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Behavioural Brain Research

Juan C Olaya, Carrie L Heusner, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Tim Karl
Elevated levels of the type III (III) isoforms of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) have been observed in the brains of schizophrenia patients that carry NRG1 HapICE risk alleles, which is thought to contribute to the aetiology of the disease. We generated transgenic mice with forebrain driven Nrg1 III overexpression (Nrg1 III tg) and previously found that male heterozygous Nrg1 type III tg mice exhibit several schizophrenia-relevant behaviours including social and cognitive deficits as well as impaired sensorimotor gating...
March 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
David Hunt, Samuel Stuart, Jeremy Nell, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Brook Galna, Lynn Rochester, Lisa Alcock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Laura Tascón, Joaquín Castillo, Irene León, José Manuel Cimadevilla
Spatial memory enables us to locate places and objects in space, to determine our position and manage spatial relationships in our environment. Our operations are displayed in a space that sometimes is inaccessible. In this case, the impossibility of movement within the context forces individuals to rely on the information gathered from limited viewpoints. This study investigates the use of walking and non-walking spaces using two equivalent virtual reality tasks in which displacement is only permitted in one of them...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ross McFarland, Zi Teng Wang, Yan Jouroukhin, Ye Li, Olga Mychko, Isabelle Coppens, Jianchun Xiao, Lorraine Jones-Brando, Robert H Yolken, L David Sibley, Mikhail V Pletnikov
Infection with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), has been associated with the increased risk for several psychiatric disorders. The exact mechanisms of a hypothesized contribution of T. gondii infection are poorly understood. The T. gondii genome contains two aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes (AAH1 and AAH2) that encode proteins that can produce L-DOPA. One popular hypothesis posits that these encoded enzymes might influence dopamine (DA) production and hence DA synaptic transmission, leading to neurobehavioral abnormalities in the infected host...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Yituo Wang, Yuyang Zhu, Pinhong Chen, Feng Yan, Shanshan Chen, Gongjie Li, Xiangjun Hu, Lubin Wang, Zheng Yang
The amygdala, a subcortical structure responsible for fear and vigilance, is central to the stress circuitry. Aberrant amygdala connectivity with the cortical and subcortical regions is found in patients with stress-related disorders, and in healthy subjects following acute stress exposure. However, the extent to which the stress-induced alteration of amygdala functional connectivity correlates with risk-related personality measures remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the effect of acute stress, induced by aversive movies accompanied by a mild electric shock, on the functional connectivity of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) in 35 healthy men, and assessed the association between changes in amygdala functional connectivity and individual differences in neuroticism...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Sina Faton, Jean-Pol Tassin, Flore Duranton, Didier Bagnol, Anne-Dominique Lajoix
Central serotonin systems have long been associated with the control of feeding behavior and the modulation of behavioral effects of psychostimulants. 5-HT2C receptors are present in hypothalamic centers such as the arcuate nucleus (ARC), controlling homeostatic regulation of food intake, as well as in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region involved in motivation aspects in multiple behaviors, including feeding. In the present study, we investigated whether the 5-HT2C receptors control amphetamine-evoked locomotor activity and regulate food consumption...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Yong Wang, Ge-Juan Zhang, Yi-Na Sun, Lu Yao, Hui-Sheng Wang, Cheng-Xue Du, Li Zhang, Jian Liu
L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a frequent complication of chronic L-DOPA therapy in the clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of LID involves complex molecular mechanisms in the striatum. Metabolomics can shed light on striatal metabolic alterations in LID. In the present study, we compared metabolomics profiles of striatum tissue from Parkinsonian rats with or without dyskinetic symptoms after chronic L-DOPA administration. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based global metabolomics method combined with multivariate statistical analyses were used to detect candidate metabolites associated with LID...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Mikkel Thøgersen, John Hansen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Herta Flor, Laura Petrini
The purpose of the present study was to assess changes in body perception when visual feedback was removed from the hand and arm with the purpose of resembling the visual deprivation arising from amputation. The illusion was created by removing the visual feedback from the participants' own left forearm using a mixed reality (MR) and green screen environment. Thirty healthy persons (15 female) participated in the study. Each subject experienced two MR conditions, one with and one without visual feedback from the left hand, and a baseline condition with normal vision of the limb (no MR)...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Karolina Pekala, Agnieszka Michalak, Marta Kruk-Slomka, Barbara Budzynska, Grazyna Biala
Taking into account the rather frequent concomitance of nicotine abuse and stress, we aimed to research memory- and depression-related effects of nicotine administration in combination with chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMUS) in mice and an involvement of the endocannabinoid system through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Mice were submitted to the CMUS for 4 weeks. Effects on depression-like behaviors and cognition, exerted by a combined administration of CB1, i.e., Oleamide (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg), AM 251 (0.1, 0.25 mg/kg) and CB2, i...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Tae-Woon Kim, Hye-Sang Park
Maternal obesity induces hippocampal functional changes and leads to deficits in cognitive functions, such as learning and memory in offspring. We investigated the protective effects of physical exercise against cognitive function deficit in offspring born to obese mothers. Neurotrophic factors, neurogenesis, and apoptosis were analyzed in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus of offspring. Four-week-old female rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks: 12 weeks prior to mating, and 8 weeks during pregnancy and breast-feeding...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Taisuke Kamada, Toshimichi Hata
In this study, we investigated: (1) the effect of fear on interval timing-time perception in the seconds-to-minutes range-and (2) the role of the insular cortex in the modulation of this effect. Rats were first trained on a temporal bisection task in which their response to a lever A was reinforced following a 2.00-s tone, whereas their response to a lever B was reinforced following an 8.00-s tone. After acquisition, the rats were also presented with intermediate-duration tones and pressed one of two levers to indicate whether tone duration was closer to 2...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Anna Vera Cuppone, Marianna Semprini, Jürgen Konczak
Sensorimotor learning is a bidirectional process associated with concurrent neuroplastic changes in the motor and somatosensory system. While motor memory consolidation and retention have been extensively studied during skill acquisition, little is known about the formation and consolidation of somatosensory memory associated with motor learning. Using a robotic exoskeleton, we tracked markers of somatosensory and motor learning while healthy participants trained to make goal-directed wrist reaching movements over five days and evaluated retention for up to 10 days after practice...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Owen Y Chao, Richelle Yunger, Yi-Mei Yang
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed based on the behavioral criteria of impaired social interaction, defective communication and repetitive behaviors. Psychiatric comorbidities, such as anxiety and intellectual disability, are commonly present in ASD. The BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice display a range of autistic phenotypes, yet whether this mouse model is appropriate to study psychiatric comorbidity in ASD remains unclear. We addressed this issue by subjecting the BTBR animals to three-chambered apparatus, open field, object attention test and elevated open platform...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Cong Lu, Yan Wang, Jingwei Lv, Ning Jiang, Bei Fan, Lina Qu, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively caused cognitive deficit, which was associated with oxidative stress induced damage. Ginsenoside Rh2 had the ability to protect against damage caused by reactive oxygen species in vitro, showing antioxidant property. Therefore, it was hypothesized that Ginsenoside Rh2 could prevent SD-induced cognitive deficit via its antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation was investigated. The mice were sleep deprived continuously for 14 days using our self-made Sleep Interruption Apparatus (SIA)...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Mayila Yiliyasi, Akira Kuwahara, Sumika Matsui, Minoru Irahara
Energy balance and reproductive functions are closely linked in some species. The sex hormones (estrogens and androgens) are involved in the regulation of appetite, metabolism, body weight (BW), and body composition in mammals. Previously, we showed that the effects of testosterone on BW, appetite, and fat weight were markedly affected by alterations to the gonadal hormonal milieu. In this study, we examined whether testosterone administration changes food preferences and whether these effects of testosterone depend on gonadal status in female rats...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Luqing Wei, Xiao Hu, Yonggui Yuan, Weiguo Liu, Hong Chen
Neuropathology suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) with depression may involve a progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have shown that dopamine changes in individual brain regions constituting the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic circuits are associated with depression in PD. However, few studies have been conducted on the circuit-level alterations in this disease...
March 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Erin M Purvis, Adam K Klein, Aaron Ettenberg
Recent research has identified the lateral habenula (LHb) as a brain region playing an important role in the production of stressful and anxiogenic states. Additionally, norepinephrine (NE) has long been known to be involved in arousal, stress and anxiety, and NE projections to the LHb have been identified emanating from the locus coeruleus (LC). The current research was devised to test the hypothesis that NE release within the LHb contributes to the occurrence of anxiogenic behaviors. Male rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannula aimed at the LHb and subsequently treated with intracranial (IC) infusions of the selective α2 adrenergic autoreceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine (DEX) (0, 0...
March 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Hiroko Tsunekawa, Kazue Takahata, Motoki Okano, Toshiko Ishikawa, Hiroshi Satoyoshi, Tetsuya Nishimura, Naoya Hoshino, Shizuko Muraoka
3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-Dopa) remains the most effective drug for treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its long-term use is limited due to motor complications such as wearing-off and dyskinesia. A clinical study in PD patients with motor complications has demonstrated that selegiline, a monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor, is effective in reducing off time without worsening dyskinesia, although another study has shown worsening dyskinesia. Here, using unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats showing degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and L-Dopa-induced motor complications, we determined the efficacy of selegiline in controlling L-Dopa-induced motor fluctuations and exacerbated dyskinesia...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
E J Marijke Achterberg, Ruth Damsteegt, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Social play behaviour is a vigorous, highly rewarding social activity abundant in the young of most mammalian species, including humans. Social play is thought to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development, yet its neural underpinnings are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that low doses of methylphenidate suppress social play behaviour through a noradrenergic mechanism of action, and that methylphenidate exerts its effect within the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and habenula...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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