journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147945/stephen-hilgartner-reordering-life-knowledge-and-control-in-the-genomics-revolution-cambridge-massachusetts-the-mit-press-2017-xiv%C3%A2-%C3%A2-343%C3%A2-pp-may-2017-35-00-%C3%A2-27-95
#1
James W E Lowe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138946/semiotic-systems-with-duality-of-patterning-and-the-issue-of-cultural-replicators
#2
Gerhard Schaden, Cédric Patin
Two major works in recent evolutionary biology have in different ways touched upon the issue of cultural replicators in language, namely Dawkins' Selfish Gene and Maynard Smith and Szathmáry's Major Transitions in Evolution. In the latter, the emergence of language is referred to as the last major transition in evolution (for the time being), a claim we argue to be derived from a crucial property of language, called Duality of Patterning. Prima facie, this property makes natural language look like a structural equivalent to DNA, and its peer in terms of expressive power...
November 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138998/crafting-socialist-embryology-dialectics-aquaculture-and-the-diverging-discipline-in-maoist-china-1950-1965
#3
Lijing Jiang
In the 1950s, embryology in socialist China underwent a series of changes that adjusted the disciplinary apparatus to suit socialism and the national goal of self-reliance. As the Communist state called on scientists to learn from the Soviets, embryologists' comprehensive view on heredity, which did not contradict Trofim Lysenko (1898-1976)'s doctrines, provided a space for them to advance their discipline. Leading scientists, often trained abroad in the tradition of experimental embryology, rode on the tides of Maoist ideology and repositioned their research...
November 7, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139032/radium-biophysics-and-radiobiology-tracing-the-history-of-radiobiology-in-twentieth-century-china
#4
Christine Yi Lai Luk
Radiobiology assesses the biological hazards of exposure to radioactive substances and nuclear radiation. This article explores the history of radiobiology in twentieth-century China by examining the overlapping of radium research and biophysics, from roughly the 1920s Nationalist period to the 1960s Communist period; from the foreign purchase of radium by the Rockefeller Foundation's China Medical Board during the Republican era, to the institutional establishment of radiobiology as a subset of biophysics in the People's Republic...
November 2, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138953/marta-bertolaso-philosophy-of-cancer-a-dynamic-and-relational-view-dordrecht-springer-2016-xv%C3%A2-%C3%A2-190%C3%A2-pp-%C3%A2-66-99
#5
Anya Plutynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039031/developmental-push-or-environmental-pull-the-causes-of-macroevolutionary-dynamics
#6
Douglas H Erwin
Have the large-scale evolutionary patterns illustrated by the fossil record been driven by fluctuations in environmental opportunity, by biotic factors, or by changes in the types of phenotypic variants available for evolutionary change? Since the Modern Synthesis most evolutionary biologists have maintained that microevolutionary processes carrying on over sufficient time will generate macroevolutionary patterns, with no need for other pattern-generating mechanisms such as punctuated equilibrium or species selection...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038982/hierarchy-determinism-and-specificity-in-theories-of-development-and-evolution
#7
Ute Deichmann
The concepts of hierarchical organization, genetic determinism and biological specificity (for example of species, biologically relevant macromolecules, or genes) have played a crucial role in biology as a modern experimental science since its beginnings in the nineteenth century. The idea of genetic information (specificity) and genetic determination was at the basis of molecular biology that developed in the 1940s with macromolecules, viruses and prokaryotes as major objects of research often labelled "reductionist"...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038945/human-germline-editing-a-historical-perspective
#8
Michel Morange
The development of the genome editing system called CRISPR-Cas9 has opened a huge debate on the possibility of modifying the human germline. But the types of changes that could and/or ought to be made have not been discussed. To cast some light on this debate, I will describe the story of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Then, I will briefly review the projects for modification of the human species that were discussed by biologists throughout the twentieth century. Lastly, I will show that for plenty of reasons, both scientific and societal, germline modification is no longer a priority for our societies...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038942/fitting-structure-to-function-in-gene-regulatory-networks
#9
Ellen V Rothenberg
Cascades of transcriptional regulation are the common source of the forward drive in all developmental systems. Increases in complexity and specificity of gene expression at successive stages are based on the collaboration of varied combinations of transcription factors already expressed in the cells to turn on new genes, and the logical relationships between the transcription factors acting and becoming newly expressed from stage to stage are best visualized as gene regulatory networks. However, gene regulatory networks used in different developmental contexts underlie processes that actually operate through different sets of rules, which affect the kinetics, synchronicity, and logical properties of individual network nodes...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038918/mechanisms-and-causality-in-molecular-diseases
#10
Shannon E Keenan, Stanislav Y Shvartsman
How is a disease contracted, and how does it progress through the body? Answers to these questions are fundamental to understanding both basic biology and medicine. Advances in the biomedical sciences continue to provide more tools to address these fundamental questions and to uncover questions that have not been thought of before. Despite these major advances, we are still facing conceptual and technical challenges when learning about the etiology of disease, especially for genetic diseases. In this review, we illustrate this point by discussing the causal links between molecular mechanisms and systems-level phenotypes in molecular diseases...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038914/homage-to-eric-davidson
#11
Michel Morange
The Britten-Davidson model of genetic regulation was well received by American molecular biologists and embryologists, but not by the members of the French School of molecular biology. In particular, François Jacob considered it too abstract and too removed from experiments. I re-examine the contrast between the Britten-Davidson model and the operon model by Jacob and Monod, the different scientific contexts in which they were produced and the different roles they played. I also describe my recent encounters with Eric Davidson, and how I discovered the extraordinary continuity of his work on the development of the sea urchin, as well as his rich personality...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038908/eric-davidson-his-philosophy-and-the-history-of-science
#12
Ute Deichmann
Eric Davidson, a passionate molecular developmental biologist and intellectual, believed that conceptual advances in the sciences should be based on knowledge of conceptual history. Convinced of the superiority of a causal-analytical approach over other methods, he succeeded in successfully applying this approach to the complex feature of organismal development by introducing the far-reaching concept of developmental Gene Regulatory Networks. This essay reviews Davidson's philosophy, his support for the history of science, and some aspects of his scientific personality...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038895/the-network-remains
#13
Smadar Ben-Tabou de-Leon
Eric Davidson was a legend both in his science and his personality. He inspired and challenged a new generation of developmental biologists and I was lucky to be one of them. He changed the way we think about biological interactions by synthesizing a large scale, almost incomprehensible set of data into a causal model of a gene regulatory network. While his death leaves a big hole in our lives, his contribution to the conceptualization of regulatory biology will inspire developmental and evolutionary biologists for decades to come...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030730/introduction-eric-davidson-and-the-molecular-biology-of-evolution-and-development
#14
EDITORIAL
Michel Morange, Ute Deichmann
Between November 30th and December 2nd, 2015, the Jacques Loeb Centre for the History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beer Sheva (Israel) held its Eighth International Workshop under the title "From Genome to Gene: Causality, Synthesis and Evolution". Eric Davidson, the founder of the concept of developmental Gene Regulatory Networks, had regularly attended the previous meetings, and his participation in this one was expected, but he suddenly passed away 3 months before...
October 13, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030723/eric-davidson-and-deep-time
#15
Douglas H Erwin
Eric Davidson had a deep and abiding interest in the role developmental mechanisms played in generating evolutionary patterns documented in deep time, from the origin of the euechinoids to the processes responsible for the morphological architectures of major animal clades. Although not an evolutionary biologist, Davidson's interests long preceded the current excitement over comparative evolutionary developmental biology. Here I discuss three aspects at the intersection between his research and evolutionary patterns in deep time: First, understanding the mechanisms of body plan formation, particularly those associated with the early diversification of major metazoan clades...
October 13, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900879/darwinism-in-metaethics-what-if-the-universal-acid-cannot-be-contained
#16
Eleonora Severini, Fabio Sterpetti
The aim of this article is to explore the impact of Darwinism in metaethics and dispel some of the confusion surrounding it. While the prospects for a Darwinian metaethics appear to be improving, some underlying epistemological issues remain unclear. We will focus on the so-called Evolutionary Debunking Arguments (EDAs) which, when applied in metaethics, are defined as arguments that appeal to the evolutionary origins of moral beliefs so as to undermine their epistemic justification. The point is that an epistemic disanalogy can be identified in the debate on EDAs between moral beliefs and other kinds of beliefs, insofar as only the former are regarded as vulnerable to EDAs...
September 12, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895068/hughlings-jackson-and-the-doctrine-of-concomitance-mind-brain-theorising-between-metaphysics-and-the-clinic
#17
M Chirimuuta
John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) is a major figure at the origins of neurology and neuroscience in Britain. Alongside his contributions to clinical medicine, he left a large corpus of writing on localisation of function in the nervous system and other theoretical topics. In this paper I focus on Jackson's "doctrine of concomitance"-his parallelist theory of the mind-brain relationship. I argue that the doctrine can be given both an ontological and a causal interpretation, and that the causal aspect of the doctrine is especially significant for Jackson and his contemporaries...
September 11, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836228/catherine-larr%C3%A3-re-rapha%C3%A3-l-larr%C3%A3-re-penser-et-agir-avec-la-nature-une-enqu%C3%A3%C2%AAte-philosophique-%C3%A3-ditions-la-d%C3%A3-couverte-coll-sciences-humaines-france-2015-374%C3%A2-pp-%C3%A2-14-99
#18
Héloïse Varin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766282/erratum-to-ren%C3%A3-dubos-tuberculosis-and-the-ecological-facets-of-virulence
#19
Mark Honigsbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726213/how-mechanisms-explain-interfield-cooperation-biological-chemical-study-of-plant-growth-hormones-in-utrecht-and-pasadena-1930-1938
#20
Caterina Schürch
This article examines to what extent a particular case of cross-disciplinary research in the 1930s was structured by mechanistic reasoning. For this purpose, it identifies the interfield theories that allowed biologists and chemists to use each other's techniques and findings, and that provided the basis for the experiments performed to identify plant growth hormones and to learn more about their role in the mechanism of plant growth. In 1930, chemists and biologists in Utrecht and Pasadena began to cooperatively study plant growth...
September 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
journal
journal
27880
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"