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American Journal of Infection Control

Ana M Kelly, John F D'Agostino, Lilibeth V Andrada, Jianfang Liu, Elaine Larson
BACKGROUND: A delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in the hospital may lead to nosocomial exposure, placing employees and other patients at risk. A lack of prompt infection control measures for suspected cases at the time of admission may require complicated and expensive contact investigations. The purpose of this study was to estimate the person-hour costs required by infection control staff to investigate a single hospital-based TB exposure. METHODS: Electronic data were extracted from 2 tertiary hospitals and 1 community hospital in a large health care system in metropolitan New York City to identify pulmonary TB cases unsuspected at admission...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Mary-Louise McLaws, Angela Kwok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Archana Nair, Sean P Elliott, Mayar Al Mohajer
We developed a questionnaire to assess the knowledge and practice of nursing staff, patient care assistants, phlebotomists, and laboratory technicians regarding blood culture collection and contamination at 2 tertiary care academic centers. Our study showed there were several gaps in knowledge and practice regarding obtaining blood cultures.
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Lindsay Caspari, Elizabeth Epstein, Amy Blackman, Li Jin, David A Kaufman
BACKGROUND: The use of catheter hub decontamination protocols is a common practice to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections. However, few data exist on the most effective disinfection procedure prior to hub access accounting for human factors and time-dependent practices in real time in the clinical setting. METHODS: An observational design with a multimodal intervention was used in this study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Direct observations on nurse compliance of scrub times with decontamination when accessing of venous catheter and feeding tube hubs were conducted during 3 phases: (1) baseline period prior to any interventions; (2) during an educational intervention phase; and (3) during a timer intervention period when using a timing device, either an actual timer or music button...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Hye-Suk Choi, Mi-Na Kim, Heungsup Sung, Jeong-Young Lee, Hee-Youn Park, Sun-Hee Kwak, Young-Ju Lim, Min-Jee Hong, Sun-Kyung Kim, So-Yeon Park, Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Kyu-Ri Kim, Hye-Ran Choi, Jae Sim Jeong, Sang-Ho Choi
Of 7,772 laboratory-confirmed cases of respiratory viral infection among hospitalized patients, 22.8% were categorized as having hospital-acquired infection. The overall incidence of hospital-acquired respiratory viral infection was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 3.7-4.1) cases per 1,000 admitted patients. Rhinovirus was the most common virus (30.3%), followed by influenza virus (17.6%) and parainfluenza virus (15.6%).
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Hayati Demiraslan, Fatma Cevahir, Elife Berk, Gokhan Metan, Mustafa Cetin, Emine Alp
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli (CRGNB) colonization and to analyze the risk factors associated with CRGNB colonization. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in adult patients hospitalized in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) units over a period of 8 months. Rectal swab samples were obtained from each participant every Monday, and patients CRGNB positive on admission were excluded...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Gordon J Sigl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Herleen Rai, Shanina Knighton, Trina F Zabarsky, Curtis J Donskey
We conducted a randomized trial of a simple educational intervention encouraging patients to perform hand hygiene at 5 specific moments, including on entry of health care personnel into their room as a reminder of the importance of hand hygiene. The intervention resulted in a significant increase in patient hand hygiene.
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Jonathan Teter, Isabella Guajardo, Tamrah Al-Rammah, Gedge Rosson, Trish M Perl, Michele Manahan
BACKGROUND: The role of the operating room (OR) environment has been thought to contribute to surgical site infection rates. The quality of OR air, disruption of airflow, and other factors may increase contamination risks. We measured air particulate counts (APCs) to determine if they increased in relation to traffic, door opening, and other common activities. METHODS: During 1 week, we recorded APCs in 5-minute intervals and movement of health care workers. Trained observers recorded information about traffic, door openings, job title of the opener, and the reason for opening...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Anildaliz Mullen, Helen J Wieland, Eric S Wieser, Ernst W Spannhake, Rebecca S Marinos
With the goal of reducing rates of surgical site infections in our spine patients, we initiated a trial to investigate the impact of adding perisurgical nasal decolonization involving patients and surgical and nursing staff. We combined immediate presurgical application of a nonantibiotic alcohol-based nasal antiseptic with existing chlorhexidine bath or wipes in a comprehensive pre- and postoperative decolonization protocol. Mean infection rates were significantly decreased by 81% from 1.76 to 0.33 per 100 surgeries during the 15-month trial, when compared with the prior 9-month baseline...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Geetika Sood, Kerri Huber, Lisa Dam, Stefan Riedel, Lisa Grubb, Jonathan Zenilman, Trish M Perl, Cynthia Argani
We report an unusual pseudo-outbreak of Penicillium that occurred in patients seen in an outpatient obstetrics and gynecology clinic. The pseudo-outbreak was detected in late 2012, when the microbiology department reported a series of vaginal cultures positive for Penicillium spp. Our investigation found Penicillium spp in both patient and environmental samples and was potentially associated with the practice of wetting gloves with tap water by a health care worker prior to patient examination.
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Hassan E El Bushra, Hussain A Al Arbash, Mutaz Mohammed, Osman Abdalla, Mohamed N Abdallah, Zayid K Al-Mayahi, Abdallah M Assiri, Abdulaziz A BinSaeed
BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the impact of implementation of different levels of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures during an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in a large tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. The setting was an emergency room (ER) in a large tertiary hospital and included primary and secondary MERS patients. METHODS: Rapid response teams conducted repeated assessments of IPC and monitored implementation of corrective measures using a detailed structured checklist...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Laura Pedersen, Kimberly Elgin, Barbara Peace, Nadia Masroor, Michelle Doll, Kakotan Sanogo, Wilhelm Zuelzer, Gene Peterson, Michael P Stevens, Gonzalo Bearman
We examined the perceptions and barriers to nonsurgical scrubbed hand hygiene in the operating room and endoscopy procedure room using 2 anonymous Likert-scale surveys. Results indicated poor role modeling, inconvenience, and the need to monitor hand hygiene and feedback data to providers because of poor self-awareness of hand hygiene practices.
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Brigid M Wilson, Sue Shick, Rebecca R Carter, Barbara Heath, Patricia A Higgins, Basia Sychla, Danielle M Olds, Robin L P Jump
BACKGROUND: To support the role of nurses as active proponents of antimicrobial stewardship in long-term care facilities, we developed an educational intervention consisting of a free online course comprised of 6 interactive modules. Here, we report the effect of the course on the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes toward antimicrobial stewardship of nurses working in long-term care facilities. METHODS: We used a paired pre- and postcourse survey instrument to assess nurses' knowledge regarding the care of long-term care facility residents with infections and attitudes and beliefs regarding antimicrobial stewardship...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Shanina C Knighton, Cherese McDowell, Herleen Rai, Patricia Higgins, Christopher Burant, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: Patient hand hygiene may be a useful strategy to prevent acquisition of pathogens and to reduce the risk for transmission by colonized patients. Several studies demonstrate that patients and long-term-care facility (LTCF) residents may have difficulty using hand hygiene products that are provided; however, none of them measure feasibility for patients to use different hand hygiene products. METHODS: A convenience sample of 42 hospitalized patients and 46 LTCF residents was assessed for their ability to use 3 hand sanitizer products (8-oz pushdown pump bottle, 2-oz pocket-sized bottle with a reclosable lid, and alcohol-impregnated hand wipes)...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Mingmei Du, Meng Li, Kexin Liu, Jijiang Suo, Yubin Xing, Bowei Liu, Rui Huo, Chunping Chen, Yunxi Liu
We introduced a real-time surgical site infections surveillance mode (SSISM) to monitor hospital-wide surgical site infections (SSIs) based on the ICD-9-CM Volume 3 operational codes and the ICD-10 disease codes. Compared with the gold standard, the SSISM confirmed 71.9% (82/114) of SSIs from 3,048 operations with a 60-fold time-savings. The SSISM could obtain the SSI rates for each type of surgery or disease among hospital-wide inpatients in a tertiary hospital with 3,800 beds.
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Liana Sholomovich, Racheli Magnezi
Hospital-acquired infections are the most common complication of treatment and the primary patient safety hazard. Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important tool for preventing these infections. Although thousands of research projects have been conducted, many articles written, and numerous therapeutic recommendations made, the goal has not yet been reached. The professional literature emphasizes that the reasons HH strategies fail are still only partially understood. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the psychological safety of an organization's nursing staff and its sense of personal responsibility for avoiding transmission of infections...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Saungi McCalla, Maggie Reilly, Rowena Thomas, Dawn McSpedon-Rai
BACKGROUND: Consistent hand hygiene is key to reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs) and assessing compliance with hand hygiene protocols is vital for hospital infection control staff. A new automated hand hygiene compliance system (HHCS) was trialed as an alternative to human observers in an intensive care unit and an intensive care stepdown unit at a hospital facility in the northeastern United States. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design, researchers investigated whether implementation of the HHCS resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and a reduction in common HAI rates...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Vincent C C Cheng, Shuk-Ching Wong, Ivan W Y Wong, Pui-Hing Chau, Simon Y C So, Sally C Y Wong, Jonathan H K Chen, Wan-Mui Lee, Josepha W M Tai, Chi-Hung Chau, Wai-Kei Lo, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Patient empowerment programs in hand hygiene were implemented in 2 extended-care hospitals. Of the 223 patients approached by the infection control nurses, 167 patients (74.9%) participated in the program. A positive response from the health care workers was reported in 70 (93.3%) of 75 patients who reminded health care workers to clean hands as part of the empowerment program. A significant increase in volume of alcohol-based handrub consumption was observed during the intervention period compared with baseline...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Apurba Sankar Sastry, Deepashree R, Prasanna Bhat
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) practice is considered the most simple, cost-effective, and efficient way to prevent device-associated infections. Continuous auditing plays a vital role in the conversion of HH knowledge into practice. METHODS: An HH audit was carried out October 2015-September 2016 in 18 locations for a total of 1,080 observation periods and 64,800 minutes of observation. HH complete adherence rate (HHCAR) and HH partial adherence rate were analyzed...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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