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Current Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915381/regulation-of-non-homologous-end-joining-via-post-translational-modifications-of-components-of-the-ligation-step
#1
REVIEW
Kristína Durdíková, Miroslav Chovanec
DNA double-strand breaks are the most serious type of DNA damage and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is an important pathway for their repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three complexes mediate the canonical NHEJ pathway, Ku (Ku70/Ku80), MRX (Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2) and DNA ligase IV (Dnl4/Lif1). Mammalian NHEJ is more complex, primarily as a consequence of the fact that more factors are involved in the process, and also because higher chromatin organization and more complex regulatory networks exist in mammals...
December 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915380/proteins-interacting-with-crea-and-creb-in-the-carbon-catabolite-repression-network-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#2
Md Ashiqul Alam, Joan M Kelly
In Aspergillus nidulans, carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is mediated by the global repressor protein CreA. The deubiquitinating enzyme CreB is a component of the CCR network. Genetic interaction was confirmed using a strain containing complete loss-of-function alleles of both creA and creB. No direct physical interaction was identified between tagged versions of CreA and CreB. To identify any possible protein(s) that may form a bridge between CreA and CreB, we purified both proteins from mycelia grown in media that result in repression or derepression...
December 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909798/the-loading-of-condensin-in-the-context-of-chromatin
#3
REVIEW
Xavier Robellet, Vincent Vanoosthuyse, Pascal Bernard
The packaging of DNA into chromosomes is a ubiquitous process that enables living organisms to structure and transmit their genome accurately through cell divisions. In the three kingdoms of life, the architecture and dynamics of chromosomes rely upon ring-shaped SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes) condensin complexes. To understand how condensin rings organize chromosomes, it is essential to decipher how they associate with chromatin filaments. Here, we use recent evidence to discuss the role played by nucleosomes and transcription factors in the loading of condensin at transcribed genes...
December 1, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909797/wd40-repeat-protein-mocrec-is-essential-for-carbon-repression-and-is-involved-in-conidiation-growth-and-pathogenicity-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#4
Khalid Abdelkarim Omer Matar, Xiaofeng Chen, Dongjie Chen, Wilfred Mabeche Anjago, Justice Norvienyeku, Yahong Lin, Meilian Chen, Zonghua Wang, Daniel J Ebbole, Guo-Dong Lu
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a common regulatory mechanism used by microorganisms to prioritize use of a preferred carbon source (usually glucose). The CreC WD40-repeat protein is a major component of the CCR pathway in Aspergillus nidulans. To clarify the function of the CreC ortholog from Magnaporthe oryzae in regulating gene expression important for pathogenesis, MoCreC was identified and genetically characterized. The vegetative growth rate of the MoCreC deletion mutant on various carbon sources was reduced...
December 1, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878624/the-creb-deubiquitinating-enzyme-does-not-directly-target-the-crea-repressor-protein-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#5
Md Ashiqul Alam, Niyom Kamlangdee, Joan M Kelly
Ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways are now recognized as key components of gene regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. The major transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans is CreA, and mutational analysis led to the suggestion that a regulatory ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway is involved. A key unanswered question is if and how this pathway, comprising CreB (deubiquitinating enzyme) and HulA (ubiquitin ligase) and other proteins, is involved in the regulatory mechanism...
November 23, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872982/interplay-between-top1-and-mms21-nse2-mediated-sumoylation-in-stable-maintenance-of-long-chromosomes
#6
Lakshmi Mahendrawada, Ragini Rai, Deepash Kothiwal, Shikha Laloraya
Genetic information in cells is encrypted in DNA molecules forming chromosomes of varying sizes. Accurate replication and partitioning of chromosomes in the crowded cellular milieu is a complex process involving duplication, folding and movement. Longer chromosomes may be more susceptible to mis-segregation or DNA damage and there may exist specialized physiological mechanisms preventing this. Here, we present genetic evidence for such a mechanism which depends on Mms21/Nse2 mediated sumoylation and topoisomerase-1 (Top1) for maintaining stability of longer chromosomes...
November 21, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858159/genome-scale-identification-structural-analysis-and-classification-of-periplasmic-binding-proteins-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#7
Padmani Sandhu, Monika Kumari, Kamal Naini, Yusuf Akhter
Periplasmic-binding proteins occupy the periplasmic space of bacteria and are involved in binding and transport of various ions, siderophores, and other diverse types of solutes. These proteins may be associated with membrane transport systems or may help in activation of signal transducers. There is limited information available on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) periplasm-inhabiting proteins. In the present study, we have performed genome-wide identification and functional annotation of periplasmic-binding proteins of Mtb on the basis of signature characteristics and their functional motifs...
November 17, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826682/silently-transformable-the-many-ways-bacteria-conceal-their-built-in-capacity-of-genetic-exchange
#8
REVIEW
Laetitia Attaiech, Xavier Charpentier
Bacteria can undergo genetic transformation by actively integrating genetic information from phylogenetically related or unrelated organisms. The original function of natural transformation remains a subject of debate, but it is well established as a major player in genome evolution. Naturally transformable bacteria use a highly conserved DNA uptake system to internalize DNA and integrate it in their chromosome by homologous recombination. Expression of the DNA uptake system, often referred to as competence, is tightly controlled and induced by signals that are often elusive...
November 8, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822899/does-dna-replication-direct-locus-specific-recombination-during-host-immune-evasion-by-antigenic-variation-in-the-african-trypanosome
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca Devlin, Catarina A Marques, Richard McCulloch
All pathogens must survive host immune attack and, amongst the survival strategies that have evolved, antigenic variation is a particularly widespread reaction to thwart adaptive immunity. Though the reactions that underlie antigenic variation are highly varied, recombination by gene conversion is a widespread approach to immune survival in bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens. In the African trypanosome, antigenic variation involves gene conversion-catalysed movement of a huge number of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes into a few telomeric sites for VSG expression, amongst which only a single site is actively transcribed at one time...
November 7, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812735/hygromycin-b-hypersensitive-hhy-mutants-implicate-an-intact-trans-golgi-and-late-endosome-interface-in-efficient-tor1-vacuolar-localization-and-torc1-function
#10
Daniele E Ejzykowicz, Kristopher M Locken, Fiona J Ruiz, Surya P Manandhar, Daniel K Olson, Editte Gharakhanian
Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuoles are functionally analogous to mammalian lysosomes. Both also serve as physical platforms for Tor Complex 1 (TORC1) signal transduction, the master regulator of cellular growth and proliferation. Hygromycin B is a eukaryotic translation inhibitor. We recently reported on hygromycin B hypersensitive (hhy) mutants that fail to grow at subtranslation inhibitory concentrations of the drug and exhibit vacuolar defects (Banuelos et al. in Curr Genet 56:121-137, 2010). Here, we show that hhy phenotype is not due to increased sensitivity to translation inhibition and establish a super HHY (s-HHY) subgroup of genes comprised of ARF1, CHC1, DRS2, SAC1, VPS1, VPS34, VPS45, VPS52, and VPS54 that function exclusively or inclusively at trans-Golgi and late endosome interface...
November 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807647/epigenetic-transcriptional-memory
#11
REVIEW
Agustina D'Urso, Jason H Brickner
Organisms alter gene expression to adapt to changes in environmental conditions such as temperature, nutrients, inflammatory signals, and stress (Gialitakis et al. in Mol Cell Biol 30:2046-2056, 2010; Conrath in Trends Plant Sci 16:524-531, 2011; Avramova in Plant J 83:149-159, 2015; Solé et al. in Curr Genet 61:299-308, 2015; Ho and Gasch in Curr Genet 61:503-511, 2015; Bevington et al. in EMBO J 35:515-535, 2016; Hilker et al. in Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 91:1118-1133, 2016). In some cases, organisms can "remember" a previous environmental condition and adapt to that condition more rapidly in the future (Gems and Partridge 2008)...
November 2, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796486/comparative-genomics-of-paracoccus-sp-sm22m-07-isolated-from-coral-mucus-insights-into-bacteria-host-interactions
#12
Camila Carlos, Letícia Bianca Pereira, Laura Maria Mariscal Ottoboni
One of the main goals of coral microbiology is to understand the ways in which coral-bacteria associations are established and maintained. This work describes the sequencing of the genome of Paracoccus sp. SM22M-07 isolated from the mucus of the endemic Brazilian coral species Mussismilia hispida. Comparative analysis was used to identify unique genomic features of SM22M-07 that might be involved in its adaptation to the marine ecosystem and the nutrient-rich environment provided by coral mucus, as well as in the establishment and strengthening of the interaction with the host...
October 31, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783209/isolation-of-conditional-mutations-in-genes-essential-for-viability-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#13
Giuseppe Ianiri, Kylie J Boyce, Alexander Idnurm
Discovering the genes underlying fundamental processes that enable cells to live and reproduce is a technical challenge, because loss of gene function in mutants results in organisms that cannot survive. This study describes a forward genetics method to identify essential genes in fungi, based on the propensity for Agrobacterium tumefaciens to insert T-DNA molecules into the promoters or 5' untranslated regions of genes and by placing a conditional promoter within the T-DNA. Insertions of the promoter of the GAL7 gene were made in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans...
October 25, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744611/cody-a-master-integrator-of-metabolism-and-virulence-in-gram-positive-bacteria
#14
Shaun R Brinsmade
A growing body of evidence points to CodY, a global regulator in Gram-positive bacteria, as a critical link between microbial physiology and pathogenesis in diverse environments. Recent studies uncovering graded regulation of CodY gene targets reflect the true nature of this transcription factor controlled by ligands and reveal nutrient availability as a potentially critical factor in modulating pathogenesis. This review will serve to update the status of the field and raise new questions to be answered.
October 15, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743028/dna-repeat-sequences-diversity-and-versatility-of-functions
#15
Zhong Qian, Sankar Adhya
Although discovered decades ago, the molecular identification, the diversity and versatility of functions, and the evolutionary origin of repeat DNA sequences (REPs) containing palindromic units in prokaryotes are now bringing attention to a wide range of biological scientists. A brief account of the current state of the repeat DNA sequences is presented here.
October 14, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730285/big-data-mining-powers-fungal-research-recent-advances-in-fission-yeast-systems-biology-approaches
#16
Zhe Wang
Biology research has entered into big data era. Systems biology approaches therefore become the powerful tools to obtain the whole landscape of how cell separate, grow, and resist the stresses. Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is wonderful unicellular eukaryote model, especially studying its division and metabolism can facilitate to understanding the molecular mechanism of cancer and discovering anticancer agents. In this perspective, we discuss the recent advanced fission yeast systems biology tools, mainly focus on metabolomics profiling and metabolic modeling, protein-protein interactome and genetic interaction network, DNA sequencing and applications, and high-throughput phenotypic screening...
October 11, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678009/expression-pattern-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-the-mutant-strain-reveals-target-genes-and-processes-regulated-by-pka1-in-the-dimorphic-fission-yeast-schizosaccharomyces-japonicus
#17
László Papp, Matthias Sipiczki, Ida Miklós
The cAMP cascade plays an important role in several biological processes. Thus, study of its molecular details can contribute to a better understanding of these processes, treatment of diseases, or even finding antifungal drug targets. To gain further information about the PKA pathway, and its evolutionarily conserved and species-specific features, the central regulator pka1 gene, which encodes the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, was studied in the less known haplontic, dimorphic fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus...
September 27, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666406/telomere-recombination-pathways-tales-of-several-unhappy-marriages
#18
Neal F Lue, Eun Young Yu
All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.-Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina.
September 25, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664093/smc5-6-complex-regulates-sgs1-recombination-functions
#19
Marcelino Bermúdez-López, Luis Aragon
The family of RecQ helicases is evolutionary conserved from bacteria to humans and play key roles in genome stability. The budding yeast RecQ helicase Sgs1 has been implicated in several key processes during the repair of DNA damage by homologous recombination as part of the STR complex (Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1). Limited information on how is Sgs1 recruited and regulated at sites of damage is available. Recently, we and others have uncover a direct link between the Smc5/6 complex and Sgs1. Most roles of Sgs1 during recombination, including DNA end resection, Holiday junction dissolution, and crossover suppression, are regulated through Mms21-dependent SUMOylation...
September 23, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655214/hoarding-and-horizontal-transfer-led-to-an-expanded-gene-and-intron-repertoire-in-the-plastid-genome-of-the-diatom-toxarium-undulatum-bacillariophyta
#20
Elizabeth C Ruck, Samantha R Linard, Teofil Nakov, Edward C Theriot, Andrew J Alverson
Although the plastid genomes of diatoms maintain a conserved architecture and core gene set, considerable variation about this core theme exists and can be traced to several different processes. Gene duplication, pseudogenization, and loss, as well as intracellular transfer of genes to the nuclear genome, have all contributed to variation in gene content among diatom species. In addition, some noncoding sequences have highly restricted phylogenetic distributions that suggest a recent foreign origin. We sequenced the plastid genome of the marine diatom, Toxarium undulatum, and found that the genome contains three genes (chlB, chlL, and chlN) involved in light-independent chlorophyll a biosynthesis that were not previously known from diatoms...
September 21, 2016: Current Genetics
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