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Cell Calcium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867646/the-mcu-complex-in-cell-death
#1
REVIEW
Elisa Penna, Javier Espino, Diego De Stefani, Rosario Rizzuto
During the 60s, the notion that positively charged Ca(2+) ions are rapidly accumulated in energized mitochondria has been first established. In the following decades, mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis was shown to control cell metabolism, cell survival and other cell-specific functions through different mechanism. However, the molecular identity of the molecules controlling this process remained a mystery until just few years ago, when both mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and release systems were genetically dissected...
August 25, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847414/the-regulation-of-autophagy-by-calcium-signals-do-we-have-a-consensus
#2
REVIEW
Martin D Bootman, Tala Chehab, Geert Bultynck, Jan B Parys, Katja Rietdorf
Macroautophagy (hereafter called 'autophagy') is a cellular process for degrading and recycling cellular constituents, and for maintenance of cell function. Autophagy initiates via vesicular engulfment of cellular materials and culminates in their degradation via lysosomal hydrolases, with the whole process often being termed 'autophagic flux'. Autophagy is a multi-step pathway requiring the interplay of numerous scaffolding and signalling molecules. In particular, orthologs of the family of ∼30 autophagy-regulating (Atg) proteins that were first characterised in yeast play essential roles in the initiation and processing of autophagic vesicles in mammalian cells...
August 19, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801101/calcium-signaling-and-cell-cycle-progression-or-death
#3
REVIEW
Juliette Humeau, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Ilio Vitale, Lucia Nuñez, Carlos Villalobos, Guido Kroemer, Laura Senovilla
Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration levels fluctuate in an ordered manner along the cell cycle, in line with the fact that Ca(2+) is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. Cell proliferation should be an error-free process, yet is endangered by mistakes. In fact, a complex network of proteins ensures that cell cycle does not progress until the previous phase has been successfully completed. Occasionally, errors occur during the cell cycle leading to cell cycle arrest. If the error is severe, and the cell cycle checkpoints work perfectly, this results into cellular demise by activation of apoptotic or non-apoptotic cell death programs...
July 25, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818302/mitochondrial-ca-2-activated-k-channels-and-their-role-in-cell-life-and-death-pathways
#4
REVIEW
Inge E Krabbendam, Birgit Honrath, Carsten Culmsee, Amalia M Dolga
Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (KCa) are expressed at the plasma membrane and in cellular organelles. Expression of all KCa channel subtypes (BK, IK and SK) has been detected at the inner mitochondrial membrane of several cell types. Primary functions of these mitochondrial KCa channels include the regulation of mitochondrial ROS production, maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential and preservation of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. These channels are therefore thought to contribute to cellular protection against oxidative stress through mitochondrial mechanisms of preconditioning...
July 22, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760561/trps-and-ca-2-in-cell-death-and-survival
#5
REVIEW
Ingrid Fliniaux, Emmanuelle Germain, Valerio Farfariello, Natalia Prevarskaya
Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family mediate the influx of monovalent and/or divalent cations into cells in response to environmental stimuli. Pharmacological or genetic manipulations of TRP channels demonstrate that TRP channels influence cell death rates, prolonging or shortening of cell survival. Due to their diverse cellular localization, TRP channels mediated Ca(2+) influx generates distinct intracellular Ca(2+) signals that regulate downstream pathways converging to apoptosis or survival. In this review, we summarize the accumulated knowledge focused on how TRP channel regulate cell fate and may affect different pathologies including cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic or neoplastic disorders...
July 15, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747251/serca-control-of-cell-death-and-survival
#6
REVIEW
Elie R Chemaly, Luca Troncone, Djamel Lebeche
Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) is a critical coordinator of various aspects of cellular physiology. It is increasingly apparent that changes in cellular Ca(2+) dynamics contribute to the regulation of normal and pathological signal transduction that controls cell growth and survival. Aberrant perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis have been implicated in a range of pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, tumorigenesis and steatosis hepatitis. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations are therefore tightly regulated by a number of Ca(2+) handling enzymes, proteins, channels and transporters located in the plasma membrane and in Ca(2+) storage organelles, which work in concert to fine tune a temporally and spatially precise Ca(2+) signal...
July 12, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728834/calcium-signaling-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Ekaterina Pchitskaya, Elena Popugaeva, Ilya Bezprozvanny
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates various activities in eukaryotic cells. Especially important role calcium plays in excitable cells. Neurons require extremely precise spatial-temporal control of calcium-dependent processes because they regulate such vital functions as synaptic plasticity. Recent evidence indicates that neuronal calcium signaling is abnormal in many of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)...
June 30, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807154/total-internal-reflectance-fluorescence-imaging-of-genetically-engineered-ryanodine-receptor-targeted-ca-2-probes-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes
#8
Sara Pahlavan, Marin Morad
The details of cardiac Ca(2+) signaling within the dyadic junction remain unclear because of limitations in rapid spatial imaging techniques, and availability of Ca(2+) probes localized to dyadic junctions. To critically monitor ryanodine receptors' (RyR2) Ca(2+) nano-domains, we combined the use of genetically engineered RyR2-targeted pericam probes, (FKBP-YCaMP, Kd=150nM, or FKBP-GCaMP6, Kd=240nM) with rapid total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy (resolution, ∼80nm). The punctate z-line patterns of FKBP,(2)-targeted probes overlapped those of RyR2 antibodies and sharply contrasted to the images of probes targeted to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2a/PLB), or cytosolic Fluo-4 images...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807153/c1q-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-protein-3-enhances-the-contractility-of-cardiomyocyte-by-increasing-calcium-sensitivity
#9
Cheng-Lin Zhang, Zheng-Ju Chen, Han Feng, Qian Zhao, Yang-Po Cao, Li Li, Jin-Yu Wang, Yan Zhang, Li-Ling Wu
C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) is an adipokine that protects against myocardial infarction-induced cardiac dysfunction through its pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic, and anti-fibrotic effects. However, whether CTRP3 can directly affect the systolic and diastolic function of cardiomyocytes remains unknown. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and loaded with Fura-2AM. The contraction and Ca(2+) transient data was collected and analyzed by IonOptix system. 1 and 2μg/ml CTRP3 significantly increased the contraction of cardiomyocytes...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807152/structure-of-thrombospondin-type-3-repeats-in-bacterial-outer-membrane-protein-a-reveals-its-intra-repeat-disulfide-bond-dependent-calcium-binding-capability
#10
Shuyan Dai, Cancan Sun, Kemin Tan, Sheng Ye, Rongguang Zhang
Eukaryotic thrombospondin type 3 repeat (TT3R) is an efficient calcium ion (Ca(2+)) binding motif only found in mammalian thrombospondin family. TT3R has also been found in prokaryotic cellulase Cel5G, which was thought to forfeit the Ca(2+)-binding capability due to the formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, instead of the inter-repeat ones possessed by eukaryotic TT3Rs. In this study, we have identified an enormous number of prokaryotic TT3R-containing proteins belonging to several different protein families, including outer membrane protein A (OmpA), an important structural protein connecting the outer membrane and the periplasmic peptidoglycan layer in gram-negative bacteria...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807151/exocytotic-fusion-pores-as-a-target-for-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Jernej Jorgačevski, Marko Kreft, Robert Zorec
Regulated exocytosis can be split into a sequence of steps ending with the formation and the dilation of a fusion pore, a neck-like connection between the vesicle and the plasma membrane. Each of these steps is precisely controlled to achieve the optimal spatial and temporal profile of the release of signalling molecules. At the level of the fusion pore, tuning of the exocytosis can be achieved by preventing its formation, by stabilizing the unproductive narrow fusion pore, by altering the speed of fusion pore expansion and by completely closing the fusion pore...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807150/two-ef-hand-motifs-in-ryanodine-receptor-calcium-release-channels-contribute-to-isoform-specific-regulation-by-calmodulin
#12
Le Xu, Angela C Gomez, Daniel A Pasek, Gerhard Meissner, Naohiro Yamaguchi
The mammalian ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel (RyR) has a single conserved high affinity calmodulin (CaM) binding domain. However, the skeletal muscle RyR1 is activated and cardiac muscle RyR2 is inhibited by CaM at submicromolar Ca(2+). This suggests isoform-specific domains are involved in RyR regulation by CaM. To gain insight into the differential regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle RyRs by CaM, RyR1/RyR2 chimeras and mutants were expressed in HEK293 cells, and their single channel activities were measured using a lipid bilayer method...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807149/muscling-in-on-trp-channels-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-cardiomyocytes
#13
REVIEW
Lucía Alonso-Carbajo, Miklos Kecskes, Griet Jacobs, Andy Pironet, Ninda Syam, Karel Talavera, Rudi Vennekens
The human TRP protein family comprises a family of 27 cation channels with diverse permeation and gating properties. The common theme is that they are very important regulators of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in diverse cell types, either by providing a Ca(2+) influx pathway, or by depolarising the membrane potential, which on one hand triggers the activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, and on the other limits the driving force for Ca(2+) entry. Here we focus on the role of these TRP channels in vascular smooth muscle and cardiac striated muscle...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807148/acetylcholine-induces-intracellular-ca-2-oscillations-and-nitric-oxide-release-in-mouse-brain-endothelial-cells
#14
Estella Zuccolo, Dmitry Lim, Dlzar Ali Kheder, Angelica Perna, Paolo Catarsi, Laura Botta, Vittorio Rosti, Laura Riboni, Giulio Sancini, Franco Tanzi, Egidio D'Angelo, Germano Guerra, Francesco Moccia
Basal forebrain neurons increase cortical blood flow by releasing acetylcholine (Ach), which stimulates endothelial cells (ECs) to produce the vasodilating gasotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO). Surprisingly, the mechanism whereby Ach induces NO synthesis in brain microvascular ECs is unknown. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration recruits a multitude of endothelial Ca(2+)-dependent pathways, such as Ca(2+)/calmodulin endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). The present investigation sought to investigate the role of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in Ach-induced NO production in bEND5 cells, an established model of mouse brain microvascular ECs, by conventional imaging of cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye, Fura-2/AM, and the NO-sensitive fluorophore, DAF-DM diacetate...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807147/trpp2-ion-channels-critical-regulators-of-organ-morphogenesis-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Tilman Busch, Michael Köttgen, Alexis Hofherr
Ion channels control the membrane potential and mediate transport of ions across membranes. Archetypical physiological functions of ion channels include processes such as regulation of neuronal excitability, muscle contraction, or transepithelial ion transport. In that regard, transient receptor potential ion channel polycystin 2 (TRPP2) is remarkable, because it controls complex morphogenetic processes such as the establishment of properly shaped epithelial tubules and left-right-asymmetry of organs. The fascinating question of how an ion channel regulates morphogenesis has since captivated the attention of scientists in different disciplines...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807146/trp-channel-pores-and-local-calcium-signals
#16
REVIEW
Marie Mulier, Joris Vriens, Thomas Voets
Calcium signals control a plethora of essential cellular functions ranging from secretion and contraction to gene expression and sensory signaling cascades. An essential part of intracellular calcium signals originates from the transmembrane flux of calcium ions, which is mainly mediated through different calcium-permeable cation channels with variable calcium selectivity. Opening of individual calcium permeable channels induces a local cytosolic calcium rise that can be highly restricted in time and space...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807145/a-benzothiadiazine-derivative-and-methylprednisolone-are-novel-and-selective-activators-of-transient-receptor-potential-canonical-5-trpc5-channels
#17
Holger Beckmann, Julia Richter, Kerstin Hill, Nicole Urban, Horst Lemoine, Michael Schaefer
The transient receptor potential canonical channel 5 (TRPC5) is a Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel, which is predominantly expressed in the brain. TRPC5-deficient mice exhibit a reduced innate fear response and impaired motor control. In addition, outgrowth of hippocampal and cerebellar neurons is retarded by TRPC5. However, pharmacological evidence of TRPC5 function on cellular or organismic levels is sparse. Thus, there is still a need for identifying novel and efficient TRPC5 channel modulators. We, therefore, screened compound libraries and identified the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone and N-[3-(adamantan-2-yloxy)propyl]-3-(6-methyl-1,1-dioxo-2H-1λ(6),2,4-benzothiadiazin-3-yl)propanamide (BTD) as novel TRPC5 activators...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807144/regulation-of-l-type-cav1-3-channel-activity-and-insulin-secretion-by-the-cgmp-pkg-signaling-pathway
#18
Alejandro Sandoval, Paz Duran, María A Gandini, Arturo Andrade, Angélica Almanza, Simon Kaja, Ricardo Felix
cGMP is a second messenger widely used in the nervous system and other tissues. One of the major effectors for cGMP is the serine/threonine protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of a variety of proteins including ion channels. Previously, it has been shown that the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway inhibits Ca(2+) currents in rat vestibular hair cells and chromaffin cells. This current allegedly flow through voltage-gated CaV1.3L-type Ca(2+) channels, and is important for controlling vestibular hair cell sensory function and catecholamine secretion, respectively...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389033/enamel-molecular-identity-of-its-transepithelial-ion-transport-system
#19
REVIEW
Rodrigo S Lacruz
Enamel is the most calcified tissue in vertebrates. It differs from bone in a number of characteristics including its origin from ectodermal epithelium, lack of remodeling capacity by the enamel forming cells, and absence of collagen. The enamel-forming cells known as ameloblasts, choreograph first the synthesis of a unique protein-rich matrix, followed by the mineralization of this matrix into a tissue that is ∼95% mineral. To do this, ameloblasts arrange the coordinated movement of ions across a cell barrier while removing matrix proteins and monitoring extracellular pH using a variety of buffering systems to enable the growth of carbonated apatite crystals...
July 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365001/meprin-%C3%AE-and-bmp-1-are-differentially-regulated-by-cacl2
#20
Janna Schneppenheim, Franka Scharfenberg, Ralph Lucius, Christoph Becker-Pauly, Philipp Arnold
The two metalloproteases meprin β and bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP-1) are both members of the astacin protease family. They share specificity for negatively charged residues around the scissile bond and they are expressed in overlapping compartments of the human body. One important proteolytic substrate they share is pro-collagen I. Ablation of one of the two proteases however leads to different collagen I associated phenotypes in vivo. Over the last years calcium emerged as a regulator for the proteolytic activity of both enzymes...
July 2017: Cell Calcium
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