flux-and-reduces-protein-synthesis-in-c2c12-skeletal-myotubes
#10
M A Hughes, R M Downs, G W Webb, C L Crocker, S T Kinsey, Bradley L Baumgarner
Caffeine is a highly catabolic dietary stimulant. High caffeine concentrations (1-10 mM) have previously been shown to inhibit protein synthesis and increase protein degradation in various mammalian cell lines. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term caffeine exposure on cell signaling pathways that regulate protein metabolism in mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Fully differentiated C2C12 skeletal myotubes either received vehicle (DMSO) or 5 mM caffeine for 6 h. Our analysis revealed that caffeine promoted a 40% increase in autolysosome formation and a 25% increase in autophagic flux...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540577/cooperativity-of-myosin-interaction-with-thin-filaments-is-enhanced-by-stabilizing-substitutions-in-tropomyosin
#11
Daniil V Shchepkin, Salavat R Nabiev, Galina V Kopylova, Alexander M Matyushenko, Dmitrii I Levitsky, Sergey Y Bershitsky, Andrey K Tsaturyan
Muscle contraction is powered by myosin interaction with actin-based thin filaments containing Ca(2+)-regulatory proteins, tropomyosin and troponin. Coiled-coil tropomyosin molecules form a long helical strand that winds around actin filament and either shields actin from myosin binding or opens it. Non-canonical residues G126 and D137 in the central part of tropomyosin destabilize its coiled-coil structure. Their substitutions for canonical ones, G126R and D137L, increase structural stability and the velocity of sliding of reconstructed thin filaments along myosin coated surface...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488242/marked-decrease-of-aquaporin-4-protein-is-independent-of-the-changes-in-%C3%AE-1-syntrophin-and-trpv4-levels-in-response-to-denervation-induced-muscle-atrophy-in-vivo
#12
Minenori Ishido, Tomohiro Nakamura
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a selective water channel mediating water transport across cell membranes in skeletal muscles. Recently, it was noted that AQP4 is one of the key molecules regulating muscle morphology. Indeed, the AQP4 accumulation level was stably maintained in hypertrophied skeletal muscles. On the other hand, whether the AQP4 accumulation level is stably maintained in atrophied muscles remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the changes in the AQP4 accumulation level in the atrophied muscles at 2 weeks after denervation...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286928/energy-demand-and-supply-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#13
REVIEW
C J Barclay
The energy required for muscle contraction is provided by the breakdown of ATP but the amount of ATP in muscles cells is sufficient to power only a short duration of contraction. Buffering of ATP by phosphocreatine, a reaction catalysed by creatine kinase, extends the duration of activity possible but sustained activity depends on continual regeneration of PCr. This is achieved using ATP generated by oxidative processes and, during intense activity, by anaerobic glycolysis. The rate of ATP breakdown ranges from 70 to 140 mM min(-1) during isometric contractions of various intensity to as much as 400 mM min(-1) during intense, dynamic activity...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281032/mouse-soleus-slow-muscle-shows-greater-intramyocellular-lipid-droplet-accumulation-than-edl-fast-muscle-fiber-type-specific-analysis
#14
Yusuke Komiya, Shoko Sawano, Daisuke Mashima, Riho Ichitsubo, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Wataru Mizunoya
Skeletal muscle is the main tissue of lipid metabolism and accordingly is critical for homeostasis and energy production; however, the determinants of lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle are unknown. Here, we examined whether the soleus muscle (predominantly slow-twitch fibers) has a higher lipid accumulation capacity than that of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, predominantly fast-twitch fibers) muscle in mice. Soleus and EDL muscles were harvested from male C57BL/6J mice. The mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid import and triglyceride synthesis and accumulation were examined in soleus and EDL muscles...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251466/shortening-speed-dependent-force-potentiation-is-attenuated-but-not-eliminated-in-skeletal-muscles-without-myosin-phosphorylation
#15
William Gittings, Jordan Bunda, Rene Vandenboom
We investigated the influence of shortening speed on concentric force potentiation at different frequencies in muscles devoid of skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK(-/-)) and unable to phosphorylate myosin. EDL muscles from skMLCK(-/-) mice were activated in vitro (25 °C) across a range of stimulation frequencies (10-100 Hz) during shortening ramps at 0.10, 0.30, or 0.50 of maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) before and after a potentiating stimulus (PS). When collapsed across all frequencies, the PS increased relative (post/pre) concentric force to 1...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852922/insight-into-muscle-physiology-through-understanding-mechanisms-of-muscle-pathology
#16
EDITORIAL
Olivier Cazorla, Stefan Matecki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653141/physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-excitation-contraction-coupling-the-functional-role-of-ryanodine-receptor
#17
Gaetano Santulli, Daniel R Lewis, Andrew R Marks
Calcium (Ca(2+)) release from intracellular stores plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle contraction. The type 1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1) is the major Ca(2+) release channel on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of myocytes in skeletal muscle and is required for excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. This article explores the role of RyR1 in skeletal muscle physiology and pathophysiology.
February 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353069/epigenetic-regulation-of-muscle-development
#18
Esther Barreiro, Shahragim Tajbakhsh
In eukaryote cells, chromatin appears in several forms and is composed of genomic DNA, protein and RNA. The protein content of chromatin is composed primarily of core histones that are packaged into nucleosomes resulting in the condensation of the DNA. Several epigenetic mechanisms regulate the stability of the nucleosomes and the protein-protein interactions that modify the transcriptional activity of the DNA. Interestingly, epigenetic control of gene expression has recently emerged as a relevant mechanism involved in the regulation of many different biological processes including that of muscle development, muscle mass maintenance, function, and phenotype in health and disease...
February 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260211/respiratory-muscle-contractile-inactivity-induced-by-mechanical-ventilation-in-piglets-leads-to-leaky-ryanodine-receptors-and-diaphragm-weakness
#19
Stefan Matecki, Boris Jung, Nathalie Saint, Valerie Scheuermann, Samir Jaber, Alain Lacampagne
Respiratory muscle contractile inactivity during mechanical ventilation (MV) induces diaphragm muscle weakness, a condition referred to as ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD). Although VIDD pathophysiological mechanisms are still not fully understood, it has been recently suggested that remodeling of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release channel/ryanodine receptors (RyR1) in the diaphragm is a proximal mechanism of VIDD. Here, we used piglets, a large animal model of VIDD that is more relevant to human pathophysiology, to determine whether RyR1 alterations are observed in the presence of diaphragm weakness...
February 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224334/the-trpm4-channel-is-functionally-important-for-the-beneficial-cardiac-remodeling-induced-by-endurance-training
#20
Mélanie Gueffier, Justin Zintz, Karen Lambert, Amanda Finan, Franck Aimond, Nourdine Chakouri, Christophe Hédon, Mathieu Granier, Pierre Launay, Jérôme Thireau, Sylvain Richard, Marie Demion
Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is an adaptive process that exists in two distinct forms and allows the heart to adequately respond to an organism's needs. The first form of CH is physiological, adaptive and reversible. The second is pathological, irreversible and associated with fibrosis and cardiomyocyte death. CH involves multiple molecular mechanisms that are still not completely defined but it is now accepted that physiological CH is associated more with the PI3-K/Akt pathway while the main signaling cascade activated in pathological CH involves the Calcineurin-NFAT pathway...
February 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
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