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Journal of Animal Science

Youngji Rho, Doug Wey, Cuilan Zhu, Elijah Kiarie, Kory Moran, Eric van Heugten, Cornelius F M de Lange
Fermenting high fiber ingredients such as DDGS with feed enzymes may improve their feeding value. We investigated the effects of fermenting corn DDGS with a blend of β-glucanase and xylanases (XB) on growth performance, gut parameters and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy in growing pigs. Dietary treatments were: 1) corn soybean meal-based diet plus 30% DDGS (control), 2) control + XB without fermentation (XBNS), and 3) control + DDGS fermented with XB (16% DM) for 3 to 10 d at 40°C (XBS)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
A C Carranza Martin, D N Coleman, L Garcia, C C Furnus, A E Relling
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of feeding an enriched diet with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to finishing lambs born from ewes supplemented either with or without EPA and DHA during late gestation on productive performance, muscle fatty acid (FA) and hypothalamus mRNA concentration of metabolic genes and hormone receptors. Lambs born from dams fed during the last 50 d of gestation either with a control diet containing 0.39 % Ca salts of palmitic fatty acid distillate (C) or Ca salts enriched with EPA and DHA (PFA) were used...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ahmad Alsahaf, Bart Ducro, Egiel Hanenberg, Roel F Veerkamp, George Azzopardi, Nicolai Petkov
The weight of a pig and the rate of its growth are key elements in pig production. In particular, predicting future growth is extremely useful, since it can help in determining feed costs, pen space requirements, and the age at which a pig reaches a desired slaughter weight. However, making these predictions is challenging, due to the natural variation in how individual pigs grow, and the different causes of this variation. In this paper, we used machine learning, namely random forest (RF) regression, for predicting the age at which the slaughter weight of 120 kg is reached...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Pierce Rafter, Deirdre C Purfield, Donagh P Berry, Andrew C Parnell, I Claire Gormley, J Francis Kearney, Mike P Coffey, Tara R Carthy
Copy number variants (CNVs) are a form of genomic variation that changes the structure of the genome through deletion or duplication of stretches of DNA. The objective of the present study was to characterize CNVs in a large multibreed population of beef and dairy bulls. The CNVs were called on the autosomes of 5,551 cattle from 22 different beef and dairy breeds, using 2 freely available software suites, QuantiSNP and PennCNV. All CNVs were classified into either deletions or duplications. The median concordance between PennCNV and QuantiSNP, per animal, was 18...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Garrett M See, Tasha R Gruhot, Matthew L Spangler, Ronald M Lewis
Continued selection for increased gilt body weight could negatively impact selection for age at puberty in gilts. The purpose of this study was to compare the genetic potential for growth to that for reducing age of puberty in swine. Females utilized (n=1079) were produced over a 6-year period from a population developed to determine the impact of energy restrictions and genetic influences on sow development and longevity. From 120 to 235 d of age, BW was collected every 14 d and attainment of puberty tested...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
N J Asaro, K D Berendt, R T Zijlstra, J Brewer, A K Shoveller
The carnivorous nature of the domestic cat makes feline metabolism of carbohydrates unique. The cats' glycemic response has been previously studied, with variable outcomes in response to carbohydrate level and source, but is an important response to understand how to control glycaemia. The objectives of this study were to determine the glucose and insulin responses of cats fed three commercial diets differing in carbohydrate content and source, and to investigate the effects of diet on RQ, energy expenditure (EE) and glycemic response...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Sho Nakamura, Satoshi Haga, Koji Kimura, Shuichi Matsuyama
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main source of energy for postweaning ruminants. The monocarboxylic acid transporters, MCT1 and MCT4, are thought to contribute to the absorption of SCFAs from the surface of the rumen following weaning. The present study measured changes in MCT1 and MCT4 expression in ruminal epithelial cells isolated from male preweaning (22 to 34 d old, n = 6) and postweaning (55 to 58 d old, n = 8) calves after euthanasia and sought to examine whether SCFAs stimulate the expression of these transporters...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Shumin Zhang, Xiudong Liao, Xuelian Ma, Liyang Zhang, Lin Lu, Xugang Luo
The particle size of selenium (Se) sources could affect Se absorption and utilization, and thus it is hypothesized that the Se bioavailability might be higher in ultrafine sodium selenite (USSe) than in sodium selenite (SSe) for broilers because of USSe's smaller particle size. An experiment was conducted to investigate the relative bioavailability of Se as USSe relative to SSe for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 one-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design involving in a 2 (Se sources) × 3 (added Se levels) factorial arrangement of treatments plus a Se-unsupplemented control diet containing 0...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Xi Luo, Weiguang Xia, Dong Ruan, Shuang Wang, Yiyan Cui, Deqian Yu, Qiwen Wu, Danhong Huang, Yanan Zhang, Chuntian Zheng, Wei Chen
Heat stress is a major environmental factor contributing to lower production of poultry. The objective of present study was to evaluate the influence of constant or intermittent high temperature on the production performance and redox status of plasma and hypothalamus in laying ducks. A total of 288 weight- and laying-matched laying ducks were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (each with 6 replicates of 12 birds): control, pair-fed, constant high temperature (24 h, 34 ± 1°C), and intermittent high temperature (10 h, 34 ± 1°C)...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jing Huang, Yang Jia, Qing Li, Kwangwon Son, Charles Hamilton, Walter R Burris, Phillip J Bridges, Arnold J Stromberg, James C Matthews
Increased tissue redox state may result in sub-optimal growth. Our goal was to determine if glutathione (GSH) content and expression of proteins involved with GSH metabolism change in longissimus dorsi (LD), subcutaneous adipose (SA), and liver tissues of growing vs. finishing steer phenotypes. Tissues were taken from 16 Angus steers (BW = 209 ± 29.4 kg) randomly assigned (n = 8) to develop through Growing (final BW = 301 ± 7.06 kg) vs. Finished (final BW = 576 ± 36.9 kg) growth phases, and at slaughter had achieved different REA (53...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ryan J Boldt, Scott E Speidel, Milton G Thomas, R Mark Enns
Heifer pregnancy (HPG) and Stayability (STAY) are female reproductive traits that have EPD reported by the Red Angus Association of America. Challenges arise when making genetic predictions for these traits. Specifically, HPG and STAY phenotypes can only be collected on females retained in the breeding herd and have low heritability estimates. Additionally, STAY is measured late in an animal's life. The objective of this research was to investigate the genetic relationships between HPG or STAY and 13 other traits, which included measurements of growth, carcass, ultrasound, and scrotal circumference...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Claudia A Sevillano, Catalin V Nicolaiciuc, Francesc Molist, Jeroen Pijlman, Rob Bergsma
Pig-breeding businesses have resulted in global breeding programs that select pigs to perform well on high-energy high-protein diets, which are traditionally based on corn and soybean meal. Nowadays, there is a shift toward diets based on cereals and co-products, therefore, high dietary inclusion of co-products can modify the expected performance of these pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding a cereals-alternative ingredients diet (CA-diet) compared to a corn-soybean meal diet (CS-diet) on the growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics of genetically similar growing-finishing gilts and boars...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Lujie Fan, Mingle Dou, Xiaoyu Wang, Qichun Han, Bo Zhao, Jianhong Hu, Gongshe Yang, Xin'e Shi, Xiao Li
Fermentation has attracted increasing attention in pig industry, because of low costs and numerous benefits on pig growth and health as well as environmental improvement, although the mechanisms remains largely unknown. In present study, fermented corn-soybean meal significantly improved average daily gain and Gain:Food ratio (p < 0.05). Fermented feed significantly increased Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) transcription in liver (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, fermented meal significantly enhanced the binding of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) to IGF1 promoter and C/EBPβ expression in liver (both p < 0...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Keelee J McCarty, Megan P T Owen, Caitlin G Hart, Robyn C Thompson, Derris D Burnett, E Heath King, Richard M Hopper, Caleb O Lemley
The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of supplemental melatonin implants on uterine artery blood flow from mid to late gestation in beef cattle and subsequent development of their male offspring. Commercial beef heifers (n = 32) and cows (n = 25) were bred via artificial insemination and assigned to one of two groups supplemented with melatonin implants (MEL) or without (CON) at d 180, 210, and 240 of gestation. Uterine artery blood flow was determined using color Doppler ultrasonography...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
D R Notter, M R Mousel, T D Leeds, G S Lewis, J B Taylor
Increasing prolificacy has been proposed to be the most effective way to increase the biological efficiency and profitability of sheep production. However, use of prolific breeds and genes with major effects on ovulation rate can increase prolificacy to levels that may not be desirable or sustainable in extensive rangeland production systems. This study thus evaluated effects of triplet births on ewe productivity and ewe and lamb performance. An initial study used 666 purebred Polypay litters to compare ewes with triplet litters that were required to raise all the lambs (Treatment A) with those whose triplet litters were reduced to 2 lambs (Treatment R)...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
I Vetharaniam, R E Vibart, D Pacheco
The sheep rumen sub-model MollyRum14 was evaluated on its methane and VFA predictions against data from respiration-chamber trials conducted with sheep fed perennial ryegrass, white clover, chicory, forage rape, turnip (leafy and bulb varieties), swedes, kale or forage radish. We assessed the model's response to substrate degradation rate (settings that affect the rate of cellulose and hemicellulose digestion) and to fermentation stoichiometry (settings that alter non-glucogenic to glucogenic short-chain fatty acid ratios)...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Y W Legesse, C D Dunn, M R Mauldin, N O Garza, G R Rowden, Y Mekasha, M Y Kurtu, S A Mohammed, W D Whibesilassie, M Ballou, M Tefera, G Perry, R D Bradley
Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are a domesticated and closely guarded economic staple of indigenous people located throughout Ethiopian territorial states. Seventeen morphometric variables were examined to determine intraspecific variation among 8 pastoralist-designated breeds of camels. Additionally, DNA sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene and genotyping of 6 nuclear microsatellite loci were examined to assess genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Ethiopian camels. Examination of 525 individuals revealed significant morphometric differentiation in Afar as compared with the remaining 7 breeds...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Tao Ran, Yizhao Z Shen, Atef M Saleem, Ousama AlZahal, Karen A Beauchemin, Wenzhu Z Yang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diet of finishing beef steers with active dried yeast (ADY) in ruminally protected and nonprotected forms on growth performance, carcass traits, and immune response. Seventy-five individually-fed Angus steers (initial body weight (BW) ± SD, 448 ± 8.4 kg) were assigned to a randomized complete design with 5 treatments: 1) control (no monensin, tylosin, or ADY), 2) antibiotics (ANT, 330 mg monensin + 110 mg tylosin·steer-1d-1), 3) ADY (1...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Yanhong Liu, Maryane S F Oliveira, Hans H Stein
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that productivity of sows fed diets containing canola meal produced from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds is not different from that of sows fed corn-soybean meal (SBM) diets. A total of 180 sows (initial BW: 207.8 ± 29.11 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 36 to 40 sows per diet. A 2-phase feeding program was used with gestation diets fed from d 7 of gestation to farrowing and lactation diets fed during the lactation period and from weaning to first estrus...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Brian M Burns, Stefan Hiendleder, Alan R Laing, Geoffry Fordyce, Andy D Herring
The placenta is a major driver of prenatal growth and involved in programming of postnatal performance. We therefore determined placental and embryo-fetal ultrasonographic parameters in early pregnancy and their relationships with birth weight and postnatal weights in a Bos indicus-Bos taurus composite beef cattle population. Pregnancies were generated in 2-yr-old Droughtmaster heifers by artificial insemination after estrus synchronization in 2 consecutive years (2009, n = 36 and 2010, n = 57), with a subset of 2010 heifers used again as lactating 3-yr-old cows in 2011 (n = 24)...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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