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History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019256/theoricity-observation-and-homology-a-response-to-pearson
#1
Ariel Jonathan Roffé, Santiago Ginnobili, Daniel Blanco
An interesting metatheoretical controversy took place during the 1980's and 1990's between pattern and phylogenetic cladists. What was always at stake in the discussion was not how work in systematics should be carried out, but rather how this practice should be metatheoretically interpreted. In this article, we criticize Pearson's account of the metatheoretical factors at play in this discussion. Following him, we focus on the issue of circularity, and on the role that phylogenetic hypotheses play in the determination of "primary homologies"...
July 17, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003445/on-the-historical-significance-of-beijerinck-and-his-contagium-vivum-fluidum-for-modern-virology
#2
Neeraja Sankaran
This paper considers the foundational role of the contagium vivum fluidum-first proposed by the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck in 1898-in the history of virology, particularly in shaping the modern virus concept, defined in the 1950s. Investigating the cause of mosaic disease of tobacco, previously shown to be an invisible and filterable entity, Beijerinck concluded that it was neither particulate like the bacteria implicated in certain infectious diseases, nor soluble like the toxins and enzymes responsible for symptoms in others...
July 12, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905901/the-search-of-canonical-explanations-for-the-cerebral-cortex
#3
Alessio Plebe
This paper addresses a fundamental line of research in neuroscience: the identification of a putative neural processing core of the cerebral cortex, often claimed to be "canonical". This "canonical" core would be shared by the entire cortex, and would explain why it is so powerful and diversified in tasks and functions, yet so uniform in architecture. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the search for canonical explanations over the past 40 years, discussing the theoretical frameworks informing this research...
June 15, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796752/michael-fry-landmark-experiments-in-molecular-biology-london-academic-press-2016-xxiii-546-pp
#4
Michel Morange
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767274/retraction-note-to-diverging-views-of-epigenesis-the-wolff-blumenbach-debate
#5
Andrea Gambarotto
The author has retracted this article (Gambarotto 2017) as it contains sections that substantially overlap with the following publications (Roe 1981; Dupont 2007; Witt 2008).
May 16, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761410/gottfried-brem-ed-150-jahre-mendelsche-regeln-vom-erbsenz%C3%A3-hlen-zum-gen-editieren-nova-acta-leopoldina-413-wissenschaftliche-verlagsgesellschaft-stuttgart-2017-305-pp-no-price-stated
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761370/multispecies-individuals
#7
Pierrick Bourrat, Paul E Griffiths
We assess the arguments for recognising functionally integrated multispecies consortia as genuine biological individuals, including cases of so-called 'holobionts'. We provide two examples in which the same core biochemical processes that sustain life are distributed across a consortium of individuals of different species. Although the same chemistry features in both examples, proponents of the holobiont as unit of evolution would recognize one of the two cases as a multispecies individual whilst they would consider the other as a compelling case of ecological dependence between separate individuals...
May 14, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761265/snait-b-gissis-ehud-lamm-and-ayelet-shavit-eds-landscapes-of-collectivity-in-the-life-sciences-cambridge-ma-the-mit-press-2017-xv-415-pp-60-%C3%A2-49-95-42-00-paperback
#8
Javier Suárez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761240/derek-m-jones-the-biological-foundations-of-action-milton-park-abington-oxon-routledge-history-and-philosophy-of-biology-4-2017-xv-108-pp-%C3%A2-92-00
#9
Anne Sophie Meincke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691669/thomas-hunt-morgan-and-the-invisible-gene-the-right-tool-for-the-job
#10
Giulia Frezza, Mauro Capocci
The paper analyzes the early theory building process of Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) from the 1910s to the 1930s and the introduction of the invisible gene as a main explanatory unit of heredity. Morgan's work marks the transition between two different styles of thought. In the early 1900s, he shifted from an embryological study of the development of the organism to a study of the mechanism of genetic inheritance and gene action. According to his contemporaries as well as to historiography, Morgan separated genetics from embryology, and the gene from the whole organism...
April 24, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691668/introduction-to-working-across-species
#11
EDITORIAL
Rachel Mason Dentinger, Abigail Woods
Comparison between different animal species is omnipresent in the history of science and medicine but rarely subject to focussed historical analysis. The articles in the "Working Across Species" topical collection address this deficit by looking directly at the practical and epistemic work of cross-species comparison. Drawn from papers presented at a Wellcome-Trust-funded workshop in 2016, these papers investigate various ways that comparison has been made persuasive and successful, in multiple locations, by diverse disciplines, over the course of two centuries...
April 24, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637318/bringing-darwin-into-the-social-sciences-and-the-humanities-cultural-evolution-and-its-philosophical-implications
#12
EDITORIAL
Stefaan Blancke, Gilles Denis
In the field of cultural evolution it is generally assumed that the study of culture and cultural change would benefit enormously from being informed by evolutionary thinking. Recently, however, there has been much debate about what this "being informed" means. According to the standard view, an interesting analogy obtains between cultural and biological evolution. In the literature, however, the analogy is interpreted and used in at least three distinct, but interrelated ways. We provide a taxonomy in order to clarify these different meanings...
April 10, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619617/was-aristotle-the-father-of-the-epigenesis-doctrine
#13
Ina Goy
Was Aristotle the 'father' and founder of the epigenesis doctrine? Historically, I will argue, this question must be answered with 'no'. Aristotle did not initiate and had no access to a debate that described itself in terms of 'epigenesis' and 'preformation', and thus cannot be considered the 'father' or founder of the epigenesis-preformation controversy in a literal sense. But many ancient accounts of reproduction and embryological development contain analogies to what early modern scientist called 'epigenesis' and 'preformation', and, in this analogous sense, Aristotle can be considered a precursor of the epigenesis-preformation controversy...
April 4, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582183/phenylbutazone-bute-pbz-epz-one-drug-across-two-species
#14
Michael Worboys, Elizabeth Toon
In this article we explore the different trajectories of this one drug, phenylbutazone, across two species, humans and horses in the period 1950-2000. The essay begins by following the introduction of the drug into human medicine in the early 1950s. It promised to be a less costly alternative to cortisone, one of the "wonder drugs" of the era, in the treatment of rheumatic conditions. Both drugs appeared to offer symptomatic relief rather than a cure, and did so with the risk of side effects, which with phenylbutazone were potentially so severe that it was eventually banned from human use, for all but a few diseases, in the early 1980s...
March 26, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564652/the-evolution-of-morality-and-its-rollback
#15
Brian Garvey
According to most Evolutionary Psychologists, human moral attitudes are rooted in cognitive modules that evolved in the Stone Age to solve problems of social interaction. A crucial component of their view is that such cognitive modules remain unchanged since the Stone Age, and I question that here. I appeal to evolutionary rollback, the phenomenon where an organ becomes non-functional and eventually atrophies or disappears-e.g. cave-dwelling fish losing their eyes. I argue that even if cognitive modules evolved in the Stone Age to solve problems of social interaction, conditions since then have favoured rollback of those modules...
March 21, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560537/predictive-hypotheses-are-ineffectual-in-resolving-complex-biochemical-systems
#16
Michael Fry
Scientific hypotheses may either predict particular unknown facts or accommodate previously-known data. Although affirmed predictions are intuitively more rewarding than accommodations of established facts, opinions divide whether predictive hypotheses are also epistemically superior to accommodation hypotheses. This paper examines the contribution of predictive hypotheses to discoveries of several bio-molecular systems. Having all the necessary elements of the system known beforehand, an abstract predictive hypothesis of semiconservative mode of DNA replication was successfully affirmed...
March 20, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417236/working-across-species-down-on-the-farm-howard-s-liddell-and-the-development-of-comparative-psychopathology-c-1923-1962
#17
Robert G W Kirk, Edmund Ramsden
Seeking a scientific basis for understanding and treating mental illness, and inspired by the work of Ivan Pavlov, American physiologists, psychiatrists and psychologists in the 1920s turned to nonhuman animals. This paper examines how new constructs such as "experimental neurosis" emerged as tools to enable psychiatric comparison across species. From 1923 to 1962, the Cornell "Behavior Farm" was a leading interdisciplinary research center pioneering novel techniques to experimentally study nonhuman psychopathology...
February 7, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383456/continuous-culture-techniques-as-simulators-for-standard-cells-jacques-monod-s-aron-novick-s-and-leo-szilard-s-quantitative-approach-to-microbiology
#18
Gabriele Gramelsberger
Continuous culture techniques were developed in the early twentieth century to replace cumbersome studies of cell growth in batch cultures. In contrast to batch cultures, they constituted an open concept, as cells are forced to proliferate by adding new medium while cell suspension is constantly removed. During the 1940s and 1950s new devices have been designed-called "automatic syringe mechanism," "turbidostat," "chemostat," "bactogen," and "microbial auxanometer"-which allowed increasingly accurate quantitative measurements of bacterial growth...
January 30, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362901/reconstructing-an-incomparable-organism-the-chalicothere-in-nineteenth-and-early-twentieth-century-palaeontology
#19
Chris Manias
Palaeontology developed as a field dependent upon comparison. Not only did reconstructing the fragmentary records of fossil organisms and placing them within taxonomic systems and evolutionary lineages require detailed anatomical comparisons with living and fossil animals, but the field also required thinking in terms of behavioural, biological and ecological analogies with modern organisms to understand how prehistoric animals lived and behaved. Yet palaeontological material often worked against making easy linkages, bringing a sense of mystery and doubt...
January 23, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357046/translational-neonatology-research-transformative-encounters-across-species-and-disciplines
#20
Mie S Dam, Per T Sangild, Mette N Svendsen
This paper explores the laborious and intimate work of turning bodies of research animals into models of human patients. Based on ethnographic research in the interdisciplinary Danish research centre NEOMUNE, we investigate collaboration across species and disciplines, in research aiming at improving survival for preterm infants. NEOMUNE experimental studies on piglets evolved as a platform on which both basic and clinical scientists exercised professional authority. Guided by the field of multi-species research, we explore the social and material agency of research animals in the production of human health...
January 22, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
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