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Journal of Animal Science

Daniel Gustavo M Gordo, Rafael Espigolan, Tiago Bresolin, Gerardo A Fernandes Júnior, Ana F B Magalhães, Camila U Braz, Willian Bruno Fernandes, Fernando Baldi, Lucia G Albuquerque
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits, as well as their genetic correlations using pedigree and genomic information. A total of 3,716; 3,702; 3,439; 3,705; and 3,714 records of 12th-13th rib LM area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), HCW, marbling score (MARB), and Warner-Bratzler peak shear force (WBSF), respectively, were used. Animals were genotyped with BovineHD BeadChip and GeneSeek Genomic Profiler Indicus HD - GGP75Ki panel. The (co)variance components were estimated by Bayesian inference using a multitrait ssGBLUP analysis...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Y H Li, F N Li, Y H Duan, Q P Guo, C Y Wen, W L Wang, X G Huang, Y L Yin
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding reduced CP, AA-supplemented diets on meat quality in growing and finishing pigs as well as the related mechanism. In experiment 1, 18 growing pigs (36.5 kg BW) were assigned randomly and fed 1 of 3 corn-soybean meal diets containing either 18% CP (normal protein, NP), 15% CP (low protein, LP), or 12% CP (very low protein, VLP). In experiment 2, 18 finishing pigs (62.3 kg BW) were allotted randomly into 1 of the following diets: 16% CP (NP), 13% CP (LP), or 10% CP (VLP)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
J López-Paredes, M A Pérez-Cabal, J A Jiménez-Montero, R Alenda
The lifetime production of 7,655 cows with known age at first calving and a total of 27,118 parity records from 301 purebred Blonde d'Aquitaine herds were used to demonstrate the economic benefits of 2 yr of age at first calving. Ages at first calving ranged from 20 to 48 mo, and cows were divided into 5 calving groups, starting with early calving from age 20 to 27 mo up to late calving from age 40 to 48 mo. The information was gathered into 2 data sets, one for only primiparous cows and the second for all cows...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Rubens J Ferreira Júnior, Sarah F M Bonilha, Fábio M Monteiro, Joslaine N S G Cyrillo, Renata H Branco, Josineudson A Ii V Silva, Maria Eugênia Z Mercadante
The objective of this study was to evaluate phenotypic and genetic relationships between fertility traits and feed efficiency in male and female Nellore cattle. Data from 320 females born between 2004 and 2011 were used for phenotypic evaluation. These animals were evaluated for postweaning residual feed intake (RFI) and classified as negative (RFI < 0, mean = -0.294 ± 0.017 kg DM/d) or positive RFI (RFI > 0, mean = 0.305 ± 0.0189 kg DM/d). Of these, 118 prepuberal heifers were submitted to ultrasonography of the uterus and ovaries for monitoring the presence (or absence) of a corpus luteum and for the measurement of endometrial thickness...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
T Kaschubek, E Mayer, S Rzesnik, B Grenier, D Bachinger, C Schieder, J König, K Teichmann
Due to increasing concerns about the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in livestock production and their complete ban in the European Union in 2006, suitable alternatives are urgently needed. Among others, anti-inflammatory activities of AGP are discussed as their putative mode of action. As numerous phytochemicals are known to modulate the cellular antioxidant capacity and immune response, we studied the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of a phytogenic (plant-derived) feed additive (PFA) in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
H G Bertagnon, C F Batista, K R Santos, R C Gomes, J B Bellinazzi, A M M P Della Libera
The first three to six months of the life of calves is the period during which active immunity is established. During this period, greater morbidity and mortality is caused by bronchopneumonia, because of the immaturity of the pulmonary immune system or the exaggerated cytotoxic response at subsequent infection. The aim of this study was to examine the maturity of the immune system during this phase of activation of acquired immunity in calves. For this purpose, the functions of phagocytosis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) of alveolar macrophages CD14+ were evaluated...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
E Richardson, B Fields, A C Dilger, D D Boler
The objective was to determine the effects of pH and color on sensory characteristics of boneless pork loin chops cooked to an internal endpoint temperature of 63˚C. Center cut loins (296 total) from barrows and gilts, 5 different sire lines, and a range in pH of 5.36 through 6.23 were used. Previously, ultimate pH was correlated with sensory characteristics of chops cooked to a medium (71°C) degree of doneness. Additionally, increasing ultimate pH improved sensory tenderness and juiciness of loin chops cooked to a medium degree of doneness...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Maria R C de Godoy
The prominent incidence of overweight and obese pet animals not only results in higher morbidity and mortality, but also poses a threat for the quality of life, longevity, and well-being of dogs and cats. To date, strategies to prevent BW gain or to induce weight loss have had modest success in the pet population. In part, due to the complexity and the multifactorial nature of this disease, which involves pet-human interaction, environmental and dietary factors, and an intertwined metabolic process that still is not fully understood...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Katie L Bidne, Sara S Kvidera, Jason W Ross, Lance H Baumgard, Aileen F Keating
Increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results from heat stress (HS) and bacterial infection, both of which are associated with reduced female fertility. Specific effects of low-level, repeated LPS exposure on the ovary are unclear, as many studies utilize a bolus model and/or high dosage paradigm. To better understand the effects of chronic LPS exposure on ovarian signaling and function, post-pubertal gilts (n = 20) were orally administered altrenogest for 14 d to synchronize the beginning of the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
J Pollock, D L Gally, L Glendinning, R Tiwari, M R Hutchings, J G M Houdijk
The primary aim of this work was to study potential effects of sub-clinical enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) exposure on porcine fecal microbiota composition, with a secondary aim of profiling temporal shifts in bacterial communities over the weaning transition period. 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to profile the fecal microbiota and quantify ETEC excretion in the feces, respectively. Temporal shifts in fecal microbiota structure and stability were observed across the immediate post-weaning period (P < 0...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
R C Pauling, S E Speidel, M G Thomas, T N Holt, R M Enns
Altitude-induced pulmonary hypertension is a disease once thought to only occur at extremely high elevations (> 1,600 m), but recently it has been observed at moderate elevations of 1200 to 1600 m. Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) has been used as an indicator of tolerance to high altitude in mountainous beef production systems for over 30 years. The trait is typically measured on yearling bulls and heifers with values ≤ 41 mm Hg being favorable. These observations were historically only considered valid when they were recorded at elevations ≥ 1,600 m; however, if observations from lower (i...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
M Ghelichkhan, J-S Eun, R G Christensen, R D Stott, J W MacAdam
Legumes that contain condensed tannins may have lower ruminal protein degradation than alfalfa. The present study investigated the effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) hay on lactational performance and N utilization and excretion. Eight multiparous Holstein cows in mid-lactation (150 ± 22.3 d-in-milk) were randomly assigned to two treatments [alfalfa hay-based total mixed ration (AHT) or birdsfoot trefoil hay-based total mixed ration (BHT)] in a crossover design with two experimental periods...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
David Val-Laillet, J Stephen Elmore, David Baines, Peter Naylor, Robert Naylor
This study investigated the effect of feed supplementation in sows and/or their progeny with 2 sensory feed additives (FA1: limonene and cinnamaldehyde; FA2: menthol, carvone, and anethole) on sows' feed intake, body weight, fat deposition, and colostrum/milk composition, as well as piglets' feed intake growth and feed efficiency from birth to slaughter at postnatal day 160 (PND160). During the last third of gestation and the whole of lactation, sows were subjected to a control diet (C) or the same diet containing FA1 or FA2 at 0...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Huan Qu, Kolapo M Ajuwon
To determine the effect of heat stress (HS) on adipose tissue metabolome, a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics profiling approaches was applied to characterize changes of metabolite classes in adipocytes differentiated in culture (in vitro) and mesenteric adipose tissue of pigs exposed to HS (in vivo). Effect of HS on the composition of individual fatty acids in cultured adipocytes, mesenteric adipose tissue, and serum of animals was also investigated using gas chromatography analysis...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Alemayehu Kidane, Margareth Øverland, Liv Torunn Mydland, Egil Prestløkken
We assessed the interactive effects of gross feed use efficiency (FUE, milk yield per kg DMI) background ("high" = HEFF vs. "low" = LEFF) and graded levels of dietary CP (130, 145, 160 and 175 g/kg DM) on milk production, enteric methane (CH4) emission and apparent nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, g milk protein nitrogen per g nitrogen intake) with Nowegian Red (NRF) dairy cows. Eight early- to mid-lactation cows were used in a 4x4 Latin square design experiment (2 efficiency backgrounds, 4 dietary treatments and 4 periods each lasting 28 d)...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
M Abbasi, Y Rouzbehan, J Rezaei, S E Jacobsen
This study assessed the influence of wilting, lactobacillus (LAB) and / or molasses on the chemical composition, phenolic compounds, in situ degradability and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of amaranth (var. Maria) silage using a randomized complete block design with 6 replicates. Treatments were fresh amaranth forage (FAF), ensiled amaranth without additive (EA), EA inoculated with LAB (EAB), EA + 5% of molasses (EAM), EA inoculated with LAB + 5% of molasses (EABM) and 24-h wilted EA (WEA). The ensiled materials were stored anaerobically for a period of 45 d...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
S Millet, M Aluwé, J De Boever, B De Witte, L Douidah, A Van den Broeke, F Leen, C De Cuyper, B Ampe, S De Campeneere
Lowering the CP level in piglet diets reduces the risk of post-weaning diarrhea and N excretion to the environment. The question remains at what point CP becomes limiting. An experiment was designed with 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys levels (10 and 11 g) and 6 CP levels (140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190 g/kg) in a 2 x 6 factorial design (with 6 pens of 6 animals each per treatment). Linear and quadratic (QP) mixed models of performance in function of CP were fitted to study the effect of Lys and CP and their interaction...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Molly L McGhee, Hans H Stein
An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and starch and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in three varieties of hybrid rye and in one source of barley, wheat, and corn. Seven growing barrows (initial BW = 26.1 ± 2.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 7 × 7 Latin square design with seven periods and seven experimental diets. Six diets included one of the grains as the sole source of AA, and an N-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of CP and AA...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
J R Pukrop, K M Brennan, B J Funnell, J P Schoonmaker
A two-part experiment was conducted to determine the effects of a blend of specialized mannan rich and glucan rich fractions of yeast (Select-TC, Alltech Inc.) on the health status and performance of steers during the first two months of the feedlot period. Eighty crossbred steers were acquired from commercial sale barns in Mississippi and Georgia, and transported to Purdue University. All animals were fed a corn silage based receiving diet, and were checked and treated daily for respiratory disease as needed following established treatment protocols...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Xiang Z Li, C G Yan, Qi S Gao, Y Yan, Seong H Choi, Stephen B Smith
We hypothesized that gene expression and fatty acid composition would differ among different muscle depots and over time on a grain-based finishing diet. Additionally, we hypothesized that the concentration of SFA would decrease and the concentration of MUFA would increase proportionately with increases in percent intramuscular lipid (%IML). Ten Yanbian Yellow cattle steers (approximately 8 mo of age) were fed a corn-based diet in which the proportion of corn in the ration was increased at 4-mo intervals. Muscle samples were taken by biopsy from the chuck (trapezius), loin (longissimus dorsi), and round (biceps femoris) muscles at 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 mo of age...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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