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Behavioural Brain Research

Cai Zhang, Yong-Ping Zhang, Yu-Yu Li, Bai-Ping Liu, Hao-Yin Wang, Kang-Wei Li, Cai Song
Activated microglia-induced neuroinflammation can stimulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to release glucocorticoids and suppress astrocyte function, such as reducing neurotrophin production, which occur in depression. However, the balance between M1 (pro-inflammation) and M2 (anti-inflammation) of microglial phenotypes and the interaction between two glial cells in the depression are unclear. Hence, the chronic unpredictable mile stress (CUMS)-induced depression model was chose to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, the concentration of corticosterone and relevant hippocampal cytokines, mRNA and protein expression of microglial and astrocyte markers...
July 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Xue-Qing Wu, Gui-Ying Zan, Yun-Yue Ju, Tian-Zhen Chen, Liu-Bin Guo, Dong-Liang Jiao, Hai-Feng Jiang, Ying-Zhi Deng, Jing-Gen Liu, Min Zhao
The abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has become a global public health issue in recent years, these new-type drugs can cause addiction and serious cognitive impairment. However, there are no effective methods for the prevention and treatment of ATS addiction at present. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a painless and non-invasive new therapeutic approach that has been used for the treatment of depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders, but whether it can be used to treat drug addiction is unclear...
July 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo, Anthony Tapper, David Gonzalez, Ryan M Bradley, Robin Duncan
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 isoform has been associated with a significantly greater risk of developing late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the negative effects of APOE-ε4 allele on cognitive function vary across the lifespan: reduced memory and executive function have been found in older individuals but, paradoxically, young APOE-ε4 carriers perform better on cognitive tests and show higher neural efficiency. This study aimed to assess the association between APOE genotype and saccade latency using a prosaccade and antisaccade task in young individuals (N = 97, age: 17-35 years)...
July 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Maristella Borges Silva, Alcimar Barbosa Soares
The memory reconsolidation hypothesis states that a previously consolidated and stable memory can return to a temporary labile state after retrieved, requiring a new stabilization process. During the labile period, the memory trace is vulnerable to modification, which provides a potential therapeutic opportunity to weaken, updated or strengthen that memory. As such, reconsolidation has been the subject of numerous studies in different domains of human memory that seek strategies to treat post-traumatic disorders and erase or modify pathological memories...
July 3, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Yulong Zhao, Elisabeth Y Bijlsma, P Monika Verdouw, Johan Garssen, Lucianne Groenink
This study evaluated the extent to which a reduction in contextual fear contributes to the anxiolytic effect of benzodiazepines in the fear-potentiated startle response. To this end, chlordiazepoxide, an anxiolytic often used as positive control in preclinical drug studies, and zolpidem, known to have sedative properties and to be devoid of anxiolytic effects, were tested in two contexts: the same context as training had taken place and an alternative context. In addition, the level of muscle relaxation was assessed in a grip strength test...
June 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Julie A Morgan, Gaurav Singhal, Frances Corrigan, Emily J Jaehne, Magdalene C Jawahar, Bernhard T Baune
BACKGROUND: Altered TNF levels are associated with cognitive impairment in depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exercise improves cognition-like behaviours, reduces the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), and increases expression of the soluble TNF receptors soluble TNFR1 (sTNFR1) and sTNFR2. We suggest TNF and its receptors are involved in cognitive function and dysfunction, and investigate whether exercise mediates its effects on cognitive function via TNF and its receptors...
June 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Jessica E Sparling, Stephanie L Baker, Catherine Bielajew
The pre- and post-natal periods are characterized by unrivalled growth and are sensitive to environmental changes. A correctly stimulating early environment is essential for developing natural behaviors and maintaining affective wellness. Five litters of rat progeny were co-housed through gestation until juvenile age in housing providing physical and social enrichment. Five control litters were housed separately in standard conditions. Half of the offspring were tested in the elevated plus-maze and the social interaction test as juveniles (five weeks old) with the other half tested in the Morris water maze...
June 29, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Andrew Hemmings, Matthew O Parker, Catherine Hale, Sebastian D McBride
Spontaneous stereotypic behaviours are repetitive, compulsive, topographically invariant response patterns commonly observed in captive or domestic animals, which have been linked to dysfunction of basal ganglia input/output pathways. There is evidence that endogenous opioids play a key regulatory role in basal ganglia direct and indirect pathways, but their precise role, both causally and functionally, in spontaneous stereotypic behaviour is unclear. Here we examined the profile of mu- and delta-opioid receptors (density [Bmax] and affinity [Kd]) of basal ganglia structures in stereotypy (n = 10) and non-stereotypy (n = 10) animals using a competitive ligand binding approach...
June 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ana C Guerra de Souza, Cinara L Gonçalves, Viviane de Souza, Juliana M Hartwig, Marcelo Farina, Rui D Prediger
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and several studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in the etiopathology of both AD and depression. Clinical studies indicate reduced efficacy of the current antidepressants for the treatment of depression in AD. In this regard, agmatine emerges as a neuroprotective agent that presents diverse effects, including antidepressant and antioxidant properties. Here we investigated the antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects of agmatine in a mouse model of AD induced by a single intracerebroventricular (i...
June 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Laura-Isabelle Klatt, Stephan Getzmann, Edmund Wascher, Daniel Schneider
Attention can be shifted within internal representations maintained in working memory. These retroactive processes are particularly inherent to the processing of auditory information that is especially transient over time and thus, requires us to continuously maintain, attend to, and integrate information in working memory. Using EEG recordings, the present study investigated the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying selective spatial attention in a retroactive as opposed to a perceptual auditory search task...
June 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
M Schmidt, K Braun, C Brandwein, A C Rossetti, S Guara Ciurana, M A Riva, M Deuschle, J Bock, P Gass, N Gröger
The majority of studies examining the consequences of prenatal stress in rodent models analyze pups having been raised by their biological mother, i.e. the female which experienced stress during her pregnancy. To test whether pregnancy stress changes maternal behavior and thereby - in addition to stress exposure in utero - influences behavior and brain function of offspring, we implemented a fostering model, in which mouse pups that were not stressed in utero, are raised by dams which were exposed to stress during their pregnancy...
June 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ping Zhou, Huai-Sha Xu, Meng-Meng Li, Xiao-Dong Chen, Jun Wang, Hua-Bin Zhou, Ling Chen, Ning Zhang, Na Liu
Predators induce defensive responses and fear behaviours in prey. The rat exposure test (RET) is frequently used as an animal model of panic. Nitric oxide (NO) which has been reported to be activated by the NMDA receptor, in turn mediates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signalling pathways in defensive responses. ACCN2, the orthologous human gene of acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a), is also associated with panic disorder; however, few studies have focused on the roles of ASIC1a in the modulation of panic and calcium/CaMKII signalling by NO...
June 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Kirsten Martin, Doris A Trauner
Auditory neglect has been found in adults with right hemisphere focal brain lesions following strokes. Visual and tactile neglect has been found in children following both left and right hemisphere lesions resulting from perinatal strokes. The present cross-sectional study assessed auditory neglect in children with early unilateral brain damage from perinatal stroke. Twenty-six children with perinatal stroke and matched controls participated. All were asked to identify the location of a pure tone presented in left or right auditory fields...
June 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Nicholas J Jury, Anna K Radke, Dipanwita Pati, Adrina Kocharian, Masayoshi Mishina, Thomas L Kash, Andrew Holmes
The N-methyl-D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is mechanistically involved in the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of alcohol, but the specific role of the GluN2A subunit remains unclear. Here, we exposed mice with constitutive GluN2A gene knockout (KO) to chronic intermittent ethanol vapor (CIE) and tested for EtOH consumption/preference using a two-bottle choice paradigm, as well as NMDAR-mediated transmission at basolateral amygdala synapses via ex vivo slice electrophysiology. Results showed that GluN2A KO mice attained comparable blood EtOH levels in response to CIE exposure, but did not exhibit the significant increase in EtOH drinking that was observed in CIE-exposed wildtypes...
June 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Soleil García-Brito, Laura Aldavert-Vera, Gemma Huguet, Adam Álvarez, Elisabet Kádár, Pilar Segura-Torres
It has been suggested that the orexin system modulates learning and memory-related processes. However, the possible influence that training could have on the effect of the blockade of orexin-A selective receptor (OX1R) on a spatial memory task has not been explored. Therefore, the present study attempts to compare the effects of OX1R antagonist SB-334867 infusion on spatial memory in two different conditions in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). This experiment evaluated the animals' performance in weak training (2 trials per session) vs strong training (6 trials per session) protocols in a spatial version of the MWM...
June 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Lisa E Flannery, Daniel M Kerr, David P Finn, Michelle Roche
Aberrant activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)s results in persistent and prolonged neuroinflammation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. TLR3 coordinates the innate immune response to viral infection and recent data have demonstrated that inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme that primarily metabolizes anandamide, modulates TLR3-mediated neuroinflammation. However, the physiological and behavioural consequences of such modulation are unknown...
June 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Meng-He Zhou, Fang-Fang Sun, Chang Xu, Hui-Bin Chen, Hui Qiao, Xiang Cai, Xin-Ming Ma, Shu-Cheng An
Serotonin 5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) are distributed in hippocampal CA1 and play a pivotal role in cognitive function. Activation of 5-HT1BRs regulates synaptic plasticity at the excitatory synapses in the hippocampus. However, the role and its underlying mechanism of 5-HT1BR activation-mediated glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in spatial memory are not fully understood. In this study, spatial memory of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was assessed in a Morris water maze after bilateral dorsal hippocampal CA1 infusion of the 5-HT1BR antagonist GR55562 (25 μg/μL) or agonist CP93129 (25 μg/μL)...
June 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Tamar L Gur, Aditi Vadodkar Palkar, Therese Rajasekera, Jacob Allen, Anzela Niraula, Jonathan Godbout, Michael T Bailey
In utero and early neonatal exposure to maternal stress is linked with psychiatric disorders, and the underlying mechanisms are currently being elucidated. We used a prenatal stressor in pregnant mice to examine novel relationships between prenatal stress exposure, changes in the gut microbiome, and social behavior. Here, we show that males exposed to prenatal stress had a significant reduction in social behavior in adulthood, with increased corticosterone release following social interaction. Male offspring exposed to prenatal stress also had neuroinflammation, decreased oxytocin receptor, and decreased serotonin metabolism in their cortex in adulthood, which are linked to decreased social behavior...
June 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Davide Momi, Carmelo Smeralda, Giulia Sprugnoli, Salvatore Ferrone, Simone Rossi, Alessandro Rossi, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Emiliano Santarnecchi
Recent evidence shows how an extensive gaming experience might positively impact cognitive and perceptual functioning, leading to brain structural changes observed in cross-sectional studies. Importantly, changes seem to be game-specific, reflecting gameplay styles and therefore opening to the possibility of tailoring videogames according to rehabilitation and enhancement purposes. However, whether if such brain effects can be induced even with limited gaming experience, and whether if they can outlast the gaming period, is still unknown...
June 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Dana Crooks, Nathaniel E Anderson, Matthew Widdows, Nia Petseva, Jean Decety, Charles Pluto, Kent A Kiehl
Cavum Septum Pellucidum (CSP) is a common anatomical variant of the septum pellucidum. CSP is considered a marker for abnormal limbic brain development, but its functional consequences are non-specific. In a recent report [1], CSP size was significantly positively correlated with the affective/interpersonal traits of psychopathy in male offenders (N = 1742). Here we test the hypothesis that CSP is related to psychopathic traits in incarcerated females (N = 355). We examine continuous relationships as well as categorical assignments for CSP size corresponding to a number of prior reports...
June 22, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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