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Current Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528489/the-ribosome-bound-quality-control-complex-from-aberrant-peptide-clearance-to-proteostasis-maintenance
#1
REVIEW
Quentin Defenouillère, Micheline Fromont-Racine
Proteostasis in eukaryotes is maintained by compartment-specific quality control pathways, which enable the refolding or the degradation of defective polypeptides to prevent the toxicity that may arise from their aggregation. Among these processes, translational protein quality control is performed by the Ribosome-bound Quality Control complex (RQC), which recognizes nascent peptides translated from aberrant mRNAs, polyubiquitylates these aberrant peptides, extracts them from the stalled 60S subunit and finally escorts them to the proteasome for degradation...
May 20, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516230/diverse-roles-of-dpb2-the-non-catalytic-subunit-of-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE%C2%B5
#2
REVIEW
Michał Dmowski, Iwona J Fijałkowska
Timely progression of living cells through the cell cycle is precisely regulated. This involves a series of phosphorylation events which are regulated by various cyclins, activated in coordination with the cell cycle progression. Phosphorylated proteins govern cell growth, division as well as duplication of the genetic material and transcriptional activation of genes involved in these processes. A subset of these tightly regulated genes, which depend on the MBF transcription factor and are mainly involved in DNA replication and cell division, is transiently activated at the transition from G1 to S phase...
May 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512683/messenger-rna-transport-in-the-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#3
REVIEW
Anne E McBride
Candida albicans, a common commensal fungus, can cause disease in immunocompromised hosts ranging from mild mucosal infections to severe bloodstream infections with high mortality rates. The ability of C. albicans cells to switch between a budding yeast form and an elongated hyphal form is linked to pathogenicity in animal models. Hyphal-specific proteins such as cell-surface adhesins and secreted hydrolases facilitate tissue invasion and host cell damage, but the specific mechanisms leading to asymmetric protein localization in hyphae remain poorly understood...
May 16, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501989/negative-control-of-candida-albicans-filamentation-associated-gene-expression-by-essential-protein-kinase-gene-kin28
#4
C A Woolford, K Lagree, T Aleynikov, A P Mitchell
The fungus Candida albicans can grow as either yeast or filaments, which include hyphae and pseudohyphae, depending on environmental conditions. Filamentous growth is of particular interest because it is required for biofilm formation and for pathogenesis. Environmentally induced filamentous growth is associated with expression of filamentation-associated genes, and both filamentous growth and associated gene expression depend upon several well-characterized transcription factors. Surprisingly, strains with reduced expression of many essential genes display filamentous growth under non-inducing conditions-those in which the wild type grows as yeast...
May 13, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500379/effect-of-zinc-deprivation-on-the-lipid-metabolism-of-budding-yeast
#5
REVIEW
Neelima Singh, Kamlesh Kumar Yadav, Ram Rajasekharan
Zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living cells. It serves as a structural and catalytic cofactor for numerous proteins, hence maintaining a proper level of cellular zinc is essential for normal functioning of the cell. Zinc homeostasis is sustained through various ways under severe zinc-deficient conditions. Zinc-dependent proteins play an important role in biological systems and limitation of zinc causes a drastic change in their expression. In budding yeast, a zinc-responsive transcription factor Zap1p controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc under zinc-limiting conditions...
May 12, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497241/fighting-against-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-by-utilizing-evolvable-antimicrobial-drugs
#6
REVIEW
Mehmet Fatih Cansizoglu, Erdal Toprak
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health problem (Bush et al. in Nat Rev Microbiol 9:894-896, 2011). The lack of effective therapies against resistant bacteria globally leads to prolonged treatments, increased mortality, and inflating health care costs (Oz et al. in Mol Biol Evol 31:2387-2401, 2014; Martinez in Science 321:365-367, 2008; Lipsitch et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:1938-1943, 2000; Taubes in Science 321:356-361, 2008; Laxminarayan et al. in Lancet, 2016; Laxminarayan et al. in Lancet Infect Dis 13:1057-1098, 2013)...
May 11, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493119/co2-sensing-in-fungi-at-the-heart-of-metabolic-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Ronny Martin, Susann Pohlers, Fritz A Mühlschlegel, Oliver Kurzai
Adaptation to the changing environmental CO2 levels is essential for all living cells. In particular, microorganisms colonizing and infecting the human body are exposed to highly variable concentrations, ranging from atmospheric 0.04 to 5% and more in blood and specific host niches. Carbonic anhydrases are highly conserved metalloenzymes that enable fixation of CO2 by its conversion into bicarbonate. This process is not only crucial to ensure the supply of adequate carbon amounts for cellular metabolism, but also contributes to several signaling processes in fungi, including morphology and communication...
May 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493118/position-matters-multiple-functions-of-linc-dependent-chromosome-positioning-during-meiosis
#8
Kazuhiro Katsumata, Eriko Nishi, Sadia Afrin, Kaoru Narusawa, Ayumu Yamamoto
Chromosome positioning is crucial for multiple chromosomal events, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes, which consist of conserved nuclear membrane proteins, were shown to control chromosome positioning and facilitate various biological processes by interacting with the cytoskeleton. However, the precise functions and regulation of LINC-dependent chromosome positioning are not fully understood. During meiosis, the LINC complexes induce clustering of telomeres, forming the bouquet chromosome arrangement, which promotes homologous chromosome pairing...
May 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493117/erratum-to-polar-localization-of-mreb-actin-is-inhibited-by-anionic-phospholipids-in-the-rod-shaped-bacterium-escherichia-coli
#9
Daisuke Shiomi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451847/ribosome-profiling-the-cell-cycle-lessons-and-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Rodolfo Aramayo, Michael Polymenis
Understanding the causes and consequences of dynamic changes in the abundance and activity of cellular components during cell division is what most cell cycle studies are about. Here we focus on control of gene expression in the cell cycle at the level of translation. The advent of deep sequencing methodologies led to technologies that quantify the levels of all mRNAs that are bound by ribosomes and engaged in translation in the cell (Ingolia et al. Science 324:218-223, 2009). This approach has been applied recently to synchronous cell populations to find transcripts under translational control at different cell cycle phases (Blank et al...
April 27, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451846/conservation-and-diversity-of-the-regulators-of-cellulolytic-enzyme-genes-in-ascomycete-fungi
#11
REVIEW
Emi Kunitake, Tetsuo Kobayashi
In the past decade, various transcriptional activators of cellulolytic enzyme genes have been identified in Ascomycete fungi. The regulatory system of cellulolytic enzymes is not only partially conserved, but also significantly diverse. For example, Trichoderma reesei has a system distinct from those of Aspergillus and Neurospora crassa-the former utilizes Xyr1 (the Aspergillus XlnR ortholog) as the major regulator of cellulolytic enzyme genes, while the latter uses CLR-2/ClrB/ManR orthologs. XlnR/Xyr1 and CLR-2/ClrB/ManR are evolutionarily distant from each other...
April 27, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444510/starvation-signals-in-yeast-are-integrated-to-coordinate-metabolic-reprogramming-and-stress-response-to-ensure-longevity
#12
REVIEW
Nianshu Zhang, Lu Cao
Studies on replicative and chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly advanced our understanding of how longevity is regulated in all eukaryotes. Chronological lifespan (CLS) of yeast is defined as the age-dependent viability of non-dividing cell populations. A number of nutrient sensing and signal transduction pathways (mainly TOR and PKA) have been shown to regulate CLS, yet it is poorly understood how the starvation signals transduced via these pathways lead to CLS extension. Using reporters whose expressions are induced by glucose starvation, we have screened the majority of the 'signaling' mutants in the yeast genome and identified many genes that are necessary for stress response...
April 25, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439631/polar-localization-of-mreb-actin-is-inhibited-by-anionic-phospholipids-in-the-rod-shaped-bacterium-escherichia-coli
#13
REVIEW
Daisuke Shiomi
Bacterial actin MreB is required for the maintenance of cell polarity. MreB is located underneath the cell membrane and mainly localizes at a central cylindrical part of the cell. In addition, it has recently been found that anionic phospholipids (aPLs: phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin) play a crucial role in excluding MreB from the cell poles. Subcellular localization of MreB is positively and negatively regulated by membrane curvature and aPLs, respectively.
April 24, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421279/sporulation-how-to-survive-on-planet-earth-and-beyond
#14
REVIEW
Mingwei Huang, Christina M Hull
Sporulation is a strategy widely utilized by a wide variety of organisms to adapt to changes in their individual environmental niches and survive in time and/or space until they encounter conditions acceptable for vegetative growth. The spores produced by bacteria have been the subjects of extensive studies, and several systems such as Bacillus subtilis have provided ample opportunities to understand the molecular basis of spore biogenesis and germination. In contrast, the spores of other microbes, such as fungi, are relatively poorly understood...
April 18, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401295/the-metagenomics-worldwide-research
#15
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
Metagenomics is the technique, or set of techniques, whose main objective is to determine the microbial population that can be found in a determined environment, studied in the context of its community. For this, it uses the techniques of massive sequencing, or next generation sequencing, due to the difficulties presented by traditional techniques when trying to transfer all the microorganisms present in a given environment to the laboratory. Metagenomics is a newly created technique, which was born at the beginning of the twenty-first century, and since then the interest of the world scientific community in fields as diverse as medicine, biotechnology, agriculture or genetics has not left to grow...
April 11, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382431/regulation-of-conidiation-in-botrytis-cinerea-involves-the-light-responsive-transcriptional-regulators-bcltf3-and-bcreg1
#16
Beate Brandhoff, Adeline Simon, Anne Dornieden, Julia Schumacher
Botrytis cinerea is a plant pathogenic fungus with a broad host range. Due to its rapid growth and reproduction by asexual spores (conidia), which increases the inoculum pressure, the fungus is a serious problem in different fields of agriculture. The formation of the conidia is promoted by light, whereas the formation of sclerotia as survival structures occurs in its absence. Based on this observation, putative transcription factors (TFs) whose expression is induced upon light exposure have been considered as candidates for activating conidiation and/or repressing sclerotial development...
April 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382430/dna-topoisomerase-ii-modulates-acetyl-regulation-of-cohesin-mediated-chromosome-dynamics
#17
Su-Jiun Lin, Matthew J O'Connell
Cohesin is one of three multi-protein structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes that regulate eukaryotic chromosome dynamics. It forms a ring-shaped structure that embraces sister chromatids through interphase to promote their pairing. In preparation for mitosis, most cohesin is stripped from the chromosome arms in prophase by a poorly defined process that is associated with cohesin phosphorylation. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe this prophase pathway is dependent on the cohesin-related Smc5/6 complex, and this requirement is heightened in Smc5/6 hypomorphs by DNA damage, replication stress and Topoisomerase II (Top2) dysfunction...
April 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357499/mrc1-claspin-a-new-role-for-regulation-of-origin-firing
#18
REVIEW
Hisao Masai, Chi-Chun Yang, Seiji Matsumoto
Mrc1 and its vertebrate homologue Claspin serve as a mediator for replication stress checkpoint signaling, receiving the signal from Mec1/Rad3/ATR sensor kinase and transmitting it to the effector Rad53/Cds1/Chk1 kinase. They are likely to be a part of the replisome and facilitate the S-phase progression by promoting replication fork progression. Recent reports on Mrc1/Claspin indicate their new role in regulating the replication initiation through interaction with Cdc7, a key conserved serine-threonine kinase that triggers firing at each replication origin...
March 29, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314907/structural-characterization-of-a-putative-chitin-synthase-gene-in-phytophthora-spp-and-analysis-of-its-transcriptional-activity-during-pathogenesis-on-potato-and-soybean-plants
#19
Lauren Hinkel, Manuel D Ospina-Giraldo
Although chitin is a major component of the fungal cell wall, in oomycetes (fungal-like organisms), this compound has only been found in very little amounts, mostly in the cell wall of members of the genera Achlya and Saprolegnia. In the oomycetes Phytophthora infestans and P. sojae the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated; however, the gene putatively encoding chitin synthase (CHS), the enzyme that synthesizes chitin, is present in their genomes. The evolutionary significance of the CHS gene in P. infestans and P...
March 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289833/central-roles-of-iron-in-the-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
Ryo Matsuo, Shogo Mizobuchi, Maya Nakashima, Kensuke Miki, Dai Ayusawa, Michihiko Fujii
Oxygen is essential for aerobic organisms but causes cytotoxicity probably through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we screened for the genes that regulate oxidative stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and found that expression of CTH2/TIS11 caused an increased resistance to ROS. CTH2 is up-regulated upon iron starvation and functions to remodel metabolism to adapt to iron starvation. We showed here that increased resistance to ROS by CTH2 would likely be caused by the decreased ROS production due to the decreased activity of mitochondrial respiration, which observation is consistent with the fact that CTH2 down-regulates the mitochondrial respiratory proteins...
March 13, 2017: Current Genetics
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