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American Journal of Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089675/burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-associated-hospitalization-in-a-cohort-of-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#1
Yingxi Chen, Kathryn Glass, Bette Liu, Rosemary J Korda, Thomas V Riley, Martyn D Kirk
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to describe and compare length of stay (LOS), costs, and in-hospital deaths for C difficile infection (CDI) and non-CDI hospitalizations, in a cohort of middle-aged and older Australians. METHODS: We used survey data from the 45 and Up Study, linked to hospitalization and death data. We calculated the average LOS and costs per hospitalization, and the proportion of in-hospital deaths for CDI and non-CDI hospitalizations...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089674/assessment-of-ventilator-associated-events-using-the-geometric-distribution
#2
Ragheb Assaly, William R Barnett, Fadi Safi, Sadik Khuder, John Macko
Hospital-acquired rare events, such as nosocomial infections and other low-occurring incidents, in the clinical environment are difficult to monitor using traditional quality indicators. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of ventilator-associated events, we demonstrate an alternative method for assessment of rare events.
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089673/the-value-of-participatory-development-to-support-antimicrobial-stewardship-with-a-clinical-decision-support-system
#3
Nienke Beerlage-de Jong, Jobke Wentzel, Ron Hendrix, Lisette van Gemert-Pijnen
BACKGROUND: Current clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are guideline- or expert-driven. They are focused on (clinical) content, not on supporting real-time workflow. Thus, CDSSs fail to optimally support prudent antimicrobial prescribing in daily practice. Our aim was to demonstrate why and how participatory development (involving end-users and other stakeholders) can contribute to the success of CDSSs in ASPs. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was applied, combining scenario-based prototype evaluations (to support verbalization of work processes and out-of-the-box thinking) among 6 medical resident physicians with an online questionnaire (to cross-reference findings of the prototype evaluations) among 54 Dutch physicians...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089672/isopropyl-alcohol-is-as-efficient-as-chlorhexidine-to-prevent-contamination-of-blood-cultures
#4
Jovanna Martínez, Juan H Macías, Virginia Arreguín, Jose A Álvarez, Alejandro E Macías, Juan L Mosqueda-Gómez
BACKGROUND: False-positive blood cultures can lead to unnecessary risks and misuse of antibiotics; to reduce rates of false-positives, it would be useful to determine whether use of an antiseptic with a prolonged effect is required. METHODS: Clinical study of efficacy (blinded and randomized) to compare the rate of blood culture contamination when skin antisepsis was performed with 70% isopropyl alcohol or 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl alcohol in 2 hospitals...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087169/antibiotic-knowledge-and-self-medication-practices-in-a-developing-country-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Antoun Jamhour, Ammar El-Kheir, Pascale Salameh, Pierre Abi Hanna, Hanine Mansour
BACKGROUND: Self-medication is identified by the World Health Organization as a major factor leading to antibiotics overuse, misuse and resistance. This study's objectives were to evaluate the knowledge and self-medication with antibiotics in a sample of the population of Lebanon. METHODS: This study surveyed a sample of adults (over 18 years of age) residing in 2 major cities in Lebanon about their knowledge and self-medication with antibiotics. Health care professionals were excluded from the study...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063726/hospital-wide-chlorhexidine-gluconate-bed-bathing-protocol-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-single-hospital
#6
Sara M Reese, Nicole Burnet, Jan Smith, Heather Escudero, Bryan C Knepper, Heather L Young
The objective of this study was to determine understanding of bed bathing practices over time after the implementation of a standardized bed bathing protocol. An online survey addressing bathing practices was administered preintervention and 6 and 18 months postintervention to all nurses and technicians caring for adult patients. Survey responses suggested that the intervention resulted in sustained understanding of the standardized bed bathing protocol.
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063732/stepwise-intervention-including-1-on-1-counseling-is-highly-effective-in-increasing-influenza-vaccination-among-health-care-workers
#7
Younghee Jung, Mihye Kwon, Jeongmi Song
BACKGROUND: The influenza vaccination rate among health care workers (HCWs) remains suboptimal. We attempted to increase vaccine uptake in HCWs by nonmandatory measures, including 1-on-1 counseling. METHODS: In 2015 we used a stepwise approach including (1) text messaging on the last day of the vaccination period, (2) extending the vaccination period by 3 days, (3) education for the low uptake group, and (4) 1-on-1 counseling for unvaccinated HCWs after the 3 interventions...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063731/risk-of-sharps-injuries-among-home-care-aides-results-of-the-safe-home-care-survey
#8
Natalie M Brouillette, Margaret M Quinn, David Kriebel, Pia K Markkanen, Catherine J Galligan, Susan R Sama, Rebecca J Gore, Angela K Laramie, Letitia Davis
OBJECTIVES: Home care (HC) aides constitute an essential, rapidly growing workforce. Technology advances are enabling complex medical care at home, including procedures requiring the percutaneous use of sharp medical devices, also known as sharps. Objectives were to quantify risks of sharps injuries (SI) in a large HC aide population, compare risks between major occupational groups, and evaluate SI risk factors. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was administered to aides hired by HC agencies and directly by clients...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063730/transmission-of-salmonella-enteritidis-after-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-because-of-inadequate-endoscope-decontamination
#9
Paul Robertson, Andrew Smith, Margaret Anderson, Jackie Stewart, Kate Hamilton, Sandra McNamee, Evonne T Curran
We report a historic nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis affecting 4 inpatients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The cause was attributed to inadequate decontamination of an on-loan endoscope used over a weekend. This report highlights the risks of using on-loan endoscopes, particularly regarding their commissioning and adherence to disinfection protocols. In an era of increasing antibiotic resistance, transmission of Enterobacteriaceae by endoscopes remains a significant concern...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063729/wound-and-soft-tissue-infections-of-serratia-marcescens-in-patients-receiving-wound-care-a-health-care-associated-outbreak
#10
Ebru Us, Huseyin H Kutlu, Alper Tekeli, Duygu Ocal, Sevilay Cirpan, Kemal O Memikoglu
We described a health care-associated Serratia marcescens outbreak of wound and soft tissue infection lasting approximately 11 months at Ankara University Ibni Sina Hospital. After identification of S marcescens strains from the clinical and environmental samples, and their susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to detect molecular epidemiologic relationships among these isolates. The strains which were isolated from the saline bottles used for wound cleansing in the wound care unit were found to be 100% interrelated by PFGE to the strains from the samples of the outbreak patients...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063728/no-bacterial-growth-found-in-spiked-intravenous-fluids-over-an-8-hour-period
#11
Richard E Haas, Edwin Beitz, Amy Reed, Howard Burtnett, Jason Lowe, Arthur E Crist, Kevin A Stierer, Allan M Birenberg
Protocol changes prompted by the Joint Commission mandating intravenous (IV) fluid bags to be used within 1 hour of spiking because of possible bacterial contamination have sparked clinical and economic concerns. This study investigated the degree of bacterial growth in which samples were obtained from spiked IV fluid bags at the time of spiking and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after spiking. No bacterial growth occurred in any of the 80 bags of Lactated Ringer's (LR) IV solutions sampled. This study demonstrated that LR IV bags do not support any bacterial growth for up to 8 hours after spiking...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063727/bloodborne-pathogen-exposures-difference-in-reporting-rates-and-individual-predictors-among-health-care-personnel
#12
Cynthia Bush, Kendra Schmid, Mark E Rupp, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Barbara Wolford, Uriel Sandkovsky
BACKGROUND: Employees in health care settings are at varying risk for bloodborne pathogen (BBP) exposures. We compared differences in reporting rates of BBP exposures among health care personnel during 2 different time periods, assessing job category, years of experience, and sex as potential predictors for exposure. METHODS: A retrospective review of the employee health department BBP database at 2 time periods (September 1, 2012-April 30, 2013, and September 1, 2013-April 30, 2014) in which 2 different reporting protocols (call center vs pager) was used...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063725/despite-awareness-of-recommendations-why-do-health-care-workers-not-immunize-pregnant-women
#13
Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Yaffa Shir-Raz, Samah Hayek, Sharon Aassaraf, Lior Lowenstein
Studies indicate uncertainty surrounding vaccination safety and efficacy for pregnant women, causing a central problem for health authorities. In this study, approximately 26% of participants do not recommend the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccines to their patients, although being aware of the health ministry recommendations. We found significant statistical discrepancies between the knowledge about the recommendations and their actual implementation, revealing the concerns of health care workers regarding vaccine safety...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041629/prevalence-of-and-outcomes-from-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia-among-hospitalized-patients-in-the-united-states-2009-2012
#14
David M Jacobs, Amy Shaver
BACKGROUND: The burden of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is unknown despite being a major cause of mortality. We investigated national estimates of methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) pneumonias and predictors of in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample from 2009-2012. Adult patients with an ICD-9-CM primary diagnosis code for MRSA or MSSA pneumonia were included...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034538/an-outbreak-of-surgical-site-infections-following-craniotomy-procedures-associated-with-a-change-in-the-ultrasonic-surgical-aspirator-decontamination-process
#15
Caroline Sheitoyan-Pesant, Isabelle Alarie, Christian Iorio-Morin, David Mathieu, Alex Carignan
We investigated an outbreak of surgical site infections that occurred in a tertiary care hospital in Quebec, Canada. This investigation revealed that a change in the sterilization process of the ultrasonic surgical aspirator may have caused this outbreak. It emphasizes the fact that the complex designs of surgical power tools may restrict access to cleaning and sterilization agents. Health care professionals should review manufacturers' assembly/disassembly instructions and sterilization/decontamination procedures before use of such tools...
December 26, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034537/duodenoscope-hang-time-does-not-correlate-with-risk-of-bacterial-contamination
#16
Riley Heroux, Michelle Sheppard, Sharon B Wright, Mandeep Sawhney, Elizabeth B Hirsch, Robin Kalaidjian, Graham M Snyder
BACKGROUND: Current professional guidelines recommend a maximum hang time for reprocessed duodenoscopes of 5-14 days. We sought to study the association between hang time and risk of duodenoscope contamination. METHODS: We analyzed cultures of the elevator mechanism and working channel collected in a highly standardized fashion just before duodenoscope use. Hang time was calculated as the time from reprocessing to duodenoscope sampling. The relationship between hang time and duodenoscope contamination was estimated using a calculated correlation coefficient between hang time in days and degree of contamination on the elevator mechanism and working channel...
December 26, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034536/reduction-of-health-care-associated-infection-indicators-by-copper-oxide-impregnated-textiles-crossover-double-blind-controlled-study-in-chronic-ventilator-dependent-patients
#17
Esther-Lee Marcus, Hana Yosef, Gadi Borkow, Yehezkel Caine, Ady Sasson, Allon E Moses
BACKGROUND: Copper oxide has potent wide-spectrum biocidal properties. The purpose of this study is to determine if replacing hospital textiles with copper oxide-impregnated textiles reduces the following health care-associated infection (HAI) indicators: antibiotic treatment initiation events (ATIEs), fever days, and antibiotic usage in hospitalized chronic ventilator-dependent patients. METHODS: A 7-month, crossover, double-blind controlled trial including all patients in 2 ventilator-dependent wards in a long-term care hospital...
December 26, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034535/journal-club-social-media-as-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-tool
#18
Laurie J Conway, Shanina C Knighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034534/antimicrobial-stewardship-practices-in-virginia
#19
Kimberly B Lee, Jesus Aaron Ramirez, Rebeccah Collins, John Bucheit, Kakotan Sanogo, Michael P Stevens
The Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology recognize the need to combat antimicrobial resistance through the promotion of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Health care facilities in Virginia were surveyed using a 23-item survey focused on facility characteristics and antimicrobial stewardship strategies. Antimicrobial stewardship activities were highly variable and many are missing key personnel and resources...
December 26, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024852/a-model-for-choosing-an-automated-ultraviolet-c-disinfection-system-and-building-a-case-for-the-c-suite-two-case-reports
#20
Maureen Spencer, Michelle Vignari, Elizabeth Bryce, Helen Boehm Johnson, Loretta Fauerbach, Denise Graham
Environmental disinfection has become the new frontier in the ongoing battle to reduce the risk of health care-associated infections. Evidence demonstrating the persistent contamination of environmental surfaces despite traditional cleaning and disinfection methods has led to the widespread acceptance that there is both a need for reassessing traditional cleaning protocols and for using secondary disinfection technologies. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) disinfection is one type of no-touch technology shown to be a successful adjunct to manual cleaning in reducing environmental bioburden...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
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