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Journal of Animal Science

Rika Fukumori, Yoji Masuda, Ayaka Takeuchi, Rina Yanai, Khurchabiling Atchalalt, Borjigin Sarentonglaga, Kazuko Ogata, Mio Yamaguchi, Asuka Hara, Akane Sato, Toshihisa Sugino, Yoshikazu Nagao
The aim of this study was to investigate how intra-duodenal infusions of fatty acids (FA) affect appetite-related gut peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin in sheep. We hypothesized that these peptides can be highly reactive to unsaturated long-chain FA, because they are well known to decrease DMI. Four ewes were fitted with a duodenal cannula and a jugular vein catheter for a 6-h duodenal infusion of the nine FA (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) and water (control)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
S J Hartman, O N Genther-Schroeder, S L Hansen
To compare trace mineral (TM) repletion in feedlot steers after depletion by S and Mo, 72 Red Angus steers blocked by BW (253 ± 14 kg) were assigned (6 steers per pen, fed via GrowSafe bunks) to corn silage depletion diets (DEP) supplemented with NRC (1996) recommended concentrations of Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn (CON) or supplemented with 0.3% S (CaSO4), 2 mg of Mo/kg DM, and no added Cu, Mn, Zn, or Se (ANT). Three 62 d TM repletion strategies (REP) were applied within DEP diets on d 89: 1) Multimin90 injection (contains Cu, Mn, Se, Zn) and 100% of recommended Cu, Mn, Zn, and Se from inorganic sources (ITM), 2) saline injection and 150% of recommended TM from inorganic sources (ING), or 3) saline injection and 150% of recommended TM provided as 25% organic and 75% inorganic sources (BLEND)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
J W Kim, B Koo, I H Kim, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was carried out to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effects of extrusion and microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in hemp hulls (HH). Thirty-six pigs (30.3 ± 2.7 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 experimental diets in a complete randomized design with 6 replicates per diet. A corn-soybean meal (SBM)-based basal diet was formulated. Two additional diets were formulated by replacing 40% of corn and SBM (on a 100% of total diet basis) with HH or extruded HH (EHH)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
A Mostek, M Slowinska, S Judycka, H Karol, A Ciereszko, M A Dietrich
During semen cryopreservation, spermatozoa are exposed to physical and chemical stressors that result in their functional and structural damage. Growing evidence suggests that most cryoinjuries result from oxidative stress accompanying sperm cryopreservation. Elevated amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during cryopreservation can react with sperm macromolecules, including proteins. The goal of this study was to investigate the oxidative modifications (measured as carbonylation level changes) of carp spermatozoa proteins triggered by the cryopreservation process...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
E E Connor, Y Zhou, G E Liu
Olfactory receptors are G-protein coupled chemoreceptors expressed on millions of olfactory sensory neurons within the nasal cavity. These receptors detect environmental odorants and signal the brain regarding the location of feed, potential mates, and the presence of possible threats (e.g., predators or chemical toxins). Olfactory receptors also are present in organs outside of the nasal cavity where they bind to molecules such as nutrients and metabolites from the animal's internal environment to elicit physiological responses, including changes in gut motility, ventilation rate, and cellular migration...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Wesley P Schweer, John F Patience, Eric R Burrough, Brian J Kerr, Nicholas K Gabler
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a significant disease in the swine industry and increasing soybean meal (SBM) consumption during this disease challenge may improve performance. Our objectives were to determine the impact of SBM level on apparent total tract (ATTD) and ileal (AID) digestibility during PRRSV infection, and to determine ileal basal endogenous losses (BEL) during PRRSV infection. Forty PRRSV negative gilts were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with high and low SBM (HSBM, 29% vs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Z K Smith, A J Thompson, J P Hutcheson, W T Nichols, B J Johnson
Crossbred beef steers (n = 240; 12 pens/treatment; initial BW = 305 ± 17.7 kg) were used in a randomized block design feedlot study to evaluate the influence of coated trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17β (E2) implants (Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ) on gain performance, carcass traits, and sera metabolites. The five treatments were no implant (NI), Revalor-XR on d 0 [200 mg TBA + 20 mg E2 (coated); XR], Revalor-XS on d 0 [200 mg TBA + 40 mg E2 (total): 80 mg TBA + 16 mg E2 (non-coated) and 120 mg TBA + 24 mg E2 (coated); XS], Revalor-200 on d 0 [200 mg TBA + 20 mg E2 (non-coated); E200], or Revalor-200 on d 70 (D200)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
D M D L Navarro, E M A M Bruininx, L de Jong, H H Stein
Effects of inclusion rate of fiber rich ingredients on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and on the concentration of DE and ME in mixed diets fed to growing pigs were determined. The hypothesis was that increasing the inclusion rate of fiber decreases digestibility of GE, and thus, the contribution of DE and ME from hindgut fermentation because greater concentrations may reduce the ability of microbes to ferment fiber. Twenty ileal-cannulated pigs (BW: 30...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
D M Liebe, R R White
The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize literature reporting endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) effects on cattle ADG. This meta-analysis evaluated endophyte infection level, climate, and forage yield using a literature dataset of 138 treatments from 20 articles. Three infection level measurements were tested: endophyte infection as a percentage of infected tillers (E%); ergovaline concentration in ppb ([E]); and total ergot alkaloid concentration ([TEA])...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
W C Wang, F F Yan, J Y Hu, O A Amen, H W Cheng
Probiotics reduce stress-related inflammation and abnormal behaviors in humans and rodents via regulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, has similar functions in broiler chickens under heat stress (HS). Two hundred forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to 48 pens with 4 treatments: Thermoneutral (TN)-RD (regular diet), TN-PD (the regular diet mixed with 1×106 CFU/g feed probiotic), HS-RD and HS-PD. Probiotic (Sporulin®) was fed from day 1; and HS at 32 ºC for 10 h daily was initiated at day 15...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Y Jiang, S Tang, C Wang, Y Wang, Y Qin, Y Wang, J Zhang, H Song, S Mi, F Yu, W Xiao, Q Zhang, X Ding
Improvement in growth and fatness traits are the main objectives in pig all breeding programs. Tenth rib backfat thickness (10RIBBFT) and days to 100 kg (D100), which are good predictors of carcass lean content and growth rate, respectively, are economically important traits and also main breeding target traits in pigs. To investigate the genetic mechanisms of 10RIBBFT and D100 of pigs, we sampled 1,137 and 888 pigs from 2 Yorkshire populations of American and British origin, respectively, and conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) through combined analysis and meta-analysis, to identify SNPs associated with 10RIBBFT and D100...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
R D X Ribeiro, G G P Carvalho, T M Silva, J B Costa, L R Bezerra, G B Cambuí, A M Barbosa, R L Oliveira
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the inclusion of crude glycerin of up to 21% of dry matter (DM) in the diets of lambs will not compromise variables related to animal production or health. Forty-four uncastrated Santa Inês crossbreed lambs with an average age of five months and a BW average of 23.9 ± 0.34 kg (mean ± SD) were distributed into four treatment groups (11 replicates per group) including 0%, 7%, 14%, or 21% crude glycerin on a DM basis. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the diets promoted a quadratic increase in DM (P = 0...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
M P Serrano, P Gambín, T Landete-Castillejos, A García, J Cappelli, F J Pérez-Barbería, J A Gómez, L Gallego
This study describes the effects of Mn supplementation of 20 late-gestating and lactating Iberian red deer (Cervuselaphushispanicus) females (hinds) fed a balanced diet on milk production and milk composition over the lactation period. Body weight of their calves at birth and at weaning was also evaluated. In addition, the effect of lactation stage was studied. For these purposes, 2 groups of hinds, one composed by 12 individuals (experimental) and the other by 8 individuals (control) were compared. Experimental hinds were s...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
A M Castilhos, C L Francisco, R H Branco, S F M Bonilha, M E Z Mercadante, P R L Meirelles, C M Pariz, A M Jorge
Evaluation of the body chemical composition of beef cattle can only be measured postmortem and those data cannot be used in real production scenarios to adjust nutritional plans. The objective of this study was to develop multiple linear regression equations from in vivo measurements, such as ultrasound parameters [backfat thickness (uBFT, mm), rump fat thickness (uRF, mm), and ribeye area (uLMA, cm2)], shrunk body weight (SBW, kg), age (AG, d), hip height (HH, m), as well as from postmortem measurements (composition of the 9th to 11th rib section) to predict the empty body and carcass chemical composition for Nellore cattle...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
C Chen, M Pérez de Nanclares, J F Kurtz, M P Trudeau, L Wang, D Yao, M Saqui-Salces, P E Urriola, L Torunn Mydland, G C Shurson, M Overland
Rapeseed (RS) is an abundant and inexpensive source of energy and AA in diets for monogastrics and a sustainable alternative to soybean meal. It also contains diverse bioactive phytochemicals that could have antinutritional effects at high dose. When the RS-derived feed ingredients (RSF) are used in swine diets, the uptake of these nutrients and phytochemicals is expected to affect the metabolic system. In this study, two groups of young pigs (17.8 ± 2.7 kg initial BW) were equally fed a soybean meal-based control diet and a RSF-based diet, respectively, for 3 wk...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
E A Petzel, A J Smart, B St-Pierre, S L Selman, E A Bailey, E E Beck, J A Walker, C L Wright, J E Held, D W Brake
Six ruminally cannulated cows (570 ± 73 kg) fed corn residues were placed in a 6 × 6 Latin square to evaluate predictions of diet composition from ruminally collected diet samples. After complete ruminal evacuation, cows were fed 1-kg meals (DM-basis) containing different combinations of cornstalk and leaf and husk (LH) residues in ratios of 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, and 100:0. Diet samples from each meal were collected by removal of ruminal contents after 1-h and were either unrinsed, hand-rinsed or machine-rinsed to evaluate effects of endogenous compounds on predictions of diet composition...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
J S Shen, Y Y Chen, L E Moraes, Z T Yu, W Y Zhu
This study investigated the effects of dietary protein sources and nisin on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion, plasma metabolites, N utilization, and growth performance in growing lambs. Thirty-two male Hu lambs (23 ± 2 kg initial BW) were assigned to four dietary treatments in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Two protein sources, soybean meal (SBM) and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and two levels of nisin, 0 and 30.5 mg of nisin/kg of feed, were used to formulate four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
M-A Sirard, F-X Grand, R Labrecque, C Vigneault, P Blondin
The selection of the best dairy heifers is mainly driven by the genetic value of their parents. The phenotype analysis of cows and of the daughters of bulls has been used to identify the best genetic value for decades before being replaced by genomic selection of individuals that are not yet parents. Because it is possible to predict the future value of an individual by its genetic makeup, it becomes feasible to do it as early as the blastocyst stage and to decide which should be transferred or not. Because we know the genotype of an animal at birth, or even before, it is becoming desirable to reproduce this animal as soon as possible to reduce generation interval and improve selection speed...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
B J Klehm, D A King, A C Dilger, S D Shackelford, D D Boler
The objective was to determine the interactions between packaging type and degree of doneness on sensory traits of pork loins classified based on the newly proposed USDA quality grades. A total of 144 loins were selected from 2 groups of pigs (lean growth or meat quality production focus) to represent as much variation in visual color and marbling as possible. Selection was achieved with a VQG grading camera. The ventral surface of the loins were evaluated for loin quality traits at 1 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem loins were sliced into 28 mm thick chops...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
D M Meléndez, S Marti, E A Pajor, D Moya, D Gellatly, E D Janzen, K S Schwartzkopf-Genswein
In Western-Canada, approximately half of the calves produced are castrated before 1 wk of age. Therefore, it is important to identify effective analgesic drugs to mitigate pain associated with castration and consequently improve animal welfare. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single s.c. dose of meloxicam at mitigating pain associated with knife and band castration in 1 wk old calves. Seventy-two Angus crossbred bull calves (47.3 ± 6.70 kg of BW, 1 wk old) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design where main factors included castration method-sham (CT), band (BA) or knife (KN) castration-and medication-lactate ringer (NM) or 0...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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