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Cell Calcium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728834/calcium-signaling-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Ekaterina Pchitskaya, Elena Popugaeva, Ilya Bezprozvanny
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates various activities in eukaryotic cells. Especially important role calcium plays in excitable cells. Neurons require extremely precise spatial-temporal control of calcium-dependent processes because they regulate such vital functions as synaptic plasticity. Recent evidence indicates that neuronal calcium signaling is abnormal in many of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)...
June 30, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689729/trpml1-the-ca-2-retaker-of-the-lysosome
#2
REVIEW
Simone Di Paola, Anna Scotto-Rosato, Diego Luis Medina
Efficient functioning of lysosome is necessary to ensure the correct performance of a variety of intracellular processes such as degradation of cargoes coming from the endocytic and autophagic pathways, recycling of organelles, and signaling mechanisms involved in cellular adaptation to nutrient availability. Mutations in lysosomal genes lead to more than 50 lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Among them, mutations in the gene encoding TRPML1 (MCOLN1) cause Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), a recessive LSD characterized by neurodegeneration, psychomotor retardation, ophthalmologic defects and achlorhydria...
June 24, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712506/vdac1-functions-in-ca-2-homeostasis-and-cell-life-and-death-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Varda Shoshan-Barmatz, Yakov Krelin, Anna Shteinfer-Kuzmine
In the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) serves as a mitochondrial gatekeeper, controlling the metabolic and energy cross-talk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. VDAC1 also functions in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis by transporting Ca(2+) in and out of mitochondria. VDAC1 has also been recognized as a key protein in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, contributing to the release of apoptotic proteins located in the inter-membranal space (IMS) and regulating apoptosis via association with pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins and hexokinase...
June 23, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629579/role-of-soce-architects-stim-and-orai-proteins-in-cell-death
#4
REVIEW
Jyoti Tanwar, Rajender K Motiani
Calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling plays a critical role in regulating plethora of cellular functions including cell survival, proliferation and migration. The perturbations in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis can lead to cell death either by activating autophagic pathways or through induction of apoptosis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major storehouse of Ca(2+) within cells and a number of physiological agonists mediate ER Ca(2+) release by activating IP3 receptors (IP3R). This decrease in ER Ca(2+) levels is sensed by STIM, which physically interacts and activates plasma membrane Ca(2+) selective Orai channels...
June 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625348/metabolic-regulation-of-the-pmca-role-in-cell-death-and-survival
#5
REVIEW
Jason I E Bruce
The plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) is a ubiquitously expressed, ATP-driven Ca(2+) pump that is critical for maintaining low resting cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) in all eukaryotic cells. Since cytotoxic Ca(2+) overload has such a central role in cell death, the PMCA represents an essential "linchpin" for the delicate balance between cell survival and cell death. In general, impaired PMCA activity and reduced PMCA expression leads to cytotoxic Ca(2+) overload and Ca(2+) dependent cell death, both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas maintenance of PMCA activity or PMCA overexpression is generally accepted as being cytoprotective...
June 8, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705421/bcl-2-inhibitors-as-anti-cancer-therapeutics-the-impact-of-and-on-calcium-signaling
#6
REVIEW
Tamara Vervloessem, Martijn Kerkhofs, Rita M La Rovere, Flore Sneyers, Jan B Parys, Geert Bultynck
Bcl-2-protein family members are essential regulators of apoptosis. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins ensure cell survival via different mechanisms, including via binding of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members and the modulation of intracellular Ca(2+)-transport systems. Many cancer cells upregulate these proteins to overcome the consequences of ongoing oncogenic stress. Bcl-2 inhibition leading to cell death, therefore emerged as a novel cancer therapy. Different Bcl-2 inhibitors have already been developed including the hydrophobic cleft-targeting BH3 mimetics, which antagonize Bcl-2's ability to scaffold and neutralize pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members...
June 4, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619231/endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperones-tweak-the-mitochondrial-calcium-rheostat-to-control-metabolism-and-cell-death
#7
REVIEW
Tomas Gutiérrez, Thomas Simmen
The folding of secretory proteins is a well-understood mechanism, based on decades of research on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones. These chaperones interact with newly imported polypeptides close to the ER translocon. Classic examples for these proteins include the immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP/GRP78), and the lectins calnexin and calreticulin. Although not considered chaperones per se, the ER oxidoreductases of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family complete the folding job by catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds through cysteine oxidation...
May 31, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601384/polycystin-and-calcium-signaling-in-cell-death-and-survival
#8
REVIEW
Fernanda O Lemos, Barbara E Ehrlich
Mutations in polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2) result in a commonly occurring genetic disorder, called Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), that is characterized by the formation and development of kidney cysts. Epithelial cells with loss-of-function of PC1 or PC2 show higher rates of proliferation and apoptosis and reduced autophagy. PC1 is a large multifunctional transmembrane protein that serves as a sensor that is usually found in complex with PC2, a calcium (Ca(2+))-permeable cation channel...
May 24, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552244/ca-2-signalling-underlying-pancreatitis
#9
REVIEW
J V Gerasimenko, S Peng, T Tsugorka, O V Gerasimenko
In spite of significant scientific progress in recent years, acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a dangerous and in up to 5% of cases deadly disease with no specific cure. It is self-resolved in the majority of cases, but could result in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and increased risk of pancreatic cancer (PC). One of the early events in AP is premature activation of digestive pro-enzymes, including trypsinogen, inside pancreatic acinar cells (PACs) due to an excessive rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, which is the result of Ca(2+) release from internal stores followed by Ca(2+) entry through the store operated Ca(2+) channels in the plasma membrane...
May 18, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571899/genetic-strategies-to-analyze-primary-trp-channel-expressing-cells-in-mice
#10
REVIEW
Amanda Wyatt, Philipp Wartenberg, Michael Candlish, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ, Veit Flockerzi, Ulrich Boehm
Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels regulate fundamental biological processes throughout the body. TRP channel dysfunction has been causally linked to a number of disease states and thus establishes these channels as promising therapeutic targets. In order to dissect the physiological role of individual TRP channels in specific tissues, a detailed understanding of the expression pattern of the different TRP channels throughout the organism is essential. We provide an overview of recent efforts to generate novel TRP channel reporter mouse strains for all 28 TRP channels encoded in the mouse genome to understand expression of these channels with a single-cell resolution in an organism-wide manner...
May 17, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545724/the-role-of-ca-2-in-cell-death-caused-by-oxidative-glutamate-toxicity-and-ferroptosis
#11
REVIEW
Pamela Maher, Klaus van Leyen, Partha Narayan Dey, Birgit Honrath, Amalia Dolga, Axel Methner
Ca(2+) ions play a fundamental role in cell death mediated by oxidative glutamate toxicity or oxytosis, a form of programmed cell death similar and possibly identical to other forms of cell death like ferroptosis. Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space occurs late in a cascade characterized by depletion of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione, increases in cytosolic reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we aim to compare oxidative glutamate toxicity with ferroptosis, address the signaling pathways that culminate in Ca(2+) influx and cell death and discuss the proteins that mediate this...
May 12, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578918/ca-2-signaling-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-the-developing-cochlea-milestones-to-hearing-acquisition
#12
REVIEW
Fabio Mammano, Mario Bortolozzi
In mammals, the sense of hearing arises through a complex sequence of morphogenetic events that drive the sculpting of the auditory sensory epithelium into its terminally functional three-dimensional shape. While the majority of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown, it has become increasingly clear that Ca(2+) signaling is at center stage and plays numerous fundamental roles both in the sensory hair cells and in the matrix of non-sensory, epithelial and supporting cells, which embed them and are tightly interconnected by a dense network of gap junctions formed by connexin 26 (Cx26) and connexin 30 (Cx30) protein subunits...
May 11, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522037/calcium-and-regulation-of-the-mitochondrial-permeability-transition
#13
REVIEW
Valentina Giorgio, Lishu Guo, Claudio Bassot, Valeria Petronilli, Paolo Bernardi
Recent years have seen renewed interest in the permeability transition pore, a high conductance channel responsible for permeabilization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, a process that leads to depolarization and Ca(2+) release. Transient openings may be involved in physiological Ca(2+) homeostasis while long-lasting openings may trigger and/or execute cell death. In this review we specifically focus (i) on the hypothesis that the PTP forms from the F-ATP synthase and (ii) on the mechanisms through which Ca(2+) can reversibly switch this energy-conserving nanomachine into an energy-dissipating device...
May 10, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515000/mitochondrial-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-homeostasis-and-cell-death
#14
REVIEW
Saverio Marchi, Simone Patergnani, Sonia Missiroli, Giampaolo Morciano, Alessandro Rimessi, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo Pinton
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria cannot be considered as static structures, as they intimately communicate, forming very dynamic platforms termed mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). In particular, the ER transmits proper Ca(2+) signals to mitochondria, which decode them into specific inputs to regulate essential functions, including metabolism, energy production and apoptosis. Here, we will describe the different molecular players involved in the transfer of Ca(2+) ions from the ER lumen to the mitochondrial matrix and how modifications in both ER-mitochondria contact sites and Ca(2+) signaling can alter the cell death execution program...
May 5, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506443/endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-selenoproteins-as-regulators-of-calcium-signaling-and-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Matthew W Pitts, Peter R Hoffmann
The human selenoprotein family contains 25 members that share the common feature of containing the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Seven selenoproteins are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and exhibit different structural features contributing to a range of cellular functions. Some of these functions are either directly or indirectly related to calcium (Ca(2+)) flux or homeostasis. The presence of the unique Sec residue within these proteins allows some to exert oxidoreductase activity, while the function of the Sec in other ER selenoproteins remains unclear...
May 4, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549569/trpm-channels-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-against-pro-inflammatory-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Susanna Zierler, Sarah Hampe, Wiebke Nadolni
The immune system protects our body against foreign pathogens. However, if it overshoots or turns against itself, pro-inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, or diabetes develop. Ions, the most basic signaling molecules, shape intracellular signaling cascades resulting in immune cell activation and subsequent immune responses. Mutations in ion channels required for calcium signaling result in human immunodeficiencies and highlight those ion channels as valued targets for therapies against pro-inflammatory diseases...
May 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522036/transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-function-in-the-reproductive-axis
#17
REVIEW
Viktoria Götz, Sen Qiao, Andreas Beck, Ulrich Boehm
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play important functional roles in the signal transduction machinery of hormone-secreting cells and have recently been implicated in reproductive physiology. While expression studies have demonstrated TRP channel expression at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (hpg) axis, functional details about TRP channel action at the level of the individual cells controlling reproduction are just beginning to emerge. Canonical TRP (TRPC) channels are prominently expressed in the reproductive center of the neuroendocrine brain, i...
May 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389033/enamel-molecular-identity-of-its-transepithelial-ion-transport-system
#18
REVIEW
Rodrigo S Lacruz
Enamel is the most calcified tissue in vertebrates. It differs from bone in a number of characteristics including its origin from ectodermal epithelium, lack of remodeling capacity by the enamel forming cells, and absence of collagen. The enamel-forming cells known as ameloblasts, choreograph first the synthesis of a unique protein-rich matrix, followed by the mineralization of this matrix into a tissue that is ∼95% mineral. To do this, ameloblasts arrange the coordinated movement of ions across a cell barrier while removing matrix proteins and monitoring extracellular pH using a variety of buffering systems to enable the growth of carbonated apatite crystals...
July 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365001/meprin-%C3%AE-and-bmp-1-are-differentially-regulated-by-cacl2
#19
Janna Schneppenheim, Franka Scharfenberg, Ralph Lucius, Christoph Becker-Pauly, Philipp Arnold
The two metalloproteases meprin β and bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP-1) are both members of the astacin protease family. They share specificity for negatively charged residues around the scissile bond and they are expressed in overlapping compartments of the human body. One important proteolytic substrate they share is pro-collagen I. Ablation of one of the two proteases however leads to different collagen I associated phenotypes in vivo. Over the last years calcium emerged as a regulator for the proteolytic activity of both enzymes...
July 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325690/one-nuclear-calcium-transient-induced-by-a-single-burst-of-action-potentials-represents-the-minimum-signal-strength-in-activity-dependent-transcription-in-hippocampal-neurons
#20
Yan Yu, Kristin Oberlaender, C Peter Bengtson, Hilmar Bading
Neurons undergo dramatic changes in their gene expression profiles in response to synaptic stimulation. The coupling of neuronal excitation to gene transcription is well studied and is mediated by signaling pathways activated by cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium transients. Despite this, the minimum synaptic activity required to induce gene expression remains unknown. To address this, we used cultured hippocampal neurons and cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) that allows detection of nascent transcripts in the cell nucleus...
July 2017: Cell Calcium
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