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American Journal of Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330710/implementing-a-negative-pressure-isolation-ward-for-a-surge-in-airborne-infectious-patients
#1
Shelly L Miller, Nicholas Clements, Steven A Elliott, Shobha S Subhash, Aaron Eagan, Lewis J Radonovich
BACKGROUND: During a large-scale airborne infectious disease outbreak, the number of patients needing hospital-based health care services may exceed available negative-pressure isolation room capacity. METHODS: To test one method of increasing hospital surge capacity, a temporary negative-pressure isolation ward was established at a fully functioning hospital. Negative pressure was achieved in a 30-bed hospital ward by adjusting the ventilation system. Differential pressure was continuously measured at 22 locations, and ventilation airflow was characterized throughout the ward...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330709/microorganisms-present-on-peripheral-intravenous-needleless-connectors-in-the-clinical-environment
#2
Karen Slater, Marie Cooke, Michael Whitby, Fiona Fullerton, Joel Douglas, Jennine Hay, Claire Rickard
The aim of this study was to quantify culturable microorganisms on needleless connectors (NCs) attached to peripheral intravenous catheters in hospitalized adult medical patients. Half (50%) of 40 NCs were contaminated with microorganisms commonly found on the skin or mouth. Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were most commonly isolated. Emergency department insertion and higher patient dependency were statistically associated with positive NC microorganism growth. These results reaffirm the need for NC decontamination prior to access...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320565/handshake-free-zone-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-initial-feasibility-study
#3
Joanna J Parga, Maria Valadez, Ruey-Kang R Chang, Anahit Sarin-Gulian, Heaven Holdbrooks, Mark S Sklansky
BACKGROUND: The handshake represents a social custom with special importance in health care settings. However, handshakes can transmit disease and compliance with hand hygiene protocols averages <50%. We hypothesized that a handshake-free zone (HFZ) could be established within our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and would be well-received by patient families and their health care providers (HCPs). METHODS: We established an HFZ and conducted a prospective cohort study in the NICU at 2 UCLA Medical Centers...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318646/effects-of-mandatory-continuing-education-related-to-infection-control-on-the-infection-control-practices-of-dental-hygienists
#4
Noel Kelsch, Cheryl A Davis, Gwen Essex, Lory Laughter, Dorothy J Rowe
The infection control (IC) practices of dental hygienists, who were practicing in states with and without mandatory continuing education (CE) related to IC, were compared using a nationwide survey approach. The percentages of respondents from states with mandated IC CE, who reported compliance with 8 practices described in the current IC guidelines and acquiring more CE units and taking more recent IC CE, were greater (P < .005) than the percentages of respondents from states without the requirement.
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318645/comparison-of-survivability-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-spores-of-aspergillus-niger-on-commonly-used-floor-materials
#5
Mridula Gupta, Michael Bisesi, Jiyoung Lee
BACKGROUND: The survivability of Staphylococcus aureus and spores of Aspergillus niger was compared on 5 common floor materials. METHODS: Floor materials were inoculated with a known concentration of S aureus and spores of A niger on day 0. Their survivability was measured on days, 2, 7, 14, and 28 by bulk rinsate method and enumerated using culture-based method. RESULTS: The difference in change of S aureus levels was statistically significant for all tested days (P < ...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318648/rates-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-in-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-3-arabian-gulf-countries-6-year-surveillance-study
#6
Hanan H Balkhy, Aiman El-Saed, Seif S Al-Abri, Jameela Alsalman, Huda Alansari, Zaina Al Maskari, Ayman El Gammal, Wafa Al Nasser, Amina AlJardani, Abdulhakeem Althaqafi
The objective of this study was to compare central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states with those of the U.S. National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) using pooled data from 6 hospitals in 3 GCC countries. The overall CLABSI rate was 3.1 per 1,000 central line days. After adjusting for differences in intensive care unit types, the risk of CLABSI in GCC hospitals was 146% higher than NHSN hospitals but 33% lower than INICC hospitals...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318647/prospective-evaluation-of-peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-complications-in-both-inpatient-and-outpatient-settings
#7
Christina Liscynesky, Jessica Johnston, Kelci E Haydocy, Kurt B Stevenson
We describe a prospective observational cohort (N = 187) to evaluate peripherally inserted central catheter line complications concurrently from the time of placement until removal. A significantly higher percentage of patients who experienced intraluminal thrombosis were receiving total parenteral nutrition (P ≤ .001) and had a dual lumen catheter (P = .01). Among patients with a confirmed or suspected infection, a significantly higher proportion received total parenteral nutrition (P = .01), had dual-lumen catheters (P = ...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302435/changes-to-physician-and-nurse-time-burdens-when-caring-for-patients-under-contact-precautions
#8
Anna K Barker, James Codella, Tola Ewers, Adam Dundon, Oguzhan Alagoz, Nasia Safdar
Contact precautions are complex behavioral interventions. To better understand barriers to compliance, we conducted a prospective study that compared the time burden for health care workers caring for contact precautions patients versus other patients. We found that nurses spent significantly more time in the rooms of contact precautions patients. There was no significant change in physician timing. Future studies need to evaluate workflow changes so that barriers to contact precaution implementation can be fully understood and addressed...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302434/evaluation-of-low-immunization-coverage-among-the-amish-population-in-rural-ohio
#9
Christine Kettunen, John Nemecek, Olivia Wenger
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review included childhood immunizations among the 10 great public health achievements in the United States in the 20th century. Despite this acknowledged success, childhood immunization rates continue to be much lower in select populations. Amish communities have persistently lower immunization rates. Recent outbreaks in Amish communities include a 2014 measles outbreak in Ohio, resulting in 368 cases reported...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302433/improving-water-quality-in-a-dialysis-unit-using-root-cause-analysis
#10
Pallavi Yadav, Dawn England, Caprice Vanderkolk, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam
BACKGROUND: Water quality levels from hemodialysis (HD) and reverse osmosis (RO) machines in dialysis units must meet standards set by the American Association of Medical Instrumentation. Researchers used a root cause analysis (RCA) approach to identify and address factors affecting water quality in the HD and portable RO machines at our institution. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team reviewed processes, interviewed staff members, and identified opportunities to improve the current sampling and machine disinfection processes...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302432/the-influence-of-spatial-configuration-on-the-frequency-of-use-of-hand-sanitizing-stations-in-health-care-environments
#11
Jun Rong Jeffrey Neo, Rana Sagha-Zadeh
BACKGROUND: The lack of user-friendly, accessible, and visible hand sanitizing stations (HSSs) in health care environments are significant factors affecting low hand hygiene compliance rates among caregivers. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the simulated parameters of visibility and global traffic flow score for an HSS can influence the frequency of use of that HSS. METHODS: Space syntax was used to measure virtual simulation of spatial layouts of 3 units to provide quantitative visibility and global traffic flow scores for each HSS...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302431/a-qualitative-study-to-identify-reasons-for-clostridium-difficile-testing-in-pediatric-inpatients-receiving-laxatives-or-stool-softeners
#12
Joanne Kinlay, Thomas J Sandora
To understand why clinicians send Clostridium difficile tests from hospitalized children receiving laxatives or stool softeners, we performed a mixed-methods study. We prospectively identified tested patients and surveyed their clinicians by e-mail. Reasons for testing included changes in stooling pattern on baseline bowel regimen, other changes in clinical status, and risk factors for C difficile infection. Education targeting discontinuing bowel medications before C difficile testing could improve the specificity of pediatric C difficile infection diagnosis...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302430/antimicrobial-copper-alloys-decreased-bacteria-on-stethoscope-surfaces
#13
Michael G Schmidt, Rachel E Tuuri, Arif Dharsee, Hubert H Attaway, Sarah E Fairey, Keith T Borg, Cassandra D Salgado, Bruce E Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Stethoscopes may serve as vehicles for transmission of bacteria among patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial copper surfaces to reduce the bacterial concentration associated with stethoscope surfaces. METHODS: A structured prospective trial involving 21 health care providers was conducted at a pediatric emergency division (ED) (n = 14) and an adult medical intensive care unit located in tertiary care facilities (n = 7)...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285726/construct-validity-current-issues-and-recommendations-for-future-hand-hygiene-research
#14
REVIEW
Jun Rong Jeffrey Neo
Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285725/universal-versus-targeted-additional-contact-precautions-for-multidrug-resistant-organism-carriage-for-patients-admitted-to-an-intensive-care-unit
#15
Michel Djibré, Samuel Fedun, Pierre Le Guen, Sophie Vimont, Mehdi Hafiani, Jean-Pierre Fulgencio, Antoine Parrot, Michel Denis, Muriel Fartoukh
BACKGROUND: Although additional contact precautions (ACPs) are routinely used to reduce cross-transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), the relevance of isolation precautions remains debated. We hypothesized that the collection of recognized risk factors for MDRO carriage on intensive care unit (ICU) admission might be helpful to target ACPs without increasing MDRO acquisition during ICU stays, compared with universal ACPs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a sequential single-center observational study performed in consecutive patients admitted to a French medical and surgical ICU...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284750/persistent-nasal-carriers-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-long-term-care-facilities
#16
Ming-Li Liou, Kuan-Hsueh Chen, Hui-Ling Yeh, Chun-Yi Lai, Chang-Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus have persisted as 2 major pathogens worldwide. AIM: We designed a prevalence study to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of S aureus and A baumannii in long-term-care facilities (LCTFs) and their collaborative community hospitals. In addition, we aimed to clarify persistent or nonpersistent carriage of the 2 organisms among residents of LTCFs. METHODS: We performed a prevalence study concerning nasal carriers of A baumannii and S aureus in 3 LTCFs and 1 collaborative community hospital...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283204/could-legal-requirements-in-nursing-practice-trigger-actions-that-would-change-the-rates-of-urinary-tract-infections-a-case-study-in-brazil
#17
Clesnan Mendes-Rodrigues, Eliana Borges Silva Pereira, Renata Lemos de Sousa Neto, Jaqueline Resende, Astrídia Marília de Souza Fontes
We evaluated the influence of a Brazilian resolution, published in 2013, that restricts the performing of urinary catheterization to nurses, as opposed to others from different nursing professional categories, on indicators of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in an intensive care unit. The resolution triggered actions such as the implementation of protocols and nursing staff training that led to behavior changes related to the reduction of catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates.
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283203/infection-control-iii-infection-prevention-and-control-as-mediators
#18
Harold W Horowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283202/nursing-students-knowledge-about-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-prevention-guidelines-effectiveness-of-a-teaching-program
#19
Sami M Aloush
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an educational course that aimed to expand student nurses' knowledge about the guidelines for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevention. In the pretest, the students revealed poor knowledge (mean score ± SD, 6.3 ± 2.8 out of 20). After completion of the educational program, participants in the experimental group showed a significant improvement (t105 = 14.9, P < .001). The control group showed no significant improvement. More focus on VAP prevention guidelines is essential in nursing curricula...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258814/foam-soap-is-not-as-effective-as-liquid-soap-in-eliminating-hand-microbial-flora
#20
Nicolette Dixon, Margie Morgan, Ozlem Equils
Foam soaps are aerosolized liquid soaps dispensed through a special pump mechanism. Currently there are no studies comparing liquid soap with foam soap in regard to efficacy of reducing hand microbial burden. In 3 separate experiments and with 2 different brands of foam soap, it was observed that nonantimicrobial foam soap was not as effective in reducing hand bacterial load as the liquid soap.
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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