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Ear and Hearing

Mark J van Tilburg, Barbara S Herrmann, Steven D Rauch, Kimberley Noij, John J Guinan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the most effective method for normalizing cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs). DESIGN: cVEMP data from 20 subjects with normal hearing and vestibular function were normalized using 16 combinations of methods, each using one of the 4 modes of electromyogram (EMG) quantification described below. All methods used the peak to peak value of an averaged cVEMP waveform (VEMPpp) and obtained a normalized cVEMP by dividing VEMPpp by a measure of the EMG amplitude...
November 13, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Laura K Holden, Jill B Firszt, Ruth M Reeder, Noël Y Dwyer, Amy L Stein, Leo M Litvak
OBJECTIVES: A positive relation between audibility and speech understanding has been established for cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Sound field thresholds of 20 dB HL across the frequency range provide CI users the opportunity to understand soft and very soft speech. However, programming the sound processor to attain good audibility can be time-consuming and difficult for some patients. To address these issues, Advanced Bionics (AB) developed the SoftVoice algorithm designed to remove system noise and thereby improve audibility of soft speech...
November 8, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Amanda M Griffin, Sarah F Poissant, Richard L Freyman
OBJECTIVES: (1) Measure sentence recognition in co-located and spatially separated target and masker configurations in school-aged children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and with normal hearing (NH). (2) Compare self-reported hearing-related quality-of-life (QoL) scores in school-aged children with UHL and NH. DESIGN: Listeners were school-aged children (6 to 12 yrs) with permanent UHL (n = 41) or NH (n = 35) and adults with NH (n = 23). Sentence reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured using Hearing In Noise Test-Children sentences in quiet and in the presence of 2-talker child babble or a speech-shaped noise masker in target/masker spatial configurations: 0/0, 0/-60, 0/+60, or 0/±60 degrees azimuth...
November 8, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Curtis J Billings, Garnett P McMillan, Marilyn F Dille, Dawn Konrad-Martin
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a framework for investigating the roles of neural coding and cognition in speech perception. DESIGN: N1 and P3 auditory evoked potentials, QuickSIN speech understanding scores, and the Digit Symbol Coding cognitive test results were used to test the accuracy of either a compensatory processing model or serial processing model. RESULTS: The current dataset demonstrated that neither the compensatory nor the serial processing model were well supported...
November 7, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Shruti Gupta, Sharon G Curhan, Gary C Curhan
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation may lead to cochlear damage, and the only longitudinal study that examined biomarkers of systemic inflammation and risk of hearing loss found an association with a single biomarker in individuals <60 years of age. The purpose of our study was to determine whether plasma inflammatory markers are associated with incident hearing loss in two large prospective cohorts, Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II. METHODS: We examined the independent associations between plasma levels of markers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 [TNFR-2]) and self-reported hearing loss...
November 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Stephen T Neely, Sara E Fultz, Judy G Kopun, Natalie M Lenzen, Daniel M Rasetshwane
OBJECTIVES: Cochlear reflectance (CR) is the cochlear contribution to ear-canal reflectance. CR is a type of otoacoustic emission (OAE) that is calculated as a transfer function between forward pressure and reflected pressure. The purpose of this study was to compare wideband CR to distortion-product (DP) OAEs in two ways: (1) in a clinical-screening paradigm where the task is to determine whether an ear is normal or has hearing loss and (2) in the prediction of audiometric thresholds...
November 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Yu-Hsiang Wu, Elizabeth Stangl, Octav Chipara, Syed Shabih Hasan, Sean DeVries, Jacob Oleson
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the laboratory efficacy and real-world effectiveness of advanced directional microphones (DM) and digital noise reduction (NR) algorithms (i.e., premium DM/NR features) relative to basic-level DM/NR features of contemporary hearing aids (HAs). The study also examined the effect of premium HAs relative to basic HAs and the effect of DM/NR features relative to no features. DESIGN: Fifty-four older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss completed a single-blinded crossover trial...
October 30, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Dennis L Barbour, Rebecca T Howard, Xinyu D Song, Nikki Metzger, Kiron A Sukesan, James C DiLorenzo, Braham R D Snyder, Jeff Y Chen, Eleanor A Degen, Jenna M Buchbinder, Katherine L Heisey
OBJECTIVES: A confluence of recent developments in cloud computing, real-time web audio and machine learning psychometric function estimation has made wide dissemination of sophisticated turn-key audiometric assessments possible. The authors have combined these capabilities into an online (i.e., web-based) pure-tone audiogram estimator intended to empower researchers and clinicians with advanced hearing tests without the need for custom programming or special hardware. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of this new online machine learning audiogram method relative to a commonly used hearing threshold estimation technique also implemented online for the first time in the same platform...
October 22, 2018: Ear and Hearing
John J Galvin, Qian-Jie Fu, Eric P Wilkinson, Dawna Mills, Suzannah C Hagan, J Eric Lupo, Monica Padilla, Robert V Shannon
OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implants (CIs) have been shown to benefit patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) in terms of tinnitus reduction, localization, speech understanding, and quality of life (QoL). While previous studies have shown cochlear implantation may benefit SSD patients, it is unclear which point of comparison is most relevant: baseline performance before implantation versus performance with normal-hearing (NH) ear after implantation. In this study, CI outcomes were assessed in SSD patients before and up to 6 mo postactivation...
October 22, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Christopher K Giardina, Kevin D Brown, Oliver F Adunka, Craig A Buchman, Kendall A Hutson, Harold C Pillsbury, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
OBJECTIVES: Electrocochleography (ECochG) obtained through a cochlear implant (CI) is increasingly being tested as an intraoperative monitor during implantation with the goal of reducing surgical trauma. Reducing trauma should aid in preserving residual hearing and improve speech perception overall. The purpose of this study was to characterize intracochlear ECochG responses throughout insertion in a range of array types and, when applicable, relate these measures to hearing preservation...
October 17, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Chris J James, Chadlia Karoui, Marie-Laurence Laborde, Benoît Lepage, Charles-Édouard Molinier, Marjorie Tartayre, Bernard Escudé, Olivier Deguine, Mathieu Marx, Bernard Fraysse
OBJECTIVE: Normal-hearing subjects listening to acoustic simulations of cochlear implants (CI) can obtain sentence recognition scores near 100% in quiet and in 10 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) noise with acute exposure. However, average sentence recognition scores for real CI listeners are generally lower, even after months of experience, and there is a high degree of heterogeneity. Our aim was to identify the relative importance and strength of factors that prevent CI listeners from achieving early, 1-mo scores as high as those for normal-hearing-listener acoustic simulations...
October 17, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Erika Skoe, Sarah Camera, Jennifer Tufts
OBJECTIVE: Although numerous studies have shown that musicians have better speech perception in noise (SPIN) compared to nonmusicians, other studies have not replicated the "musician advantage for SPIN." One factor that has not been adequately addressed in previous studies is how musicians' SPIN is affected by routine exposure to high levels of sound. We hypothesized that such exposure diminishes the musician advantage for SPIN. DESIGN: Environmental sound levels were measured continuously for 1 week via body-worn noise dosimeters in 56 college students with diverse musical backgrounds and clinically normal pure-tone audiometric averages...
October 17, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Mary M Flaherty, Emily Buss, Lori J Leibold
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the extent to which school-age children benefit from fundamental frequency (F0) differences between target words and competing two-talker speech, and (2) assess whether this benefit changes with age. It was predicted that while children would be more susceptible to speech-in-speech masking compared to adults, they would benefit from differences in F0 between target and masker speech. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the relationship between frequency discrimination thresholds and the ability to benefit from target/masker differences in F0...
October 16, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Tanya L Arbogast, Brian C J Moore, Sunil Puria, Drew Dundas, Judith Brimacombe, Brent Edwards, Suzanne Carr Levy
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to test the ability to achieve, maintain, and subjectively benefit from extended high-frequency amplification in a real-world use scenario, with a device that restores audibility for frequencies up to 10 kHz. DESIGN: A total of 78 participants (149 ears) with mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss completed one of two studies conducted across eight clinical sites. Participants were fitted with a light-driven contact hearing aid (the Earlens system) that directly drives the tympanic membrane, allowing extended high-frequency output and amplification with minimal acoustic feedback...
October 8, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Catherine Killan, Andrew Scally, Edward Killan, Catherine Totten, Christopher Raine
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the effect of interimplant interval and onset of profound deafness on sound localization in children with bilateral cochlear implants, controlling for cochlear implant manufacturer, age, and time since second implant. DESIGN: The authors conducted a retrospective, observational study using routinely collected clinical data. Participants were 127 bilaterally implanted children aged 4 years or older, tested at least 12 mo post- second implant...
October 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Benjamin Dieudonné, Tom Francart
OBJECTIVES: To establish a framework to unambiguously define and relate the different spatial effects in speech understanding: head shadow, redundancy, squelch, spatial release from masking (SRM), and so on. Next, to investigate the contribution of interaural time and level differences to these spatial effects in speech understanding and how this is influenced by the type of masking noise. DESIGN: In our framework, SRM is uniquely characterized as a linear combination of head shadow, binaural redundancy, and binaural squelch...
October 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Razan Alfakir, Lisette M van Leeuwen, Marieke Pronk, Sophia E Kramer, David A Zapala
OBJECTIVES: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Hearing Loss (CSHL) consists of short lists of categories from the entire ICF classification that are thought to be the most relevant for describing the functioning of persons with hearing loss. A comprehensive intake that covers all factors included in the ICF CSHL holds the promise of developing a tailored treatment plan that fully complements the patient's needs. The Comprehensive CSHL contains 117 categories and serves as a guide for multiprofessional, comprehensive assessment...
October 4, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Elizabeth Convery, Gitte Keidser, Louise Hickson, Carly Meyer
OBJECTIVES: Self-fitting hearing aids have the potential to increase the accessibility of hearing health care. The aims of this study were to (1) identify factors that are associated with the ability to successfully set up a pair of commercially available self-fitting hearing aids; 2) identify factors that are associated with the need for knowledgeable, personalized support in performing the self-fitting procedure; and (3) evaluate performance of the individual steps in the self-fitting procedure...
October 3, 2018: Ear and Hearing
René H Gifford, Michael F Dorman
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of various measures of speech understanding in distinguishing performance differences between adult bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant (CI) recipients and to provide a preliminary evidence-based tool guiding clinical decisions regarding bilateral CI candidacy. DESIGN: This study used a multiple-baseline, cross-sectional design investigating speech recognition performance for 85 experienced adult CI recipients (49 bimodal, 36 bilateral)...
October 3, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Lisa R Park, Holly F B Teagle, Erika Gagnon, Jennifer Woodard, Kevin D Brown
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates outcomes in children fit with electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) and addresses three main questions: (1) Are outcomes with EAS superior to outcomes with conventional electric-only stimulation in children? (2) Do children with residual hearing benefit from EAS and conventional electric-only stimulation when compared with the preoperative hearing aid (HA) condition? (3) Can children with residual hearing derive benefit from EAS after several years of listening with conventional electric-only stimulation? DESIGN: Sixteen pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients between 4 and 16 years of age with an unaided low-frequency pure tone average of 75 dB HL in the implanted ear were included in two study arms...
September 24, 2018: Ear and Hearing
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