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Behavioural Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736332/5-hydroxytryptamine-2a-receptors-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-mediate-panic-like-behaviours-and-fear-induced-antinociception-elicited-by-neuronal-activation-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-inferior-colliculus
#1
Raimundo da Silva Soares, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
It has been established that chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus (IC) of laboratory animals evokes fear-related defensive responses, which are considered panic attack-like behaviours. In addition, there is evidence that defensive reactions provoked by chemical stimulation of midbrain tectum neurons may induce an antinociceptive response. Morphologically, the IC receives projections from other mesencephalic structures, such as the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a region rich in serotonergic neurons that play a critical role in the control of defensive behaviours...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736331/microbial-regulation-of-hippocampal-mirna-expression-implications-for-transcription-of-kynurenine-pathway-enzymes
#2
Gerard M Moloney, Olivia F O'Leary, Eloisa Salvo-Romero, Lieve Desbonnet, Fergus Shanahan, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
Increasing evidence points to a functional role of the enteric microbiota in brain development, function and behaviour including the regulation of transcriptional activity in the hippocampus. No changes in CNS miRNA expression have yet been linked to the colonisation status of the gut. Given the pivotal impact of miRNAs on gene expression, our study was based on the hypothesis that this would also be altered in the germ-free state in the hippocampus. We measured miRNAs in the hippocampus of Germ free (GF), conventional (C) and Germ free colonised (GFC) Swiss Webster mice...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736330/impaired-microglia-fractalkine-signaling-affects-stress-reaction-and-coping-style-in-mice
#3
Zsuzsanna Winkler, Dániel Kuti, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina Gulyás, Ágnes Polyák, Krisztina J Kovács
Microglia, resident immune cells of the CNS are sensitive to various perturbations of the environment, such as stress exposure, and may be involved in translating these changes to behavior. Among the pathways mediating stress-related neuronal cues to microglia, the fractalkine-fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) signaling plays a crucial role. Using mice, in which the CX3CR1 gene was deleted, we explored hormonal and behavioral responses to acute and chronic stress along with changes in hypothalamic microglia. CX3CR1(-/-) animals display active escape in forced swim- and tail suspension tests, exaggerated neuronal activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and increased corticosterone release in response to restraint...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734766/trpv1-modulates-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-via-p38-mapk-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#4
Sa-Ik Hong, Thi-Lien Nguyen, Shi-Xun Ma, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Emerging evidence suggests that the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) is a novel target for the treatment of drug addiction, such as cocaine and morphine. Previously we reported that TRPV1 inhibition reduced morphine reward in the dorsal striatum (DSt) of mice and morphine self-administration through a decrease in accumbal activity in rats. However, the role of TRPV1 on morphine-conditioned reward in addiction-related brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), has not been previously established...
July 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734765/ampakines-and-morphine-provide-complementary-analgesia
#5
Yongjun Sun, Kevin Liu, Erik Martinez, Jahrane Dale, Dong Huang, Jing Wang
Glutamate signaling in the central nervous system is known to play a key role in pain regulation. AMPAkines can enhance glutamate signaling through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. previous studies have shown that AMPAkines are effective analgesic agents, and their site of action is likely in the brain. It is not known, however, if AMPAkines can provide complementary analgesia in combination with opioids, the most commonly used analgesics. Here, we show that the co-administration of an AMPAkine with morphine can provide additional analgesia, both in naïve rats and in rats that experience postoperative pain...
July 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729116/convergence-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-and-gr-signaling-in-response-to-fluoxetine-treatment-in-chronically-stressed-female-and-male-rats
#6
Milos Mitic, Zeljka Brkic, Iva Lukic, Miroslav Adzic
Accumulating evidence strongly suggest that impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is involved in stress-related mood disorders, and nominate GR as a potential target for antidepressants (ADs). It is known that different classes of ADs affects the GR action via modifying its phosphorylation, while the mechanism through which ADs alter GR phosphorylation targeted by GSK3β, a kinase modulated via serotonin neurotransmission, are unclear. On this basis, we investigated whether GSK3β-GR signaling could be a convergence point of fluoxetine action on brain function and behavior, by examining its effect on GSK3β targeted-GR phosphorylation on threonine 171 (pGR171), and expression of GR-regulated genes in the hippocampus of female and male rats exposed to chronic isolation stress...
July 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729115/arousal-and-drug-abuse
#7
REVIEW
Francisco J Urbano, Verónica Bisagno, Edgar Garcia-Rill
The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band frequencies...
July 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716675/what-we-imagine-is-what-we-do-a-critical-overview-about-mental-imagery-as-a-strategy-to-study-human-defensive-responses
#8
REVIEW
Rosana Shuhama, D Caroline Blanchard, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Cristina Marta Del-Ben
There is not a single and perfect instinctive behavior to react to threatening situations. However, the study of particular features of these situations suggests the existence of prototypical emotional reactions and associated defensive behaviors. Since all living beings are subjected to common evolutionary pressures, such as predation and conspecific competition, it is plausible that there is conservation of some basic defensive responses in their behavioral repertoire. The choice for approaching or withdrawing from a given situation depends, among others things, on environmental features, including the threat intensity and the distance from the source of the threat...
July 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716674/pleasant-and-unpleasant-odour-face-combinations-influence-face-and-odour-perception-an-event-related-potential-study
#9
Stephanie Cook, Katerina Kokmotou, Vicente Soto, Nicholas Fallon, John Tyson-Carr, Anna Thomas, Timo Giesbrecht, Matt Field, Andrej Stancak
Odours alter evaluations of concurrent visual stimuli. However, neural mechanisms underlying the effects of congruent and incongruent odours on facial expression perception are not clear. Moreover, the influence of emotional faces on odour perception is not established. We investigated the effects of one pleasant and one unpleasant odour paired with happy and disgusted faces, on subjective ratings and ERP responses to faces. Participants rated the pleasantness of happy and disgusted faces that appeared during 3second pleasant or unpleasant odour pulses, or without odour...
July 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709915/sex-differences-in-somatic-and-sensory-motor-development-after-neonatal-anoxia-in-wistar-rats
#10
Amrita Jha Kumar, Silvia Honda Takada, Lívia Clemente Motta-Teixeira, Vitor Yonamine Lee, Gilberto Fernando Xavier, Maria Inês Nogueira
Currently, one of the important causes of brain injury in new-borns is the neonatal anoxia which impacts the perinatology services worldwide. Animal models of anoxia have been used to assess its effects at cellular and behavioural levels in all ages, but few studies focus on sex differences. This study aimed to investigate some physical parameters of development, sensorimotor alterations, early neurological reflexes as well as the density of cells in motor and sensorimotor cerebral cortex of adolescent rats submitted to neonatal anoxia...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705472/adolescent-social-isolation-affects-schizophrenia-like-behavior-and-astrocyte-biomarkers-in-the-pfc-of-adult-rats
#11
Lan Sun, Li Min, Hao Zhou, Man Li, Feng Shao, Weiwen Wang
Social isolation is regarded as a cause of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Animal models of schizophrenia are constructed by repeated early environment deprivation as an important paradigm to reveal its pathological mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to either social-rearing (SR) or isolated-rearing (IR) groups during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. On PND 56, all rats underwent behavioral testing including locomotor activity, anxiety-related behaviors in an open field and prepulse inhibition (PPI)...
July 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705471/risk-assessment-and-serotonin-animal-models-and-human-psychopathologies
#12
REVIEW
D Caroline Blanchard, Ksenia Meyza
Risk assessment (RA) is an evolved, generally adaptive, mechanism comprising focused attention and appraisal of potential threat stimuli and situations. Initially characterized in animal models, it provides a number of behavioral and functional parallels to patterns of rumination, gaze biases, and other forms of affective cognition that appear to be disregulated in depression and anxiety. Serotonergic mechanisms are involved in these mood disorders, and an emerging body of evidence suggests that they may modulate the affective cognitive changes common to such psychopathologies...
July 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697904/the-adra2b-gene-in-the-production-of-false-memories-for-affective-information-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#13
Beth Fairfield, Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Marco D'Aurora, Liborio Stuppia, Valentina Gatta
False memories are common memory distortions in everyday life and seem to increase with affectively connoted complex information. In line with recent studies showing a significant interaction between the noradrenergic system and emotional memory, we investigated whether healthy volunteer carriers of the deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene that codes for the α2b-adrenergic receptor are more prone to false memories than non-carriers. In this study, we collected genotype data from 212 healthy female volunteers; 91 ADRA2B carriers and 121 non-carriers...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697903/implicit-self-other-discrimination-affects-the-interplay-between-multisensory-affordances-of-mental-representations-of-faces
#14
David Zeugin, Norhan Arfa, Michael Notter, Micah M Murray, Silvio Ionta
Face recognition is an apparently straightforward but, in fact, complex ability, encompassing the activation of at least visual and somatosensory representations. Understanding how identity shapes the interplay between these face-related affordances could clarify the mechanisms of self-other discrimination. To this aim, we exploited the so-called "face inversion effect" (FIE), a specific bias in the mental rotation of face images (of other people): with respect to inanimate objects, face images require longer time to be mentally rotated from the upside-down...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693862/behavioural-inflexibility-in-a-comorbid-rat-model-of-striatal-ischemic-injury-and-mutant-happ-overexpression
#15
Alexander Levit, Aaron M Regis, Jessica R Garabon, Seung-Hun Oh, Sagar J Desai, Nagalingam Rajakumar, Vladimir Hachinski, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca, Shawn N Whitehead, Brian L Allman
Alzheimer disease (AD) and stroke coexist and interact; yet how they interact is not sufficiently understood. Both AD and basal ganglia stroke can impair behavioural flexibility, which can be reliably modeled in rats using an established operant based set-shifting test. Transgenic Fischer 344-APP21 rats (TgF344) overexpress pathogenic human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) but do not spontaneously develop overt pathology, hence TgF344 rats can be used to model the effect of vascular injury in the prodromal stages of Alzheimer disease...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693861/supplementation-with-zinc-in-rats-enhances-memory-and-reverses-an-age-dependent-increase-in-plasma-copper
#16
Leslie A Sandusky-Beltran, Bryce L Manchester, Ewan C McNay
Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693860/implicit-predictions-of-future-rewards-and-their-electrophysiological-correlates
#17
Elizabeth M Trimber, Christian C Luhmann
Information that is motivationally relevant to an organism's survival demands preferential attention. Affective mechanisms facilitate attentional shifts and potentiate action to allow organisms to respond appropriately to motivationally relevant information. Previous work has demonstrated that the late-positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential elicited by inherently emotional stimuli. For example, the LPP typically is evoked by images of weapons or erotica. The present study investigates stimuli that are not inherently emotional, but that implicitly (without participants' awareness) predict future monetary gains and losses...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693859/the-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nachr-partial-agonist-at-1001-attenuates-stress-induced-reinstatement-of-nicotine-seeking-in-a-rat-model-of-relapse-and-induces-minimal-withdrawal-in-dependent-rats
#18
Menglu Yuan, Ariana M Malagon, Dennis Yasuda, James D Belluzzi, Frances M Leslie, Nurulain T Zaveri
The strong reinforcing effects of nicotine and the negative symptoms such as anxiety experienced during a quit attempt often lead to relapse and low success rates for smoking cessation. Treatments that not only block the reinforcing effects of nicotine but also attenuate the motivation to relapse are needed to improve cessation rates. Recent genetic and preclinical studies have highlighted the involvement of the α3, β4, and α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and the α3β4 nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence and withdrawal...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690184/evaluating-aged-mice-in-three-touchscreen-tests-that-differ-in-visual-demands-impaired-cognitive-function-and-impaired-visual-abilities
#19
Nathalie Buscher, Pascal van Dorsselaer, Thomas Steckler, John C Talpos
Normal aging is often accompanied by reductions in cognitive abilities as well as impairments in visual acuity in men and mice. In preclinical models of human cognition this concomitance can make it difficult to assess the relative contributions of declined vision and cognitive ability on behavioral measures of cognition. To assess the influence of age on cognition and the impact of visual decline on the performance of touchscreen-based behavioral paradigms in mice, aged (11, 12, 16, 17, 19 and 21 months old) male C57BL/6J mice were compared to young (3 or 4 months old) male C57BL/6J mice using three tests of cognition as well as an assessment of visual acuity...
July 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690183/perinatal-protein-deprivation-facilitates-morphine-cross-sensitization-to-cocaine-and-enhances-%C3%AE-fosb-expression-in-adult-rats
#20
María Cecilia Perondi, María Cecilia Gutiérrez, Analía Valdomero, Gabriel Ricardo Cuadra
Previous studies have indicated that neural changes induced by early nutritional insult cause an altered response to pharmacological treatments, including addictive drugs. This study evaluates the influence of perinatal protein malnutrition in developing cross-sensitization to cocaine-induced rewarding effects in animals pre-exposed to morphine. Different groups of well-nourished (C-rats) and protein-deprived animals (D-rats) were treated twice a day for three days with increasing doses of morphine or with saline...
July 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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