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Journal of Animal Science

A Ruiz-González, S Debruyne, J Jeyanathan, L Vandaele, S De Campeneere, V Fievez
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose response on in vitro methane (CH) production of PUFA to which the inoculum donor animals had been exposed early in life. Sixteen Holstein calves (160 ± 3 and 365 ± 2 kg BW) at 6 and 12 mo of age were used as inoculum donors. Half of the calves were given increasing amounts of extruded linseed from birth (22 g/d) until 4 mo of age (578 g/d) first mixed with milk and then included in their concentrate. Linseed oil (LSO) was supplemented in vitro at 5 different doses (0, 0...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
C L Van Bibber-Krueger, R G Amachawadi, H M Scott, J M Gonzalez, J S Drouillard
Interactive effects of supplemental Zn and ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) were evaluated using 156 crossbred heifers (initial BW = 527 kg ± 6.61; gross BW × 0.96) to determine the impact on feedlot performance, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), and carcass characteristics. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors consisted of 1) 30 or 100 mg supplemental Zn/kg diet DM (30Zn or 100Zn) as Zn sulfate and 2) 0 or 200 mg RH/heifer daily...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
P F Gao, X H Guo, M Du, G Q Cao, Q C Yang, Z D Pu, Z Y Wang, Q Zhang, M Li, Y S Jin, X J Wang, H Liu, B G Li
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been increasingly implicated in the regulation of muscle development. Large White pigs have a higher muscle growth rate than do Mashen pigs. In the present study, the lncRNA expression profiles in skeletal muscle of these 2 pig breeds were compared at 1, 90, and 180 d of age using RNA sequencing. We obtained 2,718 million clean reads and identified a total of 5,153 novel lncRNA. We found 1,407 differentially expressed lncRNA that showed consistent expression patterns between the 2 breeds at all the 3 sampling points...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
D P Berry, A R Cromie, M M Judge
Apprehension among consumers is mounting on the efficiency by which cattle convert feedstuffs into human edible protein and energy as well as the consequential effects on the environment. Most (genetic) studies that attempt to address these issues have generally focused on efficiency metrics defined over a certain time period of an animal's life cycle, predominantly the period representing the linear phase of growth. The age at which an animal reaches the carcass specifications for slaughter, however, is also known to vary between breeds; less is known on the extent of the within-breed variability in age at slaughter...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
E Dervishi, M Blanco, J A Rodríguez-Sánchez, A Sanz, J H Calvo, I Casasús
Accelerated growth programs during prepubertal periods have been promoted to advance the first calving of beef heifers. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate nutrition-induced changes on first lactation milk yield and composition and on gene expression of the mammary gland in Parda de Montaña primiparous cows. Female calves ( = 16) were involved in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment. In the preweaning period (PRE-W; 0-6 mo), female calves were either fed a creep feed supplement (Creep) or fed only their dam's milk (Control)...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
K E Wurtz, J M Siegford, R O Bates, C W Ernst, J P Steibel
Pigs housed in groups are remixed with unfamiliar individuals, which can trigger aggressive interactions, potentially compromising animal welfare. Skin lesions are a reliable indicator trait of aggression and are moderately heritable, suggesting that aggression may be reduced through selection. This study estimated genetic parameters of skin lesions of pigs at multiple life stages, explored genetic correlations of skin lesions between age groups and body location, and studied the relationship between skin lesions and production traits of commercial importance...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
J B Liu, X Y Shen, H X Zhai, L Chen, H F Zhang
The present study was conducted to investigate the postileal P digestion response of growing pigs to dietary P concentrations and sources. Twenty-four pigs (57.3 ± 1.9 kg initial BW) fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum were assigned to a duplicated 12 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 12 diets and 4 periods. The 12 experimental diets consisted of 9 cornstarch-based diets using soybean meal (SBM), corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and canola meal (CM) as assay ingredients at 3 levels and 3 corn-SBM-based practical diets with 3 levels of dicalcium phosphate (DCP)...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
M D Weinroth, C R Carlson, J N Martin, J L Metcalf, P S Morley, K E Belk
Liver abscesses are a major economic burden to beef producers. Although a few causative organisms have been cultured from purulent material, the full polymicrobial diversity of liver abscesses has not been reported. The objective of this study was to characterize purulent material collected from liver abscess in beef cattle produced in different production systems in 3 cattle producing states in the United States using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Differences between purulent material microbial communities among geographic region of feeding and application of a common antimicrobial were also investigated...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
B Kociucka, J Stachecka, M Szydlowski, I Szczerbal
Histone modification is a well-known epigenetic mechanism involved in regulation of gene expression; however, it has been poorly studied in adipose tissues of the pig. Understanding the molecular background of adipose tissue development and function is essential for improving production efficiency and meat quality. The objective of this study was to identify the association between histone modification and the transcript level of genes important for lipid droplet formation and metabolism. Histone modifications at the promoter regions of 6 genes (, , , , , and ) were analyzed using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
T W Murphy, Y M Berger, P W Holman, M Baldin, R L Burgett, D L Thomas
For the past 2 decades, the Spooner Agriculture Research Station (ARS) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison operated the only dairy sheep research flock in North America. The objectives of the present study were to 1) obtain estimates of genetic parameters for lactation and reproductive traits in dairy ewes, 2) estimate the amount of genetic change in these traits over time, and 3) quantify the level of inbreeding in this flock over the last 20 yr. Multiple-trait repeatability models (MTRM) were used to analyze ewe traits through their first 6 parities...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
P Silalahi, T Tribout, Y Billon, J Gogué, J P Bidanel
The effects of 21 yr of selection were estimated for sow and piglet performance during the suckling period in a French Large White (LW) pig population using frozen semen. Two experimental groups (EXP = L77 and L98) were produced by inseminating LW sows with either stored frozen semen from 17 LW boars born in 1977 (EXP = L77) or with fresh semen from 23 LW boars born in 1998 (EXP = L98). Seventy-four L77 and 89 L98 randomly chosen females were mated to 15 L77 and 15 L98, respectively, randomly chosen boars for 6 successive parities...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
L Y Hu, M Z Wang, J L Ouyang, P F Li, J J Loor
(), a core clock gene, encodes a circadian rhythm protein which has been shown to control mammary metabolism in rodents. Whether regulates milk component synthesis such as α-casein protein in bovine mammary cells is unknown. Thus, we used gene silencing technology to determine if silencing could affect α-casein synthesis and cell growth in cultured primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). The BMEC were established by enzymatic digestion of mammary tissue from mid-lactation cows. A transient-transfection technique was used to insert a small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotide specific for to inhibit transcription...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
N Liu, K Ding, J Q Wang, S C Jia, J P Wang, T S Xu
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the glutathione (GSH) pathway are protective against aflatoxin, but information on the effect of LAB on aflatoxin metabolism and GSH activity in farm animals is scarce. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LAB and aflatoxin B (AFB) on growth performance, aflatoxin metabolism, and GSH pathway activity using 480 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens from d 1 to 35 of age. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, including AFB at 0 or 40 µg/kg of feed and LAB at 0 or 3 × 10 cfu/kg of feed, and the LAB was a mixture of equal amounts of , , and ...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
S I Mortimer, S Hatcher, N M Fogarty, J H J van der Werf, D J Brown, A A Swan, R H Jacob, G H Geesink, D L Hopkins, J E Hocking Edwards, E N Ponnampalam, R D Warner, K L Pearce, D W Pethick
Genetic correlations between 29 wool production and quality traits and 25 meat quality and nutritional value traits were estimated for Merino sheep from an Information Nucleus (IN). Genetic correlations among the meat quality and nutritional value traits are also reported. The IN comprised 8 flocks linked genetically and managed across a range of sheep production environments in Australia. The wool traits included over 5,000 yearling and 3,700 adult records for fleece weight, fiber diameter, staple length, staple strength, fiber diameter variation, scoured wool color, and visual scores for breech and body wrinkle...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
E G Taylor, R P Lemenager, V Fellner, K R Stewart
Forty-eight primiparous and multiparous cows were fed a silage-based total mixed ration (TMR; CON), a TMR with 2.5 kg/d DM dried distiller's grains plus solubles (DDGS; MID), or a TMR with 4.7 kg/d DM DDGS (HIGH) from 8.5 ± 4 to 116 ± 4 d postpartum (DPP). All diets were formulated to be isocaloric for a postpartum ADG targeted at 0.22 kg, whereas CP exceeded requirements in both diets containing DDGS. Blood samples were collected from dams at 7- and 21-d intervals for progesterone concentration (resumption of cyclicity) and plasma urea nitrogen, respectively...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
C S Marcolla, D M Holanda, S V Ferreira, G C Rocha, N V L Serão, M S Duarte, M L T Abreu, A Saraiva
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium, CLA, and ractopamine on performance, carcass traits, and pork quality of finishing pigs slaughtered at 115 kg BW. Ninety-six crossbred barrows (initial BW = 70.21 ± 1.98 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. There were 8 replicates per treatment (48 pens; 2 pigs/pen). A diet formulated according to the nutritional requirements was used as the control (CON). The other 5 diets were based on the CON and supplemented as follows: 0...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
A Craig, A Gordon, E Magowan
Modern sows have low feed intake (FI) during lactation. The main aim of this study was to understand interactions between and separate effects of FI and nutrient density on litter weaning weight (WW). Key drivers of colostrum intake (CIn), piglet survival, WW, and colostrum yield (CY) were also investigated. Sows ( = 82) were offered a High (15.8 MJ/kg DE; 1.3% total lysine) or Normal (15.2 MJ/kg DE; 1.28% total lysine) specification lactation diet at either a High (feed allowance increased by 0.5 kg/d after farrowing until intake reached 10 kg/d) or Low (feed allowance was increased by 0...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
V M Artegoitia, A P Foote, R G Tait, L A Kuehn, R M Lewis, T L Wheeler, H C Freetly
We previously have shown that plasma concentrations of endocannabinoids (EC) are positively correlated with feed efficiency and leaner carcasses in finishing steers. However, whether the animal growth during the finishing period affects the concentration of EC is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) in plasma during different stages of the finishing period and identify possible associations with production traits and carcass composition in beef calves...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
D D Shane, R L Larson, M W Sanderson, M Miesner, B J White
Some cattle production experts believe that cow-calf producers should breed replacement heifers (nulliparous cows) before cows (primiparous and multiparous cows), sometimes referred to as providing a heifer lead time (tHL). Our objective was to model the effects different durations of tHL may have on measures of herd productivity, including the percent of the herd cycling before the end of the first 21 d of the breeding season (%C21), the percent of the herd pregnant at pregnancy diagnosis (%PPD), the distribution of pregnancy by 21-d breeding intervals, the kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed (KPC), and the replacement percentage (%RH), using a deterministic, dynamic systems model of cow-calf production over a 10-yr horizon...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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