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History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313239/modeling-complexity-cognitive-constraints-and-computational-model-building-in-integrative-systems-biology
#1
Miles MacLeod, Nancy J Nersessian
Modern integrative systems biology defines itself by the complexity of the problems it takes on through computational modeling and simulation. However in integrative systems biology computers do not solve problems alone. Problem solving depends as ever on human cognitive resources. Current philosophical accounts hint at their importance, but it remains to be understood what roles human cognition plays in computational modeling. In this paper we focus on practices through which modelers in systems biology use computational simulation and other tools to handle the cognitive complexity of their modeling problems so as to be able to make significant contributions to understanding, intervening in, and controlling complex biological systems...
January 8, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299702/robot-life-simulation-and-participation-in-the-study-of-evolution-and-social-behavior
#2
Christopher M Kelty
This paper explores the case of using robots to simulate evolution, in particular the case of Hamilton's Law. The uses of robots raises several questions that this paper seeks to address. The first concerns the role of the robots in biological research: do they simulate something (life, evolution, sociality) or do they participate in something? The second question concerns the physicality of the robots: what difference does embodiment make to the role of the robot in these experiments. Thirdly, how do life, embodiment and social behavior relate in contemporary biology and why is it possible for robots to illuminate this relation? These questions are provoked by a strange similarity that has not been noted before: between the problem of simulation in philosophy of science, and Deleuze's reading of Plato on the relationship of ideas, copies and simulacra...
January 3, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299692/steeves-demazeux-and-patrick-singy-eds-the-dsm-5-in-perspective-philosophical-reflections-on-the-psychiatric-babel-dordrecht-heidelberg-new-york-london-springer-2015-series-history-philosophy-and-theory-of-the-life-sciences-vol-10-238%C3%A2-pp-%C3%A2-90
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247339/natalia-g-sukhova-erki-tammiksaar-aleksandr-fedorovich-middendorf-k-dvukhsotletiyu-so-dnia-rozhdeniya-alexander-theodor-von-middendorff-on-the-bicentenary-of-his-birthday-2nd-edition-revised-and-expanded-st-petersburg-nestor-istoriya-2015-380%C3%A2-pp-price-300
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238855/epigenesis-by-experience-romantic-empiricism-and-non-kantian-biology
#5
Amanda Jo Goldstein
Reconstructions of Romantic-era life science in general, and epigenesis in particular, frequently take the Kantian logic of autotelic "self-organization" as their primary reference point. I argue in this essay that the Kantian conceptual rubric hinders our historical and theoretical understanding of epigenesis, Romantic and otherwise. Neither a neutral gloss on epigenesis, nor separable from the epistemological deflation of biological knowledge that has received intensive scrutiny in the history and philosophy of science, Kant's heuristics of autonomous "self-organization" in the third Critique amount to the strategic capture of epigenesis from nature, for thought, in thought's critical transcendence of nature...
December 13, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204766/correction-to-informing-materials-drugs-as-tools-for-exploring-cancer-mechanisms-and-pathways
#6
Etienne Vignola-Gagné, Peter Keating, Alberto Cambrosio
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Three entries are incorrect in the reference list. The corrected references are given below.
December 4, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188459/petri-dish-versus-winogradsky-column-a-longue-dur%C3%A3-e-perspective-on-purity-and-diversity-in-microbiology-1880s-1980s
#7
Mathias Grote
Microbial diversity has become a leitmotiv of contemporary microbiology, as epitomized in the concept of the microbiome, with significant consequences for the classification of microbes. In this paper, I contrast microbiology's current diversity ideal with its influential predecessor in the twentieth century, that of purity, as epitomized in Robert Koch's bacteriological culture methods. Purity and diversity, the two polar opposites with regard to making sense of the microbial world, have been operationalized in microbiological practice by tools such as the "clean" Petri dish versus the "dirty" Winogradsky column, the latter a container that mimics, in the laboratory, the natural environment that teems with diverse microbial life...
November 29, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181739/stochasticity-in-cultural-evolution-a-revolution-yet-to%C3%A2-happen
#8
Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
Over the last 40 years or so, there has been an explosion of cultural evolution research in anthropology and archaeology. In each discipline, cultural evolutionists investigate how interactions between individuals translate into group level patterns, with the aim of explaining the diachronic dynamics and diversity of cultural traits. However, while much attention has been given to deterministic processes (e.g. cultural transmission biases), we contend that current evolutionary accounts of cultural change are limited because they do not adopt a systematic stochastic approach (i...
November 27, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181598/history-as-a-biomedical-matter-recent-reassessments-of-the-first-cases-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Lara Keuck
This paper examines medical scientists' accounts of their rediscoveries and reassessments of old materials. It looks at how historical patient files and brain samples of the first cases of Alzheimer's disease became reused as scientific objects of inquiry in the 1990s, when a genetic neuropathologist from Munich and a psychiatrist from Frankfurt lead searches for left-overs of Alzheimer's 'founder cases' from the 1900s. How and why did these researchers use historical methods, materials and narratives, and why did the biomedical community cherish their findings as valuable scientific facts about Alzheimer's disease? The paper approaches these questions by analysing how researchers conceptualised 'history' while backtracking and reassessing clinical and histological materials from the past...
November 27, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181597/from-lighthouse-to-hothouse-hospital-hygiene-antibiotics-and-the-evolution-of-infectious-disease-1950-1990
#10
Christoph Gradmann
Upon entering clinical medicine in the 1940s, antibiotic therapy seemed to complete a transformation of hospitals that originated in the late nineteenth century. Former death sinks had become harbingers of therapeutic progress. Yet this triumph was short-lived. The arrival of pathologies caused by resistant bacteria, and of nosocomial infections whose spread was helped by antibiotic therapies, seemed to be intimately related to modern anti-infective therapy. The place where such problems culminated were hospitals, which increasingly appeared as dangerous environments where attempts to combat infectious diseases had instead created hothouses of disease evolution...
November 27, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168074/paleoanthropology-s-uses-of-the-bipedal-criterion
#11
Mathilde Lequin
Bipedalism is one of the criteria that paleoanthropologists use in order to interpret the fossil record and to determine if a specimen belongs to the human lineage. In the context of such interpretations, bipedalism is considered to be a unique characteristic of this lineage that also marks its origin. This conception has largely remained unchallenged over the last decades, in spite of fossil discoveries that led to the emergence of bipedalism in the human lineage being shifted back by several millions of years...
November 22, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168053/the-sociobiology-of-genes-the-gene-s-eye-view-as-a-unifying-behavioural-ecological-framework-for-biological-evolution
#12
Alexis De Tiège, Yves Van de Peer, Johan Braeckman, Koen B Tanghe
Although classical evolutionary theory, i.e., population genetics and the Modern Synthesis, was already implicitly 'gene-centred', the organism was, in practice, still generally regarded as the individual unit of which a population is composed. The gene-centred approach to evolution only reached a logical conclusion with the advent of the gene-selectionist or gene's eye view in the 1960s and 1970s. Whereas classical evolutionary theory can only work with (genotypically represented) fitness differences between individual organisms, gene-selectionism is capable of working with fitness differences among genes within the same organism and genome...
November 22, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147945/stephen-hilgartner-reordering-life-knowledge-and-control-in-the-genomics-revolution-cambridge-massachusetts-the-mit-press-2017-xiv%C3%A2-%C3%A2-343%C3%A2-pp-may-2017-35-00-%C3%A2-27-95
#13
James W E Lowe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138946/semiotic-systems-with-duality-of-patterning-and-the-issue-of-cultural-replicators
#14
Gerhard Schaden, Cédric Patin
Two major works in recent evolutionary biology have in different ways touched upon the issue of cultural replicators in language, namely Dawkins' Selfish Gene and Maynard Smith and Szathmáry's Major Transitions in Evolution. In the latter, the emergence of language is referred to as the last major transition in evolution (for the time being), a claim we argue to be derived from a crucial property of language, called Duality of Patterning. Prima facie, this property makes natural language look like a structural equivalent to DNA, and its peer in terms of expressive power...
November 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138998/crafting-socialist-embryology-dialectics-aquaculture-and-the-diverging-discipline-in-maoist-china-1950-1965
#15
Lijing Jiang
In the 1950s, embryology in socialist China underwent a series of changes that adjusted the disciplinary apparatus to suit socialism and the national goal of self-reliance. As the Communist state called on scientists to learn from the Soviets, embryologists' comprehensive view on heredity, which did not contradict Trofim Lysenko (1898-1976)'s doctrines, provided a space for them to advance their discipline. Leading scientists, often trained abroad in the tradition of experimental embryology, rode on the tides of Maoist ideology and repositioned their research...
November 7, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139032/radium-biophysics-and-radiobiology-tracing-the-history-of-radiobiology-in-twentieth-century-china
#16
Christine Yi Lai Luk
Radiobiology assesses the biological hazards of exposure to radioactive substances and nuclear radiation. This article explores the history of radiobiology in twentieth-century China by examining the overlapping of radium research and biophysics, from roughly the 1920s Nationalist period to the 1960s Communist period; from the foreign purchase of radium by the Rockefeller Foundation's China Medical Board during the Republican era, to the institutional establishment of radiobiology as a subset of biophysics in the People's Republic...
November 2, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138953/marta-bertolaso-philosophy-of-cancer-a-dynamic-and-relational-view-dordrecht-springer-2016-xv%C3%A2-%C3%A2-190%C3%A2-pp-%C3%A2-66-99
#17
Anya Plutynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039031/developmental-push-or-environmental-pull-the-causes-of-macroevolutionary-dynamics
#18
Douglas H Erwin
Have the large-scale evolutionary patterns illustrated by the fossil record been driven by fluctuations in environmental opportunity, by biotic factors, or by changes in the types of phenotypic variants available for evolutionary change? Since the Modern Synthesis most evolutionary biologists have maintained that microevolutionary processes carrying on over sufficient time will generate macroevolutionary patterns, with no need for other pattern-generating mechanisms such as punctuated equilibrium or species selection...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038982/hierarchy-determinism-and-specificity-in-theories-of-development-and-evolution
#19
Ute Deichmann
The concepts of hierarchical organization, genetic determinism and biological specificity (for example of species, biologically relevant macromolecules, or genes) have played a crucial role in biology as a modern experimental science since its beginnings in the nineteenth century. The idea of genetic information (specificity) and genetic determination was at the basis of molecular biology that developed in the 1940s with macromolecules, viruses and prokaryotes as major objects of research often labelled "reductionist"...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038945/human-germline-editing-a-historical-perspective
#20
Michel Morange
The development of the genome editing system called CRISPR-Cas9 has opened a huge debate on the possibility of modifying the human germline. But the types of changes that could and/or ought to be made have not been discussed. To cast some light on this debate, I will describe the story of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Then, I will briefly review the projects for modification of the human species that were discussed by biologists throughout the twentieth century. Lastly, I will show that for plenty of reasons, both scientific and societal, germline modification is no longer a priority for our societies...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
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