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Behavioural Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792890/the-visual-cortex-and-visual-cognition-in-huntington-s-disease-an-overview-of-current-literature
#1
REVIEW
Emma M Coppen, Jeroen van der Grond, Ellen P Hart, Egbert A J F Lakke, Raymund A C Roos
The processing of visual stimuli from retina to higher cortical areas has been extensively studied in the human brain. In Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, it is suggested that visual processing deficits are present in addition to more characteristic signs such as motor disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. Visual deficits are clinically important because they influence overall cognitive performance and have implications for daily functioning. The aim of this review is to summarize current literature on clinical visual deficits, visual cognitive impairment, and underlying visual cortical changes in HD patients...
May 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778628/environmentally-enriched-pigs-have-transcriptional-profiles-consistent-with-neuroprotective-effects-and-reduced-microglial-activity
#2
S M Brown, S J Bush, K M Summers, D A Hume, A B Lawrence
Environmental enrichment (EE) is widely used to study the effects of external factors on brain development, function and health in rodent models, but very little is known of the effects of EE on the brain in a large animal model such as the pig. Twenty-four young pigs (aged 5 weeks at start of study, 1:1 male: female ratio) were housed in environmentally enriched (EE) pens and provided with additional enrichment stimulation (a bag filled with straw) once daily. Litter, weight and sex matched controls n= (24) were housed in barren (B) conditions...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778627/impaired-spatial-processing-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Mohamed Ghilan, Luis Bettio, Athena Noonan, Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual impairment. The Fmr1-/y mouse model has been previously shown to have deficits in context discrimination tasks but not in the elevated plus-maze. To further characterize this FXS mouse model and determine whether hippocampal-mediated behaviours are affected in these mice, dentate gyrus (DG)-dependent spatial processing and Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1)-dependent temporal order discrimination tasks were evaluated. In agreement with previous findings of long-term potentiation deficits in the DG of this transgenic model of FXS, the results reported here demonstrate that Fmr1-/y mice perform poorly in the DG-dependent metric change spatial processing task...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778626/factors-underlying-risk-taking-in-heroin-dependent-individuals-feedback-processing-and-environmental-contingencies
#4
Daniella M Saleme, Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon, Abdrabo Soliman, Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Ahmed A Moustafa
Evidence suggests that factors influencing risk-taking include whether decisions are made based on emotions (affective systems) or cognitions (deliberative systems), the processing of feedback (e.g., deciding to attend a rehabilitation facility for opioid addiction treatment after an intervention held by a family member), and attention to environmental contingencies (e.g., considering the probability of an outcome such as the likelihood of contracting tetanus from a shared needle; or the gains and losses associated with a decision, such as the benefits and costs of taking drugs)...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778625/the-mediating-role-of-phosphodiesterase-type-4-in-the-dopaminergic-modulation-of-motor-impulsivity
#5
P R A Heckman, A Blokland, N P Van Goethem, B T J Van Hagen, J Prickaerts
The current study investigated the mediating role of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) regulated cAMP in the dopaminergic modulation of premature responding (action restraint) in rats. Response inhibition, which includes action restraint, finds its neurobiological origin in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry and can be modulated by dopamine. Intracellularly, the effect of dopamine is largely mediated through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Areas in the prefrontal cortex are very sensitive to their neurochemical environment, including catecholamine levels...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768187/activation-of-kappa-opioid-receptors-in-the-dorsal-raphe-have-sex-dependent-effects-on-social-behavior-in-california-mice
#6
Emily C Wright, Tiffany V Parks, Jonathon O Alexander, Rajesh Supra, Brian C Trainor
Kappa opioid receptor activation has been linked to stress and anxiety behavior, thus leading to kappa antagonists being popularized in research as potential anxiolytics. However, while these findings may hold true in standard models, the neuromodulatory effects of social defeat may change the behavioral outcome of kappa opioid receptor activation. Previous research has shown that social defeat can lead to hyperactivity of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, and that inhibition of this increase blocks the social deficits caused by defeat...
May 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768186/predicted-reach-consequences-drive-time-course-of-tactile-suppression
#7
Lindsey E Fraser, Katja Fiehler
Sensitivity to touch is reduced during movement; this tactile suppression is likely the result of a mechanism that suppresses self-generated movement consequences. We sought to determine whether tactile suppression is modulated by naturally evoked changes in movement speed driven by task precision demands (Exp.1), and by changes in predicted movement consequences (Exp.2). We measured suppression by comparing detection thresholds for a vibration applied to the finger during reach and at rest. In Experiment 1 we varied reach target size to create a speed-accuracy tradeoff, where participants decelerated more to smaller targets to accurately hit them...
May 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763637/neurosteroid-pregnenolone-sulfate-alone-and-as-augmentation-of-lurasidone-or-tandospirone-rescues-phencyclidine-induced-deficits-in-cognitive-function-and-social-interaction
#8
L Rajagopal, D Soni, H Y Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS), an endogenous neurosteroid, which negatively and positively modulates gamma amino butyric acid subunit A (GABAA ) and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (R) respectively, among other potential neuroplastic changes on synaptic processes, has shown some beneficial effects on treating cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) and negative symptoms. Lurasidone (Lur), an atypical antipsychotic drug (AAPD), and tandospirone (Tan), a 5-HT1A  R partial agonist, have also been reported to improve cognitive or negative symptoms, or both, in some schizophrenia patients...
May 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758248/beneficial-effect-of-etazolate-on-depression-like-behavior-and-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Karem H Alzoubi, Enas Mokhemer, Amjad N Abuirmeileh
The aim of this study was to evaluate etazolate against depression-like behavior and, learning and memory impairment induced by 6- hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). This aim was achieved through comparing 6-OHDA lesioned rats in the presence and absence of etazolate. The 6-OHDA was used to induce lesion as a model of PD. Etazolate was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 14 days, starting 7 days after lesion induction. Apomorphine-induced rotation test was used to evaluate 6-OHDA-induced motor deficits, tail suspension test was used to assess depression-like symptoms, and the radial arms water maze (RAWM) was used to evaluate special learning and memory functions...
May 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758247/individual-behavioural-predictors-of-amphetamine-induced-emission-of-50-khz-vocalization-in-rats
#10
Kevin G Mulvihill, Stefan M Brudzynski
Measurement of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) produced by adult rats represents a highly useful index of emotional arousal. The associations found between 50 kHz USV production and a variety of behavioural and pharmacological protocols increasingly suggests they serve as a marker of positive motivational states. This study used a powerful within-subjects design to investigate the relationships among individual differences in approach to a sweet-food reward, predisposition to emit 50 kHz USVs spontaneously, and 50 kHz USVs emission following acute systemic administration of amphetamine...
May 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753727/gender-dependent-changes-in-physical-development-bdnf-content-and-gsh-redox-system-in-a-model-of-acute-neonatal-hypoxia-in-rats
#11
Iu A Sukhanova, E A Sebentsova, D D Khukhareva, D M Manchenko, N Yu Glazova, P A Vishnyakova, L S Inozemtseva, O V Dolotov, M Y Vysokikh, N G Levitskaya
Perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia is one of the leading factors that negatively influence the development of the central nervous system. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sex on the outcomes of acute neonatal hypoxia (ANH) in rat pups. Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to a hypoxic condition (8% oxygen for 120 min) at postnatal day 2 (P2). Immediately after ANH an increase in HIF1-α gene expression was observed in the rat brains, independently of sex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glutathione peroxidase-4 gene expression was increased in female animals only...
May 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753726/two-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-the-reln-gene-and-symptom-based-and-developmental-deficits-among-children-and-adolescents-with-autistic-spectrum-disorders-in-the-tianjin-china
#12
Geng-Fu Wang, Sheng Ye, Lei Gao, Yu Han, Xuan Guo, Xiao-Peng Dong, Yuan-Yuan Su, Xin Zhang
Increasing evidence has revealed that genetic variants in Reelin (RELN) gene, especially single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), correlate with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) risk; however, no consensus have been reached. This study aimed to provide additional evidence for the association between two SNPs of RELN (i.e., rs736707, rs2229864) and ASD risk, as well as the relationship between RELN gene and symptom-based and developmental deficits of ASD patients in Chinese Han children and adolescents. 157 ASD subjects and 256 typical development (TD) controls were genotyped by TaqMan® genotyping assay...
May 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752970/repeated-cycles-of-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-induce-immediate-and-delayed-neurobehavioral-changes-and-hippocampal-dysfunction-in-adolescent-female-rats
#13
Luanna M P Fernandes, Sabrina C Cartágenes, Mayara A Barros, Taiana C V S Carvalheiro, Nair Correia de Freitas Castro, Marissa G Schamne, Rafael R Lima, Rui D Prediger, Marta C Monteiro, A F Enéas, Rodrigo A Cunha, Cristiane S F Maia
Binge-like ethanol intake (BEI) is a socioeconomical problem among adolescents and increasingly affects women. BEI can leave a long-term imprint in the brain, but it is unknown if its effect on cognition and anxiety is cumulative on repeated binge-ethanol episodes. We now submitted female Wistar rats to repeated cycles of binge-like ethanol treatment by intragastrically administering ethanol (3.0 g/kg/day, 20% w/v ethanol; 3 days on/4 days off) starting at postnatal day 35 (PND35). To investigate the short-term effects of BEI during adolescence, rats underwent 1 or 4 cycles of BEI, being evaluated at PND37 and PND58, respectively: both groups displayed anxiety-like behavior in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests, as well as short-term memory deficits in the object recognition task; this was associated with transient decreases of BDNF levels and increases of GFAP levels in the hippocampus...
May 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752969/optical-mapping-of-prefrontal-brain-connectivity-and-activation-during-emotion-anticipation
#14
Meng-Yun Wang, Feng-Mei Lu, Zhishan Hu, Juan Zhang, Zhen Yuan
Accumulated neuroimaging evidence shows that the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is activated during emotion anticipation. The aim of this work is to examine the brain connectivity and activation differences in dlPFC between the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The hemodynamic responses were first assessed for all subjects during the performance of various emotion anticipation tasks. And then small-world analysis was performed, in which the small-world network indicators including the clustering coefficient, average path length, average node degree, and measure of small-world index were calculated for the functional brain networks associated with the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751018/differential-behavioral-and-glial-responses-induced-by-dopaminergic-mechanisms-in-the-inos-knockout-mice
#15
Ana Carolina Issy, Glauce Crivelaro Nascimento, Gabriel Henrique Dias de Abreu, Fabrine S Tristão, Elaine Del-Bel, Terence Duarte, Mariza Bortolanza
The interaction between distinctive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the dopamine system provides new avenues to the development of pharmacological tools for the pathophysiological conditions of the dopaminergic system. Our aim was to investigate the influences of dopamine-induced effects in inducible NOS knockout (iNOS KO) mice. In order to characterize iNOS KO mice phenotype, the animals were submitted to the basal analyses of motor, sensorimotor and sensorial abilities. Pharmacological challenging of the dopaminergic system included the investigation of amphetamine-induced prepulse inhibition (PPI) disruption, haloperidol-induced catalepsy, reserpine-induced oral involuntary movements and hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine in reserpine treated mice...
May 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751017/differential-contributions-of-cortical-thickness-and-surface-area-to-trait-impulsivity-in-healthy-young-adults
#16
Katharina M Kubera, Mike M Schmitgen, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Philipp A Thomann, Dusan Hirjak, Robert C Wolf
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is an essential human personality trait and highly relevant for the development of several mental disorders. There is evidence that impulsivity is heritable, yet little is known about neural correlates reflecting early brain development. Here, we address the question whether motor, attentional and non-planning components, as reflected by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), are distinctly associated with cortical thickness and surface area variations in young healthy individuals...
May 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738804/alcohol-aggravates-ketamine-induced-behavioral-morphological-and-neurochemical-alterations-in-adolescent-rats-the-involvement-of-creb-related-pathways
#17
Daiying Zuo, Yumiao Liu, Zi Liu, Jiahui Cui, Xuejiao Zhou, Yang Liu, Zengqiang Li, Yingliang Wu
Currently, an increasing proportion of adolescent ketamine users simultaneously consume alcohol. However, the potential behavioural and neurological alterations induced by such a drug combination and the underlying mechanisms have not been systematically examined. Therefore, in the present study, the behavioural and morphological changes and the underlying mechanisms were studied in adolescent rats after repeated alcohol and/or ketamine treatment. This study provided the first evidence that co-administration of alcohol (2 and 4 g/kg, i...
May 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738803/standard-analgesics-reverse-burrowing-deficits-in-a-rat-cci-model-of-neuropathic-pain-but-not-in-models-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-induced-neuropathic-pain
#18
Kris Rutten, Stacey A Gould, Luke Bryden, Henri Doods, Thomas Christoph, Anton Pekcec
BACKGROUND: Burrowing is a rodent behavior validated as a robust and reproducible outcome measure to infer the global effect of pain in several inflammatory pain models. However, less is known about the effect of analgesics on burrowing in neuropathic pain models and no studies have determined burrowing performance in models of diabetes-associated neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity of the burrowing assay in different neuropathic pain models: mononeuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy...
May 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733874/diffuse-noxious-inhibitory-controls-and-brain-networks-are-modulated-in-a-testosterone-dependent-manner-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#19
Joyce T Da Silva, Youping Zhang, Jamila Asgar, Jin Y Ro, David A Seminowicz
Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC), which involves endogenous pain modulation, has been investigated as a potential mechanism for the differences in pain modulation observed between men and women, though the literature shows contradictory findings. We used a capsaicin-induced DNIC behavioral assay and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to assess the effect of testosterone on pain modulation and related brain circuitry in rats. We hypothesized that testosterone is required for DNIC that leads to efficient pain inhibition by increasing descending pain modulation...
May 4, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729302/neonatal-immune-activation-by-lipopolysaccharide-causes-inadequate-emotional-responses-to-novel-situations-but-no-changes-in-anxiety-or-cognitive-behavior-in-wistar-rats
#20
Iveta Vojtechova, Tomas Petrasek, Kristyna Maleninska, Hana Brozka, Hana Tejkalova, Jiri Horacek, Ales Stuchlik, Karel Vales
Infection during the prenatal or neonatal stages of life is considered one of the major risk factors for the development of mental diseases such as schizophrenia or autism. However, the impacts of such an immune challenge on adult behavior are still not clear. In our study, we used a model of early postnatal immune activation by the application of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rat pups at a dose of 2 mg/kg from postnatal day (PD) 5 to PD 9. In adulthood, the rats were tested in a battery of tasks probing various aspects of behavior: spontaneous activity (open field test), social behavior (social interactions and female bedding exploration), anxiety (elevated plus maze), cognition (active place avoidance in Carousel) and emotional response (ultrasonic vocalization recording)...
May 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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