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Journal of Animal Science

W Gerrits, E Labussière, J Dijkstra, C Reynolds, C Metges, B Kuhla, P Lund, M Riis Weisbjerg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
C Farmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
J L Cox-O'Neill, K E Hales, K M Ulmer, R J Rasby, J Parsons, S D Shackelford, H C Freetly, M E Drewnoski
The objective of this 2-yr study was to evaluate growing and finishing performance as well as carcass characteristics of spring-born steers backgrounded on 3 different systems, using feedstuffs readily available in the Midwest: 1) grazing corn residue and being supplemented with dried distillers plus solubles at 2.68 kg DM/steer 6 d/wk (RESIDUE), 2) grazing a late summer-planted oat-brassica forage mix (CCROP), or 3) being fed a corn silage-based diet in a drylot (DRYLOT). Steers ( = 715) were stratified by BW (278 kg ± 23 in yr 1 and 291 kg ± 91 in yr 2) and assigned to treatment and replicate (4 replications per treatment per yr)...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
A R Clements, F A Ireland, T Freitas, H Tucker, D W Shike
Mature Simmental × Angus cows (214 cows; 635 ± 7 kg) were utilized to determine the effects of late gestation and early postpartum supplementation of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, milk composition, reproduction, and calf performance until weaning in a fall-calving, cool-season grazing system. Cows were stratified by BW, age, AI sire, and assigned to 1 of 12 pastures (17 or 18 cows·pasture). Pastures were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: control (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets, = 6) or supplement including MHA (0...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
A J Roberts, A Gomes da Silva, A F Summers, T W Geary, R N Funston
Data collected for 10 or more years at the West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte, NE ( = 1,104); the Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, Whitman, NE ( = 1,333); and the USDA, ARS, Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory, Miles City, MT ( = 1,176) were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate growth and reproductive performance of beef heifers classified by pubertal status before first breeding. Concentrations of progesterone in serum from 2 blood samples collected 9 to 11 d apart before the breeding season classified heifers as pubertal (progesterone ≥ 1...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
C Zhu, J L Ye, J Yang, K M Yang, Z Chen, R Liang, X J Wu, L Wang, Z Y Jiang
The study was to determine whether the expression of genes involved in intestinal water and ion transport would be affected by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) K88 both in vitro and in vivo. First, 36 male piglets (4 d old) were randomly allotted to either the control or the ETEC K88 group. Each group had 6 replicates with 3 piglets per replicate. All piglets were fed with the same diets for 17 d. On d 15, piglets in the ETEC K88 group were challenged with ETEC K88 (serotype O149:K91:K88ac) at 1 × 10 cfu per pig, whereas those in the control group received the same volume of sterile PBS...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
G E Berryhill, J F Trott, A L Derpinghaus, R C Hovey
Although mammary gland growth and development in females is a lifelong process, it builds on isometric and allometric phases of mammary growth to establish a complex ductal network before and during puberty. Only then can other phases of branching and alveologenesis, differentiation, lactation, and involution proceed. Although the ductal network of various species differs in its histomorphology, all glands undergo a common phase of allometric growth when the mammary ducts penetrate into the supporting stromal microenvironment...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
P Ren, X J Yang, J S Kim, D Menon, D Pangeni, H Manu, A Tekeste, S K Baidoo
Sows are usually restricted fed during pregnancy to maximize their reproductive efficiency, which may predispose sows to a state of hunger. However, an objective measurement of hunger status has not been established. In the present study, we examined the correlation of plasma hormones and NEFA and selected the best predictors for hunger status using pregnant gilts. Three different levels of feed intake (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 × maintenance energy intake [0.5M, 1.0M and 2.0M, respectively]) were imposed from Day 28 to 34 of gestation to create different hunger statuses in pregnant gilts...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
H Li, J Liu, W Zhu, S Mao
The objectives of this study were to examine the clinical response, changes in ruminal bacterial microbiota, and inflammatory response in lamellar tissues during oligofructose-induced laminitis. Ten fistulated sheep were randomly assigned into a control group ( = 5) and a treatment group ( = 5). The treatment group was infused with oligofructose (21 g/kg BW) by rumen cannula, and the control group was sham-treated with saline. Results showed that all 5 sheep treated with oligofructose developed anorexia and diarrhea 8 to 12 h after the administration of oligofructose...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Z D McFarlane, R P Barbero, R L G Nave, E B Maheiros, R A Reis, J T Mulliniks
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of stockpiled forage type and protein supplementation on VFA production, serum metabolites, and BW in yearling beef heifers. Over 2 yr, spring-born, Angus crossbred yearling beef heifers ( = 42; 305 ± 2.9 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 forage pasture types: 1) endophyte-infected tall fescue [TF; (Schreb.) Dumort], 2) a big bluestem ( Vitman) and indiangrass ( L.) combination (BI), or 3) switchgrass (SG; L.). Each pasture was then randomly assigned to receive either 1 of 2 isonitrogenous CP treatments: 1) 0...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
C L Daigle, B Jackson, R Gill, T A Wickersham, J E Sawyer
The effects of 2 exercise regimes on cattle productivity, immune function, and behavior were evaluated against a control ( = 4 pens/treatment) using weaned -cross calves ( = 203) housed in drylots (16-18 calves/single sex pens). Three treatments were applied 3 times per week for 4 wk: 1) programmatic exercise (PRO), in which cattle and a stockperson walked in the alleyway behind their home pen for 20 min; 2) free exercise (FREE), in which cattle were moved into the drovers alley for 60 min, not exercised by a stockperson, and were allowed free access to their home pen and alleyway; and 3) control (CON), in which calves were removed from their home pen only for routine husbandry...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
A Macías, L M Ferrer, J J Ramos, I Lidón, R Rebollar, D Lacasta, M T Tejedor
Deep semen deposition, avoiding retrograde flow, lesions and stress, has proved to be very important in the success of sheep AI. The objective of the present study was to develop a new, suitable anti-retrograde flow device for sheep cervical AI (DARIO) that enables deep deposition of semen into the cervix without any modifications to the procedures currently used, and to compare the fertility, fecundity, and prolificacy rates between DARIO and a traditional catheter. Field tests were performed on 16 farms actively participating in the non-profit National Association of Rasa Aragonesa Breeders´ genetic selection scheme and where sheep management was similar...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
L E Koch, N A Gomez, A Bowyer, G J Lascano
The addition of dietary fiber can alter nutrient and N utilization in precision-fed dairy heifers and may further benefit from higher inclusion levels of RUP. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-RUP diet when dietary fiber content was manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (555.4 ± 31.4 kg BW; 17.4 ± 0.1 mo) were randomly assigned to 2 levels of forage, high forage (HF; 60% forage) or low forage (LF; 45% forage), and to a fiber proportion sequence (low fiber: 100% oat hay and silage [OA], 0% wheat straw [WS]; medium fiber: 83...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
M-F Palin, C Farmer, C R A Duarte
The essential role of mammary fat pads in mammary growth and morphogenesis was the first indication that biologically active molecules, secreted from adipocytes or other stromal cells, could regulate endocrine cues for growth and function of the mammary gland. The presence of leptin and adiponectin receptors in mammary tissues suggested that locally produced or circulating adipokines could affect mammary growth and function. Herein, we present the current knowledge on the role of adipokines in mammary cell proliferation and differentiation and in lactogenesis and galactopoiesis in farm animals...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
C J Hu, Q Y Jiang, T Zhang, Y L Yin, F N Li, J Y Su, G Y Wu, X F Kong
Our previous study showed dietary supplementation with Arg and Glu increased intramuscular fat deposition and decreased back fat thickness in pigs, suggesting that the genes involved in lipid metabolism might be regulated differently in muscle and s.c. adipose (SA) tissues. Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups (castrated male to female ratio = 1:1). Pigs in the control group were fed a basic diet, and those in experimental groups were fed the basic diet supplemented with 2...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
W Jeong, H Bae, W Lim, F W Bazer, H Lee, G Song
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling plays essential roles in tissue development and homeostasis. Accumulating evidence reveals that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) regulates ductal elongation, which requires cell proliferation and epithelial expansion in the mammary gland. However, the function and mechanisms by which FGF2 controls functionality of epithelial cells is less well defined. Here, we demonstrate the functional effects of FGF2 on bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells and the intracellular signaling mechanisms for these FGF2-induced actions...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
D M Meléndez, S Marti, E A Pajor, D Moya, D Gellatly, E D Janzen, K S Schwartzkopf-Genswein
The newly revised Canadian Codes of Practice for the management of beef cattle requires that as of 2018, calves older than 6 mo of age be castrated using pain control. Castration is a husbandry procedure commonly done without pain control, and there is a lack of agreement on an effective pain mitigation strategy specific to castration. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal time of administration of meloxicam prior to castration. Thirty-four Angus and Angus crossbred bull calves (282 ± 28.0 kg BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments receiving a single s...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
C Ekine-Dzivenu, M Vinsky, J A Basarab, J L Aalhus, M E R Dugan, C Li
Bivariate animal models were used to estimate phenotypic and genetic correlations between 9 carcass merit and meat tenderness traits with 25 individual and grouped fatty acids in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of a population of 1,366 Canadian beef cattle finishing heifers and steers. In general, phenotypic correlations were low (<0.25 in magnitude) except for moderate phenotypic correlations of 9-17:1 (-0.29 ± 0.16), 18:0 (0.26 ± 0.14), 11-18:1 (-0.33 ± 0.15), 11-18:1 (0.35 ± 0.14) with Warner-Bratzler shear force measured 3 d postmortem and between 14:0 (-0...
December 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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