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American Journal of Infection Control

Greg S Whiteley, Trevor O Glasbey, Sue C Westerway, Paul P Fahey, Jocelyne Basseal
BACKGROUND: Australia has established guidelines on cleaning for reusable ultrasound probes and accompanying equipment. This is a preliminary study investigating cleanliness standards of patient-ready ultrasound equipment in 5 separate health care facilities within a major city. METHODS: The cleanliness was assessed using rapid adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testing used with a sampling algorithm which mitigates variability normally associated with ATP testing. Each surface was initially sampled in duplicate for relative light units (RLUs) and checked for compliance with literature recommended levels of cleanliness (<100 RLUs)...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Madhuri M Sopirala, Asma Syed, Roman Jandarov, Margaret Lewis
BACKGROUND: In January 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Health Safety Network (NHSN) changed the definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). We evaluated the outcomes of a robust CAUTI prevention program when we performed surveillance using the old definition (before 2015) versus the new definition (after 2015). This is the first study to evaluate how the change in CDC/NHSN definitions affected the outcomes of a CAUTI reduction program...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Brett G Mitchell, Nicole White, Alison Farrington, Michelle Allen, Katie Page, Anne Gardner, Kate Halton, Thomas V Riley, Christian A Gericke, David L Paterson, Nicholas Graves, Lisa Hall
BACKGROUND: The Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) study tested a multimodal cleaning intervention in Australian hospitals. This article reports findings from a pre/post questionnaire, embedded into the REACH study, that was administered prior to the implementation of the intervention and at the conclusion of the study. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire, nested within a stepped-wedge trial, was administered. The REACH intervention was a cleaning bundle comprising 5 interdependent components...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Marianne Pavia, Edwin Simpser, Melissa Becker, W Keith Mainquist, Katherine A Velez
Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) technology implementation was associated with a 44% reduction in viral infection incidence among pediatric patients in a long-term care facility (incidence rate ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.84; P=.003). UV-C was included as an adjunct to standard cleaning protocols over a 12-month period; no other new interventions were introduced during this time. The results suggest that UV-C technology is a potentially important component of eliminating the environment as a source of viral infections...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Payal K Patel, M Todd Greene, Mary A M Rogers, David Ratz, Latoya Kuhn, Jennifer Davis, Sanjay Saint
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired urinary tract-related bloodstream infections are rare but often lethal. Recent epidemiology of this condition among the United States veteran population is poorly described. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of hospital-acquired urinary tract-related bloodstream infections of adult inpatients admitted to 4 Veterans Affairs hospitals over 15 years. Electronic medical records were used to obtain clinical, demographic, and microbiologic information...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Marta Wałaszek, Małgorzata Kołpa, Anna Różańska, Zdzisław Wolak, Małgorzata Bulanda, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
This study investigated differences in perceptions of hand hygiene and protective glove use among patients and health care workers (HCWs) in Poland. We conducted a survey using an original questionnaire among 462 respondents, including 173 (37.4%) patients and 289 (62.6%) HCWs; HCWs demonstrated poor familiarity with the My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene. The role of protective gloves in preventing health care-associated infection was overestimated by both patients and HCWs.
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Chenjie Tang, Yi Cui, Genyan Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Julie D Lankiewicz, Tess Wong, Marilyn Moucharite
Surgical site infection incidence following coronary artery bypass graft surgery was observed across 27,296 procedures within a Medicare population. A facility-level case-control claims analysis demonstrated a significant 25% reduction (P = .04) in suspected surgical site infection at 90 days after coronary artery bypass graft surgery at facilities utilizing a single-patient-use electrocardiography cable and lead wire system.
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Lyndsay M O'Hara, Kerri A Thom, Michael Anne Preas
Surgical site infections remain a common cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased length of stay and cost amongst hospitalized patients in the United States. This article summarizes the evidence used to inform the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (2017), and highlights key updates and new recommendations. We also present specific suggestions for how infection preventionists can play a central role in guideline implementation by translating these recommendations into evidence-based policies and practices in their facility...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Ammara Mushtaq, Bhagyashri Navalkele, Maninder Kaur, Amar Krishna, Aleena Saleem, Natasha Rana, Sonia Gera, Suganya Chandramohan, Malini Surapaneni, Teena Chopra
BACKGROUND: With the rising use of midline catheters (MCs), validation of their safety is essential. Our study aimed to evaluate the incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and other complications related to the use of MCs and central venous catheters (CVCs). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary care hospital in Detroit, Michigan, from March-September 2016. Adult patients with either MC or CVC were included. Outcomes assessed were catheter-related BSI (CRBSI), mechanical complications, hospital length of stay, readmission within 90 days of discharge (RA), and mortality...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Karen Trudel, Samara Zavalkoff, Nicholas Winters, Caroline Quach, Jacques Lacroix, Patricia S Fontela
BACKGROUND: Prolonged use of indwelling catheters is associated with hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Literature is scarce about the factors influencing urinary catheter removal and maintenance in children. This study aims to describe the determinants of urinary catheter removal in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 171 physicians and nurses working at 2 tertiary PICUs in Montreal, Canada. We used focus groups and literature review to design the survey questions and 3 clinical scenarios...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Susan Jain, Kate Clezy, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: Routine hand hygiene effectively removes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) from the ungloved hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) who are caring for patients under contact precautions, when exposure to bodily fluids is not expected. METHODS: HCWs' ungloved hands were cultured after hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) or soap-and-water wash after routine clinical care of patients known to be colonized or infected with MRSA or VRE...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Yujeong Kim
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify nurses' experiences of care for patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Their experiences can be useful to establish a safer healthcare system in preparation for infectious disease outbreaks. METHODS: Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Participants were 12 nurses. RESULTS: Nurses' experiences of care for patients with MERS-CoV were categorized as follows: "Going into a dangerous field," "Strong pressure because of MERS-CoV," "The strength that make me endure," "Growth as a nurse," and "Remaining task...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Makiko Yoshida, Naoko Furuya, Naoto Hosokawa, Hajime Kanamori, Mitsuo Kaku, Michio Koide, Futoshi Higa, Jiro Fujita
In a tertiary hospital, Legionella spp were isolated from taps and from ward dishwashers connected to contaminated tap piping. Our investigation revealed favorable conditions for growth of Legionella, and showed that Legionella pneumophila SG6 isolates from the taps and dishwashers were all genetically identical by repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that contaminated dishwashers might be a potential reservoir for the spread of Legionella in health care facilities.
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Michelle Murti, Christina K Fung, Kathy Chan, Mark Bigham
To assess the duration of antiviral prophylaxis (AP), we conducted a retrospective outbreak review over 3 seasons, looking for acute respiratory illness (ARI) onset after 5 days of AP. Of 114 facility-level outbreaks with 352 unit-level outbreaks, we found only 1 case of laboratory-confirmed influenza after 5 days of AP. New cases of ARI after 5 days of AP should be investigated, and recommendations for AP duration could be shortened to 7-8 days or less.
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Shanina C Knighton, Mary Dolansky, Curtis Donskey, Camille Warner, Herleen Rai, Patricia A Higgins
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the addition of a novel verbal electronic audio reminder to an educational patient hand hygiene bundle would increase performance of self-managed patient hand hygiene. METHODS: We conducted a 2-group comparative effectiveness study randomly assigning participants to patient hand hygiene bundle 1 (n = 41), which included a video, a handout, and a personalized verbal electronic audio reminder (EAR) that prompted hand cleansing at 3 meal times, or patient hand hygiene bundle 2 (n = 34), which included the identical video and handout, but not the EAR...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Steven Pong, Pamela Holliday, Geoff Fernie
BACKGROUND: Poor hand hygiene by health care workers is a major cause of nosocomial infections. This research evaluated the ability of an electronic monitoring system with real-time prompting capability to change hand hygiene behaviors. METHODS: Handwashing activity was measured by counting dispenser activations on a single nursing unit before, during, and after installation of the system. The effect of changing the prompt duration on hand hygiene performance was determined by a cluster-randomized trial on 3 nursing units with 1 acting as control...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Timothy L Wiemken, Stephen P Furmanek, William A Mattingly, Janet Haas, Julio A Ramirez, Ruth M Carrico
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is one of the most important interventions in the quest to eliminate healthcare-associated infections, and rates in healthcare facilities are markedly low. Since hand hygiene observation and feedback are critical to improve adherence, we created an easy-to-use, platform-independent hand hygiene data collection process and an automated, on-demand reporting engine. METHODS: A 3-step approach was used for this project: 1) creation of a data collection form using Google Forms, 2) transfer of data from the form to a spreadsheet using Google Spreadsheets, and 3) creation of an automated, cloud-based analytics platform for report generation using R and RStudio Shiny software...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Christopher S Hollenbeak, Amber L Schilling
BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common healthcare-acquired condition. The attributable cost of CAUTIs is frequently cited to be approximately $1,000. However, there is a paucity of recent literature that confirms this estimate. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature that estimates the attributable cost of CAUTIs in the United States. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using Pubmed...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Xavier Schwartz, Michelle Schmitz, Nasia Safdar, Aurora Pop-Vicas
Although surgical hand antisepsis is paramount to surgical infection prevention, adherence to correct technique may be suboptimal. We conducted direct observations and semistructured interviews to identify barriers and facilitators to appropriate surgical hand antisepsis in a tertiary care hospital. Only 18% (9 out of 50) surgical hand antisepsis observations were fully compliant with the recommended application techniques. Most surgical staff members considered lack of organizational oversight, monitoring, and direct hands-on training as important barriers to adherence...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
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