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Cell Calcium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522037/calcium-and-regulation-of-the-mitochondrial-permeability-transition
#1
REVIEW
Valentina Giorgio, Lishu Guo, Claudio Bassot, Valeria Petronilli, Paolo Bernardi
Recent years have seen renewed interest in the permeability transition pore, a high conductance channel responsible for permeabilization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, a process that leads to depolarization and Ca(2+) release. Transient openings may be involved in physiological Ca(2+) homeostasis while long-lasting openings may trigger and/or execute cell death. In this review we specifically focus (i) on the hypothesis that the PTP forms from the F-ATP synthase and (ii) on the mechanisms through which Ca(2+) can reversibly switch this energy-conserving nanomachine into an energy-dissipating device...
May 10, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515000/mitochondrial-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-homeostasis-and-cell-death
#2
REVIEW
Saverio Marchi, Simone Patergnani, Sonia Missiroli, Giampaolo Morciano, Alessandro Rimessi, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo Pinton
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria cannot be considered as static structures, as they intimately communicate, forming very dynamic platforms termed mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). In particular, the ER transmits proper Ca(2+) signals to mitochondria, which decode them into specific inputs to regulate essential functions, including metabolism, energy production and apoptosis. Here, we will describe the different molecular players involved in the transfer of Ca(2+) ions from the ER lumen to the mitochondrial matrix and how modifications in both ER-mitochondria contact sites and Ca(2+) signaling can alter the cell death execution program...
May 5, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506443/endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-selenoproteins-as-regulators-of-calcium-signaling-and-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Matthew W Pitts, Peter R Hoffmann
The human selenoprotein family contains 25 members that share the common feature of containing the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Seven selenoproteins are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and exhibit different structural features contributing to a range of cellular functions. Some of these functions are either directly or indirectly related to calcium (Ca(2+)) flux or homeostasis. The presence of the unique Sec residue within these proteins allows some to exert oxidoreductase activity, while the function of the Sec in other ER selenoproteins remains unclear...
May 4, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522036/transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-function-in-the-reproductive-axis
#4
REVIEW
Viktoria Götz, Sen Qiao, Andreas Beck, Ulrich Boehm
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play important functional roles in the signal transduction machinery of hormone-secreting cells and have recently been implicated in reproductive physiology. While expression studies have demonstrated TRP channel expression at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (hpg) axis, functional details about TRP channel action at the level of the individual cells controlling reproduction are just beginning to emerge. Canonical TRP (TRPC) channels are prominently expressed in the reproductive center of the neuroendocrine brain, i...
May 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501141/trpv6-from-identification-to-function
#5
REVIEW
Claudia Fecher-Trost, Ulrich Wissenbach, Petra Weissgerber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499580/transient-receptor-potential-trp-channels-as-molecular-targets-in-lung-toxicology-and-associated-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Alexander Dietrich, Dirk Steinritz, Thomas Gudermann
The lungs as the gateways of our body to the external environment are essential for gas exchange. They are also exposed to toxicants from two sides, the airways and the vasculature. Apart from naturally produced toxic agents, millions of human made chemicals were produced since the beginning of the industrial revolution whose toxicity still needs to be determined. While the knowledge about toxic substances is increasing only slowly, a paradigm shift regarding the proposed mechanisms of toxicity at the plasma membrane emerged...
April 26, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457591/from-mucolipidosis-type-iv-to-ebola-trpml-and-two-pore-channels-at-the-crossroads-of-endo-lysosomal-trafficking-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Christian Grimm, Elisabeth Butz, Cheng-Chang Chen, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel
What do lysosomal storage disorders such as mucolipidosis type IV have in common with Ebola, cancer cell migration, or LDL-cholesterol trafficking? LDL-cholesterol, certain bacterial toxins and viruses, growth factors, receptors, integrins, macromolecules destined for degradation or secretion are all sorted and transported via the endolysosomal system (ES). There are several pathways known in the ES, e.g. the degradation, the recycling, or the retrograde trafficking pathway. The ES comprises early and late endosomes, lysosomes and recycling endosomes as well as autophagosomes and lysosome related organelles...
April 23, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410770/calcium-signaling-and-cellular-senescence
#8
REVIEW
Nadine Martin, David Bernard
Cellular senescence is a stable cell proliferation arrest induced by a variety of stresses including telomere shortening, oncogene activation and oxidative stress. This process plays a crucial role in many physiopathological contexts, especially during aging when cellular senescence favors development of age-related diseases, shortening lifespan. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling senescence are still a matter of active research. In the last decade, there has been emerging literature indicating a key involvement of calcium signaling in cellular senescence...
April 5, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416203/the-s4-s5-linker-gearbox-of-trp-channel-gating
#9
REVIEW
Laura Hofmann, Hongmei Wang, Wang Zheng, Stephan E Philipp, Patricia Hidalgo, Adolfo Cavalié, Xing-Zhen Chen, Andreas Beck, Veit Flockerzi
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are cation channels which participate in a wide variety of physiological processes in organisms ranging from fungi to humans. They fulfill roles in body homeostasis, are sensors for noxious chemicals and temperature in the mammalian somatosensory system and are activated by light stimulated phospholipase C activity in Drosophila or by hypertonicity in yeast. The transmembrane topology of TRP channels is similar to that of voltage-gated cation channels. TRP proteins assemble as tetramers with each subunit containing six transmembrane helices (S1-S6) and intracellular N- and C-termini...
April 4, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465084/monitoring-single-synapse-glutamate-release-and-presynaptic-calcium-concentration-in-organised-brain-tissue
#10
Thomas P Jensen, Kaiyu Zheng, Olga Tyurikova, James P Reynolds, Dmitri A Rusakov
Brain function relies in large part on Ca(2+)-dependent release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from neuronal axons. Establishing the causal relationship between presynaptic Ca(2+) dynamics and probabilistic glutamate release is therefore a fundamental quest across neurosciences. Its progress, however, has hitherto depended primarily on the exploration of either cultured nerve cells or giant central synapses accessible to direct experimental probing in situ. Here we show that combining patch-clamp with time-resolved imaging of Ca(2+) -sensitive fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green BAPTA-1 (Tornado-FLIM) enables readout of single spike-evoked presynaptic Ca(2+) concentration dynamics, with nanomolar sensitivity, in individual neuronal axons in acute brain slices...
March 30, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389033/enamel-molecular-identity-of-its-transepithelial-ion-transport-system
#11
REVIEW
Rodrigo S Lacruz
Enamel is the most calcified tissue in vertebrates. It differs from bone in a number of characteristics including its origin from ectodermal epithelium, lack of remodeling capacity by the enamel forming cells, and absence of collagen. The enamel-forming cells known as ameloblasts, choreograph first the synthesis of a unique protein-rich matrix, followed by the mineralization of this matrix into a tissue that is ∼95% mineral. To do this, ameloblasts arrange the coordinated movement of ions across a cell barrier while removing matrix proteins and monitoring extracellular pH using a variety of buffering systems to enable the growth of carbonated apatite crystals...
March 29, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365001/meprin-%C3%AE-and-bmp-1-are-differentially-regulated-by-cacl2
#12
Janna Schneppenheim, Franka Scharfenberg, Ralph Lucius, Christoph Becker-Pauly, Philipp Arnold
The two metalloproteases meprin β and bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP-1) are both members of the astacin protease family. They share specificity for negatively charged residues around the scissile bond and they are expressed in overlapping compartments of the human body. One important proteolytic substrate they share is pro-collagen I. Ablation of one of the two proteases however leads to different collagen I associated phenotypes in vivo. Over the last years calcium emerged as a regulator for the proteolytic activity of both enzymes...
March 19, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356193/cell-calcium-special-issue-preface
#13
EDITORIAL
Gary S Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359543/monitoring-in-vivo-function-of-cortical-microglia
#14
REVIEW
Bianca Brawek, Olga Garaschuk
Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, are becoming increasingly recognized as an important player both in the context of physiological brain function and brain pathology. To fulfill their executive functions microglia can modify their morphology, migrate or move their processes in a directed fashion, and modify the intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics leading to modifications in gene expression, phagocytosis, release of cytokines and other inflammation markers, etc. Here we describe the recently developed tools enabling in vivo monitoring of morphology and Ca(2+) signaling of microglia and show how these techniques may be used for examining microglial function in healthy and diseased brain...
March 14, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356194/assessment-of-trpm7-functions-by-drug-like-small-molecules
#15
REVIEW
Vladimir Chubanov, Silvia Ferioli, Thomas Gudermann
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7 (TRPM7) is a plasma membrane ion channel linked to a cytosolic protein kinase domain. Genetic inactivation of this bi-functional protein revealed its crucial role in Ca(2+) signalling, Mg(2+) metabolism, immune responses, cell motility, proliferation and differentiation. Malfunctions of TRPM7 are associated with anoxic neuronal death, cardiac fibrosis, tumour progression and macrothrombocytopenia. Recently, several groups have identified small organic compounds acting as inhibitors or activators of the TRPM7 channel...
March 14, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372809/the-role-of-stim1-and-soce-in-smooth-muscle-contractility
#16
REVIEW
C H Feldman, C A Grotegut, P B Rosenberg
Contraction is a central feature for skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle; this unique feature is largely dependent on calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling and therefore maintenance of internal Ca(2+) stores. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a single-pass transmembrane protein that functions as a Ca(2+) sensor for the activation store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs) on the plasma membrane in response to depleted internal sarco(endo)plasmic (S/ER) reticulum Ca(2+) stores. STIM1 was initially characterized in non-excitable cells; however, evidence from both animal models and human mutations suggests a role for STIM1 in modulating Ca(2+) homeostasis in excitable tissues as well...
March 10, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325690/one-nuclear-calcium-transient-induced-by-a-single-burst-of-action-potentials-represents-the-minimum-signal-strength-in-activity-dependent-transcription-in-hippocampal-neurons
#17
Yan Yu, Kristin Oberlaender, C Peter Bengtson, Hilmar Bading
Neurons undergo dramatic changes in their gene expression profiles in response to synaptic stimulation. The coupling of neuronal excitation to gene transcription is well studied and is mediated by signaling pathways activated by cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium transients. Despite this, the minimum synaptic activity required to induce gene expression remains unknown. To address this, we used cultured hippocampal neurons and cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) that allows detection of nascent transcripts in the cell nucleus...
March 6, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325689/the-forefront-of-technology-of-science-methods-for-monitoring-cell-function
#18
EDITORIAL
Alexei Verkhratsky, Shmuel Muallem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320563/the-establishment-of-appropriate-methods-for-egg-activation-by-human-plcz1-rna-injection-into-human-oocyte
#19
Takashi Yamaguchi, Masahiko Ito, Keiji Kuroda, Satoru Takeda, Atsushi Tanaka
Phospholipase C-zeta (PLCZ1), a strong candidate of egg-activating sperm factor, can induce Ca(2+) oscillations and cause egg activation. For the application of PLCZ1 to clinical use, we examined the pattern of Ca(2+) responses and developmental rate by comparing PLCZ1 RNA injection methods with the other current methods, such as cytosolic aspiration, electrical stimulation and ionomycin treatment in human oocytes. We found that the pattern of Ca(2+) oscillations after PLCZ1 RNA injection exhibited similar characteristics to that after ICSI treatment...
March 6, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274483/interrogating-cyclic-amp-signaling-using-optical-approaches
#20
REVIEW
Jason Y Jiang, Jeffrey L Falcone, Silvana Curci, Aldebaran M Hofer
Optical reporters for cAMP represent a fundamental advancement in our ability to investigate the dynamics of cAMP signaling. These fluorescent sensors can measure changes in cAMP in single cells or in microdomains within cells as opposed to whole populations of cells required for other methods of measuring cAMP. The first optical cAMP reporters were FRET-based sensors utilizing dissociation of purified regulatory and catalytic subunits of PKA, introduced by Roger Tsien in the early 1990s. The utility of these sensors was vastly improved by creating genetically encoded versions that could be introduced into cells with transfection, the first of which was published in the year 2000...
March 1, 2017: Cell Calcium
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