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Current Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054200/the-functions-of-the-multi-tasking-pfh1-pif1-helicase
#1
REVIEW
Nasim Sabouri
Approximately, 1% of the genes in eukaryotic genomes encode for helicases, which make the number of helicases expressed in the cell considerably high. Helicases are motor proteins that participate in many central aspects of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and based on their helicase motif conservation, they are divided into different helicase families. The Pif1 family of helicases is an evolutionarily conserved helicase family that is associated with familial breast cancer in humans. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pfh1 helicase belongs to the Pif1 helicase family and is a multi-tasking helicase that is important for replication fork progression through natural fork barriers, for G-quadruplex unwinding, and for Okazaki fragment maturation, and these activities are potentially shared by the human Pif1 helicase...
January 4, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028558/mrna-length-sensing-in-eukaryotic-translation-reconsidering-the-closed-loop-and-its-implications-for-translational-control
#2
REVIEW
Mary K Thompson, Wendy V Gilbert
Most eukaryotic mRNAs are recruited to the ribosome by recognition of a 5' m(7)GpppN cap. 30 years of genetic and biochemical evidence point to a role for interaction between the 5' cap-interacting factors and the 3' poly(A)-binding protein in bringing the ends of the mRNA into close proximity and promoting both translation and stability of the mRNA, in a form known as the "closed loop". However, the results of recent RNA-protein interaction studies suggest that not all mRNAs have equal access to the closed loop factors...
December 27, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013396/transcriptomic-analysis-displays-the-effect-of-roemerine-on-the-motility-and-nutrient-uptake-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Dilara Ayyildiz, Kazim Yalcin Arga, Fatma Gizem Avci, Fatma Ece Altinisik, Caglayan Gurer, Gizem Gulsoy Toplan, Dilek Kazan, Katharina Wozny, Britta Brügger, Bulent Mertoglu, Berna Sariyar Akbulut
Among the different families of plant alkaloids, (-)-roemerine, an aporphine type, was recently shown to possess significant antibacterial activity in Escherichia coli. Based on the increasing demand for antibacterials with novel mechanisms of action, the present work investigates the potential of the plant-derived alkaloid (-)-roemerine as an antibacterial in E. coli cells using microarray technology. Analysis of the genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming in cells after 60 min treatment with 100 μg/mL (-)-roemerine showed significant changes in the expression of 241 genes (p value <0...
December 24, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011993/putative-orotate-transporter-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-oat1-is-a-member-of-the-ncs1-prt-transporter-super-family-and-its-loss-causes-attenuation-of-virulence
#4
Akio Toh-E, Misako Ohkusu, Kiminori Shimizu, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Susumu Kawamoto, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei
It is well known that 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA)-resistant mutants isolated from wild-type Cryptococcus neoformans are exclusively either ura3 or ura5 mutants. Unexpectedly, many of the 5-FOA-resistant mutants isolated in our selective regime were Ura(+). We identified CNM00460 as the gene responsible for these mutations. Cnm00460 belongs to the nucleobase cation symporter 1/purine-related transporter (NCS1/PRT) super family of fungal transporters, representative members of which are uracil transporter, uridine transporter and allantoin transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
December 23, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942832/control-of-bacterial-chromosome-replication-by-non-coding-regions-outside-the-origin
#5
REVIEW
Jakob Frimodt-Møller, Godefroid Charbon, Anders Løbner-Olesen
Chromosome replication in Eubacteria is initiated by initiator protein(s) binding to specific sites within the replication origin, oriC. Recently, initiator protein binding to chromosomal regions outside the origin has attracted renewed attention; as such binding sites contribute to control the frequency of initiations. These outside-oriC binding sites function in several different ways: by steric hindrances of replication fork assembly, by titration of initiator proteins away from the origin, by performing a chaperone-like activity for inactivation- or activation of initiator proteins or by mediating crosstalk between chromosomes...
December 9, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915381/regulation-of-non-homologous-end-joining-via-post-translational-modifications-of-components-of-the-ligation-step
#6
REVIEW
Kristína Durdíková, Miroslav Chovanec
DNA double-strand breaks are the most serious type of DNA damage and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is an important pathway for their repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three complexes mediate the canonical NHEJ pathway, Ku (Ku70/Ku80), MRX (Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2) and DNA ligase IV (Dnl4/Lif1). Mammalian NHEJ is more complex, primarily as a consequence of the fact that more factors are involved in the process, and also because higher chromatin organization and more complex regulatory networks exist in mammals...
December 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915380/proteins-interacting-with-crea-and-creb-in-the-carbon-catabolite-repression-network-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#7
Md Ashiqul Alam, Joan M Kelly
In Aspergillus nidulans, carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is mediated by the global repressor protein CreA. The deubiquitinating enzyme CreB is a component of the CCR network. Genetic interaction was confirmed using a strain containing complete loss-of-function alleles of both creA and creB. No direct physical interaction was identified between tagged versions of CreA and CreB. To identify any possible protein(s) that may form a bridge between CreA and CreB, we purified both proteins from mycelia grown in media that result in repression or derepression...
December 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909798/the-loading-of-condensin-in-the-context-of-chromatin
#8
REVIEW
Xavier Robellet, Vincent Vanoosthuyse, Pascal Bernard
The packaging of DNA into chromosomes is a ubiquitous process that enables living organisms to structure and transmit their genome accurately through cell divisions. In the three kingdoms of life, the architecture and dynamics of chromosomes rely upon ring-shaped SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes) condensin complexes. To understand how condensin rings organize chromosomes, it is essential to decipher how they associate with chromatin filaments. Here, we use recent evidence to discuss the role played by nucleosomes and transcription factors in the loading of condensin at transcribed genes...
December 1, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909797/wd40-repeat-protein-mocrec-is-essential-for-carbon-repression-and-is-involved-in-conidiation-growth-and-pathogenicity-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#9
Khalid Abdelkarim Omer Matar, Xiaofeng Chen, Dongjie Chen, Wilfred Mabeche Anjago, Justice Norvienyeku, Yahong Lin, Meilian Chen, Zonghua Wang, Daniel J Ebbole, Guo-Dong Lu
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a common regulatory mechanism used by microorganisms to prioritize use of a preferred carbon source (usually glucose). The CreC WD40-repeat protein is a major component of the CCR pathway in Aspergillus nidulans. To clarify the function of the CreC ortholog from Magnaporthe oryzae in regulating gene expression important for pathogenesis, MoCreC was identified and genetically characterized. The vegetative growth rate of the MoCreC deletion mutant on various carbon sources was reduced...
December 1, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878624/the-creb-deubiquitinating-enzyme-does-not-directly-target-the-crea-repressor-protein-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#10
Md Ashiqul Alam, Niyom Kamlangdee, Joan M Kelly
Ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways are now recognized as key components of gene regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. The major transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans is CreA, and mutational analysis led to the suggestion that a regulatory ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway is involved. A key unanswered question is if and how this pathway, comprising CreB (deubiquitinating enzyme) and HulA (ubiquitin ligase) and other proteins, is involved in the regulatory mechanism...
November 23, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872982/interplay-between-top1-and-mms21-nse2-mediated-sumoylation-in-stable-maintenance-of-long-chromosomes
#11
Lakshmi Mahendrawada, Ragini Rai, Deepash Kothiwal, Shikha Laloraya
Genetic information in cells is encrypted in DNA molecules forming chromosomes of varying sizes. Accurate replication and partitioning of chromosomes in the crowded cellular milieu is a complex process involving duplication, folding and movement. Longer chromosomes may be more susceptible to mis-segregation or DNA damage and there may exist specialized physiological mechanisms preventing this. Here, we present genetic evidence for such a mechanism which depends on Mms21/Nse2 mediated sumoylation and topoisomerase-1 (Top1) for maintaining stability of longer chromosomes...
November 21, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858159/genome-scale-identification-structural-analysis-and-classification-of-periplasmic-binding-proteins-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Padmani Sandhu, Monika Kumari, Kamal Naini, Yusuf Akhter
Periplasmic-binding proteins occupy the periplasmic space of bacteria and are involved in binding and transport of various ions, siderophores, and other diverse types of solutes. These proteins may be associated with membrane transport systems or may help in activation of signal transducers. There is limited information available on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) periplasm-inhabiting proteins. In the present study, we have performed genome-wide identification and functional annotation of periplasmic-binding proteins of Mtb on the basis of signature characteristics and their functional motifs...
November 17, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826682/silently-transformable-the-many-ways-bacteria-conceal-their-built-in-capacity-of-genetic-exchange
#13
REVIEW
Laetitia Attaiech, Xavier Charpentier
Bacteria can undergo genetic transformation by actively integrating genetic information from phylogenetically related or unrelated organisms. The original function of natural transformation remains a subject of debate, but it is well established as a major player in genome evolution. Naturally transformable bacteria use a highly conserved DNA uptake system to internalize DNA and integrate it in their chromosome by homologous recombination. Expression of the DNA uptake system, often referred to as competence, is tightly controlled and induced by signals that are often elusive...
November 8, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822899/does-dna-replication-direct-locus-specific-recombination-during-host-immune-evasion-by-antigenic-variation-in-the-african-trypanosome
#14
REVIEW
Rebecca Devlin, Catarina A Marques, Richard McCulloch
All pathogens must survive host immune attack and, amongst the survival strategies that have evolved, antigenic variation is a particularly widespread reaction to thwart adaptive immunity. Though the reactions that underlie antigenic variation are highly varied, recombination by gene conversion is a widespread approach to immune survival in bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens. In the African trypanosome, antigenic variation involves gene conversion-catalysed movement of a huge number of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes into a few telomeric sites for VSG expression, amongst which only a single site is actively transcribed at one time...
November 7, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812735/hygromycin-b-hypersensitive-hhy-mutants-implicate-an-intact-trans-golgi-and-late-endosome-interface-in-efficient-tor1-vacuolar-localization-and-torc1-function
#15
Daniele E Ejzykowicz, Kristopher M Locken, Fiona J Ruiz, Surya P Manandhar, Daniel K Olson, Editte Gharakhanian
Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuoles are functionally analogous to mammalian lysosomes. Both also serve as physical platforms for Tor Complex 1 (TORC1) signal transduction, the master regulator of cellular growth and proliferation. Hygromycin B is a eukaryotic translation inhibitor. We recently reported on hygromycin B hypersensitive (hhy) mutants that fail to grow at subtranslation inhibitory concentrations of the drug and exhibit vacuolar defects (Banuelos et al. in Curr Genet 56:121-137, 2010). Here, we show that hhy phenotype is not due to increased sensitivity to translation inhibition and establish a super HHY (s-HHY) subgroup of genes comprised of ARF1, CHC1, DRS2, SAC1, VPS1, VPS34, VPS45, VPS52, and VPS54 that function exclusively or inclusively at trans-Golgi and late endosome interface...
November 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807647/epigenetic-transcriptional-memory
#16
REVIEW
Agustina D'Urso, Jason H Brickner
Organisms alter gene expression to adapt to changes in environmental conditions such as temperature, nutrients, inflammatory signals, and stress (Gialitakis et al. in Mol Cell Biol 30:2046-2056, 2010; Conrath in Trends Plant Sci 16:524-531, 2011; Avramova in Plant J 83:149-159, 2015; Solé et al. in Curr Genet 61:299-308, 2015; Ho and Gasch in Curr Genet 61:503-511, 2015; Bevington et al. in EMBO J 35:515-535, 2016; Hilker et al. in Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 91:1118-1133, 2016). In some cases, organisms can "remember" a previous environmental condition and adapt to that condition more rapidly in the future (Gems and Partridge 2008)...
November 2, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796486/comparative-genomics-of-paracoccus-sp-sm22m-07-isolated-from-coral-mucus-insights-into-bacteria-host-interactions
#17
Camila Carlos, Letícia Bianca Pereira, Laura Maria Mariscal Ottoboni
One of the main goals of coral microbiology is to understand the ways in which coral-bacteria associations are established and maintained. This work describes the sequencing of the genome of Paracoccus sp. SM22M-07 isolated from the mucus of the endemic Brazilian coral species Mussismilia hispida. Comparative analysis was used to identify unique genomic features of SM22M-07 that might be involved in its adaptation to the marine ecosystem and the nutrient-rich environment provided by coral mucus, as well as in the establishment and strengthening of the interaction with the host...
October 31, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699469/retraction-note-to-the-exocyst-in-candida-albicans-polarized-secretion-and-filamentation
#18
Alba A Chavez-Dozal, Stella M Bernardo, Samuel A Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126384/phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-a-bacteriophage-population-only-appears-as-stress-induced-mutagenesis
#19
REVIEW
Ido Yosef, Rotem Edgar, Udi Qimron
Stress-induced mutagenesis has been studied in cancer cells, yeast, bacteria, and archaea, but not in viruses. In a recent publication, we present a bacteriophage model showing an apparent stress-induced mutagenesis. We show that the stress does not drive the mutagenesis, but only selects the fittest mutants. The mechanism underlying the observed phenomenon is a phenotypic heterogeneity that resembles persistence of the viral population. The new findings, the background for the ongoing debate on stress-induced mutagenesis, and the phenotypic heterogeneity underlying a novel phage infection strategy are discussed in this short manuscript...
November 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126383/the-long-life-of-an-endocytic-patch-that-misses-ap-2
#20
REVIEW
Nagore de León, M-Henar Valdivieso
Endocytosis is the process by which cells regulate extracellular fluid uptake and internalize molecules bound to their plasma membrane. This process requires the generation of protein-coated vesicles. In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) the assembly polypeptide 2 (AP-2) adaptor facilitates rapid endocytosis of some plasma membrane receptors by mediating clathrin recruitment to the endocytic site and by connecting cargoes to the clathrin coat. While this adaptor is essential for early embryonic development in mammals, initial results suggested that it is dispensable for endocytosis in unicellular eukaryotes...
November 2016: Current Genetics
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