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Enzyme and Microbial Technology

Zheng-Yu Yan, Qing-Qing Du, Jing Qian, Dong-Yu Wan, Sheng-Mei Wu
In the paper, a green and efficient biosynthetical technique was reported for preparing cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots, in which Escherichia coli (E. coli) was chosen as a biomatrix. Fluorescence emission spectra and fluorescent microscopic photographs revealed that as-produced CdS quantum dots had an optimum fluorescence emission peak located at 470nm and emitted a blue-green fluorescence under ultraviolet excitation. After extracted from bacterial cells and located the nanocrystals' foci in vivo, the CdS quantum dots showed a uniform size distribution by transmission electron microscope...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Seo-Yoon Chang, Ji-Hong Bong, Gu Yoo, Misu Lee, Min-Jung Kang, Joachim Jose, Jae-Chul Pyun
The autodisplay technology has been applied for expression of a desired protein on the outer membrane (OM) of Escherichia coli. In this work, the OM fractions of E. coli with two autodisplayed proteins were separately prepared and mixed to demonstrate the feasibility of control over the ratio of two autodisplayed proteins. As the first model, Z-domain and streptavidin were autodisplayed, and their activities were tested by means of the combined OM layer in a 96-well microplate and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Junjarus Sermsathanaswadi, Sirilak Baramee, Chakrit Tachaapaikoon, Patthra Pason, Khanok Ratanakhanokchai, Akihiko Kosugi
A newly isolated endo-β-1,4-xylanase (Xyn10E) from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 has a modular structure consisting of a family 22 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 catalytic domain, two fibronectin type III (Fn3) domains, and a family 3 CBM at the C-terminus. Intact Xyn10E (rXyn10E), CBM22-deleted Xyn10E (X-CBM3), CBM3-deleted Xyn10E (X-CBM22), and GH10 catalytic domain only (X-GH10) were expressed in Escherichia coli. rXyn10E showed bifunctional degradation activity toward xylan and β-glucan and also degraded microcrystalline cellulose...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Fidal V T K P, Saikumar Inguva, Satheesh Krishnamurthy, Enrico Marsili, Jean-Paul Mosnier, Chandra T S
Al doped and undoped ZnO thin films were deposited by pulsed-laser deposition on polycarbonate sheets. The films were characterized by optical transmission, Hall effect measurement, XRD and SEM. Optical transmission and surface reflectometry studies showed good transparency with thicknesses ∼100nm and surface roughness of 10nm. Hall effect measurements showed that the sheet carrier concentration was -1.44×10(15)cm(-2) for AZO and -6×10(14)cm(-2) for ZnO. The films were then modified by drop-casting glucose oxidase (GOx) without the use of any mediators...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Somaieh Rahnama, Behnaz Saffar, Zahra Fanaei Kahrani, Mahboobeh Nazari, Rahman Emamzadeh
Renilla luciferase is a bioluminescent enzyme which is broadly used as a reporter protein in molecular biosensors. In this study, a novel luciferase with desired light emission wavelength and thermostability is reported. The results indicated that the new luciferase, namely super RLuc8, had a red-shifted spectrum and showed stable light emission. Super RLuc8 showed a 10-fold (p-value=0.0084) increase in the thermostability at 37°C after 20min incubation, in comparison to the native enzyme. The optimum temperature of the mutant increased from 30 to 37°C...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Mojtaba Mortazavi, Saman Hosseinkhani
Protein engineering can provide useful approaches for loop anchoring and mutation of surface-exposed loop residues to Arg for the design of thermostable proteins. In this context and due to the high proportion of surface loops, some of the solvent-exposed residues in the Lampyris turkestanicus luciferase were mutated to Arg. Using the red-emitter mutant luciferase (E354R/Arg356), the single (-Q35R, -I182R, -I232R and -L300R), double (-Q35R/I232R) and triple (-Q35R/I232R/I182R) mutant luciferases were introduced...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Yanjun Jiang, Wenya Sun, Yaping Wang, Lihui Wang, Liya Zhou, Jing Gao, Ying He, Li Ma, Xu Zhang
In this study, protein-based inverse opals were prepared for the first time by using the colloidal crystal templating method. The preparation process involved three steps including filling the templates with protein molecules, crosslinking, and template removal. The obtained inverse opals were used to immobilize Penicillin G acylase (PGA) because of its intrinsic biocompatible property. The immobilization process was optimized and the properties of the immobilized PGA (PGA@IO) were investigated. PGA@IO exhibited improved thermal and pH stability compared with its free counterpart...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Parvaneh Rahmati, Reza H Sajedi, Parichehr Zamani, Hossein Rahmani, Khosro Khajeh
Maltogenic amylases (MAases, EC have been gotten much attention due to their various applications in industry and commercial processes. MAases belong to subfamily 20 of glycoside hydrolase family 13 (NPase or CDases subfamily) and they have important differences with other members of the family. This enzyme consists of two subunits which form two active sites in the dimer form by binding of the central domain of each subunit to the N domain of the next one (domain-swapping dimeric structure). Allosterism is a possible way of regulating enzymatic activity and no evidence has been found regarding to the cooperativity and correlation between MAases subunits, therefore in this study the allosteric behavior of MAases from a native strain (Geobacillus sp...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Jose J Virgen-Ortíz, Veymar G Tacias-Pascacio, Daniela B Hirata, Beatriz Torrestiana-Sanchez, Arnulfo Rosales-Quintero, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente
Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) has been physically immobilized on octyl-agarose via interfacial activation. The incubation of the enzyme in 80% ethanol at pH 5 and 25°C has not significant effect on enzyme activity. Moreover, the hydrolysis of 100mM tributyrin catalyzed by this biocatalyst exhibited a quite linear reaction course. However, a new cycle of tributyrin hydrolysis showed a drastic drop in the activity. SDS-PAGE gels of the supernatant and the biocatalyst showed a significant enzyme desorption after the reaction...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Ilhame Bourais, Sara Maliki, Hasna Mohammadi, Aziz Amine
Two approaches for sulfonamides (SA's) determination, based on carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibition have been investigated in this work. In the first method, nine different SA's have been screened using simultaneous multiphotometric measurement in multiwell plates. The sulfanilamide (SAD) showed significant inhibition compared to other sulfonamides. The carbonic anhydrase (CA) kinetic interactions reveal noncompetitive binding of SAD. Interferences from other inhibitors with enzyme were studied and the results showed very good selectivity toward SAD...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Kusum Dagar, C S Pundir
An improved amperometric l-lactate biosensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) from Pediococcus species onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT)/copper nanoparticles (CuNPs)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid film electrodeposited on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The enzyme electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), while CuNPs synthesized by chemical reduction method, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectrascopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Priyadharshini Mani, Taj Keshavarz, T S Chandra, Godfrey Kyazze
Biocathodes may be a suitable replacement of platinum in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) if the cost of MFCs is to be reduced. However, the use of enzymes as bio-cathodes is fraught with loss of activity as time progresses. A possible cause of this loss in activity might be pH increase in the cathode as pH gradients in MFCs are well known. This pH increase is however, accompanied by simultaneous increase in salinity; therefore salinity may be a confounding variable. This study investigated various ways of mitigating pH changes in the cathode of MFCs and their effect on laccase activity and decolourisation of a model azo dye Acid orange 7 in the anode chamber...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Mário Barroca, Gustavo Santos, Björn Johansson, Florian Gillotin, Georges Feller, Tony Collins
A prerequisite to the use of any enzyme in any industrial process is an understanding of its activity and stability under process conditions. Glycoside hydrolase family 8 enzymes include many important biotechnological biocatalysts yet little is known of the performance of these with respect to pH. A better understanding of this parameter and its relationship to structure and function in these enzymes will allow for an improved use of these in industry as well as an enhanced ability in their engineering and optimisation for a particular application...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Hao Cao, Yang Jiang, Haiyang Zhang, Kaili Nie, Ming Lei, Li Deng, Fang Wang, Tianwei Tan
The methanol resistance of lipase is a critical parameter in enzymatic biodiesel production. In the present work, the methanol resistance of Yarrowia lipolytica Lipase 2 (YLLIP2) was significantly improved using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as an additive. According to the results, YLLIP2 with β-CD exhibited approximately 7000U/mg specific activity in 30wt% methanol for 60min compared with no activity without β-CD under the same conditions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results indicated that the β-CD molecules weakened the conformational change of YLLIP2 and maintained a semi-open state of the lid by overcoming the interference caused by methanol molecules...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Christiaan C Barron, Brandon J D Sponagle, Pugazhendhi Arivalagan, Godwin B D'Cunha
Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (E.C., PAL) activity of Rhodotorula glutinis yeast has been demonstrated in four commonly used ionic liquids. PAL forward reaction was carried out in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMIM][MeSO4]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate ([BMIM][lactate]). Our experiments have revealed that PAL is catalytically active in ionic liquids and the enzyme activity in ([BMIM][PF6]) is comparable to that obtained in aqueous buffer medium...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Fabio Tonin, Elisa Vignali, Loredano Pollegioni, Paola D'Arrigo, Elena Rosini
Enzymatic lignin degradation represents a key challenge for integrated biorefineries. Notwithstanding the rich content in aromatic compounds, lignin's complex structure has hampered identification of an effective and cost-efficient enzymatic procedure to transform it into less complex product families. Advancements in enzymatically modifying or degrading lignin require a simple and reliable analytical method to quickly screen diverse lignin samples by employing different enzymes and conditions. Here, we report on a novel, rapid, and economic colorimetric assay for lignin oxidation based on the reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with the carbonyl groups generated by enzymatic oxidation...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Nooshin Mohandesi, Kamahldin Haghbeen, Omid Ranaei, Seyed Shahriar Arab, Sorour Hassani
Engineering of invertases has come to attention because of increasing demand for possible applications of invertases in various industrial processes. Due to the known physicochemical properties, invertases from micro-organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying SUC2 gene are considered as primary models. To improve thermostability and catalytic efficiency of SUC2 invertase (SInv), six influential residues with Relative Solvent Accessibility<5% were selected through multiple-sequence alignments, molecular modelling, structural and computational analyses...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
K Mihklepp, K Kivirand, M Nikopensius, D Peedel, M Utt, T Rinken
Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) is an important environmental pathogen causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Mastitis or mammary gland infection is the most common disease in milking cows and cause significant economic burden to farmers due to the reduction of the amount of milk and its quality. The development of rapid analytical methods for the determination of mastitis-causing pathogens in milk is of utmost importance for the early identification of the causes of mastitis and the beginning of timely treatment of cows...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Tatiana N Stekhanova, Andrey L Rakitin, Andrey V Mardanov, Ekaterina Yu Bezsudnova, Vladimir O Popov
A new fold-type IV branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase VMUT0738 from the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeon Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified VMUT0738 showed activity toward numerous aliphatic and aromatic l-amino acids and 2-oxo acids at optimal pH 8.0. Distinguishing features of the VMUT0738 compared with typical BCAT are the absence of activity toward acidic substrates, high activity toward basic ones, and low but detectable activity toward the (R)-enantiomer of α-methylbenzylamine (0...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Chang-Bae Cho, Da-Yeon Park, Soo-Bok Lee
The C-terminal domain of the three-domain-comprising trehalose synthase from Thermus thermophilus was truncated in order to study the effect on the enzyme's activity and substrate specificity. Compared with the wild-type (WT) enzyme, the two truncated enzymes (DM1 and DM2) showed lower maltose- and trehalose-converting activities and a different transglycosylation reaction mechanism. In the mutants, the glucose moiety cleaved from the maltose substrate was released from the enzyme and intercepted by external glucose oxidase, preventing the production of trehalose...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
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