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Behavioural Brain Research

Dominik Drobisz, Alena Damborská
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a new therapeutic approach for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). There is a preliminary evidence of the efficacy and safety of DBS for TRD in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, the ventral capsule/ventral striatum, the nucleus accumbens, the lateral habenula, the inferior thalamic peduncle, the medial forebrain bundle, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Optimal stimulation targets, however, have not yet been determined. Here we provide updated knowledge substantiating the suitability of each of the current and potential future DBS targets for treating depression...
November 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
D Funk, S Tamadon, K Coen, P J Fletcher, A D Lê
Dynorphin (DYN), and its receptor, the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) are involved in drug seeking and relapse but the mechanisms are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that DYN/KOR activation promotes drug seeking through increased impulsivity, because many stimuli that induce DYN release increase impulsivity. Here, we systematically compare the effects of drugs that activate DYN/KOR on performance on the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), a test of sustained attention and impulsivity. In Experiment 1, we determined the effects of U50,488 (0, 2...
November 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Jenny M Daggett, Verity J Brown, Caroline H Brennan
As a model organism, zebrafish have much to offer neuroscientific research and they are increasingly being used in behavioral neuroscience, for example to study the genetics of learning and memory. As fish are often considered "less clever" than mammals, it is important to understand how they learn and to establish optimal testing conditions. In this study, we compared the efficacy of food reinforcement and social stimuli in supporting Pavlovian conditioning, Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer, and acquisition of a two-alternative forced choice visual discrimination...
November 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Arthur R Chaves, Elizabeth M Wallack, Liam P Kelly, Ryan W Pretty, Hailey D Wiseman, Alice Chen, Craig S Moore, Mark Stefanelli, Michelle Ploughman
OBJECTIVES: Investigate whether asymmetrical corticospinal excitability exists in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and its association with MS symptoms. METHODS: Bilateral resting and active motor thresholds (RMT, AMT) were gathered using transcranial magnetic stimulation among 82 MS patients. Corticospinal excitability (CSE) asymmetry was expressed as the ratio between weaker and stronger sides' RMT and AMT. Stronger and weaker side was determined by pinch and grip strength...
November 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Yuan-Jian Song, Chun-Xiao Dai, Man Li, Miao-Miao Cui, Xin Ding, Xiao-Fang Zhao, Cai-Lin Wang, Zhen-Ling Li, Meng-Yuan Guo, Xiang-Ru Wen, Da-Shi Qi, Yu-Lan Wang
Heme oxygenase (HO-1), which may be induced by Cobaltic protoporphyrin IX chloride (CoPPIX) or Rosiglitazone (Ros), is a neuroprotective agent that effectively reduces ischemic stroke. Previous studies have shown that the neuroprotective mechanisms of HO-1 are related to JNK signaling. The expression of HO-1 protects cells from death through the JNK signaling pathway. This study aimed to ascertain whether the neuroprotective effect of HO-1 depends on the assembly of the MLK3-MKK7-JNK3 signaling module scaffolded by JIP1 and further influences the JNK signal transmission through HO-1...
November 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Huimin Wu, Renhui Zhou, Le Zhao, Junjie Qiu, Cheng Guo
The aims of present study were to investigate the association between balanced time perspective (BTP) and trait anxiety, and the neural substrates underlying this association using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods. 140 college students (83 females) ranging in age from 17 to 25 years were assessed on deviation from the balanced time perspective (DBTP) and trait anxiety. Behavioral analyses found BTP could significantly predict trait anxiety after controlling age and gender...
November 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
K M Eyme, M Domin, F Gerlach, N Hosten, C O Schmidt, C Gaser, A Flöel, M Lotze
To examine the association between the amount of sports activity performed during leisure time and gray matter volume (GMV) of the brain we investigated differences in GMV in a large cohort study of community-dwelling older adults. 967 individuals indicated their average weekly sports activity via a questionnaire, and underwent high resolution T1-weighted structural imaging of the brain. We used voxel based morphometry (CAT 12) in a region of interest approach for (1) comparing participants with higher versus lower sports activity (median split) and (2) calculating a linear regression on GMV and sports activity...
November 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Luca Puviani, Sidita Rama
The human brain can be conceptualized as an inference machine that actively predicts and explains its sensations and perceptions: it makes predictions through a probabilistic model. Such a model is continuously and implicitly updated by the computation and minimization of weighted prediction errors, as shown by numerous studies and experimental results. Nevertheless, such an algorithmic functioning of the brain has not been exploited in the neuropharmacological practice. In this manuscript, we show by theoretical analysis and model fitting of previously published data in two different contexts, how it is possible to increase the effectiveness of neuropharmacological and immunosuppressive drugs, through the modulation of the weighted prediction errors...
November 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Laura Olivito, Maria De Risi, Fabio Russo, Elvira De Leonibus
Memory capacity (MC) refers to the limited capacity of working memory and is defined as the number of elements that an individual can remember for a short retention interval. MC is impaired in many human pathologies, such as schizophrenia and ageing. Fronto-striatal dopamine regulates working memory, through its action on dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors. Human and rodent studies have suggested that MC is improved by D2 dopamine receptor agonists. Although D1 receptors have been crucially involved in the maintenance of working memory during delay, their role in regulating the capacity of WM remains poorly explored...
November 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Natalie Schroyens, Crhistian Luis Bender, Joaquín Matias Alfei, Victor Alejandro Molina, Laura Luyten, Tom Beckers
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of housing conditions on contextual fear memory malleability. Male Wistar rats were housed in enriched, standard, or impoverished conditions after weaning and remained in these conditions throughout the entire experiment. After six weeks into those housing conditions, all animals underwent a 3-day protocol including contextual fear conditioning (day 1), memory reactivation followed by systemic administration of midazolam or vehicle (day 2), and a retention test (day 3)...
October 31, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Alex Dorfman, Henry Szechtman, David Eilam
Here we present an empirical study that provides a basis for understanding the impact of the social environment on individuals with mental disorders. Rats treated chronically with the dopamine-agonist quinpirole offer a solid animal model for compulsive behavior that has been comprehensively evaluated and validated in numerous studies. Moreover, the method of behavioral analysis used in the quinpirole rat model has been similarly applied to the analysis of compulsive rituals in OCD patients, revealing similarities to the structure of compulsions in the quinpirole-sensitized rats...
October 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Erik Karl Håkan Clemensson, Arianna Novati, Laura Emily Clemensson, Olaf Riess, Huu Phuc Nguyen
Huntington disease is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease, in which patients display a broad range of clinical symptoms. Among these, impaired inhibitory control has been noted. The BACHD rat is a recently developed and established transgenic animal model for Huntington disease, and characterizing the presence of Huntington disease-like behavioural phenotypes in these animals is of importance. Prior studies have indicated that BACHD rats suffer from impaired inhibitory control, although further studies are necessary to fully understand the scope and specific nature of these phenotypes...
October 29, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Lang-Qian Zhang, Juan Yao, Jie Gao, Lin Sun, Li-Ting Wang, Jian-Feng Sui
Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is one of the simplest forms of associative learning that depends critically on the cerebellum. Using delay EBC (dEBC), a standard paradigm in which the unconditioned stimulus (US) is delayed and co-terminates with the conditioned stimulus (CS), converging lines of evidence has been accumulated and shows that the essential neural circuit mediating EBC resides in the cerebellum and brainstem. In addition to this essential circuit, multiple cerebral cortical and subcortical structures are required to modulate dEBC with suboptimal training parameters, and trace EBC (tEBC) in which a trace-interval separates the CS and US...
October 29, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Felix Mattern, Antonia Post, Franziska Solger, Aet O'Leary, David A Slattery, Andreas Reif, Thomas Haaf
To analyze the influences of early-life history on the brain epigenome, the offspring of mouse dams kept in an enriched or standard environment were exposed postnatally to enriched, standard, or adverse conditions. The methylation patterns of 7 candidate genes (9 loci) involved in developmental programming of stress vulnerability/resilience and psychiatric disease were analyzed in 6 brain regions of adult male and female mice. Exposure to an enriched prenatal environment was associated with widespread epigenetic changes (all of small effect size), affecting 29 of 324 (9%) gene/region-specific methylation patterns...
October 29, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Tony G J Ingram, Jack P Solomon, David A Westwood, Shaun G Boe
Sensory feedback has traditionally been considered critical for motor learning. While it has been shown that motor learning can occur in the absence of visual or somatosensory feedback, it is thought that at least one must be present. This assumption contrasts with literature demonstrating that motor imagery (MI) - the mental rehearsal of a movement - is capable of driving motor learning even though the lack of actual execution precludes sensory feedback related to movement. However, studies of MI typically employ simple tasks that do not require improvements in motor execution per se, suggesting that MI might improve task performance primarily through perceptual mechanisms...
October 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Jenna R Lee, Melissa A Tapia, Jane R Nelson, Justin M Moore, Graydon B Gereau, Tom E Childs, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Frank W Booth, Matthew J Will
Considering the current obesity epidemic is due in large part to an energy imbalance, it is crucial to explore biological mechanisms that mediate palatable high energy food intake and physical activity behavior levels. Previous research demonstrates a unique sex dependent influence of physical activity on diet preference, specifically changes in palatable high-fat diet intake. Therefore, factors of motivation may be underlying the differential effect of physical activity in male and female rats on their diet preference...
October 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Vincent Maleysson, Guylène Page, Thierry Janet, Ronald L Klein, Obélia Haida, Anne Maurin, Serge Richard, Pascal Champeroux, Bernard Fauconneau
In order to contribute to a better knowledge on the relationship between amyloid and tau pathology, and electroencephalography (EEG) disturbances, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of injection of beta amyloid Abeta(1-42) peptide, tau (a recombinant AAV (Adeno-Associated Virus) containing the human transgene tau with the P301 L mutation on rats and the combination of both, on the power of brain's rhythm (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma waves) during the different sleep/wake states of animals by EEG recording...
October 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Liane da Silva de Vargas, Dieuwke Sevenster, Karine R Lima, Iván Izquierdo, Rudi D'Hooge, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes
Fear generalization is defined as the transferring of fear experienced during a traumatic event to safe conditions resembling or not the traumatic event. It has been related to several psychological disorders. Here we set out to determine whether novelty exposure can be effective to avoid fear generalization. We evaluated the effect of a novelty exposure on fear memory generalization using an aversive memory task, the inhibitory avoidance (IA). Male Wistar rats were trained in IA (day 1) and 24 h after (day 2) they were exposed to a new context similar to the original (modified IA - MIA), with some rats being exposed to a novelty just before the exposure to the MIA, while others were not (controls)...
October 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Amine Bahi, Jean-Luc Dreyer
Many epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated a strong comorbidity between anxiety and depression, and a number of experimental studies indicates that the dopamine transporter (DAT) is involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. However, studies using laboratory animals have yielded inconclusive results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of DAT manipulation on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice. For this purpose, animals were stereotaxically injected with DAT siRNA-expressing lentiviral vectors (siDAT) in the caudate putamen (CPu) or in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) and the behavioral outcomes were assessed using the open-field (OF), elevated-plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB), sucrose preference (SPT), novelty suppressed feeding (NSF), and forced-swim (FST) tests...
October 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Konstantin A Demin, Polina A Alekseeva, Allan V Kalueff
Atropine and scopolamine are classical muscarinic cholinergic antagonists that exert multiple CNS effects. Belonging to a group of deliriant hallucinogens, these drugs induce delirium-like hallucinations, hyperactivity, altered affective states and amnesia. However, as deliriants remain the least studied group of hallucinogens, their complex and poorly understood profiles necessitate further clinical and preclinical studies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as a powerful model organism for translational neuropsychopharmacology research...
October 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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