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Journal of Animal Science

J Lange, S Ganesh, S Meier, J Kay, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, M D Mitchell, J J Loor, J R Roche, A Heiser
During the peripartum period, dairy cows often have signs of inflammation. Various stresses, including infectious and metabolic diseases, have been discussed as causative for this inflammation. In this study, expression profiles for 17 immune markers were measured in whole blood preparations from 78 dairy cows over a time frame starting 1 wk before calving to 4 wk after calving. Additionally, the effects of far-off and close-up feeding on immune function of dairy cows during the peripartum period were investigated...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
C L Hunt, J L Leatherwood, J A Coverdale, D L Sigler, M M Vogelsang, C E Arnold
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent and economically costly source of lameness in the athletic horse. Previous studies investigating OA pathology have focused on localized trauma to the articular cartilage of a joint, largely ignoring the systemic immune status of the animal. In this study, yearling Quarter Horses were used to evaluate systemic cytokine gene expression and circulating leukocytes following a localized intra-articular inflammatory insult of the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatments for the 35-d experiment included an intra-articular injection of 0...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Celeste Alexander, Blake C Guard, Jan S Suchodolski, Kelly S Swanson
Absorption of dietary lipids in the small intestine is dependent on the emulsification by bile acids (BA) and the formation of chylomicrons. Cholestyramine is a common drug used in humans - and potentially dogs - to treat BA malabsorption associated with chronic diarrhea. It is known to bind BA to form insoluble complexes, preventing their reabsorption and possibly proper emulsification and absorption of dietary fats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cholestyramine on 1) macronutrient apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), and 2) fecal characteristics and metabolites of healthy adult dogs...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
E M van Grevenhof, J Vandenplas, M P L Calus
Future genomic evaluation models to be used routinely in breeding programs for pigs and poultry need to be able to optimally use information of crossbred animals to predict breeding values for crossbred performance of purebred selection candidates. Important challenges in the commonly used single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) model, are the definition of relationships between the different line compositions and the definition of the base generation per line. The use of metafounders (MFs) in ssGBLUP has been proposed to overcome these issues...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Aira Maye Serviento, Ludovic Brossard, David Renaudeau
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by various fungi and are known to contaminate animal feed ingredients especially cereals. One of the most common mycotoxins in swine diets is deoxynivalenol (DON) which is known to decrease growth performance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of single or repeated short-term DON challenges on growth performance, and feeding behavior in finishing pigs. A total of 160 pigs were distributed to four experimental groups in two successive replicates with each pig individually measured for live BW and individually fed using an electronic feeding station...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
G Q Liu, S F Li, X Su, Y He, L Y Zhang, L Lu, X D Liao, X G Luo
Two experiments were conducted to estimate standardized mineral (Ca, P, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) availabilities (SMA) in commonly used feedstuffs and verify the additivity of SMA for diet formulation of broilers. In Exp. 1, after 3 d of acclimation, a total of 96 22-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were fasted for 24 h. Then the broilers were fed a mineral-free, corn, soybean meal (SBM), or corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet for 4 h and the excreta samples were collected for 48 h after feed withdrawal (totally 52 h). The results showed that the endogenous losses of Ca, P, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn for chickens fed the mineral-free diet were 13...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Adassa M López, María C Muñoz, José M Molina, Carlos Hermosilla, Anja Taubert, Rafael Zárate, Inna Hildebrandt, Grant McNaughton-Smith, José L Eiroa, Antonio Ruiz
Continuous use of anticoccidial treatments against Eimeria infections has resulted in the development of drug resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of a methanolic extract derived from the endemic Canary rue (Ruta pinnata) plant of the Canary Islands, Spain, against Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae using in vitro assays. Freshly unsporulated oocysts were exposed to different concentrations of R. pinnata extract and thereafter evaluated for sporulation inhibition. Additionally, anticoccidial activity was examined by testing the viability of the E...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
S C Ring, D A Graham, M M Kelleher, M L Doherty, D P Berry
Genetic selection is an inexpensive and complementary strategy to traditional methods of improving animal health and welfare. Nonetheless, endeavors to incorporate animal health and welfare traits in international breeding programs have been hampered by the availability of informative phenotypes. The recent eradication program for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in the Republic of Ireland has provided an opportunity to quantify the potential benefits that genetic selection could offer BVD eradication programs elsewhere, as well as inform possible eradication programs for other diseases in the Republic of Ireland...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Prathamesh A Bandekar, Mansoor Leh, Rusty Bautista, Marty D Matlock, Greg Thoma, Rick Ulrich
Life cycle assessment of various alternative management strategies in the swine industry was performed to evaluate their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, cumulative energy use, and cumulative water use. The management strategies included use of immunocastration (IC), production without ractopamine (NoRAC), production without antimicrobials used for either growth promotion (NoAGP) and disease prevention (NoPREV), production of entire males (boars) (EM), and use of gestation pens (PENS). A common baseline scenario representing standard management practices in the swine industry was created against which all alternative management practices were compared pairwise...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
P Khanal, M L Leite-Browning, R Browning
Understanding fitness level among various breeds is essential for sustainable meat goat production. Research on the relative fitness of Boer F1 does and straightbred base breed has been limited. Meat goat does of various genotypes (Boer, Kiko, Spanish, Boer × Kiko reciprocal F1 crosses, and Boer × Spanish reciprocal F1 crosses) were studied to evaluate breed effects on doe fitness traits and the expression of heterosis over 7 production years. The herd was semi-intensively managed under humid subtropical pasture...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
B W Gudex, M J McPhee, V H Oddy, B J Walmsley
Physiological maturity, measured as carcass ossification [10 unit increments (100, 110, 120, …)], is used by the United States Department of Agriculture and the Meat Standards Australia carcass grading systems to reflect age-associated differences in beef tenderness and determine producer payments. In most commercial cattle herds the exact age of animals is unknown, thus prediction of ossification in association with phenotypic prediction systems has the capacity to assist producer decision making to improve carcass and eating quality...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
C M Yang, L L Zhang, G T Cao, J Feng, M Yue, Y L Xu, B Dai, Q J Han, X Q Guo
The present study was conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of essential oils and organic acids on the growth performance, immune system, major faecal volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microflora community in the weaned piglets. We also evaluated the antibacterial activity of the essential oil mixture on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Three hundred weaned piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups - basal diet (C), basal diet supplemented with the mixture of essential oils and organic acids (T1), and basal diet supplemented with antibiotics (T2)...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
C L Van Bibber-Krueger, C I Vahl, S K Narayanan, R G Amachawadi, E A Taylor, H M Scott, J S Drouillard
Effects of supplemental Zn as Zn sulfate on feedlot performance, carcass traits, and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated using 480 crossbred heifers (body weight = 385 kg ± 13.08) in a randomized complete block design. Heifers were blocked by body weight (BW) and randomly assigned within block to diets with 0, 30, 60, or 90 mg supplemental Zn/kg DM. Heifers were housed in dirt-surfaced pens (20 animals/pen; 6 pens/treatment) equipped with fence-line feed bunks and automatic water fountains. Heifers were fed once daily to ensure ad libitum intake...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
K S Hare, K M Wood, C Fitzsimmons, G B Penner
The objective of the study was to determine whether oversupplying MP prepartum affects postpartum cow BW, colostrum composition, milk production and composition, protein catabolism in the dam, and calf growth. Crossbred Hereford heifers were individually fed a control treatment designed to meet MP requirements (CON; n = 10) or 133% of the MP requirement (HMP; n = 11) from d -55 ± 4 until parturition. All cows were provided a common postpartum diet. Cow BW was measured on d 7 ± 1, 14 ± 2, 28 ± 3, 57 ± 4, 82 ± 5, and 111 ± 3 d relative to parturition...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
W M Snelling, L A Kuehn, R M Thallman, G L Bennett, B L Golden
Mature weight of beef cows in the U.S. has been increasing as a correlated response to selection for calf growth. Unfavorable genetic correlations between cow weight and various measures of female fertility, stayability and lifetime production suggest declining cow productivity might also be expected as a correlated response to growth selection. National cattle evaluations, however, show increasing trends for stayability and sustained fertility. Random regression (RR) models were employed to further examine genetic relationships among cow weight and productivity, and to assess cumulative productivity traits observed throughout cows' productive lives...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
B J Hayes, N J Corbet, J M Allen, A R Laing, G Fordyce, R Lyons, M R McGowan, B M Burns
Developing accurate genomic evaluations of fertility for tropical beef cattle must deal with at least two major challenges 1) recording cow fertility traits in extensive production systems on large numbers of cows and 2) the genomic evaluations should work across the breeds, crossbreds and composites used in tropical beef production. Here we assess accuracy of genomic evaluations for a trait which can be collected on a large scale in extensive conditions, Corpus Luteum score (CLscore), which is 1 if ovarian scanning indicates a heifer has cycled by 600 days and 0 if not, in a multi-breed population...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Hélène Gilbert, Julien Ruesche, Nelly Muller, Yvon Billon, Vincent Begos, Lucile Montagne
Weaning is a stress every piglet has to face. It is a main cause of antibiotic uses due to digestive disorders. In this study, response to weaning was analyzed in pigs from 2 lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) during growth. A total of 132 pigs from each line, housed per line and diet in conventional post-weaning units of 12 castrated males and 12 females, were fed either a conventional control (2 successive diets) or a complex (3 successive diets) dietary sequence during the post-weaning period (4 to 10 wk of age)...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
K S Hare, K M Wood, K Acton, C Fitzsimmons, G B Penner
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of oversupplying MP during late gestation on maternal BW, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and skeletal muscle catabolism. Crossbred Hereford heifers (n = 24) were assigned to a control treatment designed to meet MP requirements (CON) or a treatment providing 133% of the MP requirement (HMP). Heifers were individually fed their treatment from d -55 ± 3 relative to parturition and DMI was summarized by week. Body weight was measured on d -55 ± 3, -41 ± 3, -27 ± 3, and -8 ± 3...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
M V Otte, F Moreira, I Bianchi, J Oliveira, R E Mendes, C S Haas, A N Anciuti, M T Rovani, B G Gasperin, Lucia T
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may benefit sow reproductive performance, but effects on weaned gilts are unknown. This study evaluated the effects of supplementing omega-3 PUFA to gilts after weaning on growth, metabolic markers and gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and hormone receptors. For 52 d, gilts in the control group were fed 100 g/d of regular diets, whereas gilts in the omega-3 group were fed 75 g/d of such diets plus 25 g/d of the microalgae Schizochytium sp. (3.5 g/d of omega-3 PUFA) (n = 8 gilts/group)...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Arthur F A Fernandes, João R R Dórea, Robert Fitzgerald, William Herring, Guilherme J M Rosa
Computer vision applications in livestock are appealing since they enable measurement of traits of interest without the need to directly interact with the animals. This allows the possibility of multiple measurements of traits of interest with minimal animal stress. In the current study, an automated computer vision system was devised and evaluated for extraction of features of interest, as body measurements and shape descriptors, and prediction of body weight in pigs. From the 655 pigs that had data collected 580 had more than 5 frames recorded and were used for development of the predictive models...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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