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Current Genetics

Zheng Kuang, Hongkai Ji, Jef D Boeke
Quiescent cells exploit an array of transcription factors to activate stress response machinery and maintain survival under nutrient-limited conditions. Our recent findings reveal that these transcription factors also play an important role in the exit of quiescence and regrowth. By studying Saccharomyces cerevisiae under a continuous, nutrient-limited condition, we found that Msn2 and Msn4 function as master regulators of glycolytic genes in the quiescent-like phase. They control the timing of transition from quiescence to growth by regulating the accumulation rate of acetyl-CoA, a key metabolite that is downstream of glycolysis and drives growth...
February 17, 2018: Current Genetics
Janet M Wood
Cardiolipin (CL) is a key player in bacterial cell biology. CL accumulates at the poles of rod-shaped cells; the polar localization and function of diverse bacterial proteins are CL-dependent. Cardiolipin (CL) is an unusual phospholipid comprised of a glycerol headgroup coupled with two phosphatidate moieties. CL-rich membrane domains are often visualized with the fluorescent indicator 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange (NAO). Recent data show that NAO can also indicate phosphatidylglycerol localization under different experimental conditions, in the absence of CL...
February 9, 2018: Current Genetics
Naoki Koike, Yuuki Hatano, Takashi Ushimaru
For maintenance of cytoplasmic protein quality control (PQC), cytoplasmic heat shock proteins (HSPs) negatively control heat shock transcriptional factor (HSF) in a negative feedback loop. However, how mitochondrial protein quality control (mtPQC) is maintained is largely unknown. Here we present evidence that HSF directly monitors mtPQC in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mitochondrial HSP70 (Ssc1) negatively regulated HSF activity. Importantly, HSF was localized not only in the nucleus but also on mitochondria...
February 8, 2018: Current Genetics
Weichao Ren, Chengwei Sang, Dongya Shi, Xiushi Song, Mingguo Zhou, Changjun Chen
In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-like (UBL) protein-activating enzymes play a crucial role in autophagy process, however, it is poorly characterized in filamentous fungi. Here, we investigated the functions of two UBL activating enzymes, BcAtg3 (E2) and BcAtg7 (E1) in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The physical interaction of BcAtg3 with BcAtg7 was demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid system. Subcellular localization assays showed that BcAtg3 diffused in cytoplasm, and BcAtg7 localized in cytoplasm as pre-autophagosomal structures (PAS)...
February 7, 2018: Current Genetics
Qifu Fan, Xin Xu, Xi Zhao, Qian Wang, Wei Xiao, Ying Guo, Yu V Fu
DNA repair is essential to maintain genome integrity. In addition to various DNA repair pathways dealing with specific types of DNA lesions, DNA damage tolerance (DDT) promotes the bypass of DNA replication blocks encountered by the replication fork to prevent cell death. Budding yeast Rad5 plays an essential role in the DDT pathway and its structure indicates that Rad5 recognizes damaged DNA or stalled replication forks, suggesting that Rad5 plays an important role in the DDT pathway choice. It has been reported that Rad5 forms subnuclear foci in the presence of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) during the S phase...
February 2, 2018: Current Genetics
Laetitia Maestroni, Vincent Géli, Stéphane Coulon
Telomere maintenance mechanism is poorly studied in quiescence, a reversible non-proliferative state. We previously described in fission yeast a new mode of repair of telomeres named STEEx, that specifically operates in post-mitotic cells harboring eroded telomeres. This mechanism, promoted by transcription-induced telomeric recombination, prevents cells to exit properly from quiescence, suggesting that STEEx act as an anti-proliferative barrier. Here, we further showed that STEEx are genetically controlled by the Tel1ATM- and Rad3ATR- dependent DDR pathways...
February 1, 2018: Current Genetics
Manuella Maria Silva Santos, Carolina Elsztein, Rafael Barros De Souza, Sérgio de Sá Leitão Paiva, Jaqueline Azevêdo Silva, Sergio Crovella, Marcos Antonio De Morais
Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) an orphan drug rare disease affecting humans with different clinical presentations, is still lacking information about its pathogenesis; no animal or cell model mimicking the genetic defect, mutations at MVK gene, and its consequences on the mevalonate pathway is available. Trying to clarify the effects of MVK gene impairment on the mevalonate pathway we used a yeast model, the erg12-d mutant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (orthologous of MKV) retaining only 10% of mevalonate kinase (MK) activity, to describe the effects of reduced MK activity on the mevalonate pathway...
January 27, 2018: Current Genetics
Catherine H Freudenreich
R-loops form when transcribed RNA remains bound to its DNA template to form a stable RNA:DNA hybrid. Stable R-loops form when the RNA is purine-rich, and are further stabilized by DNA secondary structures on the non-template strand. Interestingly, many expandable and disease-causing repeat sequences form stable R-loops, and R-loops can contribute to repeat instability. Repeat expansions are responsible for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, and several types of ataxias...
January 11, 2018: Current Genetics
Kobi Simpson-Lavy, Martin Kupiec
Glucose is the preferred carbon of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Depletion of glucose activates SNF1 (yeast AMP-activated protein kinase-AMPK), allowing cells to switch from fermentation to respiration. We have recently characterized the mechanism by which SNF1 activity is regulated by the Std1 protein, and its regulator Sip5. The hitherto uncharacterized protein kinase Vhs1 phosphorylates Sip5 in response to glucose availability, disengaging it from Std1 and promoting the sequestering of the SNF1 activator out of the nucleus into cytoplasmic puncta...
January 10, 2018: Current Genetics
Virginia E Glazier, Damian J Krysan
Complex biological processes are frequently regulated through networks comprised of multiple signaling pathways, transcription factors, and effector molecules. The identity of specific genes carrying out these functions is usually determined by single mutant genetic analysis. However, to understand how the individual genes/gene products function, it is necessary to determine how they interact with other components of the larger network; one approach to this is to use genetic interaction analysis. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans regulates biofilm formation through an interconnected set of transcription factor hubs and is, therefore, an example of this type of complex network...
January 9, 2018: Current Genetics
Shravan Kumar Mishra, Poonam Thakran
The occurrence of spliceosomal introns in eukaryotic genomes is highly diverse and ranges from few introns in an organism to multiple introns per gene. Introns vary with respect to their lengths, strengths of splicing signals, and position in resident genes. Higher intronic density and diversity in genetically complex organisms relies on increased efficiency and accuracy of spliceosomes for pre-mRNA splicing. Since intron diversity is critical for functions in RNA stability, regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing, RNA-binding proteins, spliceosomal regulatory factors and post-translational modifications of splicing factors ought to make the splicing process intron-specific...
January 3, 2018: Current Genetics
Raul Correa, Philip C Thornton, Susan M Rosenberg, P J Hastings
Mechanisms of mutation upregulated by stress responses have been described in several organisms from bacteria to human. These mechanisms might accelerate genetic change specifically when cells are maladapted to their environment. Stress-induced mutation mechanisms differ in their genetic requirements from mutation in growing cells, occurring by different mechanisms in different assay systems, but having in common a requirement for the induction of stress-responses. Here, we review progress in two areas relevant to stress-response-dependent mutagenic DNA break repair mechanisms in Escherichia coli...
January 2, 2018: Current Genetics
Eden R Freire, Danielle M N Moura, Maria J R Bezerra, Camila C Xavier, Mariana C Morais-Sobral, Ajay A Vashisht, Antonio M Rezende, James A Wohlschlegel, Nancy R Sturm, Osvaldo P de Melo Neto, David A Campbell
Trypanosomatids are parasitic protozoans characterized by several unique structural and metabolic processes that include exquisite mechanisms associated with gene expression and regulation. During the initiation of protein synthesis, for instance, mRNA selection for translation seems to be mediated by different eIF4F-like complexes, which may play a significant role in parasite adaptation to different hosts. In eukaryotes, the heterotrimeric eIF4F complex (formed by eIF4E, eIF4G, and eIF4A) mediates mRNA recognition and ribosome binding and participates in various translation regulatory events...
December 29, 2017: Current Genetics
M Mansurova, Birgitta E Ebert, Lars M Blank, Alfredo J Ibáñez
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are small molecular mass substances, which exhibit low boiling points and high-vapour pressures. They are ubiquitous in nature and produced by almost any organism of all kingdoms of life. VOCs are involved in many inter- and intraspecies interactions ranging from antimicrobial or fungal effects to plant growth promotion and human taste perception of fermentation products. VOC profiles further reflect the metabolic or phenotypic state of the living organism that produces them...
December 26, 2017: Current Genetics
J Alberto Patiño-Medina, Guadalupe Maldonado-Herrera, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Viridiana Alejandre-Castañeda, Nancy Y Reyes-Mares, Marco I Valle-Maldonado, Jesus Campos-García, Rafael Ortiz-Alvarado, Irvin E Jácome-Galarza, Martha I Ramírez-Díaz, Victoriano Garre, Victor Meza-Carmen
Mucor circinelloides is a dimorphic fungus used to study cell differentiation that has emerged as a model to characterize mucormycosis. In this work, we identified four ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)-encoding genes (arf1-arf4) and study their role in the morphogenesis and virulence. Arfs are key regulators of the vesicular trafficking process and are associated with both growth and virulence in fungi. Arf1 and Arf2 share 96% identity and Arf3 and Arf4 share 89% identity, which suggests that the genes arose through gene-duplication events in M...
December 20, 2017: Current Genetics
Pushpendra Singh, Rong Li
Aging is a gradual loss of physiological functions as organisms' progress in age. Although aging in multicellular organisms is complex, some fundamental mechanisms and pathways may be shared from the single cellular yeast to human. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been established model system for aging studies. A yeast cell divides asymmetrically to produce two cells that differ in size and age. The one that is smaller coming from bud is a newborn cell that with a full replicative potential head irrespective of the replicative age of its mother-the larger cell from which the bud grows out before division...
December 19, 2017: Current Genetics
Anand Tiwari, Serena Daniel Ngiilmei, Ranjan Tamuli
The Neurospora crassa gene NcZrg-17 encodes a membrane protein with homology to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family of transporters. We analyzed the phenotypic and functional characteristics of ΔNcZrg-17 and the implications of these characteristics in vivo. The ΔNcZrg-17 mutant showed several phenotypes that are zinc suppressible such as reduced growth rate, short aerial hyphae, increased hyphal branching, early and enhanced conidiation and delayed conidial germination. Furthermore, the NcZrg-17 gene was found to be crucial for survival in the presence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducing chemical agents...
December 19, 2017: Current Genetics
Anaïs Hérivaux, José L Lavín, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Patrick Vandeputte, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Amandine Gastebois, José A Oguiza, Nicolas Papon
Two-component systems (TCSs) are widely distributed cell signaling pathways used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms to cope with a wide range of environmental cues. In fungi, TCS signaling routes, that mediate perception of stimuli, correspond to a multi-step phosphorelay between three protein families including hybrid histidine kinases (HHK), histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPt) and response regulators (RR). The best known of these fungal transduction pathways remains the Sln1(HHK)-Ypd1(HPt)-Ssk1(RR) system that governs the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway for osmo-adaptation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
December 16, 2017: Current Genetics
David W Gohara, Mee-Ngan F Yap
In response to nutrient deprivation and environmental insults, bacteria conjoin two copies of non-translating 70S ribosomes that form the translationally inactive 100S dimer. This widespread phenomenon is believed to prevent ribosome turnover and serves as a reservoir that, when conditions become favorable, allows the hibernating ribosomes to be disassembled and recycled for translation. New structural studies have revealed two distinct mechanisms for dimerizing 70S ribosomes, but the molecular basis of the disassembly process is still in its infancy...
December 14, 2017: Current Genetics
Reed B Wickner, Herman K Edskes, Evgeny E Bezsonov, Moonil Son, Mathieu Ducatez
The [PSI+] prion is a folded in-register parallel β-sheet amyloid (filamentous polymer) of Sup35p, a subunit of the translation termination factor. Our searches for anti-prion systems led to our finding that certain soluble inositol polyphosphates (IPs) are important for the propagation of the [PSI+] prion. The IPs affect a wide range of processes, including mRNA export, telomere length, phosphate and polyphosphate metabolism, energy regulation, transcription and translation. We found that 5-diphosphoinositol tetra(or penta)kisphosphate or inositol hexakisphosphate could support [PSI+] prion propagation, and 1-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate appears to inhibit the process...
December 14, 2017: Current Genetics
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