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Current Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220186/efficient-gene-targeting-in-non-homologous-end-joining-deficient-lipomyces-starkeyi-strains
#1
Yoshifumi Oguro, Harutake Yamazaki, Satoshi Ara, Yosuke Shida, Wataru Ogasawara, Masamichi Takagi, Hiroaki Takaku
Microbial lipids are sustainable feedstock for the production of oleochemicals and biodiesel. Oleaginous yeasts have recently been proposed as alternative lipid producers to plants and animals to promote sustainability in the chemical and fuel industries. The oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi has great industrial potential as an excellent lipid producer. However, improvement of its lipid productivity is essential for the cost-effective production of oleochemicals and fuels. Genetic and metabolic engineering of L...
February 20, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215034/transcription-factor-afmac1-controls-copper-import-machinery-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#2
Yoko Kusuya, Daisuke Hagiwara, Kanae Sakai, Takashi Yaguchi, Tohru Gonoi, Hiroki Takahashi
Copper (Cu) is an essential metal for all living organisms, although it is toxic in excess. Filamentous fungus must acquire copper from its environment for growth. Despite its essentiality for growth, the mechanisms that maintain copper homeostasis are not fully understood in filamentous fungus. To gain insights into copper homeostasis, we investigated the roles of a copper transcription factor Afmac1 in the life-threatening fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, a homolog of the yeast MAC1. We observed that the Afmac1 deletion mutant exhibited not only significantly slower growth, but also incomplete conidiation including a short chain of conidia and defective melanin...
February 18, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204881/genetic-evidence-for-functional-interaction-of-smc5-6-complex-and-top1-with-spatial-frequency-of-replication-origins-required-for-maintenance-of-chromosome-stability
#3
Ragini Rai, Shikha Laloraya
Replication of linear chromosomes is facilitated by firing of multiple replication origins that ensures timely duplication of the entire chromosome. The Smc5/6 complex is thought to play an important role in replication by its involvement in the restart of collapsed replication forks. Here, we present genetic evidence for functional interaction between replication origin distribution and two subunits of the Smc5/6 complex, Smc6 and Mms21, as well as Top1. An artificial chromosome that has a long arm having low origin density (5ori∆YAC) is relatively unstable compared to the YAC having normal origin distribution in wild-type cells, but is partially stabilized in smc6-56 and top1∆ mutants...
February 16, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194497/erratum-to-development-of-a-sufficient-and-effective-procedure-for-transformation-of-an-oleaginous-yeast-rhodosporidium-toruloides-dmku3-tk16
#4
Yung-Yu Tsai, Takao Ohashi, Takenori Kanazawa, Pirapan Polburee, Ryo Misaki, Savitree Limtong, Kazuhito Fujiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175933/promoter-recruitment-of-corepressors-sin3-and-cyc8-by-activator-proteins-of-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Felix Kliewe, Maike Engelhardt, Rasha Aref, Hans-Joachim Schüller
It is generally assumed that pathway-specific transcriptional activators recruit pleiotropic coactivators (such as chromatin-modifying complexes or general transcription factors), while specific repressors contact pleiotropic corepressors creating an inaccessible chromatin by the action of histone deacetylases. We have previously shown that the negative regulator Opi1 of yeast phospholipid biosynthesis inhibits transcription by recruiting corepressors Sin3 and Cyc8 in the presence of precursor molecules inositol and choline...
February 7, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132080/fvsnf1-the-sucrose-non-fermenting-protein-kinase-gene-of-fusarium-virguliforme-is-required-for-cell-wall-degrading-enzymes-expression-and-sudden-death-syndrome-development-in-soybean
#6
Kazi T Islam, Jason P Bond, Ahmad M Fakhoury
Fusarium virguliforme is a soil-borne pathogenic fungus that causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean. Its pathogenicity is believed to require the activity of cell-wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs). The sucrose non-fermenting protein kinase 1 gene (SNF1) is a key component of the glucose de-repression pathway in yeast, and a regulator of gene expression for CWDEs in some plant pathogenic fungi. To elucidate the functional role of the SNF1 homolog in F. virguliforme, FvSNF1 was disrupted using a split-marker strategy...
January 28, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054200/the-functions-of-the-multi-tasking-pfh1-pif1-helicase
#7
REVIEW
Nasim Sabouri
Approximately, 1% of the genes in eukaryotic genomes encode for helicases, which make the number of helicases expressed in the cell considerably high. Helicases are motor proteins that participate in many central aspects of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and based on their helicase motif conservation, they are divided into different helicase families. The Pif1 family of helicases is an evolutionarily conserved helicase family that is associated with familial breast cancer in humans. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pfh1 helicase belongs to the Pif1 helicase family and is a multi-tasking helicase that is important for replication fork progression through natural fork barriers, for G-quadruplex unwinding, and for Okazaki fragment maturation, and these activities are potentially shared by the human Pif1 helicase...
January 4, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028558/mrna-length-sensing-in-eukaryotic-translation-reconsidering-the-closed-loop-and-its-implications-for-translational-control
#8
REVIEW
Mary K Thompson, Wendy V Gilbert
Most eukaryotic mRNAs are recruited to the ribosome by recognition of a 5' m(7)GpppN cap. 30 years of genetic and biochemical evidence point to a role for interaction between the 5' cap-interacting factors and the 3' poly(A)-binding protein in bringing the ends of the mRNA into close proximity and promoting both translation and stability of the mRNA, in a form known as the "closed loop". However, the results of recent RNA-protein interaction studies suggest that not all mRNAs have equal access to the closed loop factors...
December 27, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013396/transcriptomic-analysis-displays-the-effect-of-roemerine-on-the-motility-and-nutrient-uptake-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Dilara Ayyildiz, Kazim Yalcin Arga, Fatma Gizem Avci, Fatma Ece Altinisik, Caglayan Gurer, Gizem Gulsoy Toplan, Dilek Kazan, Katharina Wozny, Britta Brügger, Bulent Mertoglu, Berna Sariyar Akbulut
Among the different families of plant alkaloids, (-)-roemerine, an aporphine type, was recently shown to possess significant antibacterial activity in Escherichia coli. Based on the increasing demand for antibacterials with novel mechanisms of action, the present work investigates the potential of the plant-derived alkaloid (-)-roemerine as an antibacterial in E. coli cells using microarray technology. Analysis of the genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming in cells after 60 min treatment with 100 μg/mL (-)-roemerine showed significant changes in the expression of 241 genes (p value <0...
December 24, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011993/putative-orotate-transporter-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-oat1-is-a-member-of-the-ncs1-prt-transporter-super-family-and-its-loss-causes-attenuation-of-virulence
#10
Akio Toh-E, Misako Ohkusu, Kiminori Shimizu, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Susumu Kawamoto, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei
It is well known that 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA)-resistant mutants isolated from wild-type Cryptococcus neoformans are exclusively either ura3 or ura5 mutants. Unexpectedly, many of the 5-FOA-resistant mutants isolated in our selective regime were Ura(+). We identified CNM00460 as the gene responsible for these mutations. Cnm00460 belongs to the nucleobase cation symporter 1/purine-related transporter (NCS1/PRT) super family of fungal transporters, representative members of which are uracil transporter, uridine transporter and allantoin transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
December 23, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942832/control-of-bacterial-chromosome-replication-by-non-coding-regions-outside-the-origin
#11
REVIEW
Jakob Frimodt-Møller, Godefroid Charbon, Anders Løbner-Olesen
Chromosome replication in Eubacteria is initiated by initiator protein(s) binding to specific sites within the replication origin, oriC. Recently, initiator protein binding to chromosomal regions outside the origin has attracted renewed attention; as such binding sites contribute to control the frequency of initiations. These outside-oriC binding sites function in several different ways: by steric hindrances of replication fork assembly, by titration of initiator proteins away from the origin, by performing a chaperone-like activity for inactivation- or activation of initiator proteins or by mediating crosstalk between chromosomes...
December 9, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915381/regulation-of-non-homologous-end-joining-via-post-translational-modifications-of-components-of-the-ligation-step
#12
REVIEW
Kristína Durdíková, Miroslav Chovanec
DNA double-strand breaks are the most serious type of DNA damage and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is an important pathway for their repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three complexes mediate the canonical NHEJ pathway, Ku (Ku70/Ku80), MRX (Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2) and DNA ligase IV (Dnl4/Lif1). Mammalian NHEJ is more complex, primarily as a consequence of the fact that more factors are involved in the process, and also because higher chromatin organization and more complex regulatory networks exist in mammals...
December 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915380/proteins-interacting-with-crea-and-creb-in-the-carbon-catabolite-repression-network-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#13
Md Ashiqul Alam, Joan M Kelly
In Aspergillus nidulans, carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is mediated by the global repressor protein CreA. The deubiquitinating enzyme CreB is a component of the CCR network. Genetic interaction was confirmed using a strain containing complete loss-of-function alleles of both creA and creB. No direct physical interaction was identified between tagged versions of CreA and CreB. To identify any possible protein(s) that may form a bridge between CreA and CreB, we purified both proteins from mycelia grown in media that result in repression or derepression...
December 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909798/the-loading-of-condensin-in-the-context-of-chromatin
#14
REVIEW
Xavier Robellet, Vincent Vanoosthuyse, Pascal Bernard
The packaging of DNA into chromosomes is a ubiquitous process that enables living organisms to structure and transmit their genome accurately through cell divisions. In the three kingdoms of life, the architecture and dynamics of chromosomes rely upon ring-shaped SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes) condensin complexes. To understand how condensin rings organize chromosomes, it is essential to decipher how they associate with chromatin filaments. Here, we use recent evidence to discuss the role played by nucleosomes and transcription factors in the loading of condensin at transcribed genes...
December 1, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909797/wd40-repeat-protein-mocrec-is-essential-for-carbon-repression-and-is-involved-in-conidiation-growth-and-pathogenicity-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#15
Khalid Abdelkarim Omer Matar, Xiaofeng Chen, Dongjie Chen, Wilfred Mabeche Anjago, Justice Norvienyeku, Yahong Lin, Meilian Chen, Zonghua Wang, Daniel J Ebbole, Guo-Dong Lu
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a common regulatory mechanism used by microorganisms to prioritize use of a preferred carbon source (usually glucose). The CreC WD40-repeat protein is a major component of the CCR pathway in Aspergillus nidulans. To clarify the function of the CreC ortholog from Magnaporthe oryzae in regulating gene expression important for pathogenesis, MoCreC was identified and genetically characterized. The vegetative growth rate of the MoCreC deletion mutant on various carbon sources was reduced...
December 1, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363849/regulation-of-neurospora-crassa-cell-wall-remodeling-via-the-cot-1-pathway-is-mediated-by-gul-1
#16
Inbal Herold, Oded Yarden
Impairment of the Neurospora crassa Nuclear DBF2-related kinase-encoding gene cot-1 results in pleiotropic effects, including abnormally thick hyphal cell walls and septa. An increase in the transcript abundance of genes encoding chitin and glucan synthases and the chitinase gh18-5, but not the cell wall integrity pathway transcription factor rlm-1, accompany the phenotypic changes observed. Deletion of chs-5 or chs-7 in a cot-1 background results in a reduction of hyperbranching frequency characteristic of the cot-1 parent...
February 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344142/the-cell-envelope-stress-response-of-bacillus-subtilis-from-static-signaling-devices-to-dynamic-regulatory-network
#17
REVIEW
Jara Radeck, Georg Fritz, Thorsten Mascher
The cell envelope stress response (CESR) encompasses all regulatory events that enable a cell to protect the integrity of its envelope, an essential structure of any bacterial cell. The underlying signaling network is particularly well understood in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. It consists of a number of two-component systems (2CS) and extracytoplasmic function σ factors that together regulate the production of both specific resistance determinants and general mechanisms to protect the envelope against antimicrobial peptides targeting the biogenesis of the cell wall...
February 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313005/how-do-cells-know-what-shape-they-are
#18
REVIEW
Hui Kang, Daniel J Lew
Studies on a yeast cell cycle checkpoint that can delay mitosis depending on whether cells have built a bud have identified a "sensor" that seems to recognize the organization of filament-forming septin proteins. Innovative work applying correlative light and platinum replica electron microscopy suggests that the informative septin organization involves parallel alignment of septin filaments, and another striking study shows that septin filaments prefer to populate membranes that have positive micron-scale curvature...
February 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306226/low-affinity-iron-transport-protein-uvt3277-is-important-for-pathogenesis-in-the-rice-false-smut-fungus-ustilaginoidea-virens
#19
Meng-Ting Zheng, Hui Ding, Lei Huang, Ya-Hui Wang, Mi-Na Yu, Rui Zheng, Jun-Jie Yu, Yong-Feng Liu
Ustilaginoidea virens is the causal agent of rice false smut disease resulting in quantitative and qualitative losses in rice. To gain insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of U. virens, we established a T-DNA insertion mutant library of U. virens through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and selected an enhanced pathogenicity mutant (i.e., B3277). We analyzed the biological characteristics of the wild-type P1 and B3277. The growth rate and sporulation of B3277 were decreased compared with those of P1; the ferrous iron could be utilized by B3277, but inhibited the growth of P1...
February 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276988/desperate-times-call-for-desperate-measures-benefits-and-costs-of-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#20
REVIEW
Rita Hõrak, Hedvig Tamman
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci were first described as killing systems for plasmid maintenance. The surprisingly abundant presence of TA loci in bacterial chromosomes has stimulated an extensive research in the recent decade aimed to understand the biological importance of these potentially deadly systems. Accumulating evidence suggests that the evolutionary success of genomic TA systems could be explained by their ability to increase bacterial fitness under stress conditions. While TA systems remain quiescent under favorable growth conditions, the toxins can be activated in response to stress resulting in growth suppression and development of stress-tolerant dormant state...
February 2017: Current Genetics
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