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Experimental Lung Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644754/expression-of-enzymes-related-to-glucose-metabolism-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-prognosis
#1
Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Efthimios Sivridis, Stella Arelaki, Michael I Koukourakis
Purpose/Aim: Cancer cells are addicted to glycolytic anaerobic pathways, in presence or in absence of a functional Krebs' cycle (phenomenon Warburg). This metabolic predilection relies on both extracellular (impaired vascularization and oxygenation) and intracellular (oncogenic activation of genes) causes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the expression and prognostic relevance of enzymes involved in the glucose absorption and metabolism, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) expression, MCT1 and MCT2, pentose pathway (Glucose-6-phospahte dehydrogenase G6PD), glycogene synthesis (glycogene synthase GYS1), glycolysis (Hexokinase HXKII, phosphofructokinase PFK1, fructose biphosphate aldolase), fate of pyruvate (pyruvate dehydrogenase PDH, phosphorylated pPDH, PDH kinase PDK1, lactate dehydrogenase LDH5 and LDH1) and key Kreb's cycle enzymes (citrate synthase CSynth and isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH)...
June 23, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636457/notch-signaling-in-lung-diseases
#2
Jiehan Jiang, Kui Xiao, Ping Chen
NOTCH is a fundamental signaling system that regulates normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adult life. NOTCH receptor is a single-pass transmembrane protein normally triggered via direct cell-to-cell contact, in which NOTCH ligands bind the extracellular domain of the receptor, inducing γ-secretase cleavage and release of intracellular domain. The intracellular domain binds to the transcriptional effector RBPJκ to activate transcription of target genes that regulate cell differentiation, patterning, and morphogenesis during embryonic development and adult life...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636438/oxidative-stress-mediated-by-nitrogen-at-elevated-pressure-inhibits-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-growth
#3
Stephen R Thom, Mark Ma, Veena M Bhopale, Cindy Zhou, Li Mao
Purpose/Aim: High pressures of gases such as nitrogen enhance production of singlet oxygen. Therefore, we hypothesized that growth of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells and a human-derived NSCLC explant could be inhibited by an oxidative stress mechanism using high-pressure nitrogen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Growth of human NSCLC explants and A549 cells in Matrigel were assessed after implantation into nude mice who were exposed to elevated pressures. RESULTS: Subcutaneous implant growth of NSCLC in nude mice was inhibited by a daily 78-minute protocol using nitrogen/oxygen breathing mixture such that at the maximum pressure of 2...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557567/gene-expression-of-the-concentration-sensitive-sodium-channel-is-suppressed-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#4
Teruki Hagiwara, Shigeru Yoshida, Yuji Hidaka
PURPOSE: The concentration-sensitive sodium channel (NaC) is expressed in alveolar type II epithelial cells and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in mouse lungs. We recently reported that NaC contributes to amiloride-insensitive sodium transport in mouse lungs (Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 2016). However, details regarding its physiological role in the lung remain unknown. To examine whether NaC is involved in alveolar fluid clearance during an acute lung injury (ALI), we analyzed the relationship between NaC gene expression in the lung and the development of pulmonary edema in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice...
April 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541755/epinephrine-but-not-vasopressin-attenuates-the-airway-response-to-anaphylactic-shock-in-rats
#5
Feng Zheng, Ruxandra Copotoiu, Charles Tacquard, Bruno Demoulin, Jean Marc Malinovsky, Bruno Levy, Dan Longrois, Grégoire Barthel, Paul Michel Mertes, François Marchal, Silvia Demoulin-Alexikova, Olivier Collange
PURPOSE: The two life-threatening signs of anaphylactic shock (AS) are severe arterial hypotension and bronchospasm. Guidelines recommend epinephrine as first-line treatment. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been proposed as an alternative if epinephrine does not correct arterial hypotension. These two drugs may have beneficial, neutral or deleterious effects on airflow either directly or by modifying factors that regulate vasodilatation and/or edema in the bronchial wall. AIM OF THE STUDY: To compare the effects of epinephrine and AVP on airflow and airway leakage in a rat model of AS...
April 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534660/radiation-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-as-a-model-of-progressive-fibrosis-contributions-of-dna-damage-inflammatory-response-and-cellular-senescence-genes
#6
Tyler A Beach, Carl J Johnston, Angela M Groves, Jacqueline P Williams, Jacob N Finkelstein
Purpose/Aim of Study: Studies of pulmonary fibrosis (PF) have resulted in DNA damage, inflammatory response, and cellular senescence being widely hypothesized to play a role in the progression of the disease. Utilizing these aforementioned terms, genomics databases were interrogated along with the term, "pulmonary fibrosis," to identify genes common among all 4 search terms. Findings were compared to data derived from a model of radiation-induced progressive pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) to verify that these genes are similarly expressed, supporting the use of radiation as a model for diseases involving PF, such as human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)...
April 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409646/intravitreal-bevacizumab-alters-type-iv-collagenases-and-exacerbates-arrested-alveologenesis-in-the-neonatal-rat-lungs
#7
Arwin M Valencia, Charles L Cai, Jeffrey Tan, Thomas J Duggan, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda, Kay D Beharry
Purpose/Aim: Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) is an irreversible vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor used off-label to treat severe retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low gestational age neonates. VEGF and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) participate in lung maturation. We tested the hypothesis that intravitreal bevacizumab enters the systemic circulation and has long-lasting effects on lung MMPs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neonatal rats were exposed to: (1) hyperoxia (50% O2); (2) intermittent hypoxia (IH) (50% O2 with brief episodes of 12% O2); or (3) room air (RA) from birth (P0) to P14...
April 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379062/inhibition-of-microrna-21-by-an-antagomir-ameliorates-allergic-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-asthma
#8
Hwa Young Lee, Hea Yon Lee, Joon Young Choi, Jung Hur, In Kyoung Kim, Young Kyoon Kim, Ji Young Kang, Sook Young Lee
AIM OF THE STUDY: MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is up-regulated during allergic airway inflammation, reflecting a Th2 immune response. We investigated the effects of an miR-21 antagomir and its mechanism of action in a mouse model of acute bronchial asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The anti-miR-21 antagomir was administered by intranasal inhalation from the day of sensitization. Changes in cell counts, Th2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid, and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) were examined...
April 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494216/cough-reflex-hypersensitivity-a-role-for-neurotrophins
#9
Ahmed Z El-Hashim, Sahar M Jaffal
Cough is one of the most common complaints for which sufferers seek medical assistance. However, currently available drugs are not very effective in treating cough, particularly that which follows an upper respiratory tract infection. Nonetheless, there has been a significant increase in our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of the defensive cough as well as the hypersensitive/pathophysiological cough, both at airway and central nervous system (CNS) levels. Numerous molecules and signaling pathways have been identified as potential targets for antitussive drugs, including neurotrophins (NTs)...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368678/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-3d-model-of-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-trophic-unit
#10
Fabio Bucchieri, Alessandro Pitruzzella, Alberto Fucarino, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Vito Marcianò, Massimo Cajozzo, Giorgio Lo Iacono, Roberto Marchese, Giovanni Zummo, Stephen T Holgate, Donna E Davies
BACKGROUND/AIM: Epithelial-mesenchymal communication plays a key role in tissue homeostasis and abnormal signaling contributes to chronic airways disease such as COPD. Most in vitro models are limited in complexity and poorly represent this epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit. We postulated that cellular outgrowth from bronchial tissue would enable development of a mucosal structure that recapitulates better in vivo tissue architecture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bronchial tissue was embedded in Matrigel and outgrowth cultures monitored using time-lapse microscopy, electrical resistance, light and electron microscopy...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353351/effects-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-mononuclear-cells-on-respiratory-system-mechanics-in-a-murine-model-of-neonatal-lung-injury
#11
David R Mills, Quanfu Mao, Sharon Chu, Kate Falcon Girard, Morey Kraus, James F Padbury, Monique E De Paepe
BACKGROUND: Mononuclear cells (MNCs) have well-documented beneficial effects in a wide range of adult pulmonary diseases. The effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived MNCs on neonatal lung injury, highly relevant for potential autologous application in preterm newborns at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), remain incompletely established. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term morphologic and functional effects of systemically delivered MNCs in a murine model of neonatal lung injury...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318340/characteristic-plethysmographic-findings-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-copd
#12
Edgar Ramírez-Ramírez, Armando Torres-Ramírez, Jesús Alquicira-Mireles, Abraham Cañavera-Constantino, Patricia Segura-Medina, Martha Montaño-Ramírez, Carlos Ramos-Abraham, Mario H Vargas, José Luis Arreola-Ramírez
AIM OF THE STUDY: Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke generates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in guinea pigs, but a comprehensive evaluation of changes in lung function, as assessed by barometric whole body plethysmography (WBP), is lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female guinea pigs were exposed to the smoke of 20 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week, during 10 weeks (COPD group, n = 8), and were compared with unexposed female guinea pigs of the same age (control group, n = 8)...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394655/stretch-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-alveolar-epithelial-cells-is-mediated-by-the-intrinsic-mitochondrial-pathway
#13
Hartmut Kuhn, Hendrik Nieuwenhuijsen, Bianca Karthe, Hubert Wirtz
BACKGROUND: Alveolar type II (ATII) cells in the lung are exposed to mechanical stretch during breathing and mechanical ventilation. Increased mechanical stretch contributes to lung injury by induction of apoptosis and necrosis in ATII cells. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we investigated the intrinsic and the extrinsic apoptosis pathways, and their involvement in our model of stretch-induced apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ATII cells were stretched on elastic membranes for 24 h and apoptosis was determined at different time points...
February 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394654/inhibiting-igf-1r-attenuates-cell-proliferation-and-vegf-production-in-igf-1r-over-expressing-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#14
Chang Dong Yeo, Young Ae Kim, Hwa Young Lee, Jin Woo Kim, Sang Haak Lee, Seung Joon Kim, Soon Seog Kwon, Yong Hyun Kim, Seok Chan Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in IGF-1R expressed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human lung adenocarcinoma PC9, HCC827, and H1975 cells were exposed to a combination of IGF-1, gefitinib, or linsitinib. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. The expression of EGFR, IGF-1R, AKT, extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), cleaved caspase 3, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α were measured by Western blot...
February 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394653/in-vitro-in-vivo-comparison-of-inhaled-salbutamol-dose-delivered-by-jet-nebulizer-vibrating-mesh-nebulizer-and-metered-dose-inhaler-with-spacer-during-non-invasive-ventilation
#15
Ahmed Hassan, Randa Salah Eldin, Maha M Abdelrahman, Mohamed E Abdelrahim
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may benefit from medical aerosol, but most guidance on dosing with different aerosol devices is limited to in-vitro studies. The study was designed to in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in-vivo compare aerosol delivery during bilevel NIV with three types of aerosol generators: metered dose inhaler with AeroChamber-MV spacer (AC), Aerogen Pro vibrating mesh nebulizer (PRO), and Sidestream jet nebulizer (SIDE). MATERIALS AND METHOD: A bilevel ventilator with dry single limb circuit and fixed expiratory port was set in spontaneous mode with initial inspiratory and expiratory pressures of 20 and 5 cmH20, 1:3 inspiratory-expiratory ratio, and 15 breaths...
February 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281854/capsaicin-pretreatment-reversed-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-by-alleviating-inflammation-via-p38mapk-pathway
#16
Ying Xu, Qin Gu, Chen Qu
Purpose/Aim: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease associated with pulmonary vascular remodeling as well as inflammation. As a kind of tachykinin secreted by nerves and inflammatory cells, substance P (SP) has been proved to be involved in the progression of PAH. Capsaicin can deplete substance P and provide benefits in PAH. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In this article, we aim to illustrate the possible mechanism involved in the process of capsaicin alleviating PAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single injection of monocrotaline (MCT) to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was conducted to induce PAH...
February 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266889/lung-injury-pathways-adenosine-receptor-2b-signaling-limits-development-of-ischemic-bronchiolitis-obliterans-organizing-pneumonia
#17
John C Densmore, Terry R Schaid, Paul M Jeziorczak, Meetha Medhora, Said Audi, Shraddha Nayak, John Auchampach, Melinda R Dwinell, Aron M Geurts, Elizabeth R Jacobs
Purpose/Aim of the Study: Adenosine signaling was studied in bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) resulting from unilateral lung ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ischemia was achieved by either left main pulmonary artery or complete hilar ligation. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, Dahl salt sensitive (SS) rats and SS mutant rat strains containing a mutation in the A2B adenosine receptor gene (Adora2b) were studied. Adenosine concentrations were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) by HPLC...
February 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080141/low-concentration-of-oleic-acid-exacerbates-lps-induced-cell-death-and-inflammation-in-human-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#18
Altug Kucukgul, Suat Erdogan
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to investigate in vitro effects of oleic acid on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in the human lung epithelial cells (A549). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) tests. Selected gene expression levels were analyzed by Real-Time Quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS: 24 hours of LPS (100 ng/mL) exposure decreased the cells' viability by 44...
February 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982694/cigarette-smoke-and-decreased-oxygen-tension-inhibit-pulmonary-claudin-6-expression
#19
Felix R Jimenez, Josh B Lewis, Samuel T Belgique, Dallin C Milner, Adam L Lewis, Todd M Dunaway, Kaleb M Egbert, Duane R Winden, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a condition involving perturbed barrier integrity coincident with both emphysema and inflammation of the airways, and smoking is considered a major risk factor. Claudins (Cldns) stabilize barriers and contribute to tight junctions by preventing paracellular transport of extracellular fluid constituents. METHODS: To determine Cldn6 was differentially influenced by tobacco smoke, Cldn6 was evaluated in cells and tissues by q-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry following exposure...
December 16, 2016: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902892/microrna-145-influences-the-balance-of-th1-th2-via-regulating-runx3-in-asthma-patients
#20
Linxia Fan, Xiaojun Wang, Linlan Fan, Qizhang Chen, Hong Zhang, Hui Pan, Aixia Xu, Hongjuan Wang, Yang Yu
AIM OF THE STUDY: To delineate the underlying mechanism of microRNA-145 modulate the balance of Th1/Th2 via targeting RUNX3 in asthma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from asthma patients and healthy controls. CD4(+) T cells were isolated and cultured. Using quantitative PCR detect, the level of microRNA-145 and RUNX3 mRNA level in the CD4(+) T cells from asthma patients and healthy controls, meanwhile, western blot was used to detect the RUNX3 protein level...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Lung Research
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