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Ear and Hearing

Kelsey E Klein, Elizabeth A Walker, J Bruce Tomblin
The authors tested the hypothesis that children with cochlear implants (CIs) experience domain-general deficits in sequential learning. Twenty children with CIs and 40 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. Participants completed a serial reaction time task that measured implicit sequential learning. During random sequence phases, the CI group had significantly slower reaction times than the NH group. However, there were no significant differences in the rates of sequential learning between groups...
March 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Colleen G Le Prell, Hannah W Siburt, Edward Lobarinas, Scott K Griffiths, Christopher Spankovich
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between recreational sound exposure and potentially undiagnosed or subclinical hearing loss by assessing sound exposure history, threshold sensitivity, distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitudes, and performance on the words-in-noise (WIN) test. DESIGN: Survey data were collected from 74 adult participants (14 male and 60 female), 18 to 27 years of age, recruited via advertisements posted throughout the University of Florida campus...
March 14, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Julie G Arenberg, Wendy S Parkinson, Leonid Litvak, Chen Chen, Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
OBJECTIVES: The standard, monopolar (MP) electrode configuration used in commercially available cochlear implants (CI) creates a broad electrical field, which can lead to unwanted channel interactions. Use of more focused configurations, such as tripolar and phased array, has led to mixed results for improving speech understanding. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a physiologically inspired configuration called dynamic focusing, using focused tripolar stimulation at low levels and less focused stimulation at high levels...
March 9, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Yasmeen Hamza, Areti Okalidou, George Kyriafinis, Astrid van Wieringen
OBJECTIVES: Sonority is the relative perceptual prominence/loudness of speech sounds of the same length, stress, and pitch. Children with cochlear implants (CIs), with restored audibility and relatively intact temporal processing, are expected to benefit from the perceptual prominence cues of highly sonorous sounds. Sonority also influences lexical access through the sonority-sequencing principle (SSP), a grammatical phonotactic rule, which facilitates the recognition and segmentation of syllables within speech...
March 6, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Chelsea M Blankenship, Lisa L Hunter, Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, David K Brown, Annie McCune, Denis F Fitzpatrick, Li Lin
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) level and signal to noise ratio in a group of infants from birth to 4 months of age to optimize prediction of hearing status. DPOAEs from infants with normal hearing (NH) and hearing loss (HL) were used to predict the presence of conductive HL (CHL), sensorineural HL (SNHL), and mixed HL (MHL). Wideband ambient absorbance was also measured and compared among the HL types. DESIGN: This is a prospective, longitudinal study of 279 infants with verified NH and HL, including conductive, sensorineural, and mixed types that were enrolled from a well-baby nursery and two neonatal intensive care units in Cincinnati, Ohio...
March 6, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Joshua Myers, Joseph Kei, Sreedevi Aithal, Venkatesh Aithal, Carlie Driscoll, Asaduzzaman Khan, Alehandrea Manuel, Anjali Joseph, Alicja N Malicka
OBJECTIVES: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is an emerging test of middle-ear function with potential applications for neonates in screening and diagnostic settings. Previous large-scale diagnostic accuracy studies have assessed the performance of WAI against evoked otoacoustic emissions, but further research is needed using a more stringent reference standard. Research into suitable quantitative techniques to analyze the large volume of data produced by WAI is still in its infancy...
March 3, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Niall A M Klyn, Samantha Kleindienst Robler, Razan Alfakir, Donald W Nielsen, James W Griffith, Deborah L Carlson, Larry Lundy, Sumitrajit Dhar, David A Zapala
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of two red flag protocols in detecting ear diseases associated with changes in hearing. DESIGN: The presence of red-flag symptoms was determined in a chart review of 307 adult patients from the Mayo Clinic Florida Departments of Otorhinolaryngology and Audiology. Participants formed a convenience sample recruited for a separate study. Neurotologist diagnosis was the criterion for comparisons...
March 1, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Marc A Brennan, Ryan W McCreery, Emily Buss, Walt Jesteadt
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this experiment was to examine the contributions of audibility to the ability to perceive a gap in noise for children and adults. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adulthood is associated with a deficit in gap detection. It is well known that reduced audibility in adult listeners with SNHL contributes to this deficit; however, it is unclear the extent to which hearing aid amplification can restore gap-detection thresholds, and the effect of childhood SNHL on gap-detection thresholds have not been described...
February 27, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Hannah Pimperton, Elizabeth A Walker
OBJECTIVES: This study had two key objectives. First, to examine whether children who receive cochlear implants (CIs) before the age of 3 years and who are experienced implant users (mean length of CI use = 6 years; range = 4 to 9 years) show deficits on a word learning task relative to their hearing peers. Second, to examine whether variation in age at implantation within the first 3 years of life relates to later word learning abilities. DESIGN: Twenty-one 6- to 10-year-old children with CIs, 21 chronological age-matched (AM) hearing children, and 21 vocabulary-matched hearing children completed an auditory word learning task in which they were required to learn the names of eight rare animals...
February 22, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Greg D Watkins, Brett A Swanson, Gregg J Suaning
OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implant (CI) sound processing strategies are usually evaluated in clinical studies involving experienced implant recipients. Metrics which estimate the capacity to perceive speech for a given set of audio and processing conditions provide an alternative means to assess the effectiveness of processing strategies. The aim of this research was to assess the ability of the output signal to noise ratio (OSNR) to accurately predict speech perception. It was hypothesized that compared with the other metrics evaluated in this study (1) OSNR would have equivalent or better accuracy and (2) OSNR would be the most accurate in the presence of variable levels of speech presentation...
February 22, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Judi A Lapsley Miller, Charlotte M Reed, Sarah R Robinson, Zachary D Perez
OBJECTIVES: Clinical pure-tone audiometry is conducted using stimuli delivered through supra-aural headphones or insert earphones. The stimuli are calibrated in an acoustic (average ear) coupler. Deviations in individual-ear acoustics from the coupler acoustics affect test validity, and variations in probe insertion and headphone placement affect both test validity and test-retest reliability. Using an insert earphone designed for otoacoustic emission testing, which contains a microphone and loudspeaker, an individualized in-the-ear calibration can be calculated from the ear-canal sound pressure measured at the microphone...
February 21, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Christopher K Zalewski, R Steven Ackley, Devin L McCaslin, M Diane Clark, Wendy D Hanks, Carmen C Brewer
OBJECTIVES: Significant advancements have been made toward the clinical assessment of utricular function through ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) and unilateral centrifugation (UCF) testing. To date, no study has examined intrasubject relationships between these measures. The study hypothesis was that intrasubject responses from oVEMP and UCF testing would be correlated inasmuch as both tests have been reported to assess utricular function. DESIGN: UCF rotations and oVEMP testing were performed on healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 62 years...
February 10, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Sarah E Hughes, Hayley A Hutchings, Frances L Rapport, Catherine M McMahon, Isabelle Boisvert
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with hearing loss often report a need for increased effort when listening, particularly in challenging acoustic environments. Despite audiologists' recognition of the impact of listening effort on individuals' quality of life, there are currently no standardized clinical measures of listening effort, including patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). To generate items and content for a new PROM, this qualitative study explored the perceptions, understanding, and experiences of listening effort in adults with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss before and after cochlear implantation...
February 8, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Jill B Firszt, Ruth M Reeder, Laura K Holden, Noël Y Dwyer, Brenda Gotter, Karen Mispagel, Lisa Potts, Sallie Vanderhoof, Tim Holden, Chris Brenner, Mike Strube, Craig Buchman, Richard Chole, Andrew Drescher, Joel Goebel, Tim Hullar, Jonathan McJunkin, Gail Neely, Lisa Cowdrey, Kristen Lewis, Heidi Frazier, Sarah Zlomke, Robert Cullen, Charles Luetje
OBJECTIVES: Asymmetric hearing with severe to profound hearing loss (SPHL) in one ear and better hearing in the other requires increased listening effort and is detrimental for understanding speech in noise and sound localization. Although a cochlear implant (CI) is the only treatment that can restore hearing to an ear with SPHL, current candidacy criteria often disallows this option for patients with asymmetric hearing. The present study aimed to evaluate longitudinal performance outcomes in a relatively large group of adults with asymmetric hearing who received a CI in the poor ear...
January 25, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Brenda M Ryals, Sharon G Curhan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Lisa L Hunter, Chelsea M Blankenship, Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, David K Brown, Annie McCune, Denis F Fitzpatrick, Li Lin
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe normal characteristics of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) signal and noise level in a group of newborns and infants with normal hearing followed longitudinally from birth to 15 months of age. DESIGN: This is a prospective, longitudinal study of 231 infants who passed newborn hearing screening and were verified to have normal hearing. Infants were enrolled from a well-baby nursery and two neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Cincinnati, OH...
January 23, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Ross J Roeser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Lori J Leibold, Emily Buss, Lauren Calandruccio
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which infants, school-age children, and adults benefit from a target/masker sex mismatch in the context of speech detection or recognition in a background of 2 competing talkers. It was hypothesized that the ability to benefit from a target/masker sex mismatch develops between infancy and the early school-age years, as children gain listening experience in multi-talker environments. DESIGN: Listeners were infants (7 to 13 months), children (5 to 10 years), and adults (18 to 33 years) with normal hearing...
January 23, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Harvey B Abrams, Theresa H Chisolm, Victoria A Sanchez, Michelle L Arnold, Jason A Galster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Ying-Hui Lai, Yu Tsao, Xugang Lu, Fei Chen, Yu-Ting Su, Kuang-Chao Chen, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Li-Ching Chen, Lieber Po-Hung Li, Chin-Hui Lee
OBJECTIVE: We investigate the clinical effectiveness of a novel deep learning-based noise reduction (NR) approach under noisy conditions with challenging noise types at low signal to noise ratio (SNR) levels for Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) recipients. DESIGN: The deep learning-based NR approach used in this study consists of two modules: noise classifier (NC) and deep denoising autoencoder (DDAE), thus termed (NC + DDAE). In a series of comprehensive experiments, we conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses on the NC module and the overall NC + DDAE approach...
January 20, 2018: Ear and Hearing
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