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Behavioural Brain Research

Lucy J Mailing, Jacob M Allen, Brandt D Pence, Jennifer Rytych, Yi Sun, Tushar K Bhattacharya, Pul Park, Tzu-Wen L Cross, Robert H McCusker, Kelly S Swanson, George C Fahey, Justin S Rhodes, Keith W Kelley, Rodney W Johnson, Jeffrey A Woods
Recent data has supported a role for the gut microbiota in improving cognition and shaping behavior. Here, we assessed whether pectin, a soluble, fermentable fiber, could enhance learning and memory in mice. Two cohorts of young male C57Bl/6 J mice, C1 (n = 20) and C2 (n = 20), were obtained from Jackson Laboratory and randomized to semi-purified AIN-93 M diets containing 5% pectin (n = 10) or cellulose (n = 10). After 16 weeks, learning and memory was assessed by Morris Water Maze (MWM) and microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing...
September 19, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Xianli An, Fenfen Zhang, Yuan Liu, Ping Yang, Duonan Yu
Exposure of some individuals to recurring traumatic events from the same perpetrator or situation, such as during child abuse or domestic violence, is quite prevalent. Studies have shown that the number of traumatic events experienced is positively related to the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental disorders. Using a contextual fear conditioning (Cond1) and reconditioning (Cond2) paradigm, which were separated by either 1 or 35 days, we examined fear responses to immediate extinction and retrieval-extinction procedures after repeated fear conditioning stress...
September 18, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
David L McCue, James M Kasper, Ara, Jonathan D Hommel
A diet of energy-dense food, characterized mainly as a high-fat diet, leads to a persistent excessive consumption defined as overeating. According to the National Institute of Health, more than 2 in 3 adults in the United States are overweight or obese, straining our healthcare system with epidemic proportions. Diets that include abstaining from high-fat foods, ironically, result in an increase in motivation and craving for said high-fat foods, defined as an incubation effect because the behavior aids in developing overeating...
September 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ennio Avolio, Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Antonino De Lorenzo, Laura Di Renzo, Raffaella Alò, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Marcello Canonaco
Emerging studies are beginning to suggest that emotional states together with healthful measures constitute pertinent features of our lifestyle in which bad eating habits but more importantly what our gut has to host are causing great concern. It is well known that humans have established mutual relationships with a wide array of colonized microbes (collectively called gut microbiota) consisting of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses. The gut microbiota has exhibited a notable ability of communicating with the brain via a two-way system that includes the vagus nerve, immune sites, and a number of neurotransmitters...
September 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Luis Alfredo Rodríguez-Blanco, Alejandro Rivera-Olvera, Martha L Escobar
The current view of the neurobiology of learning and memory suggests that long-term memory (LTM) depends not only on the de novo protein synthesis but also on the synthesis of mRNA even hours after the acquisition of memory, as well as that the regulation of transcription through the histone acetylation is essential for the memory establishment. Our previous studies showed that protein synthesis inhibition around the time of training and 5 to 7 hours after acquisition in the insular cortex (IC) prevents the consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a well-established learning and memory paradigm in which an animal learns to associate a novel taste with nausea...
September 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Camila Pasquini de Souza, Eder Gambeta, Cristina Aparecida Jark Stern, Janaína Menezes Zanoveli
Anxiety and stress disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been described as debilitating comorbidities of diabetes. In the present study, we aimed to investigate anxiety-like behavior and the extinction and generalization of aversive memories in fear conditioning using a streptozotocin-induced model of diabetes (DBT). Moreover, considering that DBT animals present increased oxidative stress in brain areas related to anxiety and memory, we aimed to evaluate the effect of prolonged treatment with antioxidant vitamin E on behavioral parameters of anxiety and fear memory and on the diabetic condition...
September 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
L Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma
We have previously demonstrated that kindling of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) induced psychosis relevant behaviors only after one, but not after five, stage-5 seizures, suggesting that five stage-5 NAc-evoked seizures antagonized psychosis relevant behaviors in rats. We hypothesized that brain opioid receptors are responsible for seizure-induced reduction of psychosis relevant behaviors in NAc kindled rats. Rats received NAc kindling until a stage-4 seizure was induced, after which naloxone, a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist, at dose of 1 or 10 mg/kg i...
September 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Benjamin J De Corte, Lucia M Wagner, Matthew S Matell, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Striatal dopamine strongly regulates how individuals use time to guide behavior. Dopamine acts on D1- and D2- dopamine receptors in the striatum. However, the relative role of these receptors in the temporal control of behavior is unclear. To assess this, we trained rats on a task in which they decided to start and stop a series of responses based on the passage of time and evaluated how blocking D1 or D2-dopamine receptors in the dorsomedial or dorsolateral striatum impacted performance. D2 blockade delayed the decision to start and stop responding in both regions, and this effect was larger in the dorsomedial striatum...
September 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Taylor L Scott, Cole Vonder Haar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects over 2.8 million people annually, and has been shown to increase motor impulsivity in both humans and animals. However, the root cause of this behavioral disinhibition is not fully understood. The goal of the current study was to evaluate whether timing behavior is disrupted after TBI, which could potentially explain increases in impulsive responding. Twenty-one male three-month old Long-Evans rats were trained on a fixed interval-18 s schedule. Following training, rats were placed on the Peak Interval Procedure, with intermittent peak trials...
September 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Zhanqin Zhang, Zhi Ma, Chaoying Yan, Kairui Pu, Meiyan Wu, Juan Bai, Yansong Li, Qiang Wang
The available evidence showed that mitochondrial transfer by releasing the extracellular vesicles containing mitochondria from astrocytes to neurons exerted a neuroprotective effect after stroke. Whether extracellular mitochondrial replenishment could rescue the tissues from cerebral ischemic injury still needs to be explored completely. It was hypothesized that the augmentation of mitochondrial damage after cerebral ischemia could be resolved by timely replenishment of exogenous mitochondria. A stroke model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used in this study to verify this hypothesis...
September 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Liling Jin, Yuanjing Feng, Jianzhong He, Siqi Zhou, Qingrun Zeng, Ye Wu
Parkinson's disease (PD) and scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD) are two distinct neurological disorders that require different therapeutic approaches; therefore it's critical to classify the two disorders. The neuroimaging technology based on dMRI provided connectivity information and voxel features that can make it possible for researchers to analyze SWEDD and PD differences. In this work, a novel method of ReliefF-SVM-based dMRI analysis was presented to study the potential relations between PD and SWEDD...
September 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Thalia Garvock-de Montbrun, Emre Fertan, Kurt Stover, Richard E Brown
Motor deficits are some of the most prevalent non-cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with patients showing impairments in speech, gait and fine motor skills. We investigated motor behaviour in 16-month-old male and female 3xTg-AD mice and their B6129SF2 wildtype (WT) controls. The 3xTg-AD mice develop extracellular Aβ plaques and tau tangles in the hippocampus and motor cortex between 6 and 9 months of age. Previously we showed that at 6 months of age, 3xTg-AD mice performed better on tests of motor coordination and motor learning than WT mice...
September 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Mark Henry Pitcher, Farid Tarum, Michael Lehmann, M Catherine Bushnell
Urine from pro-œstrus female rodents evokes increased levels of sexually-motivated behaviors in males, including sniffing and scent marking of the urine spot as well as activation of brain reward regions. Stressors such as social defeat can adversely impact urine scent marking behavior in male rodents, an effect that can be mitigated with anti-depressant drugs. Persistent pain is also known to be a potent stressor, producing elevated levels of plasma corticosterone as well as reduced sucrose preference and reduced social interaction...
September 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
David Lindenbach, Jeremy K Seamans, Anthony G Phillips
Previous studies confirm that brief electrical stimulation of glutamatergic afferents from the ventral subiculum (vSub) can significantly enhance dopamine release in the ventral striatum for an extended duration (>20 min). However, the functional significance of this effect on motivated behavior remains to be specified. Here we tested the hypothesis that brief electrical stimulation of the ventral subiculum (20 Hz for 10 s) might increase effort expenditure for food rewards. Motivation was assessed by a progressive ratio lever pressing task, which requires continuous escalation of the numbers of lever presses to receive each subsequent sucrose pellet, eventually resulting in the failure to achieve the required ratio for a food reward...
September 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Shuo Yin, Juan Shao, Xinhao Wang, Xi Yin, Wenjing Li, Yuan Gao, Omar Israel Velez de-la-Paz, Haishui Shi, Shuangcheng Li
Depression is a recurrent neuropsychiatric disorder accompanied with other behavioral deficits, including memory impairment. A few studies have shown that methylene blue (MB) could promote cortical neurogenesis and exert neuroprotective effects on various brain diseases, including bipolar disorder. However, the potential antidepressant effects of MB have not been fully investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of MB pretreatment on behavioral deficits and the underlying mechanisms in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression mouse model...
September 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
C García-Díaz, M J Sánchez-Catalán, E Castro-Salazar, A García-Avilés, H Albert-Gascó, S Sánchez-Sarasúa de la Bárcena, A M Sánchez-Pérez, A L Gundlach, F E Olucha-Bordonau
Social interaction involves neural activity in prefrontal cortex, septum, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. Notably, these areas all receive projections from the nucleus incertus (NI) in the pontine tegmentum. Therefore, we investigated the effect of excitotoxic lesions of NI neurons in adult male, Wistar rats on performance in a social discrimination test, and associated changes in immediate-early gene protein levels. NI was lesioned with quinolinic acid, and after recovery, rats underwent two trials in the 3-chamber test...
September 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Zahra Farzinpour, Zahra Taslimi, Ronak Azizbeigi, Saeideh Karimi-Haghighi, Abbas Haghparast
Orexinergic system is involved in primary rewards; the neural circuit of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), prefrontal cortex and amygdala represents overlapping elements mediating the rewarding effects of drugs and stressful experiences. The NAc integrates reward-related information from the VTA. Also, it has been indicated that orexinergic system activates the mesolimbic dopamine projecting neurons to the NAc and promotes the development of reward in rodents. Therefore, in the present study, the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was used to determine the role of the two types of orexin receptors (OXR) in the NAc in forced swim stress (FSS), as physical stress, and/or priming-induced reinstatement of morphine...
September 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Eriola Hoxha, Andrea Marcinnò, Francesca Montarolo, Linda Masante, Ilaria Balbo, Francesco Ravera, Fernanda Laezza, Filippo Tempia
Sexual disturbances, and aggressivity are a major social problem. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of these behaviors are largely unknown. FGF14, which is an intracellular protein controlling neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission, has been implied in neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Mice with Fgf14 deletion show blunted responses to drugs of abuse. By behavioral tests we show that male Fgf14 knockout mice have a marked reduction of several behaviors including aggressivity and sexual behavior...
September 3, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Maria Geisler, Luise Eichelkraut, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Thomas Weiss
A single endurance exercise session was shown to lead to a reduction of pain perception and an elevation of mood. We hypothesized that athletes, who regularly practice endurance, might also induce changes in mood and pain processing in expectation of an endurance session. We compared the expectation effects of a 2-h-run on mood and pain processing to a run-free control day (RFC). Fifteen trained runners were assessed with repeated painful and nonpainful pinprick stimulation in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner prior to a 2-h-run and at RFC...
September 3, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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