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Ear and Hearing

David L Horn, Jong Ho Won, Jay T Rubinstein, Lynne A Werner
OBJECTIVES: Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in postlingually deaf adults and prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). To apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in normal-hearing children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners' sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise...
October 20, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Christine Louw, De Wet Swanepoel, Robert H Eikelboom, Hermanus C Myburgh
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of smartphone-based hearing screening with the hearScreen™ application in terms of sensitivity, specificity, referral rates, and time efficiency at two primary health care clinics. DESIGN: Nonprobability purposive sampling was used at both clinics. A total of 1236 participants (mean age: 37.8 ± SD 17.9 and range 3 to 97 years; 71.3% female) were included in the final analysis. Participants were screened using the hearScreen™ application following a two-step screening protocol and diagnostic pure-tone audiometry to confirm hearing status...
October 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Kelly N Jahn, Ryan A Stevenson, Mark T Wallace
OBJECTIVES: Despite significant improvements in speech perception abilities following cochlear implantation, many prelingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) recipients continue to rely heavily on visual information to develop speech and language. Increased reliance on visual cues for understanding spoken language could lead to the development of unique audiovisual integration and visual-only processing abilities in these individuals. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that good CI performers, as indexed by auditory-only speech perception abilities, have different patterns of visual cortex activation in response to visual and auditory stimuli as compared with poor CI performers...
October 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Jijo Pottackal Mathai, Asha Yathiraj
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of intensity on speech perception in individuals with late-onset auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) by obtaining their performance-intensity (PI) function. Additionally, the study investigated the effect of PI function on aided speech perception. It was hypothesized that speech perception abilities of individuals with ANSD vary with intensity and may provide information regarding their aided performance. DESIGN: A factorial research design was used to obtain the PI function and aided performance...
October 13, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Koenraad S Rhebergen, Thijs H Maalderink, Wouter A Dreschler
OBJECTIVES: The effects of nonlinear signal processing on speech intelligibility in noise are difficult to evaluate. Often, the effects are examined by comparing speech intelligibility scores with and without processing measured at fixed signal to noise ratios (SNRs) or by comparing the adaptive measured speech reception thresholds corresponding to 50% intelligibility (SRT50) with and without processing. These outcome measures might not be optimal. Measuring at fixed SNRs can be affected by ceiling or floor effects, because the range of relevant SNRs is not know in advance...
October 4, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Rebecca Carroll, Verena Uslar, Thomas Brand, Esther Ruigendijk
OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to determine whether hearing impairment affects sentence comprehension beyond phoneme or word recognition (i.e., on the sentence level), and to distinguish grammatically induced processing difficulties in structurally complex sentences from perceptual difficulties associated with listening to degraded speech. Effects of hearing impairment or speech in noise were expected to reflect hearer-specific speech recognition difficulties. Any additional processing time caused by the sustained perceptual challenges across the sentence may either be independent of or interact with top-down processing mechanisms associated with grammatical sentence structure...
September 28, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Shuman He, Tyler C McFayden, Holly F B Teagle, Matthew Ewend, Lillian Henderson, Craig A Buchman
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) characterize morphological characteristics of the electrically evoked cortical auditory event-related potentials (eERPs) and explore the potential association between onset eERP morphology and auditory versus nonauditory stimulation; (2) assess test-retest reliability of onset eERPs; (3) investigate effects of stimulation level on onset eERPs; and (4) explore the feasibility of using the onset eERP to estimate the lowest stimulation level that can be detected for individual stimulating electrodes in patients with auditory brainstem implants (ABIs)...
August 30, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Olga A Stakhovskaya, Matthew J Goupell
OBJECTIVE: There is currently no accepted method of mapping bilateral cochlear-implant (BiCI) users to maximize binaural performance, but the current approach of mapping one ear at a time could produce spatial perceptions that are not consistent with a sound's physical location in space. The goal of this study was to investigate the perceived intracranial lateralization of bilaterally synchronized electrical stimulation with a range of interaural level differences (ILDs) and to determine a method to produce relatively more centered auditory images when provided multielectrode stimulation...
August 30, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Piers Dawes, Kevin J Munro
OBJECTIVE: It is widely recognized by hearing aid users and audiologists that a period of auditory acclimatization and adjustment is needed for new users to become accustomed to their devices. The aim of the present study was to test the idea that auditory acclimatization and adjustment to hearing aids involves a process of learning to "tune out" newly audible but undesirable sounds, which are described by new hearing aid users as annoying and distracting. It was hypothesized that (1) speech recognition thresholds in noise would improve over time for new hearing aid users, (2) distractibility to noise would reduce over time for new hearing aid users, (3) there would be a correlation between improved speech recognition in noise and reduced distractibility to background sounds, (4) improvements in speech recognition and distraction would be accompanied by self-report of reduced annoyance, and (5) improvements in speech recognition and distraction would be associated with higher general cognitive ability and more hearing aid use...
August 25, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Mehrnaz Zeitooni, Elina Mäki-Torkko, Stefan Stenfelt
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate binaural hearing ability in adults with normal hearing when bone conduction (BC) stimulation is bilaterally applied at the bone conduction hearing aid (BCHA) implant position as well as at the audiometric position on the mastoid. The results with BC stimulation are compared with bilateral air conduction (AC) stimulation through earphones. DESIGN: Binaural hearing ability is investigated with tests of spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference using sentence material, binaural masking level difference with tonal chirp stimulation, and precedence effect using noise stimulus...
August 23, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Lucy E Handscomb, Deborah A Hall, Gillian W Shorter, Derek J Hoare
OBJECTIVES: Researchers and clinicians consider thinking to be important in the development and maintenance of tinnitus distress, and altering thoughts or thinking style is an object of many forms of psychological therapy for tinnitus. Those working with people with tinnitus require a reliable, psychometrically robust means of measuring both positive and negative thinking related to it. The Tinnitus Cognitions Questionnaire (TCQ) was designed as such a measure and its authors showed it to be reliable, with good psychometric properties...
August 23, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Aparna Rao, Dania Rishiq, Luodi Yu, Yang Zhang, Harvey Abrams
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of hearing aid use and the effectiveness of ReadMyQuips (RMQ), an auditory training program, on speech perception performance and auditory selective attention using electrophysiological measures. RMQ is an audiovisual training program designed to improve speech perception in everyday noisy listening environments. DESIGN: Participants were adults with mild to moderate hearing loss who were first-time hearing aid users...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Katya Polena Feder, David Michaud, James McNamee, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Pamela Ramage-Morin, Yves Beauregard
OBJECTIVES: There are no nationally representative hearing loss (HL) prevalence data available for Canadian youth using direct measurements. The present study objectives were to estimate national prevalence of HL using audiometric pure-tone thresholds (0.5 to 8 kHz) and or distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for children and adolescents, aged 3 to 19 years. DESIGN: This cross-sectional population-based study presents findings from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, entailing an in-person household interview and hearing measurements conducted in a mobile examination clinic...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Kensi M Cobb, Andrew Stuart
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to generate normative auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave component peak latency and amplitude values for neonates with air- and bone-conducted CE-Chirps and air-conducted CE-Chirp octave band stimuli (i.e., 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz). A second objective was to compare neonate ABRs to CE-Chirp stimuli with ABR responses to traditional click and tone burst stimuli with the same stimulus parameters. DESIGN: Participants were 168 healthy neonates...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Anouk P Netten, Friedo W Dekker, Carolien Rieffe, Wim Soede, Jeroen J Briaire, Johan H M Frijns
OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies are often facing missing data. Data can be missing for various reasons, for example, patients moved, certain measurements are only administered in high-risk groups, and patients are unable to attend clinic because of their health status. There are various ways to handle these missing data (e.g., complete cases analyses, mean substitution). Each of these techniques potentially influences both the analyses and the results of a study. The first aim of this structured review was to analyze how often researchers in the field of otorhinolaryngology/head & neck surgery report missing data...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Lisette M van Leeuwen, Paul Merkus, Marieke Pronk, Marein van der Torn, Marcel Maré, S Theo Goverts, Sophia E Kramer
OBJECTIVES: The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) core sets for hearing loss (HL) were developed to serve as a standard for the assessment and reporting of the functioning and health of patients with HL. The aim of the present study was to compare the content of the intake documentation currently used in secondary and tertiary hearing care settings in the Netherlands with the content of the ICF core sets for HL. Research questions were (1) to what extent are the ICF core sets for HL represented in the Dutch Otology and Audiology intake documentation? (2) are there any extra ICF categories expressed in the intake documentation that are currently not part of the ICF core sets for HL, or constructs expressed that are not part of the ICF? DESIGN: Multicenter patient record study including 176 adult patients from two secondary, and two tertiary hearing care settings...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Kristina M Ward, Jing Shen, Pamela E Souza, Tina M Grieco-Calub
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to quantify age-related differences in executive control as it relates to dual-task performance, which is thought to represent listening effort, during degraded speech recognition. DESIGN: Twenty-five younger adults (YA; 18-24 years) and 21 older adults (OA; 56-82 years) completed a dual-task paradigm that consisted of a primary speech recognition task and a secondary visual monitoring task. Sentence material in the primary task was either unprocessed or spectrally degraded into 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels using noise-band vocoding...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Catherine M McMahon, Julie Schneider, Moira Dunsmore, Bamini Gopinath, Annette Kifley, Paul Mitchell, Jie-Jin Wang, Stephen R Leeder
OBJECTIVES: Combined vision and hearing impairment, termed dual sensory impairment (DSI), is associated with poorer health outcomes compared with a single sensory loss alone. Separate systems of care exist for visual and hearing impairment which potentially limit the effectiveness of managing DSI. To address this, a Hearing Screening Education Model (HSEM) was offered to older adults attending a low-vision clinic in Australia within this pilot study. The present study aimed to evaluate the benefits of seeking help on hearing handicap, self-perceived health, and use of community services among those identified with unmet hearing needs after participation in the HSEM...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Kensi M Cobb, Andrew Stuart
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine the differences in auditory brainstem response (ABR) latency and amplitude indices to the CE-Chirp stimuli in neonates versus young adults as a function of stimulus level, rate, polarity, frequency and gender. DESIGN: Participants were 168 healthy neonates and 20 normal-hearing young adults. ABRs were obtained to air- and bone-conducted CE-Chirps and air-conducted CE-Chirp octave band stimuli. The effects of stimulus level, rate, and polarity were examined with air-conducted CE-Chirps...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Matthew G Wisniewski
OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that theta (~4 to 7 Hz), alpha (~8 to 12 Hz), and stimulus-evoked dynamics of the electroencephalogram index effortful listening. Numerous auditory event-related potential datasets exist, without thorough examination of these features. The feasibility of mining those datasets for such features is assessed here. DESIGN: In a standard auditory-oddball paradigm, 12 listeners heard deviant high-frequency tones (10%) interspersed among low-frequency tones (90%) "near" or "far" separated in frequency...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
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