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AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428213/clinically-feasible-microstructural-mri-to-quantify-cervical-spinal-cord-tissue-injury-using-dti-mt-and-t2-weighted-imaging-assessment-of-normative-data-and-reliability
#1
A R Martin, B De Leener, J Cohen-Adad, D W Cadotte, S Kalsi-Ryan, S F Lange, L Tetreault, A Nouri, A Crawley, D J Mikulis, H Ginsberg, M G Fehlings
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: DTI, magnetization transfer, T2*-weighted imaging, and cross-sectional area can quantify aspects of spinal cord microstructure. However, clinical adoption remains elusive due to complex acquisitions, cumbersome analysis, limited reliability, and wide ranges of normal values. We propose a simple multiparametric protocol with automated analysis and report normative data, analysis of confounding variables, and reliability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy subjects underwent T2WI, DTI, magnetization transfer, and T2*WI at 3T in <35 minutes using standard hardware and pulse sequences...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428212/a-novel-mri-biomarker-of-spinal-cord-white-matter-injury-t2-weighted-white-matter-to-gray-matter-signal-intensity-ratio
#2
A R Martin, B De Leener, J Cohen-Adad, D W Cadotte, S Kalsi-Ryan, S F Lange, L Tetreault, A Nouri, A Crawley, D J Mikulis, H Ginsberg, M G Fehlings
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: T2*-weighted imaging provides sharp contrast between spinal cord GM and WM, allowing their segmentation and cross-sectional area measurement. Injured WM demonstrates T2*WI hyperintensity but requires normalization for quantitative use. We introduce T2*WI WM/GM signal-intensity ratio and compare it against cross-sectional area, the DTI metric fractional anisotropy, and magnetization transfer ratio in degenerative cervical myelopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy and 40 healthy subjects underwent 3T MR imaging, covering C1-C7...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428211/imaging-manifestations-of-pseudoprogression-in-metastatic-melanoma-nodes-injected-with-talimogene-laherparepvec-initial-experience
#3
C Zamora, M Lopez, F Cunningham, F Collichio, M Castillo
Talimogene laherparepvec is an oncolytic virus recently approved for targeted treatment of advanced melanoma. Because of an inflammatory reaction, treated lesions may increase in size and develop infiltrative margins that can be construed as disease progression or extracapsular spread. In this report, we describe our initial experience imaging the response of metastatic nodes injected with talimogene laherparepvec. Six of 12 nodes (50%) showed growth from baseline followed by decreased size, 5 of 12 nodes (42%) showed a downward size trend, and 1 node showed continued increase in size...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428210/proton-chemical-shift-imaging-study-of-the-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-impact-on-neurometabolic-parameters-in-chronic-hiv-infection
#4
J Boban, D Kozic, V Turkulov, D Lendak, M Bjelan, M Semnic, S Brkic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has failed to reduce the high prevalence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to test the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy on brain metabolite ratios in chronic HIV infection by using proton chemical shift imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 2D chemical shift imaging in 91 subjects (31 HIV+ patients with chronic infection on combination antiretroviral therapy, 19 combination antiretroviral therapy-na|fkve HIV+ subjects with chronic infection, and 41 healthy controls), covering frontal and parietal subcortical white and cingulate gyrus gray matter, analyzing ratios of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr on long-TE and mIns/Cr on short-TE MR spectroscopy...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428209/myelin-detection-using-rapid-quantitative-mr-imaging-correlated-to-macroscopically-registered-luxol-fast-blue-stained-brain-specimens
#5
J B M Warntjes, A Persson, J Berge, W Zech
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myelin detection is of great value in monitoring diseases such as multiple sclerosis and dementia. However, most MR imaging methods to measure myelin are challenging for routine clinical use. Recently, a novel method was published, in which the presence of myelin is inferred by using its effect on the intra- and extracellular water relaxation rates and proton density, observable by rapid quantitative MR imaging. The purpose of this work was to validate this method further on the brains of 12 fresh, intact cadavers...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428208/resting-state-seed-based-analysis-an-alternative-to-task-based-language-fmri-and-its-laterality-index
#6
K A Smitha, K M Arun, P G Rajesh, B Thomas, C Kesavadas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Language is a cardinal function that makes human unique. Preservation of language function poses a great challenge for surgeons during resection. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of resting-state fMRI in the lateralization of language function in healthy subjects to permit its further testing in patients who are unable to perform task-based fMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen healthy right-handed volunteers were prospectively evaluated with resting-state fMRI and task-based fMRI to assess language networks...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428207/mr-imaging-grading-system-for-skull-base-chordoma
#7
K Tian, L Wang, J Ma, K Wang, D Li, J Du, G Jia, Z Wu, J Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Skull base chordoma has been widely studied in recent years, however, imaging characteristics of this tumor have not been well elaborated. The purpose of this study was to establish an MR imaging grading system for skull base chordoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 156 patients with skull base chordomas were retrospectively assessed. Tumor-to-pons signal intensity ratios were calculated from pretreatment MR images RT1 (ratio of tumor to pons signal intensity in T1 FLAIR sequence), RT2 (ratio of tumor to pons signal intensity in T2 sequence) and REN (ratio of tumor to pons signal intensity in enhanced T1 FLAIR sequence), and significant ratios for overall survival and progression-free survival were selected to establish a grading system...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428206/current-and-emerging-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-the-radiologist-part-2-surveillance-for-treatment-complications-and-disease-progression
#8
REVIEW
C McNamara, G Sugrue, B Murray, P J MacMahon
An understanding of the new generation of MS drugs in conjunction with the key role MR imaging plays in the detection of disease progression, opportunistic infections, and drug-related adverse effects is of vital importance to the neuroradiologist. Part 1 of this review outlined the current treatment options available for MS and examined the mechanisms of action of the various medications. It also covered specific complications associated with each form of therapy. Part 2, in turn deals with the subject of pharmacovigilance and the optimal frequency of MRI monitoring for each individual patient, depending on his or her unique risk profile...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428205/measurable-supratentorial-white-matter-volume-changes-in-patients-with-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-treated-with-an-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-agent-steroids-and-radiation
#9
P Svolos, W E Reddick, A Edwards, A Sykes, Y Li, J O Glass, Z Patay
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Assessing the response to treatment in infiltrative brain tumors by using lesion volume-based response criteria is challenging. We hypothesized that in such tumors, volume measurements alone may not accurately capture changes in actual tumor burden during treatment. We longitudinally evaluated volume changes in both normal-appearing supratentorial white matter and the brain stem lesions in patients treated for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma to determine to what extent adjuvant systemic therapies may skew the accuracy of tumor response assessments based on volumetric analysis...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408633/heterogeneity-of-cortical-lesion-susceptibility-mapping-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
M Castellaro, R Magliozzi, A Palombit, M Pitteri, E Silvestri, V Camera, S Montemezzi, F B Pizzini, A Bertoldo, R Reynolds, S Monaco, M Calabrese
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantitative susceptibility mapping has been used to characterize iron and myelin content in the deep gray matter of patients with multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to characterize the susceptibility mapping of cortical lesions in patients with MS and compare it with neuropathologic observations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pattern of microglial activation was studied in postmortem brain tissues from 16 patients with secondary-progressive MS and 5 age-matched controls...
April 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408632/4d-dsa-for-dynamic-visualization-of-cerebral-vasculature-a-single-center-experience-in-26-cases
#11
S Lang, P Gölitz, T Struffert, J Rösch, K Rössler, M Kowarschik, C Strother, A Doerfler
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 4D DSA allows acquisition of time-resolved 3D reconstructions of cerebral vessels by using C-arm conebeam CT systems. The aim of our study was to evaluate this new method by qualitative and quantitative means. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2D and 4D DSA datasets were acquired in patients presenting with AVMs, dural arteriovenous fistulas, and cerebral aneurysms. 4D DSA was compared with 2D DSA in a consensus reading of qualitative and quantitative parameters of AVMs (eg, location, feeder, associated aneurysms, nidus size, drainage, Martin-Spetzler Score), dural arteriovenous fistulas (eg, fistulous point, main feeder, diameter of the main feeder, drainage), and cerebral aneurysms (location, neck configuration, aneurysmal size)...
April 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408631/asymmetric-meckel-cave-enlargement-a-potential-marker-of-phaces-syndrome
#12
J N Wright, V Wycoco
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: PHACES syndrome is a complex of morphologic abnormalities of unknown cause and includes posterior fossa abnormalities; head and neck infantile hemangiomas; arterial, cardiac, and eye anomalies; and sternal or abdominal wall defects. Accurate identification of the syndrome is important for optimal treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement, a potential novel imaging marker, in a population of patients referred for evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome...
April 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408630/current-and-emerging-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-the-radiologist-part-1-mechanisms-efficacy-and-safety
#13
REVIEW
C McNamara, G Sugrue, B Murray, P J MacMahon
Imaging for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with suspected or confirmed multiple sclerosis is a common scenario for many general radiologists and subspecialty neuroradiologists. The field of MS therapeutics has rapidly evolved with multiple new agents now being used in routine clinical practice. To provide an informed opinion in discussions concerning newer MS agents, radiologists must have a working understanding of the strengths and limitations of the various novel therapies. The role of imaging in MS has advanced beyond monitoring and surveillance of disease activity to include treatment complications...
April 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408629/pretreatment-adc-values-predict-response-to-radiosurgery-in-vestibular-schwannomas
#14
A Camargo, T Schneider, L Liu, J Pakpoor, L Kleinberg, D M Yousem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The response rate of vestibular schwannomas to radiation therapy is variable, and there are surgical options available in the event of treatment failure. The aim of this study was to determine whether pre- and posttreatment ADC values can predict the tumor response to radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a data base of 162 patients with vestibular schwannomas who underwent radiation therapy with gamma knife, CyberKnife, or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy as the first-line therapy between January 2003 and December 2013, we found 20 patients who had pretreatment ADC values...
April 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408628/dentate-update-imaging-features-of-entities-that-affect-the-dentate-nucleus
#15
REVIEW
K M Bond, W Brinjikji, L J Eckel, D F Kallmes, R J McDonald, C M Carr
The dentate nucleus is a cerebellar structure involved in voluntary motor function and cognition. There are relatively few entities that affect the dentate, and the clinical features of these conditions are often complex and nonspecific. Because these entities are rarely encountered, the formulation of a differential diagnosis can be difficult. Many of the conditions are reversible or treatable with early intervention. Therefore, it is important to recognize classic clinical presentations and their associated characteristic imaging findings...
April 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408627/minor-stroke-syndromes-in-large-vessel-occlusions-mechanical-thrombectomy-or-thrombolysis-only
#16
M P Messer, S Schönenberger, M A Möhlenbruch, J Pfaff, C Herweh, P A Ringleb, S Nagel
While mechanical thrombectomy for large-vessel occlusions is now an evidence-based treatment, its efficacy and safety in minor stroke syndromes (NIHSS ≤ 5) is not proved. We identified, in our prospective data base, 378 patients with minor strokes in the anterior circulation; 54 (14.2%) of these had proved large-vessel occlusions. Eight of 54 (14.8%) were immediately treated with mechanical thrombectomy, 6/54 (11.1%) after early neurologic deterioration, and the rest were treated with standard thrombolysis only...
April 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408626/differences-in-activation-and-deactivation-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-compared-with-demographically-matched-controls
#17
B Sun, R C Brown, T G Burns, D Murdaugh, S Palasis, R A Jones
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Declines in both functional activation and functional connectivity have been reported in patients with sickle cell disease. In this study, we derived the functional and default mode responses to a word stem paradigm in age-, ethnicity-, and background-matched subjects with sickle cell disease and control groups, with the aim of testing whether both networks were similarly attenuated and whether the changes were related to physiologic parameters that characterize sickle cell disease...
April 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385887/determining-the-orientation-of-directional-deep-brain-stimulation-electrodes-using-3d-rotational-fluoroscopy
#18
P C Reinacher, M T Krüger, V A Coenen, M Shah, R Roelz, C Jenkner, K Egger
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: New deep brain stimulation leads with electrode contacts that are split along their circumference allow steering of the electrical field in a predefined direction. However, imaging-assisted directional stimulation requires detailed knowledge of the exact orientation of the electrode array. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this information can be obtained by rotational 3D fluoroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two directional leads were inserted into a 3D-printed plaster skull filled with gelatin...
April 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385886/preliminary-experience-with-stent-assisted-coiling-of-aneurysms-arising-from-small-2-5-mm-cerebral-vessels-using-the-low-profile-visualized-intraluminal-support-device
#19
C-C Wang, W Li, Z-Z Feng, B Hong, Y Xu, J-M Liu, Q-H Huang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) stent is a new device recently introduced for the treatment of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. This single-center study presents the authors' preliminary experience using the LVIS stent to treat saccular aneurysms with parent arteries smaller than 2.5 mm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aneurysms with a LVIS stent used in a small parent vessel (<2.5 mm in diameter) between October 2014 and April 2016 were included...
April 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385885/the-role-of-mri-in-diagnosing-neurovascular-compression-of-the-cochlear-nerve-resulting-in-typewriter-tinnitus
#20
Y J Bae, Y J Jeon, B S Choi, J-W Koo, J-J Song
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Typewriter tinnitus, a symptom characterized by paroxysmal attacks of staccato sounds, has been thought to be caused by neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve, but the correlation between radiologic evidence of neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve and symptom presentation has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether radiologic evidence of neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve is pathognomonic in typewriter tinnitus...
April 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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