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American Journal of Infection Control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918990/long-term-metabolic-persistence-of-gram-positive-bacteria-on-health-care-relevant-plastic
#1
Loree C Heller, Chelsea M Edelblute
BACKGROUND: Health care-associated opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium persist on dry environments and can contribute to organism transmission through contact. These organisms can be monitored on surfaces by culture, molecular methods, or metabolic assays. This study was designed to determine the kinetics of bacterial persistence on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, a plastic commonly used in the manufacture of bedrails. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction for genomic DNA was used to confirm the presence of bacteria cells on this plastic irrespective of viability...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918989/improper-positioning-of-the-elevator-lever-of-duodenoscopes-may-lead-to-sequestered-bacteria-that-survive-disinfection-by-automated-endoscope-reprocessors
#2
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Donald R Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Pat DeGagne, Nancy Olson
BACKGROUND: Some outbreaks associated with contaminated duodenoscopes have been attributed to biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether bacteria within an organic matrix could survive if the elevator lever was improperly positioned in the automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) after 1 round of reprocessing. METHODS: Duodenoscope lever cavities with an open or sealed elevator wire channel were inoculated with 6-7 Log10 of both Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in ATS2015 (Healthmark Industries, Fraser, MI) and dried for 2 hours...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918302/a-practical-guide-to-systematic-literature-reviews-and-meta-analyses-in-infection-prevention-planning-challenges-and-execution
#3
Marin L Schweizer, Rajeshwari Nair
Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses are important research designs used to summarize and derive conclusions about the collective evidence on a focused research question in a structured, reproducible manner. The goal of this Methodology Minute is to describe how to conduct a systematic literature review and meta-analysis using a step-by-step approach to help infection preventionists (IPs) and others in the field perform their own systematic literature review and meta-analysis, and to critically evaluate published systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916373/methods-for-computational-disease-surveillance-in-infection-prevention-and-control-statistical-process-control-versus-twitter-s-anomaly-and-breakout-detection-algorithms
#4
Timothy L Wiemken, Stephen P Furmanek, William A Mattingly, Marc-Oliver Wright, Annuradha K Persaud, Brian E Guinn, Ruth M Carrico, Forest W Arnold, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: Although not all health care-associated infections (HAIs) are preventable, reducing HAIs through targeted intervention is key to a successful infection prevention program. To identify areas in need of targeted intervention, robust statistical methods must be used when analyzing surveillance data. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast statistical process control (SPC) charts with Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms. METHODS: SPC and anomaly/breakout detection (ABD) charts were created for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection data...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916372/tracking-and-controlling-soft-surface-contamination-in-health-care-settings
#5
Jonathan D Sexton, Amanda M Wilson, Hannah P Sassi, Kelly A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Study objectives were to track the transfer of microbes on soft surfaces in health care environments and determine the efficiency of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered soft surface sanitizer in the health care environment. METHODS: Soft surfaces at 3 health care facilities were sampled for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli followed by a tracer study with a virus surrogate seeded onto volunteer hands and commonly touched surfaces...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893449/successful-control-of-2-simultaneous-outbreaks-of-oxa-48-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-and-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#6
A Robustillo-Rodela, V Pérez-Blanco, M A Espinel Ruiz, G Ruiz Carrascoso, J C Figueira Iglesias, D Abad Martín
BACKGROUND: This report describes a double outbreak of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae (OXA-48-PE) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the effectiveness of measures implemented, including decontamination with vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP). METHODS: Affected patients were isolated in a confined area and cared for by dedicated personnel. Four percent chlorhexidine soap was used for patient daily hygiene...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893448/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-iranian-health-sciences-students-regarding-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-a-national-survey
#7
Hamidreza Karimi-Sari, Mohammad Ehsan Bayatpoor, Maryam Aftabi Khotbesara, Motahare Sadat Ebrahimi, Zahra Sattari, Paria Sattari, Narges Saberi Shakib, Hanie Taheri, Sina Abdolrahim Poor Heravi, Mahsa Dinizadeh, Pedram Vahed, Kiyana Shirsavar, Hediye Hosseini, Sara Rashvand, Dorsa Jalaei, Mahdi Azarafraz, Mohebullah Naderi, Mahtab Pourzakaria, Mohammad Firoozbakht, Mohammad Hossein Khosravi, Seyed Moayed Alavian
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization seeks to achieve the goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030 and lack of general knowledge about viral hepatitis seems to be a barrier to reaching this goal. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Iranian health sciences students in 12 Iranian medical sciences universities using a national survey. METHODS: This survey was conducted during the second Hepatitis Awareness Campaign, which was held during the Iranian National Hepatitis Week (October 22-28, 2016)...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893447/control-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-hong-kong-role-of-environmental-surveillance-in-communal-areas-after-a-hospital-outbreak
#8
Vincent C C Cheng, Shuk-Ching Wong, Jonathan H K Chen, Simon Y C So, Sally C Y Wong, Pak-Leung Ho, Kwok-Yung Yuen
BACKGROUND: Environmental reservoir is an important source of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) outbreaks. The role of postoutbreak environmental surveillance for guiding sustained infection control effort has not been examined. METHODS: Enhanced environmental disinfection and regular environmental surveillance of ward communal areas after an outbreak were performed in a university-affiliated hospital. To assess the usefulness of environmental culture in predicting patients with MRAB, weekly surveillance of communal areas was continued for 3 months after the outbreak in intervention wards...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893446/use-of-an-annual-art-competition-to-promote-web-site-traffic-and-engage-children-in-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-pennsylvania
#9
Nkuchia M M'ikanatha, Courtney Yealy, Anna-Marie Warrington, Tabitha Reefer, Sameh W Boktor, Natalie Mueller, Mary Leonard, Nicole M Hackman
We used Google Analytics to assess whether annual kids' art competitions changed traffic to a Web site on appropriate antibiotic use. We found that announcements about kids' art competitions correlated with increased traffic to the Web site, suggesting that this innovation has promise in promoting antimicrobial stewardship efforts.
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893445/cost-benefit-analysis-of-different-air-change-rates-in-an-operating-room-environment
#10
Thomas Gormley, Troy A Markel, Howard Jones, Damon Greeley, John Ostojic, James H Clarke, Mark Abkowitz, Jennifer Wagner
BACKGROUND: Hospitals face growing pressure to meet the dual but often competing goals of providing a safe environment while controlling operating costs. Evidence-based data are needed to provide insight for facility management practices to support these goals. METHODS: The quality of the air in 3 operating rooms was measured at different ventilation rates. The energy cost to provide the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to the rooms was estimated to provide a cost-benefit comparison of the effectiveness of different ventilation rates currently used in the health care industry...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893444/evaluation-of-surgical-glove-integrity-and-factors-associated-with-glove-defect
#11
Mohamed Ayoub Tlili, Amina Belgacem, Haifa Sridi, Maha Akouri, Wiem Aouicha, Sonia Soussi, Faten Dabbebi, Mohamed Ben Dhiab
BACKGROUND: Surgical glove perforation may expose both patients and staff members to severe complications. This study aimed to determine surgical glove perforation rate and the factors associated with glove defect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March 2017 at a Tunisian university hospital center in 3 different surgical departments: urology, maxillofacial, and general and digestive. The gloves were collected and tested to detect perforations using the water-leak test as described in European Norm NF EN 455-1...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893443/isolation-and-identification-of-human-coronavirus-229e-from-frequently-touched-environmental-surfaces-of-a-university-classroom-that-is-cleaned-daily
#12
Tania S Bonny, Saber Yezli, John A Lednicky
Frequently touched surfaces of a university classroom that is cleaned daily contained viable human coronavirus 229E (CoV-229E). Tests of a CoV-229E laboratory strain under conditions that simulated the ambient light, temperature, and relative humidity conditions of the classroom revealed that some of the virus remained viable on various surfaces for 7 days, suggesting CoV-229E is relatively stable in the environment. Our findings reinforce the notion that contact transmission may be possible for this virus.
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865937/impact-of-respiratory-virus-molecular-testing-on-antibiotic-utilization-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#13
Stephen P Blatt, Aleksandr Yultyev, Miao Huang, Scott Friedstrom, Jennifer Steinbrunner
We compared the clinical characteristics and antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia patients who were positive on a respiratory virus molecular test (polymerase chain reaction) with those who were negative. We found that respiratory virus molecular polymerase chain reaction testing has a minimal impact on reducing antibiotic utilization among viral pneumonia patients.
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865936/effectiveness-of-a-shielded-ultraviolet-c-air-disinfection-system-in-an-inpatient-pharmacy-of-a-tertiary-care-children-s-hospital
#14
Don Guimera, Jean Trzil, Joy Joyner, Nicholas D Hysmith
Viable air particles pose a risk in areas where sterile preparations are compounded. This study investigated the efficacy of an innovative air purification technology that uses a shielded ultraviolet C light lamp to continuously purify the air in an inpatient pharmacy. Mean airborne fungal and bacterial colony forming units were obtained preinstallation and again in 6 months. A statistically significant decrease of 78% and 62% was observed for fungal and bacterial particles, respectively. This study demonstrates a potential role for this novel technology in decreasing the spread of airborne pathogens...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847497/efficacy-testing-of-novel-chemical-disinfectants-on-clinically-relevant-microbial-pathogens
#15
Elaine Meade, Mary Garvey
BACKGROUND: There has been a dramatic increase in the number of hospital-acquired infections, which is linked to the pandemic of multidrug resistance. Clinical environments provide an ideal reservoir for the growth, proliferation, and transmission of pathogenic organisms, including bacterial and yeast species. Consequently, the need for improved, effective disinfectants is of paramount importance. METHODS: Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of chemical disinfectants-peracetic acid and triameen-on microbial strains...
August 25, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844492/low-prevalence-of-colonization-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-graz-austria
#16
Eva Leitner, Elisabeth Zechner, Elisabeth Ullrich, Gernot Zarfel, Josefa Luxner, Christian Pux, Gerald Pichler, Walter Schippinger, Robert Krause, Ines Zollner-Schwetz
BACKGROUND: Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are increasingly found to be an important reservoir of multidrug-resistant gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria. AIMS: We aimed to determine colonization by MRGN bacteria over 6 months in LTCFs and geriatric wards in Graz, Austria, and to evaluate risk factors for such colonization. METHODS: During August 2015, we conducted a point-prevalence survey at LTCFs and geriatric wards of the Geriatric Health Centers of the City of Graz...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844491/assessing-nurses-adherence-to-a-central-line-maintenance-care-checklist-on-a-pediatric-inpatient-unit
#17
Katherine B Sabo, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, Ashley A Kellish, Cheryl A Smith-Miller
Adherence to evidence-based central line maintenance practices remains a challenge, particularly in complex patient populations. Using an evidence-based observational checklist, areas of nonadherence were identified and a focused educational intervention was developed, resulting in improved adherence across all aspects of the central line maintenance care bundle.
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843943/evaluation-of-contact-precautions-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus
#18
Ana Cecilia Bardossy, Muhammad Yasser Alsafadi, Patricia Starr, Eman Chami, Jennifer Pietsch, Daniela Moreno, Laura Johnson, George Alangaden, Marcus Zervos, Katherine Reyes
BACKGROUND: There are limited controlled data demonstrating contact precautions (CPs) prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections in endemic settings. We evaluated changes in hospital-acquired MRSA and VRE infections after discontinuing CPs for these organisms. METHODS: This is a retrospective study done at an 800-bed teaching hospital in urban Detroit. CPs for MRSA and VRE were discontinued hospital-wide in 2013...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844384/implementation-and-evaluation-of-an-automated-surveillance-system-to-detect-hospital-outbreak
#19
Anna Stachel, Gabriela Pinto, John Stelling, Yi Fulmer, Bo Shopsin, Kenneth Inglima, Michael Phillips
BACKGROUND: The timely identification of a cluster is a critical requirement for infection prevention and control (IPC) departments because these events may represent transmission of pathogens within the health care setting. Given the issues with manual review of hospital infections, a surveillance system to detect clusters in health care settings must use automated data capture, validated statistical methods, and include all significant pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, patient care locations, and health care teams...
August 22, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844383/contact-patterns-during-cleaning-of-vomitus-a-simulation-study
#20
Yu-Min Su, Linh Phan, Osayuwamen Edomwande, Rachel Weber, Susan C Bleasdale, Lisa M Brosseau, Charissa Fritzen-Pedicini, Monica Sikka, Rachael M Jones
BACKGROUND: Environmental service workers cleaning bodily fluids may transfer pathogens through the environment and to themselves through contacts. METHODS: Participants with experience in cleaning of hospital environments were asked to clean simulated vomitus using normal practices in a simulated patient room while being videorecorded. Contacts with environmental surfaces and self were later observed. RESULTS: In 21 experimental trials with 7 participants, environmental surfaces were contacted 26...
August 22, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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