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Journal of Animal Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767794/effects-of-supplementing-organic-micro-minerals-and-methionine-during-the-rearing-phase-of-replacement-gilts-on-lameness-growth-and-body-composition
#1
Lluís Fabà, Josep Gasa, Mike D Tokach, Evelia Varella, David Solà-Oriol
Lameness is a primary reason for culling and mortality within a sow herd. This study evaluated the impact of feeding organic trace minerals and methionine (Met) to growing gilts (134 d) on lameness, performance, body composition and claw health (to first parity), productivity (to second parity), and reproductive performance through 2 parities. Young gilts [28.8 ± 8.8 kg of body weight (BW), n = 360] were BW blocked (10 gilts/pen) and randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: control (CON, basal diet); CON plus organic minerals (MIN, at 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg of Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively; Aplomotec Plus, Tecnología & Vitaminas, S...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767730/physicochemical-characteristics-and-sensory-attributes-of-meat-from-heavy-weight-iberian-and-f1-large-white-x-landrace-pigs-finished-intensively-or-in-free-range-conditions
#2
J Almeida, M C Bressan, J Santos-Silva, O Moreira, C Bettencourt, L T Gama
Iberian (IB, n=60) and crossbred Large White*Landrace (F1, n=58) pigs were slaughtered at 160 kg, after finishing under intensive conditions or on pasture and acorns. The study was carried out as a factorial arrangement of treatments, and physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of meat were assessed in L. thoracis samples. Physical characteristics included the assessment of drip loss, cooking loss, shear force and color coordinates in meat samples processed at 2 d and 9 d post mortem. The interactions of genetic group and finishing system were significant (P<0...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767729/a-comparative-study-on-the-excretion-of-urinary-metabolites-in-goats-and-sheep-to-evaluate-spot-sampling-applied-to-protein-nutrition-trials
#3
A C S Dos Santos, S A Santos, G G P Carvalho, L D S Mariz, M S L Tosto, S C Valadares Filho, J A G Azevedo
The main objective of this study was to establish a protocol to validate urine spot samples to estimate N excretion and microbial synthesis in goat and sheep; and to study factors that affect daily creatinine and purine derivatives urinary excretion. Also a performance trial was carried out to compare goat and sheep slaughtered after different feedlot periods. Twelve Boer goats (20.6 kg±3.4 initial BW) and twelve Dorper sheep (18.4 kg±2.3 initial BW), all 4-month-old, males, were used. Eight animals (four goats and four sheep) were randomly allocated to be slaughtered at 28, 56 and 84 days in feedlot...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767722/influence-of-bull-age-ejaculate-number-and-season-of-collection-on-semen-production-and-sperm-motility-parameters-in-holstein-friesian-bulls-in-a-commercial-artificial-insemination-centre
#4
Edel M Murphy, Alan K Kelly, Ciara O'Meara, Bernard Eivers, Patrick Lonergan, Sean Fair
In the current era of genomic selection, there is an increased demand to collect semen from genomically selected sires at a young age. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of bull age, ejaculate number, and season of collection on semen production (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, and total sperm number; TSN) and sperm motility (prefreeze and post-thaw total and gross motility) parameters in Holstein Friesian bulls in a commercial artificial insemination (AI) center. The study involved the interrogation of a large dataset collected over a 4-yr period, (n = 8,983 ejaculates; n = 176 Holstein Friesian bulls aged between 9 mo and 8 yr)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762786/effect-of-standardized-ileal-digestible-lysine-and-added-copper-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-fat-quality-of-finishing-pigs
#5
Kyle F Coble, Fangzhou Wu, Joel M DeRouchey, Mike D Tokach, Steve S Dritz, Robert D Goodband, Jason C Woodworth, James L Usry
Two, 120-d, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lysine (Lys), added Cu (TBCC, Intellibond C; Micronutrients, Inc., Indianapolis, IN), and duration of Cu supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality in finishing pigs. In experiment 1, 1,248 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; initially 29.0 kg) were allotted to one of six dietary treatments, balanced on average pen weight in a randomized complete-block design with 26 pigs per pen and 8 replications per treatment...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762780/an-intersection-network-based-on-combining-snp-co-association-and-rna-co-expression-networks-for-feed-utilization-traits-in-japanese-black-cattle
#6
D Okada, S Endo, H Matsuda, S Ogawa, Y Taniguchi, T Katsuta, T Watanabe, H Iwaisaki
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of quantitative traits have detected numerous genetic associations, but they encounter difficulties in pinpointing prominent candidate genes and inferring gene networks. The present study used a systems genetics approach integrating GWAS results with external RNA-expression data to detect candidate gene networks in feed utilization and growth traits of Japanese Black cattle, which are matters of concern. A SNP co-association network was derived from significant correlations between SNPs with effects estimated by GWAS across seven phenotypic traits...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762738/successful-treatment-of-suckling-red-angus-calves-for-bovine-respiratory-disease-is-not-associated-with-increased-mean-pulmonary-arterial-pressures-at-weaning
#7
J M Neary, D Church, N Reeves, R J Rathmann
The purposes of this study were to determine if the successful treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in suckling calves was associated with a long-term increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and, to screen for associations between blood leukogram variables and mPAP. A cohort of Red Angus calves (n = 74) were followed from birth to weaning at an altitude of 975 m. Calves were weaned at 172 ± 14 days when their mPAP was measured and whole blood collected. Thirty calves that had been treated for BRD (34 to 45 days prior) and 30 calves that had not required treatment for BRD were sampled...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762736/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-rumen-papillae-in-suckling-and-weaned-japanese-black-calves-using-rna-sequencing
#8
Koki Nishihara, Daichi Kato, Yutaka Suzuki, Dahye Kim, Misato Nakano, Yu Yajima, Satoshi Haga, Miwa Nakano, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Tomohiro Kono, Kazuo Katoh, Sang-Gun Roh
The length and density of rumen papillae starts to increase during weaning and growth of ruminants. This significant development increases the intraruminal surface area and the efficiency of VFA (acetate, propionate, butyrate, etc.) uptake. Thus, it is important to investigate the factors controlling the growth and development of rumen papillae during weaning. This study aimed to compare the transcriptomes of rumen papillae in suckling and weaned calves. Total RNA was extracted from the rumen papillae of 10 male Japanese Black calves (5 suckling calves, 5 wk old; 5 weaned calves, 15 wk old) and used in RNA-sequencing...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762734/estimation-of-direct-and-maternal-genetic-parameters-for-individual-birth-weight-weaning-weight-and-probe-weight-in-yorkshire-and-landrace-pigs
#9
K Alves, F S Schenkel, L F Brito, J A B Robinson
As a result of selecting for increased litter size, newborn piglets are being born lighter and have a lower chance of survival. Raising fewer pigs to market weight would have a negative impact on the industry and farmer profitability, thus understanding the genetics of individual growth performance traits will determine whether these traits will play an important role in pig breeding schemes. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for individual birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW) and probe weight (PW) in Canadian purebred Yorkshire and Landrace pigs...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762731/nutrient-digestibility-rumen-microbial-protein-synthesis-and-growth-performance-in-sheep-consuming-rations-containing-sea-buckthorn-pomace
#10
X Y Hao, X G Diao, S C Yu, N Ding, C T Mu, J X Zhao, J X Zhang
This experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and growth performance when different proportions of sea buckthorn pomace (SBP) were included in the diet of sheep. A total of forty1/2 Dorper × 1/2 thin-tailed Han ram lambs (BW= 22.2 ± 0.92 kg, Age =120 ± 11 d; mean ± SD) were selected and divided into four groups in a randomized design, and were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment diets. Diets were formulated isonitrogenously and contained different levels of SBP: 1) 0% SBP (control); 2) 7...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762728/atypical-myopathy-in-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-elaphurus-davidianus-associated-with-ingestion-of-hypoglycin-a
#11
C Bunert, S Langer, D M Votion, F Boemer, A Müller, K Ternes, A Liesegang
From 2004 until 2016, 21 Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) have died for unknown reason at Zoo Duisburg. These deer, also known as milu, have succumbed from a myopathy that occurred seasonally in autumn and in spring. The clinical signs shown by the animals, closely resembles those of a disease called equine atypical myopathy (EAM), which is formerly known in horses. The cause for EAM in Europe was found in the ingestion of hypoglycin A, contained in samaras and seedlings of the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus)...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762720/evaluation-of-f1-cows-sired-by-brahman-boran-and-tuli-bulls-for-reproductive-maternal-and-cow-longevity-traits
#12
C T Muntean, A D Herring, D G Riley, C A Gill, J E Sawyer, J O Sanders
This study evaluated reproductive, maternal performance, and longevity traits of 143 F1 cows sired by Brahman (Br), Boran (Bo), or Tuli (T) bulls from Angus or Hereford cows from 1994 to 2011. Cow traits were measured at 7 yr of age in 1999 and 2000 for 1992- and 1993-born cows, respectively. From 2004 to 2010, excluding 2008, incisor condition (solid, broken, smooth) and condition scores were assigned to cows remaining in production; scores were evaluated with two models. Broken and solid mouths were each assigned a score of 1, and smooth assigned "0", Br- (0...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762711/use-of-random-regression-to-estimate-genetic-parameters-of-temperament-across-an-age-continuum-in-a-crossbred-cattle-population
#13
B P Littlejohn, D G Riley, T H Welsh, R D Randel, S T Willard, R C Vann
The objective was to estimate genetic parameters of temperament in beef cattle across an age continuum. The population consisted predominantly of Brahman-British crossbred cattle. Temperament was quantified by: 1) pen score (PS), the reaction of a calf to a single experienced evaluator on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = calm, 5 = excitable); 2) exit velocity (EV), the rate (m/sec) at which a calf traveled 1.83 m upon exiting a squeeze chute; and 3) temperament score (TS), the numerical average of PS and EV. Covariates included days of age and proportion of Bos indicus in the calf and dam...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762693/influence-of-feeding-thermally-peroxidized-soybean-oil-to-finishing-barrows-on-processing-characteristics-and-shelf-life-of-commercially-manufactured-bacon
#14
M F Overholt, J E Lowell, G D Kim, D D Boler, B J Kerr, A C Dilger
Objectives were to evaluate effects of feeding soybean oil (SO) with varying levels of peroxidation on fresh belly characteristics, processing yields, and shelf life of commercially manufactured bacon stored under food-service style conditions. Fifty-six barrows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets containing 10% fresh SO (22.5°C) or thermally processed SO (45°C for 288 h, 90°C for 72 h, or 180°C for 6 h), each infused with air at a rate of 15L/min. Individually housed pigs were provided ad libitum access to feed for 81 d...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762691/diagnostic-accuracy-of-post-acth-challenge-salivary-cortisol-concentrations-for-identifying-horses-with-equine-glandular-gastric-disease
#15
Fay J Sauer, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Alessandra Ramseyer, Beatriz Vidondo, Milena D Scheidegger, Vinzenz Gerber
The aims of this study were to better characterize the adrenal response to i.v. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in horses with and without gastric disease and to validate and simplify the ACTH stimulation test by determining the diagnostic accuracy of six consecutive sampling time points after ACTH administration for equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) and equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD). Twenty-six endurance and eventing horses without clinical disease [Sport Horse Population (SHP)] and an independent population of 62 horses [General Population (GP)] were grouped by gastroscopic findings (no/mild vs...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762689/determining-the-relationship-between-early-postmortem-loin-quality-attributes-and-aged-loin-quality-attributes-using-meta-analyses-techniques
#16
B N Harsh, D D Boler, S D Shackelford, A C Dilger
Meta-analyses techniques using 11 independent data sets were used to determine correlations between pork loin quality evaluated at 1 d postmortem and quality evaluated at 12 to 28 d postmortem. Data sets encompassed approximately 3,957 loins. The effects of aging on ventral loin surface quality was determined using a paired-T test. Ventral loin surfaces become 8% lighter (P < 0.0001), 44.5% redder (P < 0.0001), and 46% more yellow (P < 0.0001) during the aging period. Therefore, it is apparent that loin quality changes during postmortem aging...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762687/glycine-treatment-enhances-developmental-potential-of-porcine-oocytes-and-early-embryos-by-inhibiting-apoptosis
#17
Suo Li, Qing Guo, Yu-Meng Wang, Zi-Yue Li, Jin-Dan Kang, Xi-Jun Yin, Xin Zheng
Glycine, a component of glutathione (GSH), plays an important role in protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of glycine on in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes and their developmental competence after parthenogenetic activation (PA). We examined nuclear maturation, ROS levels, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ATP concentration, as well as the expression of several genes related to oocyte maturation and development...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762674/available-energy-and-amino-acid-digestibility-of-defatted-rice-bran-fed-to-growing-pigs
#18
B B Huang, C F Huang, Z Q Lyu, Y F Chen, P L Li, L Liu, C H Lai
This study was conducted to determine and compare available energy and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 9 samples of defatted rice bran (DFRB) fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE and ME based on chemical analysis. In Exp. 1, sixty crossbred growing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; 40.7 ± 3.5 kg BW) were fed 1 of 10 diets in a completely randomized design to determine the available energy of DFRB. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 9 experimental diets formulated by replacing the corn and soybean meal with 29...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762670/hens-ranked-as-highly-feed-efficient-have-an-improved-albumen-quality-profile-and-increased-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-the-yolk
#19
Y Akter, S Greenhalgh, M R Islam, C Hutchison, C J O'Shea
The shelf-life of eggs which contain elevated levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is compromised due to the relative instability and therefore greater potential for lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (FA). Poultry that are highly feed efficient (HFE) exhibit higher systemic levels of antioxidant enzymes, and therefore may produce eggs with improved albumen quality and favorable FA profiles that are stable over time. We tested the hypothesis that HFE laying hens produce eggs with improved internal egg quality and a favorable yolk FA profile prior to and following storage...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762726/supplementation-with-organic-acids-showing-different-effects-on-growth-performance-gut-morphology-and-microbiota-of-weaned-pigs-fed-with-highly-or-less-digestible-diets
#20
S Li, J Zheng, K Deng, L Chen, X L Zhao, X M Jiang, Z F Fang, L Q Che, S Y Xu, B Feng, J Li, Y Lin, Y Y Wu, Y M Han, De Wu
Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acid (OA) supplementation in a highly digestible (Exp. 1) or a less digestible diet (Exp. 2) on the growth performance and intestinal health of weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 240 pigs weaned at day 21 were assigned to one of five dietary treatments: negative control (NC) (basal diet, 3,000 ppm ZnO in the first 2 weeks only); positive control (PC) (NC plus 10 mg/kg zinc bacitracin, 5 mg/kg colistin sulfate, and 5 mg/kg olaquindox); OA1 (NC plus a 0...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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