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Journal of Animal Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805930/reliability-of-the-qualitative-behavior-assessment-as-included-in-the-welfare-quality-assessment-protocol-for-growing-pigs
#1
I Czycholl, E Grosse Beilage, C Henning, J Krieter
Positive emotions constitute a very important part of animal welfare. They are, however, also the most challenging elements to be objectively measured. Due to its feasibility, the qualitative behavior assessment (QBA) is included in the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for growing pigs as the animal-based measurement tool for positive emotions. Reliability testing on the QBA in the form as included in the protocols is, however, rare. Therefore, the present study aimed at the evaluation of the inter- and intraobserver as well as test-retest reliability of the QBA in growing pigs...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805929/the-impact-of-training-strategies-on-the-accuracy-of-genomic-predictors-in-united-states-red-angus-cattle
#2
J Lee, S D Kachman, M L Spangler
Genomic selection (GS) has become an integral part of genetic evaluation methodology and has been applied to all major livestock species, including beef and dairy cattle, pigs, and chickens. Significant contributions in increased accuracy of selection decisions have been clearly illustrated in dairy cattle after practical application of GS. In the majority of U.S. beef cattle breeds, similar efforts have also been made to increase the accuracy of genetic merit estimates through the inclusion of genomic information into routine genetic evaluations using a variety of methods...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805928/effects-of-dietary-fish-oil-supplementation-on-performance-meat-quality-and-cecal-fermentation-of-growing-rabbits
#3
M Rodríguez, M D Carro, V Valiente, N Formoso-Rafferty, P G Rebollar
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil on growth performance (during all fatening period), carcass characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of muscle and fat tissues (at slaughter), as well as cecal fermentation and ileal mucosa morphology of growing rabbits (at 30, 45, and 60 d of age). Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, only differing in their fat source, were formulated and provided each to 24 does (12 per diet) and their offspring during pregnancy and lactation...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805927/the-relationship-between-different-measures-of-feed-efficiency-and-feeding-behavior-traits-in-duroc-pigs
#4
D Lu, S Jiao, F Tiezzi, M Knauer, Y Huang, K A Gray, C Maltecca
Utilization of feed in livestock species consists of a wide range of biological processes, and therefore, its efficiency can be expressed in various ways, including direct measurement, such as daily feed intake, as well as indicator measures, such as feeding behavior. Measuring feed efficiency is important to the swine industry, and its accuracy can be enhanced by using automated feeding systems, which record feed intake and associated feeding behavior of individual animals. Each automated feeder space is often shared among several pigs and therefore raises concerns about social interactions among pen mates with regard to feeding behavior...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805926/multiple-trait-genomewide-mapping-and-gene-network-analysis-for-scrotal-circumference-growth-curves-in-brahman-cattle
#5
A C C Soares, S E F Guimarães, M J Kelly, M R S Fortes, F F E Silva, L L Verardo, R Mota, S Moore
Fertility traits are economically important in cattle breeding programs. Scrotal circumference (SC) measures are repeatable, easily obtained, highly heritable, and positively correlated with female fertility traits and sperm quality traits in males. A useful approach to summarize SC measures over time is using nonlinear models, which summarize specific measures of SC in a few parameters with biological interpretation. This approach facilitates the selection of bulls with larger SC and maturity index (K), that is, early maturing animals...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805925/evaluation-of-the-prevalence-of-digital-dermatitis-and-the-effects-on-performance-in-beef-feedlot-cattle-under-organic-trace-mineral-supplementation
#6
M Kulow, P Merkatoris, K S Anklam, J Rieman, C Larson, M Branine, D Döpfer
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a contagious and multifactorial disease that leads to painful, ulcerative lesions of the skin near the heel-horn border of the foot, most commonly in dairy cattle. With regard to beef cattle, the pathogenesis and etiology of DD has not been widely reported or studied over the past several decades. A longitudinal field trial in a commercial feedlot was conducted to compare prevalence and effects of DD in beef steers provided a diet supplemented with a novel formulation of inorganic and organic trace mineral sources (OTM diet) compared to a diet provided with similar levels of trace minerals solely from inorganic sources (CON diet)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805924/measures-of-lamb-production-efficiency-in-a-temperate-grass-based-system-differing-in-ewe-prolificacy-potential-and-stocking-rate
#7
E Earle, T M Boland, N McHugh, P Creighton
The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of ewe prolificacy potential (PP; predicted number of lambs born ewe yr), as dictated by sire breed type, and stocking rate (SR; ewes ha) on ewe production efficiency (kg lamb live weight weaned:kg ewe live weight mated), lamb growth, lamb carcass output, and dry matter (DM; kg) and energy (UFL; unit of energy kg DM) consumption (in the form of both grazed and conserved herbage, concentrate supplementation, and total) in a temperate grass-based lamb production system...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805923/news-and-notes
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805922/use-of-a-complete-starter-feed-in-grain-adaptation-programs-for-feedlot-cattle
#9
C J Schneider, B L Nuttelman, A L Shreck, D B Burken, W A Griffin, J L Gramkow, R A Stock, T J Klopfenstein, G E Erickson
Four experiments evaluated the use of a complete starter feed (RAMP; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) for grain adaptation. In Exp. 1, 229 yearling steers (397 ± 28.4 kg BW) were used to compare a traditional adaptation program (CON) with adapting cattle with RAMP in either a 1- (RAMP-1RS) or 2- (RAMP-2RS) ration system. From d 23 to slaughter, cattle were fed a common finishing diet. In Exp. 2, 390 yearling steers (341 ± 14 kg BW) were used to compare accelerated grain adaptation programs with RAMP with 2 control treatments where RAMP was blended with a finishing diet containing either 25 (CON25) or 47...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805921/bacterial-flora-of-liver-abscesses-in-crossbred-beef-cattle-and-holstein-steers-fed-finishing-diets-with-or-without-tylosin
#10
R G Amachawadi, T J Purvis, B V Lubbers, J W Homm, C L Maxwell, T G Nagaraja
Holstein steers raised for beef production consistently have a higher prevalence and more severe form of liver abscesses than cattle of beef breeds. A study was conducted to compare bacterial flora of liver abscesses collected from multiple abattoirs from 4 groups of cattle, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, consisting of crossbred cattle and Holstein steers, and each group fed a finishing diet supplemented with or without tylosin. A total of 383 liver abscess samples, consisting of 94 and 81 from crossbred cattle and 89 and 119 from Holstein steers fed finishing diets with or without tylosin, respectively, were subjected for anaerobic and aerobic bacterial isolations...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805920/ground-juniperus-pinchotii-and-urea-in-supplements-fed-to-rambouillet-ewe-lambs-i-feedlot-growth-traits-blood-serum-parameters-and-fecal-characteristics
#11
T R Whitney
Ground woody products and urea are low-cost roughage and N sources. Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48, 6 lambs/treatment; initial BW = 42 kg ± 3.8) were used to evaluate effects of using ground (juniper) and urea in supplements on feedlot lamb growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics. In a randomized complete block design (40 d), lambs were individually fed an ad libitum basal sorghum-Sudangrass hay diet, which was fed separate from 1 of 8 supplemental diets (6 lambs/diet; 533 g of supplement/d, as-fed basis)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805919/cows-exposed-to-heat-stress-during-fetal-life-exhibit-improved-thermal-tolerance
#12
B M S Ahmed, U Younas, T O Asar, S Dikmen, P J Hansen, G E Dahl
Maternal heat stress during late gestation affects calf function during postnatal life. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether calves that experience heat stress in utero have altered thermoregulatory responses to acute heat stress later in life. Specifically, the hypothesis was that heat stress in utero would improve the response to acute heat stress at maturity. Females were born to dams exposed to heat stress or cooled during late gestation preceding their birth. All animals were raised postnatally under identical management...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805918/effects-of-encapsulated-nitrate-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-nitrate-residues-in-tissues-and-enteric-methane-emissions-in-beef-steers-finishing-phase
#13
C Lee, R C Araujo, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin
A finishing feedlot study was conducted with beef steers to determine effects of encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, methane production, and nitrate (NO) residues in tissues. The 132 crossbred steers were backgrounded in a feedlot for 91 d and transitioned for 28 days to the high-concentrate diets evaluated in the present study, maintaining the treatment and pen assignments designated at the start of the backgrounding period. The steers were initially assigned to 22 pens (6 animals per pen) in a randomized complete block design with BW (18 pens) and animals designated for methane measurement (4 pens) as blocking factors...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805917/technical-note-impact-of-pedigree-depth-on-convergence-of-single-step-genomic-blup-in-a-purebred-swine-population
#14
I Pocrnic, D A L Lourenco, H L Bradford, C Y Chen, I Misztal
In genomic evaluations, it is desirable to have low computing cost while retaining high accuracy of evaluation for young animals. When the population is large but only few animals have phenotypes, especially for low heritability traits, the convergence rate of BLUP or single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) can be very slow. This study investigates the effect of pedigree truncation on convergence rate and solutions of ssGBLUP for data exhibiting slow convergence. The data consisted of 216,000, 221,000, 732,000, and 579,000 phenotypes on 4 traits...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805916/the-reduction-of-starch-in-finishing-diets-supplemented-with-oil-does-not-prevent-the-accumulation-of-trans-10-18-1-in-lamb-meat
#15
M Costa, S P Alves, A Francisco, J Almeida, C M Alfaia, S V Martins, J A M Prates, J Santos-Silva, O Doran, R J B Bessa
The experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the replacement of cereal with low-starch feed ingredients in lambs' finishing diets supplemented with oils could prevent the accumulation of -10-18:1 in meat. Forty lambs were fed 1 of 4 diets supplemented with soybean oil (5.9%) and fish oil (1%) for 6 wk before slaughter. The control (CON) diet contained 43% barley, and in the other diets, barley was completely replaced by dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP), dehydrated sugar beet pulp (DBP), or soybean hulls (SH)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805915/selection-on-resilience-improves-disease-resistance-and-tolerance-to-infections
#16
H A Mulder, H Rashidi
Response to infection in animals has 2 main mechanisms: resistance (ability to control pathogen burden) and tolerance (ability to maintain performance given the pathogen burden). Selection on disease resistance and tolerance to infections seems a promising avenue to increase productivity of animals in the presence of disease infections, but it is hampered by a lack of records of pathogen burden of infected animals. Selection on resilience (ability to maintain performance regardless of pathogen burden) may, therefore, be an alternative pragmatic approach, because it does not need records of pathogen burden...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805914/genomic-prediction-for-growth-and-reproduction-traits-in-pig-using-an-admixed-reference-population
#17
H Song, J Zhang, Y Jiang, H Gao, S Tang, S Mi, F Yu, Q Meng, W Xiao, Q Zhang, X Ding
This study investigated the efficiency of genomic prediction using an admixed reference population comprising 3 Yorkshire populations with different genetic backgrounds. In total, 2,084 and 1,388 individuals with growth and reproduction records, respectively, were genotyped with a PorcineSNP80 marker panel. The corrected phenotypic values derived from conventional EBV of each population were taken as response variables. Three approaches, that is, a linear genomic BLUP (GBLUP) model, a Bayesian mixture model (BayesR), and single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP), were implemented to predict genomic breeding values...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805913/feeding-distillers-grains-soybean-hulls-or-a-mixture-of-both-to-cows-as-a-forage-replacement-effects-on-intake-digestibility-and-ruminal-fermentation-characteristics
#18
W B Smith, K P Coffey, R T Rhein, E B Kegley, D Philipp, J G Powell, J D Caldwell, A N Young
Coproduct feedstuffs offer a unique and potentially profitable avenue for cattle feeding strategies. However, research is lacking in the evaluation of varying coproducts on ruminal fermentation and digestive characteristics when included as the major component of the diet of cows. Our objective was to determine the effect of coproduct feedstuffs as a forage replacement on digestive and fermentative characteristics of cows. Eight ruminally fistulated cows (672 ± 32.0 kg initial BW and approximately 9 yr of age) were stratified by BW and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 diets (2 cows∙diet∙period) in a 2-period study: soybean hulls (SH), distillers' dried grains with solubles (DG), an isoenergetic mixture of soybean hulls and distillers' dried grains with solubles (MX), or ad libitum hay plus 0...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805912/prediction-of-fecal-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-excretion-for-chinese-holstein-lactating-dairy-cows
#19
Q B Qu, P Yang, R Zhao, S L Zhi, Z W Zhai, F F Ding, K Q Zhang
Mathematical models for predicting nitrogen and phosphorus excretion play a key role in manure application and environment monitoring. An analysis for prediction of fecal nitrogen (FN, g/d) and fecal phosphorus (FP, g/d) excretion for Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows was conducted using a data set from 15 dairy farms in northern China. The whole independent-variable data set, obtained with questionnaires, consisted of 110 sets of average diet nutrient compositions, including DMI (kg/d), CP content (% DM), OM intake (OMI, kg/d), nitrogen intake (NI, g/d), and phosphorus intake (PI, g/d), and animal characteristics, including average days in milk (DIM, d), average milk yield (MY, kg/d), and average BW (kg)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805911/effects-of-post-weaning-growth-rate-and-puberty-induction-protocol-on-reproductive-performance-of-bos-indicus-influenced-beef-heifers
#20
P Moriel, P Lancaster, G C Lamb, J M B Vendramini, J D Arthington
A 3-yr study evaluated the effectiveness of puberty induction using exogenous reproductive hormones in beef heifers undergoing different post-weaning growth rates. On d 0 of each year, grazing Angus × Brahman heifers (60 heifers/yr) were stratified by initial BW and age (BW = 253 ± 30 kg; age = 310 ± 18 d), and randomly assigned, in a 3 × 2 factorial design, to achieve a low (LOW; 0.45 kg/d), medium (MED; 0.73 kg/d), or high (HIGH; 1.00 kg/d) growth rate from d 0 to 168 (5 heifers/pasture; 4 pastures/growth rate/yr)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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