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Cell Calcium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410770/calcium-signaling-and-cellular-senescence
#1
REVIEW
Nadine Martin, David Bernard
Cellular senescence is a stable cell proliferation arrest induced by a variety of stresses including telomere shortening, oncogene activation and oxidative stress. This process plays a crucial role in many physiopathological contexts, especially during aging when cellular senescence favors development of age-related diseases, shortening lifespan. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling senescence are still a matter of active research. In the last decade, there has been emerging literature indicating a key involvement of calcium signaling in cellular senescence...
April 5, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416203/the-s4-s5-linker-gearbox-of-trp-channel-gating
#2
REVIEW
Laura Hofmann, Hongmei Wang, Wang Zheng, Stephan E Philipp, Patricia Hidalgo, Adolfo Cavalié, Xing-Zhen Chen, Andreas Beck, Veit Flockerzi
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are cation channels which participate in a wide variety of physiological processes in organisms ranging from fungi to humans. They fulfill roles in body homeostasis, are sensors for noxious chemicals and temperature in the mammalian somatosensory system and are activated by light stimulated phospholipase C activity in Drosophila or by hypertonicity in yeast. The transmembrane topology of TRP channels is similar to that of voltage-gated cation channels. TRP proteins assemble as tetramers with each subunit containing six transmembrane helices (S1-S6) and intracellular N- and C-termini...
April 4, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389033/enamel-molecular-identity-of-its-transepithelial-ion-transport-system
#3
REVIEW
Rodrigo S Lacruz
Enamel is the most calcified tissue in vertebrates. It differs from bone in a number of characteristics including its origin from ectodermal epithelium, lack of remodeling capacity by the enamel forming cells, and absence of collagen. The enamel-forming cells known as ameloblasts, choreograph first the synthesis of a unique protein-rich matrix, followed by the mineralization of this matrix into a tissue that is ∼95% mineral. To do this, ameloblasts arrange the coordinated movement of ions across a cell barrier while removing matrix proteins and monitoring extracellular pH using a variety of buffering systems to enable the growth of carbonated apatite crystals...
March 29, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365001/meprin-%C3%AE-and-bmp-1-are-differentially-regulated-by-cacl2
#4
Janna Schneppenheim, Franka Scharfenberg, Ralph Lucius, Christoph Becker-Pauly, Philipp Arnold
The two metalloproteases meprin β and bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP-1) are both members of the astacin protease family. They share specificity for negatively charged residues around the scissile bond and they are expressed in overlapping compartments of the human body. One important proteolytic substrate they share is pro-collagen I. Ablation of one of the two proteases however leads to different collagen I associated phenotypes in vivo. Over the last years calcium emerged as a regulator for the proteolytic activity of both enzymes...
March 19, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356193/cell-calcium-special-issue-preface
#5
EDITORIAL
Gary S Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359543/monitoring-in-vivo-function-of-cortical-microglia
#6
REVIEW
Bianca Brawek, Olga Garaschuk
Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, are becoming increasingly recognized as an important player both in the context of physiological brain function and brain pathology. To fulfill their executive functions microglia can modify their morphology, migrate or move their processes in a directed fashion, and modify the intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics leading to modifications in gene expression, phagocytosis, release of cytokines and other inflammation markers, etc. Here we describe the recently developed tools enabling in vivo monitoring of morphology and Ca(2+) signaling of microglia and show how these techniques may be used for examining microglial function in healthy and diseased brain...
March 14, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356194/assessment-of-trpm7-functions-by-drug-like-small-molecules
#7
REVIEW
Vladimir Chubanov, Silvia Ferioli, Thomas Gudermann
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7 (TRPM7) is a plasma membrane ion channel linked to a cytosolic protein kinase domain. Genetic inactivation of this bi-functional protein revealed its crucial role in Ca(2+) signalling, Mg(2+) metabolism, immune responses, cell motility, proliferation and differentiation. Malfunctions of TRPM7 are associated with anoxic neuronal death, cardiac fibrosis, tumour progression and macrothrombocytopenia. Recently, several groups have identified small organic compounds acting as inhibitors or activators of the TRPM7 channel...
March 14, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372809/the-role-of-stim1-and-soce-in-smooth-muscle-contractility
#8
REVIEW
C H Feldman, C A Grotegut, P B Rosenberg
Contraction is a central feature for skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle; this unique feature is largely dependent on calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling and therefore maintenance of internal Ca(2+) stores. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a single-pass transmembrane protein that functions as a Ca(2+) sensor for the activation store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs) on the plasma membrane in response to depleted internal sarco(endo)plasmic (S/ER) reticulum Ca(2+) stores. STIM1 was initially characterized in non-excitable cells; however, evidence from both animal models and human mutations suggests a role for STIM1 in modulating Ca(2+) homeostasis in excitable tissues as well...
March 10, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325690/one-nuclear-calcium-transient-induced-by-a-single-burst-of-action-potentials-represents-the-minimum-signal-strength-in-activity-dependent-transcription-in-hippocampal-neurons
#9
Yan Yu, Kristin Oberlaender, C Peter Bengtson, Hilmar Bading
Neurons undergo dramatic changes in their gene expression profiles in response to synaptic stimulation. The coupling of neuronal excitation to gene transcription is well studied and is mediated by signaling pathways activated by cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium transients. Despite this, the minimum synaptic activity required to induce gene expression remains unknown. To address this, we used cultured hippocampal neurons and cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) that allows detection of nascent transcripts in the cell nucleus...
March 6, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325689/the-forefront-of-technology-of-science-methods-for-monitoring-cell-function
#10
EDITORIAL
Alexei Verkhratsky, Shmuel Muallem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320563/the-establishment-of-appropriate-methods-for-egg-activation-by-human-plcz1-rna-injection-into-human-oocyte
#11
Takashi Yamaguchi, Masahiko Ito, Keiji Kuroda, Satoru Takeda, Atsushi Tanaka
Phospholipase C-zeta (PLCZ1), a strong candidate of egg-activating sperm factor, can induce Ca(2+) oscillations and cause egg activation. For the application of PLCZ1 to clinical use, we examined the pattern of Ca(2+) responses and developmental rate by comparing PLCZ1 RNA injection methods with the other current methods, such as cytosolic aspiration, electrical stimulation and ionomycin treatment in human oocytes. We found that the pattern of Ca(2+) oscillations after PLCZ1 RNA injection exhibited similar characteristics to that after ICSI treatment...
March 6, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274483/interrogating-cyclic-amp-signaling-using-optical-approaches
#12
REVIEW
Jason Y Jiang, Jeffrey L Falcone, Silvana Curci, Aldebaran M Hofer
Optical reporters for cAMP represent a fundamental advancement in our ability to investigate the dynamics of cAMP signaling. These fluorescent sensors can measure changes in cAMP in single cells or in microdomains within cells as opposed to whole populations of cells required for other methods of measuring cAMP. The first optical cAMP reporters were FRET-based sensors utilizing dissociation of purified regulatory and catalytic subunits of PKA, introduced by Roger Tsien in the early 1990s. The utility of these sensors was vastly improved by creating genetically encoded versions that could be introduced into cells with transfection, the first of which was published in the year 2000...
March 1, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262262/ca-2-influx-at-the-er-pm-junctions
#13
Woo Young Chung, Archana Jha, Malini Ahuja, Shmuel Muallem
Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane is a key component of the receptor-evoked Ca(2+) signaling that mediate numerous cell functions and reload the ER after partial or full ER Ca(2+) store depletion. Ca(2+) influx is activated in response to Ca(2+) release from the ER, a concept developed by Jim Putney, and the channels mediating the influx are thus called store-operated Ca(2+) influx channels, or SOCs. The molecular identity of the SOCs has been determined with the identification of the TRPC channels, STIM1 and the Orai channels...
February 20, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242039/ca-2-mediated-rewiring-of-cell-homing-and-fusion-to-vegf-sources
#14
Abdullah A Mosabbir, Kevin Truong
Challenges of cell-based cancer therapy include effectively homing therapeutic cells to the disease site and producing a controlled response in recognition of the microenvironment. While stem cells have been intensively studied for treating cancer as they naturally home towards sites of injury, they have drawbacks due to their pluripotency. In this paper we have shown that a stable HEK293 cell line expressing VEGFR2 and CarQ (an engineered Ca(2+)-sensitive RhoA) can home towards a cell colony expressing VEGF...
February 20, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233567/differential-regulation-of-the-na-ca-2-exchanger-3-ncx3-by-protein-kinase-pkc-and-pka
#15
Lauriane Y M Michel, Sjoerd Verkaart, Femke Latta, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels
Isoform 3 of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX3) participates in the Ca(2+) fluxes across the plasma membrane. Among the NCX family, NCX3 carries out a peculiar role due to its specific functions in skeletal muscle and the immune system and to its neuroprotective effect under stress exposure. In this context, proper understanding of the regulation of NCX3 is primordial to consider its potential use as a drug target. In this study, we demonstrated the regulation of NCX3 by protein kinase A (PKA) and C (PKC). Disparity in regulation has been previously reported among the splice variants of NCX3 therefore the activity of Ca(2+) uptake and extrusion of the two murine variants was measured using fura-2-based Ca(2+) imaging and revealed that both variants are similarly regulated...
February 16, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238353/calcium-signalling-in-drosophila-photoreceptors-measured-with-gcamp6f
#16
Sabrina Asteriti, Che-Hsiung Liu, Roger C Hardie
Drosophila phototransduction is mediated by phospholipase C leading to activation of cation channels (TRP and TRPL) in the 30000 microvilli forming the light-absorbing rhabdomere. The channels mediate massive Ca(2+) influx in response to light, but whether Ca(2+) is released from internal stores remains controversial. We generated flies expressing GCaMP6f in their photoreceptors and measured Ca(2+) signals from dissociated cells, as well as in vivo by imaging rhabdomeres in intact flies. In response to brief flashes, GCaMP6f signals had latencies of 10-25ms, reached 50% Fmax with ∼1200 effectively absorbed photons and saturated (ΔF/F0∼10-20) with 10000-30000 photons...
February 15, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222911/store-operated-ca-2-entry-is-not-required-for-fertilization-induced-ca-2-signaling-in-mouse-eggs
#17
Miranda L Bernhardt, Elizabeth Padilla-Banks, Paula Stein, Yingpei Zhang, Carmen J Williams
Repetitive oscillations in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) due to periodic Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) drive mammalian embryo development following fertilization. Influx of extracellular Ca(2+) to support the refilling of ER stores is required for sustained Ca(2+) oscillations, but the mechanisms underlying this Ca(2+) influx are controversial. Although store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is an appealing candidate mechanism, several groups have arrived at contradictory conclusions regarding the importance of SOCE in oocytes and eggs...
February 11, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216082/semi-automated-program-for-analysis-of-local-ca-2-spark-release-with-application-for-classification-of-heart-cell-type
#18
Moran Davoodi, Sofia Segal, Noa Kirschner Peretz, David Kamoun, Yael Yaniv
Local Ca(2+) spark releases are essential to the Ca(2+) cycling process. Thus, they play an important role in ventricular and atrial cell contraction, as well as in sinoatrial cell automaticity. Characterizing their properties in healthy cells from different regions in the heart can reveal the basic biophysical differences among these regions. We designed a semi-automatic Matlab Graphical User Interface (called Sparkalyzer) to characterize parameters of Ca(2+) spark release from any major cardiac tissue, as recorded in line-scan mode with a confocal laser-scanning microscope...
February 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249687/activation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-leak-by-2-apb-depends-on-the-luminal-calcium-concentration
#19
Daniel Leon-Aparicio, Jesus Chavez-Reyes, Agustin Guerrero-Hernandez
It has been shown that 2-APB is a nonspecific modulator of ion channel activity, while most of the channels are inhibited by this compound, there are few examples of channels that are activated by 2-APB. Additionally, it has been shown that, 2-APB leads to a reduction in the luminal endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) level ([Ca(2+)]ER) and we have carried out simultaneous recordings of both [Ca(2+)]i and the [Ca(2+)]ER in HeLa cell suspensions to assess the mechanism involved in this effect. This approach allowed us to determine that 2-APB induces a reduction in the [Ca(2+)]ER by activating an ER-resident Ca(2+) permeable channel more than by inhibiting the activity of SERCA pumps...
February 8, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189267/calumenin-contributes-to-er-ca-2-homeostasis-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells-expressing-wt-and-f508del-mutated-cftr-and-to-f508del-cftr-retention
#20
Réginald Philippe, Fabrice Antigny, Paul Buscaglia, Caroline Norez, Florentin Huguet, Cyril Castelbou, Pascal Trouvé, Frédéric Becq, Maud Frieden, Claude Férec, Olivier Mignen
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent fatal genetic disease in Caucasian populations. Mutations in the chloride channel CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene are responsible for functional defects of the protein and multiple associated dysregulations. The most common mutation in patients with CF, F508del-CFTR, causes defective CFTR protein folding. Thus minimal levels of the receptor are expressed at the cell surface as the mutated CFTR is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it correlates with defective calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis...
February 4, 2017: Cell Calcium
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