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Behavioural Brain Research

D Lucia, D Burgess, C L Cullen, E S Dorey, O Rawashdeh, K M Moritz
Maternal alcohol consumption throughout pregnancy can result in long term behavioural deficits in offspring. However, less is known about the impact of alcohol during the periconceptional period (PC). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PC ethanol (PC:EtOH) exposure on long term cognitive function; including memory and anxiety. Rats were exposed to a liquid diet containing ethanol (EtOH) (12.5% vol;vol) or a control diet from 4 days prior to mating until day 4 of pregnancy. Separate cohorts of animals were tested at 6 months (adult) or 15-18 months of age (aged)...
January 8, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
David P Jarmolowicz, Rachel Gehringer, Shea M Lemley, Michael J Sofis, Sam Kaplan, Michael A Johnson
Chemotherapy related cognitive impairment (CTRC; "chemobrain") is a syndrome that is associated with the impairment of various aspects of cognition, including executive function, processing speed, and multitasking. The role of neurotransmitter release in the expression of cognitive impairments is not well known. In this work we employed a newly developed behavioral paradigm to measure attentional shifting, a fundamental component of executive function, in rats treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a commonly used cancer chemotherapy agent...
January 7, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Lieve Filbrich, Séverine Blandiaux, Louise Manfron, Alessandro Farnè, Roxane De Keyser, Valéry Legrain
Nociception, the physiological mechanisms specifically processing information about noxious and potentially painful stimuli, has the double function to warn about potential body damages (interoception) and about the cause of such potential damages (exteroception). The exteroceptive function is thought to rely on multisensory integration between somatic and extra-somatic stimuli, provided that extra-somatic stimuli occur near the stimulated body area. To corroborate this hypothesis, we succeeded to show in healthy volunteers that the perception of nociceptive stimuli applied on one hand can be extinguished, as compared to single presentation, by the simultaneous application of nociceptive stimuli on the opposite hand, as well as by the presentation of visual stimuli near the opposite hand...
January 7, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Rafael Conte, Fernando Vagner Lobo Ladd, Aliny Antunes Barbosa Lobo Ladd, Amanda Lopez Moreira, Luciana Le Sueur-Maluf, Milena de Barros Viana, Isabel Cristina Céspedes
Alcohol consumption has been identified as a causal factor promoting changes in different molecular and cellular mechanisms resulting in neurodegeneration. This process is specific to certain brain regions and its effects on different areas of the brain can result in a variety of deleterious consequences. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) appears to be particularly sensitive to alcohol-induced neurodegeneration; this region is quite complex, as it is responsible for high order mental processes such as decision making...
January 7, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Hajar Benmhammed, Samer El Hayek, Abdeljabbar Nassiri, Rim Bousalham, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Ali Ouichou, Aboubaker El Hessni
INTRODUCTION: Preclinical studies of early-life adversity (ELA1 ) have highlighted the role of postnatal stress in the emergence and persistence of anxiety and depressive disorders. In this study, we compared anxious and depressive behaviors and oxidation levels in male and female Wistar rats subjected to three ELAs (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced, maternal deprivation (MD), or combination of the two stressors). METHODS: Rats were split into four groups: control group which received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of saline on postnatal day (PND) 1, LPS-treated group which received an IP injection of LPS on PND1, MD group which was exposed to a 24-hour period of isolation on PND9, and LPS-treated/MD group which received an IP injection of LPS on PND1 then was exposed to a 24-hour period of isolation on PND9...
January 7, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Yilu Ye, Siqi Yao, Rouxin Wang, Zekang Fang, Kai Zhong, Li Nie, Qi Zhang
The early-life aversive experiences are associated with the increased risk for adolescent neuropsychiatric disorders and neuroinflammation. So, we used neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD) and chronic mild stress (CMS) to build adolescent depression model and investigate the role of microglia activation, PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway in female rats. Pups in NMD group were separated from mothers for 3 h each day from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 21 and rats in CMS group were subjected to one mild stressor each day from PND 22 to PND 42...
January 7, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Anat Lan, Haim Einat
Animal models are critical for the study of disease mechanisms and the screening of potential novel treatments. In the context of bipolar disorder, amphetamine-induced hyperactivity (AIH) is a frequently used screening model for antimanic effects. Yet, the utility of screening models depends on their predictive (or pharmacological) validity and it is expected that such models will respond to effective treatments. Lithium is the prototypic mood stabilizer but previous data regarding the effects of lithium in the AIH model are not clear and most data comes from studies using acute lithium administration that is not relevant to the therapeutic regimen in patients...
January 7, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Maurizio Casarrubea, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Giuseppe Crescimanno, Ilaria Rosa, Stefania Aiello, Davide Di Censo, Brigida Ranieri, Andrea Santangelo, Daniele Busatta, Emanuele Cassioli, Angelo Galante, Marcello Alecci, Tiziana M Florio
The basal ganglia circuitry plays a crucial role in the sequential organization of behavior. Here we studied the behavioral structure of the animals after 21 days of 6-OHDA-induced lesion of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Frequencies and durations of individual components of the behavioral repertoire were calculated; moreover, whether a temporal organization of the activity was present, it was investigated by using T-pattern analysis, a multivariate approach able to detect the real-time sequential organization of behavior...
January 7, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Jiahui Han, Liufang Xie, Junchen Li, Yun Chen, Fuhong Li
Previous studies on task or rule shifting have shown that the switch cost is affected by the hierarchical level of abstraction. The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates of hierarchical modulation in rule shifting. Participants were required to respond to number stimuli (1-9, excluding 5) while adhering to alternative rules cued by different perceptual features of the stimuli. Across trials, the rules might repeat or shift at either high or low hierarchical levels. Behavioral results indicated that the reaction times were significantly slower in the high-shift than in the low-shift condition...
January 4, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Chen-Cheng Lin, Hsin-An Chang, Yueh-Ming Tai, Tzung-Yan Chen, Fang-Jung Wan, Chuan-Chia Chang, Che-Se Tung, Yia-Ping Liu
People may suffer from an intruded fear memory when the attributable traumatic events no longer exist. This is of highly clinical relevance to trauma-induced mental disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mechanism underlying PTSD largely lies in the abnormal process of fear extinction and a functional imbalance within amygdala associated fear circuit areas. Previous evidence suggested central dopamine plays a key role in the regulation of the fear memory process, yet it remains unclear whether the intervention of dopamine modulators would be beneficial for the fear extinction abnormalities...
January 2, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
M Van Zandt, E Weiss, A Almyasheva, S Lipior, S Maisel, J R Naegele
The cell adhesion molecule neuroligin2 (NLGN2) regulates GABAergic synapse development, but its role in neural circuit function in the adult hippocampus is unclear. We investigated GABAergic synapses and hippocampus-dependent behaviors following viral-vector-mediated overexpression of NLGN2. Transducing hippocampal neurons with AAV-NLGN2 increased neuronal expression of NLGN2 and membrane localization of GABAergic postsynaptic proteins gephyrin and GABAA Rγ2, and presynaptic vesicular GABA transporter protein (VGAT) suggesting trans-synaptic enhancement of GABAergic synapses...
December 31, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Brittany V Hope, Trevor J Hamilton, Peter L Hurd
The elevated plus maze is a prominent and well-documented test for studying anxiety in rodents. Fish are becoming more prevalent in studies of anxiety, yet the elevated plus maze has not been adapted and validated for fish. In the present study, we created an aquatic version of the elevated plus maze called the 'submerged plus maze,' which is shaped like a plus symbol with four arms alternating between black and transparent walls. We used convict cichlid fish (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) and administered diazepam to validate the apparatus for studying anxiety-like behaviour...
December 29, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Georgia Minakaki, Fabio Canneva, Frédéric Chevessier, Frederik Bode, Stefanie Menges, Ivanna K Timotius, Liubov S Kalinichenko, Holger Meixner, Christian P Müller, Bjoern M Eskofier, Nicolas Casadei, Olaf Riess, Rolf Schröder, Jürgen Winkler, Wei Xiang, Stephan von Hörsten, Jochen Klucken
Gait and postural control dysfunction are prototypical symptoms compromising quality of life for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Hallmarks of cellular pathology are dopaminergic degeneration and accumulation of the cytosolic protein alpha-synuclein, linked to impaired autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) clearance. Physical exercise improves gait in PD patients and motor function in rodent lesion models. Moreover, exercise is considered neuroprotective and ALP induction has been reported, e.g. in human skeletal muscle, rodent peripheral and cerebral tissues...
December 29, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Josephine Germer, Evelyn Kahl, Markus Fendt
One-trial contextual fear conditioning in laboratory mice results in a fear memory which is relatively specific to the original conditioning context shortly after conditioning but becomes more unspecific after an incubation time of one month. This process is called generalization of fear memory and is used to investigate processes which might be involved in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sex and neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR) deficiency in one-trial contextual fear conditioning...
December 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Bertrand Bryche, Mikaël Le Bourhis, Patrice Congar, Claire Martin, Olivier Rampin, Nicolas Meunier
In the olfactory epithelium, olfactory sensitive neurons and their axons are surrounded by glia-like cells called sustentacular cells, which maintain both the structural and ionic integrity of the olfactory mucosa. We have previously found that endothelin-1 (ET-1) can uncouple sustentacular cell gap junctions in vitro similarly as carbenoxolone, a known gap junction uncoupling agent. The role of gap junctions in odorant transduction remains controversial and we explored here if ET-1 naturally produced by the olfactory mucosa could impact odorant detection...
December 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Shahab A Zarei, Vahid Sheibani, Carlos Tomaz, Farshad A Mansouri
Current models suggest that neuropeptide oxytocin modulates the salience of emotional/social stimuli and consequently influences perceptual, attentional and learning processes that underlie social behaviour. Therefore, oxytocin has been considered as a potential treatment in managing social and communication deficits in neuropsychological disorders. Recent studies indicate that effects of oxytocin on social and cognitive functions greatly vary and even lead to opposite outcomes. The factors leading to such variabilities in behavioural effects of oxytocin and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
December 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Alicja K Warda, Kieran Rea, Patrick Fitzgerald, Cara Hueston, Enrique Gonzalez-Tortuero, Timothy G Dinan, Colin Hill
Recently it has been proposed to expand the definition of psychobiotics (beneficial bacteria (probiotics) or support for such bacteria (prebiotics) that positively impact mental health) to any exogenous influence whose effect on the brain is bacterially-mediated. This definition would include inactivated microorganisms with anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. The use of inactivated microorganisms has several advantages over living organisms, including no risk of infection in vulnerable individuals and ease of use in terms of storage and delivery options...
December 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Chien-Wen Lai, Chun-Hui Chang
All individuals face different challenges every day. Under threats, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is engaged to initiate proper physiological and behavioral responses. In this study, we pharmacologically activated the BLA in rats with no stress history to examine how animals regulated their anxiety- and despair-like behaviors in face of different task demands, as well as their dopamine (DA) activity in ventral tegmental area (VTA). The number of spontaneously firing VTA DA neurons, defined as "population activity", decides the amplitude of DA response to external stimuli, which can be assessed by the behavioral responses of the animals to amphetamine (AMPH) administration; several studies have shown that the level is positively correlated with the AMPH-induced increase in locomotor activity...
December 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Mark E Bardgett, Casey Crane, Emily C Baltes Thompson, Bethanie Cox, Tyler Downnen
Antipsychotic drugs are used to manage symptoms of pediatric psychiatric disorders despite the relative absence of research regarding the long-term effects of these drugs on brain development. Using rats as a model, research has demonstrated that administration of the antipsychotic drug, risperidone, during early postnatal development elevates locomotor activity and sensitivity to the locomotor effects of amphetamine during adulthood. Because risperidone targets neurotransmitter receptors and forebrain regions associated with working memory, the present study determined whether early-life risperidone altered working memory during adulthood and its sensitivity to amphetamine-induced impairment...
December 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Sebahattin Karabulut, Keziban Korkmaz Bayramov, Ruslan Bayramov, Fadime Ozdemir, Tugba Topaloglu, Ergul Ergen, Kamile Yazgan, Ahmet Sevki Taskiran, Asuman Golgeli
Sleep is essential for memory consolidation that stabilizes a memory trace. Memory consolidation includes waves of new gene expression and protein synthesis. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of memory processes. Previous studies demonstrated that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REM SD) during specific time windows after training in the Morris water maze (MWM) task impairs memory consolidation. Here, we showed that the post-learning REM sleep, extending from 3 to 6 h after last training, is critical for spatial learning in the MWM task...
December 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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