journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Current Genetics

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032444/modulating-signaling-networks-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-transposable-element-insertion
#1
REVIEW
Luis María Vaschetto
In a recent past, transposable elements (TEs) were referred to as selfish genetic components only capable of copying themselves with the aim of increasing the odds of being inherited. Nonetheless, TEs have been initially proposed as positive control elements acting in synergy with the host. Nowadays, it is well known that TE movement into host genome comprises an important evolutionary mechanism capable of increasing the adaptive fitness. As insights into TE functioning are increasing day to day, the manipulation of transposition has raised an interesting possibility of setting the host functions, although the lack of appropriate genome engineering tools has unpaved it...
October 14, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026976/reductive-evolution-of-chloroplasts-in-non-photosynthetic-plants-algae-and-protists
#2
REVIEW
Lucia Hadariová, Matej Vesteg, Vladimír Hampl, Juraj Krajčovič
Chloroplasts are generally known as eukaryotic organelles whose main function is photosynthesis. They perform other functions, however, such as synthesizing isoprenoids, fatty acids, heme, iron sulphur clusters and other essential compounds. In non-photosynthetic lineages that possess plastids, the chloroplast genomes have been reduced and most (or all) photosynthetic genes have been lost. Consequently, non-photosynthetic plastids have also been reduced structurally. Some of these non-photosynthetic or "cryptic" plastids were overlooked or unrecognized for decades...
October 12, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027580/screening-for-amyloid-proteins-in-the-yeast-proteome
#3
Tatyana A Ryzhova, Julia V Sopova, Sergey P Zadorsky, Vera A Siniukova, Aleksandra V Sergeeva, Svetlana A Galkina, Anton A Nizhnikov, Aleksandr A Shenfeld, Kirill V Volkov, Alexey P Galkin
The search for novel pathological and functional amyloids represents one of the most important tasks of contemporary biomedicine. Formation of pathological amyloid fibrils in the aging brain causes incurable neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's Huntington's diseases. At the same time, a set of amyloids regulates vital processes in archaea, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Our knowledge of the prevalence and biological significance of amyloids is limited due to the lack of universal methods for their identification...
October 11, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022131/feedback-regulation-of-ribosome-assembly
#4
REVIEW
Jesús de la Cruz, Fernando Gómez-Herreros, Olga Rodríguez-Galán, Victoria Begley, María de la Cruz Muñoz-Centeno, Sebastián Chávez
Ribosome biogenesis is a crucial process for growth and constitutes the major consumer of cellular resources. This pathway is subjected to very stringent regulation to ensure correct ribosome manufacture with a wide variety of environmental and metabolic changes, and intracellular insults. Here we summarise our current knowledge on the regulation of ribosome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by particularly focusing on the feedback mechanisms that maintain ribosome homeostasis. Ribosome biogenesis in yeast is controlled mainly at the level of the production of both pre-rRNAs and ribosomal proteins through the transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of the TORC1 and protein kinase A signalling pathways...
October 11, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018946/bidirectional-terminators-an-underestimated-aspect-of-gene-regulation
#5
REVIEW
François Robert
Recent experimental and computational work revealed that transcriptional terminators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can terminate transcription coming from both directions. This mechanism helps budding yeast cope with the pervasive nature of transcription by limiting aberrant transcription from invading neighboring genes.
October 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018935/a-curious-new-role-for-mrn-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-non-homologous-end-joining
#6
REVIEW
Kurt W Runge, Yanhui Li
Chromosomal breaks can be healed by several repair processes, including one called non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) where the two broken ends are ligated together with a loss of 0-5 bp of DNA. The protein requirements for NHEJ of cut DNA ends in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae include its version of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex. In contrast, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian cells do not require MRN for this process. Recent work in S. pombe used transposon excision to generate breaks that were capped by DNA hairpins, which must be opened to produce ligatable ends...
October 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018921/genetics-of-trehalose-biosynthesis-in-desert-derived-aureobasidium-melanogenum-and-role-of-trehalose-in-the-adaptation-of-the-yeast-to-extreme-environments
#7
Hong Jiang, Guang-Lei Liu, Zhe Chi, Zhong Hu, Zhen-Ming Chi
Melanin plays an important role in the stress adaptation of Aureobasidium melanogenum XJ5-1 isolated from the Taklimakan desert. A trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (TPS1 gene) was cloned from K5, characterized, and then deleted to determine the role of trehalose in the stress adaptation of the albino mutant K5. No stress response element and heat shock element were found in the promoter of the TPS1 gene. Deletion of the TPS1 gene in the albino mutant rendered a strain DT43 unable to synthesize any trehalose, but DT43 still could grow in glucose, suggesting that its hexokinase was insensitive to inhibition by trehalose-6-phosphate...
October 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983718/pediocin-like-bacteriocins-new-perspectives-on-mechanism-of-action-and-immunity
#8
REVIEW
Natalia S Ríos Colombo, Miriam C Chalón, Silvia A Navarro, Augusto Bellomio
This review attempts to analyze the mechanism of action and immunity of class IIa bacteriocins. These peptides are promising alternative food preservatives and they have a great potential application in medical sciences. Class IIa bacteriocins act on the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive cells dissipating the transmembrane electrical potential by forming pores. However, their toxicity and immunity mechanism remains elusive. Here we discuss the role of the mannose phosphotransferase system (man-PTS) as the receptor for class IIa bacteriocins and the influence of the membrane composition on the activity of these antimicrobial peptides...
October 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983660/synthetic-genome-recoding-new-genetic-codes-for-new-features
#9
REVIEW
James Kuo, Finn Stirling, Yu Heng Lau, Yekaterina Shulgina, Jeffrey C Way, Pamela A Silver
Full genome recoding, or rewriting codon meaning, through chemical synthesis of entire bacterial chromosomes has become feasible in the past several years. Recoding an organism can impart new properties including non-natural amino acid incorporation, virus resistance, and biocontainment. The estimated cost of construction that includes DNA synthesis, assembly by recombination, and troubleshooting, is now comparable to costs of early stage development of drugs or other high-tech products. Here, we discuss several recently published assembly methods and provide some thoughts on the future, including how synthetic efforts might benefit from the analysis of natural recoding processes and organisms that use alternative genetic codes...
October 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975387/the-m-6-a-methyltransferase-ime4-and-mitochondrial-functions-in-yeast
#10
REVIEW
Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ram Rajasekharan
In eukaryotes, the precise transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of gene expression are crucial for the developmental processes. More than 100 types of post-transcriptional RNA modifications have been identified in eukaryotes. The deposition of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) into mRNA is among the most common post-transcriptional RNA modifications known in eukaryotes. It has been reported that m(6)A RNA modification can regulate gene expression. The role of yeast m(6)A methyltransferase (Ime4) in meiosis and sporulation in diploid cells is very well proven, but its physiological role in haploid cells has remained unknown until recently...
October 3, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942495/candida-albicans-fatty-acyl-coa-synthetase-cafaa4p-is-involved-in-the-uptake-of-exogenous-long-chain-fatty-acids-and-cell-activity-in-the-biofilm
#11
Kengo Tejima, Masanori Ishiai, Somay O Murayama, Shun Iwatani, Susumu Kajiwara
Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (Faa) activates fatty acid (FA) by converting the FA into the CoA ester in the cell. In the present study, we characterized a FAA homologue (CaFAA4) from the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Most organisms can not only synthesize long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs (LCFA-CoAs) endogenously using a fatty acid synthase (Fas) activity but also can uptake long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) from the extracellular environment and convert them into LCFA-CoAs via a vectorial acylation system. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses two LCFA-CoA synthetases, ScFaa1p and ScFaa4p...
September 23, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940057/functional-analysis-of-diacylglycerol-o-acyl-transferase-2-gene-to-decipher-its-role-in-virulence-of-botrytis-cinerea
#12
Esha Sharma, Pamil Tayal, Garima Anand, Piyush Mathur, Rupam Kapoor
Gray mold disease inflicted by Botrytis cinerea is a serious menace responsible for significant economic loss worldwide. Due to its polyphagous nature, the pathogen has enthused inquisitiveness in researchers to unravel its complexity. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to generate insertional mutants of Botrytis cinerea. A mutant (BCM-55) with disruption in a gene (BcDGAT2) that encodes for diacylglycerol O-acyl transferase 2 (DGAT2), showed enervated virulence on various hosts' tissues...
September 22, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936767/smc-complexes-orchestrate-the-mitotic-chromatin-interaction-landscape
#13
REVIEW
Yasutaka Kakui, Frank Uhlmann
Chromatin is a very long DNA-protein complex that controls the expression and inheritance of the genetic information. Chromatin is stored within the nucleus in interphase and further compacted into chromosomes during mitosis. This process, known as chromosome condensation, is essential for faithful segregation of genomic DNA into daughter cells. Condensin and cohesin, members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family, are fundamental for chromosome architecture, both for establishment of chromatin structure in the interphase nucleus and for the formation of condensed chromosomes in mitosis...
September 21, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936749/misfolding-and-aggregation-of-nascent-proteins-a-novel-mode-of-toxic-cadmium-action-in-vivo
#14
REVIEW
Markus J Tamás, Bruno Fauvet, Philipp Christen, Pierre Goloubinoff
Cadmium is a highly poisonous metal and a human carcinogen, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its cellular toxicity are not fully understood. Recent findings in yeast cells indicate that cadmium exerts its deleterious effects by inducing widespread misfolding and aggregation of nascent proteins. Here, we discuss this novel mode of toxic heavy metal action and propose a mechanism by which molecular chaperones may reduce the damaging effects of heavy metal ions on protein structures.
September 21, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932898/differential-effects-of-chaperones-on-yeast-prions-current-view
#15
REVIEW
Andrew G Matveenko, Yury A Barbitoff, Lina Manuela Jay-Garcia, Yury O Chernoff, Galina A Zhouravleva
Endogenous yeast amyloids that control heritable traits and are frequently used as models for human amyloid diseases are termed yeast prions. Yeast prions, including the best studied ones ([PSI (+)] and [URE3]), propagate via intimate interactions with molecular chaperones. Different yeast prions exhibit differential responses to changes in levels, functionality or localization of the components of chaperone machinery. Here, we provide additional data confirming differential effects of chaperones (and specifically, Hsp40s) on yeast prions and summarize current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying chaperone specificities...
September 20, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929238/nuclease-integrated-kinase-super-assemblies-niks-and-their-role-in-rna-processing
#16
REVIEW
Monica C Pillon, Robin E Stanley
Here we highlight the Grc3/Las1 complex, an essential RNA processing machine that is well conserved across eukaryotes and required for processing the pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA). Las1 is an endoribonuclease that cleaves the pre-rRNA while Grc3 is a polynucleotide kinase that phosphorylates the Las1-cleaved RNA product. Recently we showed that Grc3 and Las1 assemble into a higher-order complex composed of a dimer of Grc3/Las1 heterodimers that is required for nuclease and kinase activity. Unexpectedly, we found that the Grc3/Las1 complex draws numerous parallels with two other eukaryotic nucleases, Ire1 and RNase L...
September 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929213/to-finish-things-well-cysteine-methylation-ensures-selective-gtpase-membrane-localization-and-signalling
#17
REVIEW
José Cansado
Isoprenylcysteine-O-Carboxyl Methyltransferase (ICMT) catalyzes the final step in the prenylation process of different proteins including members of the Ras superfamily of GTPases. While cysteine methylation is essential in mammalian cells for growth, membrane association, and signalling by Ras and Rho GTPases, its role during signal transduction events in simple eukaryotes like yeasts appears irrelevant. By using a multidisciplinary approach our group has recently shown that, contrary to this initial assumption, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ICMT activity encoded by the Mam4 gene is not only important to promote selective plasma membrane targeting of Ras and specific Rho GTPases, but also to allow precise downstream signalling to the mitogen-activated protein kinase and target of rapamycin pathways in response to diverse environmental cues...
September 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918485/the-5-oxoprolinase-is-required-for-conidiation-sexual-reproduction-virulence-and-deoxynivalenol-production-of-fusarium-graminearum
#18
Piao Yang, Yunyun Chen, Huiming Wu, Wenqin Fang, Qifu Liang, Yangling Zheng, Stefan Olsson, Dongmei Zhang, Jie Zhou, Zonghua Wang, Wenhui Zheng
In eukaryotic organisms, the 5-oxoprolinase is one of the six key enzymes in the γ-glutamyl cycle that is involved in the biosynthetic pathway of glutathione (GSH, an antioxidative tripeptide counteracting the oxidative stress). To date, little is known about the biological functions of the 5-oxoprolinase in filamentous phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we investigated the 5-oxoprolinase in Fusarium graminearum for the first time. In F. graminearum, two paralogous genes (FgOXP1 and FgOXP2) were identified to encode the 5-oxoprolinase while only one homologous gene encoding the 5-oxoprolinase could be found in other filamentous phytopathogenic fungi or Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
September 16, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918480/sgs1-helicase-is-required-for-efficient-pcna-monoubiquitination-and-translesion-dna-synthesis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Fangfang Li, Lindsay G Ball, Li Fan, Michelle Hanna, Wei Xiao
DNA-damage tolerance (DDT) is employed by eukaryotes to deal with replication blocks on the template strand, and is divided into two parallel pathways that are activated by sequential ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at the Lys164 residue. Rad6-Rad18-mediated PCNA monoubiquitination promotes translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and the monoubiquitinated PCNA can be further polyubiquitinated by an Mms2-Ubc13-Rad5 complex, leading to error-free lesion bypass. We previously reported that the DNA helicase Sgs1 is required for error-free lesion bypass, probably through the double-Holliday junction migration and subsequent resolution...
September 16, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887594/do-long-telomeres-affect-cellular-fitness
#20
REVIEW
Yaniv Harari, Martin Kupiec
Telomeres protect the chromosome ends and maintain the genome stability; they, therefore, play important roles in aging and cancer. Despite the wide variability in telomere length among eukaryotes, in all telomerase-expressing cells telomere length is strictly controlled within a very narrow range. In humans, telomeres shorten with age, and it has been proposed that telomere shortening may play a causal role in aging. Using yeast strains with genetically or physiologically generated differences in telomere length, we have explored the question of whether having long telomeres affects telomere function and fitness or cellular lifespan...
September 8, 2017: Current Genetics
journal
journal
27910
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"