Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Genetics

Nianshu Zhang, Lu Cao
Studies on replicative and chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly advanced our understanding of how longevity is regulated in all eukaryotes. Chronological lifespan (CLS) of yeast is defined as the age-dependent viability of non-dividing cell populations. A number of nutrient sensing and signal transduction pathways (mainly TOR and PKA) have been shown to regulate CLS, yet it is poorly understood how the starvation signals transduced via these pathways lead to CLS extension. Using reporters whose expressions are induced by glucose starvation, we have screened the majority of the 'signaling' mutants in the yeast genome and identified many genes that are necessary for stress response...
April 25, 2017: Current Genetics
Daisuke Shiomi
Bacterial actin MreB is required for the maintenance of cell polarity. MreB is located underneath the cell membrane and mainly localizes at a central cylindrical part of the cell. In addition, it has recently been found that anionic phospholipids (aPLs: phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin) play a crucial role in excluding MreB from the cell poles. Subcellular localization of MreB is positively and negatively regulated by membrane curvature and aPLs, respectively.
April 24, 2017: Current Genetics
Mingwei Huang, Christina M Hull
Sporulation is a strategy widely utilized by a wide variety of organisms to adapt to changes in their individual environmental niches and survive in time and/or space until they encounter conditions acceptable for vegetative growth. The spores produced by bacteria have been the subjects of extensive studies, and several systems such as Bacillus subtilis have provided ample opportunities to understand the molecular basis of spore biogenesis and germination. In contrast, the spores of other microbes, such as fungi, are relatively poorly understood...
April 18, 2017: Current Genetics
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
Metagenomics is the technique, or set of techniques, whose main objective is to determine the microbial population that can be found in a determined environment, studied in the context of its community. For this, it uses the techniques of massive sequencing, or next generation sequencing, due to the difficulties presented by traditional techniques when trying to transfer all the microorganisms present in a given environment to the laboratory. Metagenomics is a newly created technique, which was born at the beginning of the twenty-first century, and since then the interest of the world scientific community in fields as diverse as medicine, biotechnology, agriculture or genetics has not left to grow...
April 11, 2017: Current Genetics
Beate Brandhoff, Adeline Simon, Anne Dornieden, Julia Schumacher
Botrytis cinerea is a plant pathogenic fungus with a broad host range. Due to its rapid growth and reproduction by asexual spores (conidia), which increases the inoculum pressure, the fungus is a serious problem in different fields of agriculture. The formation of the conidia is promoted by light, whereas the formation of sclerotia as survival structures occurs in its absence. Based on this observation, putative transcription factors (TFs) whose expression is induced upon light exposure have been considered as candidates for activating conidiation and/or repressing sclerotial development...
April 5, 2017: Current Genetics
Su-Jiun Lin, Matthew J O'Connell
Cohesin is one of three multi-protein structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes that regulate eukaryotic chromosome dynamics. It forms a ring-shaped structure that embraces sister chromatids through interphase to promote their pairing. In preparation for mitosis, most cohesin is stripped from the chromosome arms in prophase by a poorly defined process that is associated with cohesin phosphorylation. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe this prophase pathway is dependent on the cohesin-related Smc5/6 complex, and this requirement is heightened in Smc5/6 hypomorphs by DNA damage, replication stress and Topoisomerase II (Top2) dysfunction...
April 5, 2017: Current Genetics
Hisao Masai, Chi-Chun Yang, Seiji Matsumoto
Mrc1 and its vertebrate homologue Claspin serve as a mediator for replication stress checkpoint signaling, receiving the signal from Mec1/Rad3/ATR sensor kinase and transmitting it to the effector Rad53/Cds1/Chk1 kinase. They are likely to be a part of the replisome and facilitate the S-phase progression by promoting replication fork progression. Recent reports on Mrc1/Claspin indicate their new role in regulating the replication initiation through interaction with Cdc7, a key conserved serine-threonine kinase that triggers firing at each replication origin...
March 29, 2017: Current Genetics
Lauren Hinkel, Manuel D Ospina-Giraldo
Although chitin is a major component of the fungal cell wall, in oomycetes (fungal-like organisms), this compound has only been found in very little amounts, mostly in the cell wall of members of the genera Achlya and Saprolegnia. In the oomycetes Phytophthora infestans and P. sojae the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated; however, the gene putatively encoding chitin synthase (CHS), the enzyme that synthesizes chitin, is present in their genomes. The evolutionary significance of the CHS gene in P. infestans and P...
March 17, 2017: Current Genetics
Ryo Matsuo, Shogo Mizobuchi, Maya Nakashima, Kensuke Miki, Dai Ayusawa, Michihiko Fujii
Oxygen is essential for aerobic organisms but causes cytotoxicity probably through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we screened for the genes that regulate oxidative stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and found that expression of CTH2/TIS11 caused an increased resistance to ROS. CTH2 is up-regulated upon iron starvation and functions to remodel metabolism to adapt to iron starvation. We showed here that increased resistance to ROS by CTH2 would likely be caused by the decreased ROS production due to the decreased activity of mitochondrial respiration, which observation is consistent with the fact that CTH2 down-regulates the mitochondrial respiratory proteins...
March 13, 2017: Current Genetics
Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Wensheng Qin
Lignin, most complex and abundant biopolymer on the earth's surface, attains its stability from intricate polyphenolic units and non-phenolic bonds, making it difficult to depolymerize or separate from other units of biomass. Eccentric lignin degrading ability and availability of annotated genome make Phanerochaete chrysosporium ideal for studying lignin degrading mechanisms. Decoding and understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of lignin degradation will significantly aid the progressing biofuel industries and lead to the production of commercially vital platform chemicals...
March 8, 2017: Current Genetics
Christina M Kelliher, Steven B Haase
Proliferation and host evasion are critical processes to understand at a basic biological level for improving infectious disease treatment options. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes fungal meningitis in immunocompromised individuals by proliferating in cerebrospinal fluid. Current antifungal drugs target "virulence factors" for disease, such as components of the cell wall and polysaccharide capsule in C. neoformans. However, mechanistic links between virulence pathways and the cell cycle are not as well studied...
March 6, 2017: Current Genetics
Ananya Barman, Ranjan Tamuli
We investigated phenotypes of the double mutants of the calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling genes plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 encoding for a phospholipase C1 (PLC-1), a secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), and a Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger (CPE-1), respectively, to understand the cell functions regulated by their genetic interactions. Mutants lacking plc-1 and either splA2 or cpe-1 exhibited numerous defects including reduced colonial growth, stunted aerial hyphae, premature conidiation on plates with delayed germination, inappropriate conidiation in submerged culture, and lesser mycelial pigmentation...
March 6, 2017: Current Genetics
Alexey P Galkin
Discovery of prions-proteins that are able to convert between structurally distinct states, of which one or more is transmissible, led to the concept of "protein-based inheritance". According to this concept, the formation of prion fibrils causes DNA-independent heritable traits in microorganisms. Recently, we described a new and unusual type of prion inheritance. We showed that the yeast prions [PIN (+)] and [SWI (+)], like classical genes, demonstrate complementary interaction that causes a phenotypic change in yeast cells...
March 4, 2017: Current Genetics
Revathi S Iyer, Paike Jayadeva Bhat
Diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo pseudohyphal differentiation in response to nutrient depletion. Although this dimorphic transition occurs due to signals originating from carbon and nitrogen limitation, how these signals are coordinated and integrated is not understood. Results of this study indicate that the pseudohyphal defect of the mep2∆ mutant is overcome upon disruption of KRH2/GPB1 but not KRH1/GPB2. Further, the agar invasion defect observed in a mep2 mutant strain is suppressed only by deleting KRH2 and not KRH1...
February 28, 2017: Current Genetics
Melanie Polke, Ilse D Jacobsen
Quorum sensing, a form of molecular communication in microbial communities, is relatively well studied in bacterial species, but poorly understood in fungi. Farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule secreted by the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, was the first quorum sensing molecule described in a eukaryotic organism. However, despite considerable research efforts and advances in recent years, the mechanisms behind its action remain largely elusive. Only recently, we showed that deletion of the C...
February 28, 2017: Current Genetics
Yoshifumi Oguro, Harutake Yamazaki, Satoshi Ara, Yosuke Shida, Wataru Ogasawara, Masamichi Takagi, Hiroaki Takaku
Microbial lipids are sustainable feedstock for the production of oleochemicals and biodiesel. Oleaginous yeasts have recently been proposed as alternative lipid producers to plants and animals to promote sustainability in the chemical and fuel industries. The oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi has great industrial potential as an excellent lipid producer. However, improvement of its lipid productivity is essential for the cost-effective production of oleochemicals and fuels. Genetic and metabolic engineering of L...
February 20, 2017: Current Genetics
Yoko Kusuya, Daisuke Hagiwara, Kanae Sakai, Takashi Yaguchi, Tohru Gonoi, Hiroki Takahashi
Copper (Cu) is an essential metal for all living organisms, although it is toxic in excess. Filamentous fungus must acquire copper from its environment for growth. Despite its essentiality for growth, the mechanisms that maintain copper homeostasis are not fully understood in filamentous fungus. To gain insights into copper homeostasis, we investigated the roles of a copper transcription factor Afmac1 in the life-threatening fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, a homolog of the yeast MAC1. We observed that the Afmac1 deletion mutant exhibited not only significantly slower growth, but also incomplete conidiation including a short chain of conidia and defective melanin...
February 18, 2017: Current Genetics
Ragini Rai, Shikha Laloraya
Replication of linear chromosomes is facilitated by firing of multiple replication origins that ensures timely duplication of the entire chromosome. The Smc5/6 complex is thought to play an important role in replication by its involvement in the restart of collapsed replication forks. Here, we present genetic evidence for functional interaction between replication origin distribution and two subunits of the Smc5/6 complex, Smc6 and Mms21, as well as Top1. An artificial chromosome that has a long arm having low origin density (5ori∆YAC) is relatively unstable compared to the YAC having normal origin distribution in wild-type cells, but is partially stabilized in smc6-56 and top1∆ mutants...
February 16, 2017: Current Genetics
Yung-Yu Tsai, Takao Ohashi, Takenori Kanazawa, Pirapan Polburee, Ryo Misaki, Savitree Limtong, Kazuhito Fujiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Current Genetics
Felix Kliewe, Maike Engelhardt, Rasha Aref, Hans-Joachim Schüller
It is generally assumed that pathway-specific transcriptional activators recruit pleiotropic coactivators (such as chromatin-modifying complexes or general transcription factors), while specific repressors contact pleiotropic corepressors creating an inaccessible chromatin by the action of histone deacetylases. We have previously shown that the negative regulator Opi1 of yeast phospholipid biosynthesis inhibits transcription by recruiting corepressors Sin3 and Cyc8 in the presence of precursor molecules inositol and choline...
February 7, 2017: Current Genetics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"