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American Journal of Infection Control

Assia Mairi, Abdelaziz Touati, Sylia Ait Bessai, Yasmina Boutabtoub, Fazia Khelifi, Albert Sotto, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Alix Pantel
The diffusion of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a worldwide public health problem. This study revealed that the prevalence of OXA-48-producing enterobacteria was 4.6% (19/414) and 1.6% (7/422) in mothers and newborns, respectively, from 2 maternity units in Algeria. Previous hospital admission was an independent factor associated with an increased risk of CPE carriage in the mothers (P = .021). The low birth weight was significantly associated with this carriage in the newborns (P = ...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Amy L Pakyz, Rose Kohinke, Phuong Opper, Samuel F Hohmann, Resa M Jones, Pramit Nadpara
Patients with cancer are vulnerable to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI); hospitals with larger oncology populations may have worse CDI performance. Among 71 academic hospitals studied, there were significant differences in oncology patient-days per 1,000 admissions across CDI standardized infection ratio categories of better, no different, and worse; worse hospitals had the greatest number of patient-days. Oncology patients' most commonly used high-risk CDI medications were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, and proton pump inhibitors...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Gönül Çiçek-Şentürk, Asiye Tekin, Yunus Gürbüz, E Ediz Tütüncü, Ganime Sevinç, Semanur Kuzi, F Aybala Altay, Nilgün Altın, İrfan Şencan
BACKGROUND: The risk of occupational transmission of bloodborne pathogens to health care workers is primarily associated with needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs). However, most NSIs are not reported, and most health care workers are not aware of postexposure procedures. METHODS: Data for NSIs reported in our hospital between 2008 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 546 staff members reported NSIs. Of these, 376 (68...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Martha L Carvour, Shane L Wilder, Keenan L Ryan, Carla Walraven, Fares Qeadan, Meghan Brett, Kimberly Page
BACKGROUND: Hospital-based predictive models for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) may aid with surveillance efforts. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of adult hospitalized patients who were tested for CDI between May 1, 2011, and August 31, 2016, was formed. Proposed clinical and sociodemographic predictors of CDI were evaluated using multivariable predictive logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: In a cohort of 5,209 patients, including 1,092 CDI cases, emergency department location (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1...
September 8, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Sara Torretta, Roberto Mattina, Francesco Talloru, Giuliana Sala, Serena Cornelli, Elena Bezze, Paola Marchisio
Microbiologic analysis of nasal saline irrigations (NSIs) used in hospitalized children was performed. Of 253 collected samples, 24.9% were positive, and the number of positive samples significantly increased over time (P < .001). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently detected bacterium (28.6%). None of the 118 patients who received NSIs developed a nasosinusal infection. Colonization by cutaneous and environmental germs is frequent and develops early. Hygienic measures should be advocated to reduce contamination...
September 8, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Jose Azar, Kristen Kelley, Jennifer Dunscomb, Anthony Perkins, Yun Wang, Cole Beeler, Lana Dbeibo, Douglas Webb, Larry Stevens, Mark Luektemeyer, Areeba Kara, Ryan Nagy, Craig A Solid, Malaz Boustani
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections and can lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality rates. Implementation of practice guidelines and recommended prevention bundles has historically been suboptimal, suggesting that improvements in implementation methods could further reductions in CLABSI rates. In this article, we describe the agile implementation methodology and present details of how it was successfully used to reduce CLABSI...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Alyssa M West, Peter J Teska, Haley F Oliver
BACKGROUND: Disinfectant towelettes are commonly used for surface disinfection to prevent health care-associated infections; however, there is limited consensus as to whether a surface needs to remain wet for the full label contact time after the disinfectant towelette has been used in order for complete efficacy to be achieved. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of contact time, including times before and after a product dries, on bactericidal efficacy of 6 towelette products registered by the Environmental Protection Agency ...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Steven Pong, Pamela Holliday, Geoff Fernie
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) compliance in health care is usually measured against versions of the World Health Organization's "Your 5 Moments" guidelines using direct observation. Such techniques result in small samples that are influenced by the presence of an observer. This study demonstrates that continuous electronic monitoring of individuals can overcome these limitations. METHODS: An electronic real-time prompting system collected HH data on a musculoskeletal rehabilitation unit for 12 weeks between October 2016 and October 2017...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Kelly A Reynolds, Jonathan D Sexton, Trevor Pivo, Kyle Humphrey, Rachel A Leslie, Charles P Gerba
BACKGROUND: Halting the spread of harmful microbes requires an understanding of their transmission via hands and fomites. Previous studies explored acute and long-term care environments but not outpatient clinics. Objectives of this study were to track microbial movement throughout an outpatient clinic and evaluate the impact of a disinfectant spray intervention targeting high-touch point surfaces. METHODS: At the start of the clinic day, a harmless viral tracer was placed onto 2 fomites: a patient room door handle and front desk pen...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Raymond M Khan, Maha Al-Juaid, Hanan Al-Mutairi, George Bibin, John Alchin, Amal Matroud, Victoria Burrows, Ismael Tan, Salha Zayer, Brintha Naidv, Basim Kalantan, Yaseen M Arabi
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated events are common in mechanically ventilated patients. They are associated with more days on mechanical ventilation, longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and increased risk of mortality. Theoretically, interventions that prevent ventilator-associated events should also reduce associated morbidity. We evaluated the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program approach to improve the care of mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS: All mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the ICU between October 1, 2015, and October 31, 2016, were prospectively monitored for the development of ventilator-associated events according to the National Healthcare Safety Network criteria...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Evgenia Kagan, Cassandra D Salgado, Andrea L Banks, Camelia E Marculescu, Joseph R Cantey
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial-impregnated (AIP) peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) may lower risk of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) compared with nonantimicrobial-impregnated (NAIP) catheters. We sought to assess risk factors for CLABSI with a focus on the effect of AIP PICCs. METHODS: CLABSI rate was determined among patients who received PICCs from July 2009 through June 2012 using a retrospective study design. A nested case-control study matched for operators (interventional radiology [IR], infectious diseases [IDs], and the nurse venous access team [VAT]) was conducted to assess risks for PICC CLABSI...
September 1, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Xianshi Zhou, Fanwei Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Dan Peng, Xuan Li, Pin Liu, Mei Luo, Shuai Chen, Kewen Su, Zhongshuang Zhang, Qiang He, Jingfu Qiu, Yingli Li
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit (ICU), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common urinary tract infection. Nevertheless, there is no systematic review to investigate the epidemiology of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance of CAUTIs in ICUs. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were searched for eligible studies. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the CAUTI incidence per 1,000 catheter days, the proportion of pathogen distribution, and the resistance rate with R3...
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Teresa Caya, Mary Jo Knobloch, Jackson Musuuza, Emily Wilhelmson, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Many studies investigating daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing as an infection control intervention to decrease health care-associated infections have focused on reduction of infection and colonization; few studies have assessed CHG bathing compliance, work system factors, facilitators, and barriers to implementation. METHODS: This is a combination retrospective/prospective pilot study conducted at a large academic teaching hospital that implemented daily CHG bathing across all inpatient units...
August 30, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Fumie Sakamoto, Keiko Asano, Tomoko Sakihama, Sanjay Saint, M Todd Greene, Payal Patel, David Ratz, Yasuharu Tokuda
BACKGROUND: A national survey conducted in 2012 revealed that the rates of regular use of many evidence-based practices to prevent device-associated infections were low in Japanese hospitals. We conducted a second survey 4 years later to evaluate changes in infection prevention practices. METHODS: Between July 2016 and January 2017, the instrument used in a survey of Japanese hospitals in 2012 was sent to 1,456 Japanese hospitals. The survey assessed general hospital and infection prevention program characteristics and use of practices specific to preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)...
August 30, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Giulio DiDiodato, Lauren Fruchter
BACKGROUND: Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection is inconsistently associated with antibiotic exposure. This study uses a self-controlled case series (SCCS) design to estimate antibiotic exposure effect sizes and compare them with those estimated from previous case-control studies. METHODS: We estimated the association between antibiotic exposure and community-associated Clostridium difficile infection among 139,000 patients registered to the Barrie Family Health Team from January 1, 2011, to May 1, 2017, using an SCCS design...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Lizbeth P Sturgeon, Dawn Garrett-Wright, Grace Lartey, M Susan Jones, Lorraine Bormann, Sonya House
BACKGROUND: Patient bathing basins are a potential source of health care-acquired infections. This descriptive study was designed to describe current patient bathing procedures and the cleaning and storage of disposable bath basins after use. METHODS: After instrument validation, a 20-item questionnaire designed by the researchers was delivered electronically to infection prevention professionals working in acute care facilities in the United States. Descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages were used to analyze the data...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Stephanie M Holm, Victoria Leonard, Timur Durrani, Mark D Miller
BACKGROUND: Children in child care settings have a high infectious burden. They are frequently exposed to sanitizing and disinfecting agents, whose toxicities have not been studied in these settings. Current guidance on the preferred disinfection agents for child care is vague. METHODS: This article combines 2 different sources of information: the Environmental Protection Agency registration data on the efficacy of hospital-grade disinfectants and a review of the research on the toxicities of the most common of these disinfectants to summarize information that could be used for more evidence-based early care and education disinfection regulations and guidelines...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Blake W Buchan, Mary Beth Graham, Jill Lindmair-Snell, Jennifer Arvan, Nathan A Ledeboer, Rahul Nanchal, L Silvia Munoz-Price
We report a higher prevalence of blaKPC in patient room sink drains located next to toilets (87.0%) when compared with sink drains located farther away from toilets (21.7%) using direct polymerase chain reaction assay. However, culture methods were only able to recover blaKPC -positive isolates from 16% of polymerase chain reaction-positive drains.
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Haruka Hattori, Masayuki Maeda, Yasuhiro Nagatomo, Takahiro Takuma, Yoshihito Niki, Yuika Naito, Tadanori Sasaki, Keiko Ishino
BACKGROUND: Few published data are available on the morbidity and mortality of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Japan. We sought to investigate the epidemiology of BSIs, the involvement of antimicrobial resistance, and the factors that influence patient prognosis. METHODS: This single-center study retrospectively evaluated patients who were found to have positive blood cultures at a tertiary teaching hospital between January 2012 and December 2016. RESULTS: A total of 2,105 patients with BSIs were included; 1,786 survived and 319 died, and the 30-day mortality rate was 15...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
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