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Current Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225534/protein-phosphatases-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
REVIEW
Sarah R Offley, Martin C Schmidt
The phosphorylation status of a protein is highly regulated and is determined by the opposing activities of protein kinases and protein phosphatases within the cell. While much is known about the protein kinases found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the protein phosphatases are much less characterized. Of the 127 protein kinases in yeast, over 90% are in the same evolutionary lineage. In contrast, protein phosphatases are fewer in number (only 43 have been identified in yeast) and comprise multiple, distinct evolutionary lineages...
September 17, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191307/diverse-roles-of-tup1p-and-cyc8p-transcription-regulators-in-the-development-of-distinct-types-of-yeast-populations
#2
REVIEW
Libuše Váchová, Zdena Palková
Yeasts create multicellular structures of varying complexity, such as more complex colonies and biofilms and less complex flocs, each of which develops via different mechanisms. Colony biofilms originate from one or more cells that, through growth and division, develop a complicated three-dimensional structure consisting of aerial parts, agar-embedded invasive parts and a central cavity, filled with extracellular matrix. In contrast, flocs arise relatively quickly by aggregation of planktonic cells growing in liquid cultures after they reach the appropriate growth phase and/or exhaust nutrients such as glucose...
September 6, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167777/involvement-of-the-cysteine-protease-bcatg4-in-development-and-virulence-of-botrytis-cinerea
#3
Na Liu, Weichao Ren, Fengjie Li, Changjun Chen, Zhonghua Ma
Autophagy serves as a survival mechanism against starvation and has been reported to be important for cell growth and differentiation in eukaryotes. Here, we investigated the function of a cysteine protease BcAtg4 in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. Yeast complementation experiments revealed that Bcatg4 can functionally replace the counterpart of yeast. Subcellular localization exhibited that BcAtg4 diffused in cytoplasm at different developmental stages. Targeted gene deletion of Bcatg4 (ΔBcatg4) led to autophagy blocking and a significant retardation in growth and conidiation...
August 30, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136148/correction-to-requirement-or-exclusion-of-inverted-repeat-sequences-with-cruciform-forming-potential-in-escherichia-coli-revealed-by-genome-wide-analyses
#4
Osamu Miura, Toshihiro Ogake, Takashi Ohyama
The article 'Requirement or exclusion of inverted repeat sequences with cruciform-forming potential in Escherichia coli revealed by genome-wide analyses' written by Osamu Miura, Toshihiro Ogake, Takashi Ohyama was originally published online on SpringerLink with open access.
August 22, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132188/autoregulation-of-bacterial-gene-expression-lessons-from-the-mazef-toxin-antitoxin-system
#5
REVIEW
Nela Nikolic
Autoregulation is the direct modulation of gene expression by the product of the corresponding gene. Autoregulation of bacterial gene expression has been mostly studied at the transcriptional level, when a protein acts as the cognate transcriptional repressor. A recent study investigating dynamics of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin MazEF system has shown how autoregulation at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels affects the heterogeneity of Escherichia coli populations. Toxin-antitoxin systems hold a crucial but still elusive part in bacterial response to stress...
August 21, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128746/dissecting-mrna-decay-and-translation-inhibition-during-iron-deficiency
#6
REVIEW
Lucía Ramos-Alonso, Antonia María Romero, Julio Polaina, Sergi Puig, María Teresa Martínez-Pastor
Iron participates as a vital cofactor in multiple metabolic pathways. Despite its abundance, iron bioavailability is highly restricted in aerobic and alkaline environments. Therefore, living organisms have evolved multiple adaptive mechanisms to respond to iron scarcity. These strategies include a global remodeling of iron metabolism directed to optimize iron utilization. In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this metabolic reorganization is accomplished to a large extent by an mRNA-binding protein called Cth2...
August 20, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121731/deletion-of-the-ku70-homologue-facilitates-gene-targeting-in-lipomyces-starkeyi-strain-nrrl-y-11558
#7
Ziyu Dai, Kyle R Pomraning, Shuang Deng, Beth A Hofstad, Ellen A Panisko, Diana Rodriguez, Mark G Butcher, David E Culley, Jon K Magnuson
The objective of this study was to disrupt the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway gene (Lsku70Δ) and evaluate the effects of selected gene deletions related to glycogen synthesis (LsGSY1) and lipid degradation (LsMFE1, LsPEX10, and LsTGL4) on lipid production in the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi. Disruption of the NHEJ pathway to reduce the rate of non-homologous recombination is a common approach used to overcome low-efficiency targeted deletion or insertion in various organisms. Here, the homologue of the LsKU70 gene was identified and disrupted in L...
August 18, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121730/variety-is-the-spice-of-life-how-to-explore-a-redox-dependent-heterogeneity-in-genomically-identical-cellular-populations
#8
Meytal Radzinski, Dana Reichmann
Cellular heterogeneity is a widespread phenomenon, existing across organisms and serving a crucial role in evolution and cell survival. Genetically identical cells may as a result present in a variety of forms with different gene and protein expressions, as well as oxidation level. As a result, a wide range of methodologies and techniques for dissecting different types of genetic, proteomic, and phenotypic heterogeneous traits have emerged in recent years in an effort to better understand how diversity exists within a single population and its effects therein...
August 18, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120519/3-untranslated-regions-regulation-at-the-end-of-the-road
#9
REVIEW
Youssef El Mouali, Carlos Balsalobre
Post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria plays a major role in the adaptation of bacterial cells to the changing conditions encountered in the environment. In bacteria, most of the regulation at the level of mRNA seems to be targeting the 5'untranslated regions where accessibility to the ribosome-binding site can be modulated to alter gene expression. In recent years, the role of 3'untranslated regions has gained attention also as a site for post-transcriptional regulation. In addition to be a source of trans-encoded small RNAs, the 3'untranslated regions can be targets to modulate gene expression...
August 17, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116891/glc8-a-regulator-of-protein-phosphatase-type-1-mediates-oxidation-tolerance-asexual-development-and-virulence-in-beauveria-bassiana-a-filamentous-entomopathogenic-fungus
#10
Yue-Jin Peng, Jin-Li Ding, Ming-Guang Feng, Sheng-Hua Ying
Protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) plays an important role in cellular metabolism and development in yeast. In PP1 enzyme complex, Glc8 protein is a global regulatory subunit and regulates many physiological processes. However, its biological roles are unexplored in filamentous fungi. In this study, we characterized a yeast ortholog of Glc8 in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous entomopathogenic fungus. Gene disruption of BbGlc8 had no significant effect on vegetative growth, but resulted in a significant reduction in conidiation (51%) and blastospore yield (55%) in the mutant...
August 16, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101372/messengers-for-morphogenesis-inositol-polyphosphate-signaling-and-yeast-pseudohyphal-growth
#11
REVIEW
Nebibe Mutlu, Anuj Kumar
In response to various environmental stimuli and stressors, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can initiate a striking morphological transition from its classic growth mode as isolated single cells to a filamentous form in which elongated cells remain connected post-cytokinesis in multi-cellular pseudohyphae. The formation of pseudohyphal filaments is regulated through an expansive signaling network, encompassing well studied and highly conserved pathways enabling changes in cell polarity, budding, cytoskeletal organization, and cell adhesion; however, changes in metabolite levels underlying the pseudohyphal growth transition are less well understood...
August 12, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097675/keep-moving-and-stay-in-a-good-shape-to-find-your-homologous-recombination-partner
#12
REVIEW
Hélène Bordelet, Karine Dubrana
Genomic DNA is constantly exposed to damage. Among the lesion in DNA, double-strand breaks (DSB), because they disrupt the two strands of the DNA double helix, are the more dangerous. DSB are repaired through two evolutionary conserved mechanisms: Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) and Homologous Recombination (HR). Whereas NHEJ simply reseals the double helix with no or minimal processing, HR necessitates the formation of a 3'ssDNA through the processing of DSB ends by the resection machinery and relies on the recognition and pairing of this 3'ssDNA tails with an intact homologous sequence...
August 10, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066140/implications-of-maintenance-of-mother-bud-neck-size-in-diverse-vital-processes-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Karen Kubo, Hiroki Okada, Takuya Shimamoto, Yoshitaka Kimori, Masaki Mizunuma, Erfei Bi, Shinsuke Ohnuki, Yoshikazu Ohya
The mother-bud neck is defined as the boundary between the mother cell and bud in budding microorganisms, wherein sequential morphological events occur throughout the cell cycle. This study was designed to quantitatively investigate the morphology of the mother-bud neck in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Observation of yeast cells with time-lapse microscopy revealed an increase of mother-bud neck size through the cell cycle. After screening of yeast non-essential gene-deletion mutants with the image processing software CalMorph, we comprehensively identified 274 mutants with broader necks during S/G2 phase...
July 31, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066139/fine-tuning-the-level-of-the-cdc13-telomere-capping-protein-for-maximal-chromosome-stability-performance
#14
REVIEW
Sofiane Y Mersaoui, Raymund J Wellinger
Chromosome stability relies on an adequate length and complete replication of telomeres, the physical ends of chromosomes. Telomeres are composed of short direct repeat DNA and the associated nucleoprotein complex is essential for providing end-stability. In addition, the so-called end-replication problem of the conventional replication requires that telomeres be elongated by a special mechanism which, in virtually all organisms, is based by a reverse transcriptase, called telomerase. Although, at the conceptual level, telomere functions are highly similar in most organisms, the telomeric nucleoprotein composition appears to diverge significantly, in particular if it is compared between mammalian and budding yeast cells...
July 31, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056491/super-resolution-images-of-peptidoglycan-remodelling-enzymes-at-the-division-site-of-escherichia-coli
#15
REVIEW
Bill Söderström, Helena Chan, Daniel O Daley
Bacterial cells need to divide. This process requires more than 30 different proteins, which gather at the division site. It is widely assumed that these proteins assemble into a macromolecular complex (the divisome), but capturing the molecular layout of this complex has proven elusive. Super-resolution microscopy can provide spatial information, down to a few tens of nanometers, about how the division proteins assemble into complexes and how their activities are co-ordinated. Herein we provide insight into recent work from our laboratories, where we used super-resolution gSTED nanoscopy to explore the molecular organization of FtsZ, FtsI and FtsN...
July 28, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056490/multiple-interfaces-control-activity-of-the-candida-glabrata-pdr1-transcription-factor-mediating-azole-drug-resistance
#16
REVIEW
W Scott Moye-Rowley
The Cys6 Zn2 DNA-binding domain transcription factor Pdr1 is a central regulator of drug resistance in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. In this review, I discuss the multiple control mechanisms modulating the function of this positive transcriptional regulator. Available data suggest that Pdr1 activity is restrained by multiple negative inputs that can be lost by either mutagenesis of the protein or loss of trans-acting factors. Although extensive data are available on the C. glabrata transactivator as well as its cognate proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the physiological rationale underlying the regulation of these factors remains to be understood...
July 28, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046843/a-dedicated-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-is-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-volatile-sesquiterpenes-in-trichoderma-virens-evidence-for-the-role-of-a-fungal-gapdh-in-secondary-metabolism
#17
Shikha Pachauri, Suchandra Chatterjee, Vinay Kumar, Prasun K Mukherjee
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyses the sixth step of glycolysis, and is also known to perform other (moonlighting) activities in animal cells. We have earlier identified an additional GAPDH gene in Trichoderma virens genome. This gene is consistently associated with the vir cluster responsible for biosynthesis of a range of volatile sesquiterpenes in Trichoderma virens. This gene is also associated with an orthologous gene cluster in Aspergillus spp. Both glycolytic GAPDH and the vir cluster-associated GAPDH show more than 80% similarity with essentially conserved NAD+ cofactor- and substrate-binding sites...
July 25, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027485/genomes-shed-light-on-the-secret-life-of-candida-glabrata-not-so-asexual-not-so-commensal
#18
REVIEW
Toni Gabaldón, Cécile Fairhead
Candida glabrata is an opportunistic yeast pathogen, whose incidence has increased over the last decades. Despite its genus name, this species is actually more closely related to the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae than to other Candida pathogens, such as Candida albicans. Hence, C. glabrata and C. albicans must have acquired the ability to infect humans independently, which is reflected in the use of different mechanism for virulence, and survival in the host. Yet, research on C. glabrata suffers from assumptions carried over from the more studied C...
July 19, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974202/trinucleotide-repeat-instability-during-double-strand-break-repair-from-mechanisms-to-gene-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Valentine Mosbach, Lucie Poggi, Guy-Franck Richard
Trinucleotide repeats are a particular class of microsatellites whose large expansions are responsible for at least two dozen human neurological and developmental disorders. Slippage of the two complementary DNA strands during replication, homologous recombination or DNA repair is generally accepted as a mechanism leading to repeat length changes, creating expansions and contractions of the repeat tract. The present review focuses on recent developments on double-strand break repair involving trinucleotide repeat tracts...
July 5, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974204/how-does-hsp90-function-in-rnai-dependent-heterochromatin-assembly
#20
REVIEW
Hiroaki Kato, Kosuke Okazaki, Takeshi Urano
Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) was recently identified as a silencing factor required for RNA interference (RNAi)-dependent heterochromatin assembly in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. As Hsp90 is known to contribute to the formation of small RNA-containing effector complexes, it would be expected that Hsp90 is also involved in the RNAi pathway in fission yeast. However, upon investigation, we found it very difficult to determine how Hsp90 modulates RNAi-dependent heterochromatin assembly in the cell...
July 4, 2018: Current Genetics
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