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Ultrastructural Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805487/state-of-the-art-nanopathological-diagnostics
#1
Luca Roncati, Giuseppe Barbolini
The nanopathological diagnostics (ND) is an ultra-specialized branch of pathological anatomy aimed to identify the nanoparticles of metallic, semimetallic, or nonmetallic elements in the inorganic particulate matter present inside pathological tissues, even on the nanometer scale. ND exploits an environmental scanning electron microscope, connected to an X-ray microprobe mounted on an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The searching of nanoparticles can be performed on paraffin-embedded material, omitting emissions of black overlay and plating procedures...
August 14, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796583/the-origin-of-the-autophagosomal-membrane-in-human-atherosclerotic-plaque-a-preliminary-ultrastructural-study
#2
Ida Perrotta
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that occurs ubiquitously and functions as a primary route for the degradation of damaged organelles and proteins in response to starvation, oxidative stress, and other harmful conditions. The initial event upon autophagy induction is the formation of a membranous cistern called the phagophore or isolation membrane, a cup-shaped structure that elongates, engulfs cytoplasmic "cargo", and fuses at its rims to give rise to the autophagosome within which cytoplasmic material is enclosed...
August 10, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796568/contribution-of-human-smooth-muscle-cells-to-amyloid-angiopathy-in-al-light-chain-amyloidosis
#3
Moiz Vora, Christopher G Kevil, Guillermo A Herrera
OBJECTIVE: Amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a disease process that often compromises the peripheral vascular system and leads to systemic end-organ dysfunction. Although amyloid formation in vessel walls is a multifaceted process, the assembly of the native light chains (LCs) into amyloid fibrils is central to its pathogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that endocytosis and endolysosomal processing of immunoglobin LCs by host cells is essential to the formation of amyloid fibrils that are deposited in at least some tissues...
August 10, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796566/pomegranate-protective-effect-on-experimental-ischemia-reperfusion-retinal-injury-in-rats-histological-and-biochemical-study
#4
Hala E Hashem, Manal R Abd El-Haleem, Mona G Amer, Ashraf Bor'i
Oxidative stress is one mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (/R) retinal injury. The histological, biochemical, and functional changes associated with pomegranate (PMG) treatment prior to retinal I/R were analyzed using 40 adult male albino rats. Rats were divided into four groups: Groups I and II (sham operated and received saline or PMG, respectively); Groups III and IV (I/R rat models with prior administration of saline or 250 mg/kg/day PMG, respectively). Electroretinogram (ERG) results were recorded and eye specimens were taken and processed for light and electron microscopic examinations and for assessment of oxidative status in retinal homogenate...
August 10, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796565/ultrastructural-changes-of-kidney-in-schistosoma-mansoni-infected-mice
#5
Refaat A Eid, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Fahmy El-Sayed, Khaled Radad
Schistosomiasis is the second threatening parasitic disease after malaria and among Schistosoma spp., Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) affects about 100 million people in tropic regions in Africa and South America. The current study was carried out to investigate ultrastructural changes of the kidney in mice infected with cercariae of S. mansoni, in which 20 Swiss albino mice of 60-day-old were assigned into two groups (10 each). Control group received 1 ml normal saline by intraperitoneal route. Model group were intraperitoneally infected with 1 ml normal saline containing 40 cercariae of S...
August 10, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796562/loss-of-endothelial-planar-cell-polarity-and-cellular-clearance-mechanisms-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#6
Maria Mercedes Campos, Mones S Abu-Asab
Apoptosis, autophagosomes, and lysosomes are lacking in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes. Necrosis, not apoptosis, appeared to be the prominent type of cell death in RPE, which led to the accumulation of cell debris within and on both sides of Bruch's membrane. The endothelium of the choriocapillaris had an altered planar cell polarity which encompassed the disappearance of fenestrations, the thickening of cytoplasm, and anterior nuclear dislocation. There were no significant differences in RPE and choroidal aberrations between macular and temporal regions...
August 10, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628380/low-frequency-noise-effects-on-the-rat-parotid-gland-a-transmission-electron-microscopy-study
#7
Pedro Oliveira, Goncalo Martins Pereira, Margarida Seara Simões, Emanuel Monteiro, António Pedro Alves de Matos, Artur Águas, José Martins Dos Santos
INTRODUCTION: Low-frequency noise (LFN) is a ubiquitous physical stressor known to cause degenerative cellular changes and organ alterations with functional repercussions both in humans and animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After acceptance of the study protocol by a local ethics committee, 20 Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was kept in silence and the other continuously exposed to LFN during 13 weeks. The rats had unlimited access to water and were fed standard rat chow...
June 19, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617098/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-mercury-and-cadmium-alone-and-in-combination-on-the-coagulation-system-of-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Sandra Arbi, Hester Magdalena Oberholzer, Mia Jeanne Van Rooy, Chantelle Venter, Megan Jean Bester
Water contamination with heavy metals may adversely affect our health. High metal levels lead to changes in blood coagulation processes, increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. Exposure is not limited to a single metal but usually involves a mixture of metals. In this study 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), alone and in combination, for 28 days at dosages equivalent to 1000 times the World Health Organization water limits. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that both metals caused platelet activation...
June 15, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691892/paclitaxel-induces-autophagy-in-gastric-cancer-bgc823-cells
#9
Yi-Feng Yu, Peng-Chao Hu, Ying Wang, Xiao-Long Xu, Gerard Martin Rushworth, Zun Zhang, Lei Wei, Jing-Wei Zhang
This paper explores the connection between paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, and gastric cancer cells. In this experiment, it is demonstrated that paclitaxel triggers autophagy and inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells. An 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect cell viability and the IC50 of paclitaxel. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of P62, and to measure the protein expression of autophagy. Immunofluorescence was used to reveal the appearance of punctate structures in the cytoplasm-this ultrastructure associated with autophagy was observed by microscopy...
July 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628381/monoclonal-immunoglobulin-associated-proliferative-glomerulonephritis-characterized-by-organized-deposits-of-striated-ultra-substructures-a-case-report
#10
Shigeo Hara, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi, Tastufumi Oka, Makiko Kusabe, Masayuki Mizui, Kensuke Joh
We herein report the case of a 64-year-old male who presented with progressive glomerulonephritis notable for organized and striated ultra-substructures. The patient was diagnosed with hypertension and proteinuria 3 years prior to admission and subsequently developed nephrotic syndrome and impairment of renal function. Laboratory tests did not reveal any evidence of infections or autoimmune diseases. Monoclonal gammopathy was not detected in serum or urine, although a small population of abnormal plasma cell clones was detected by flow cytometry...
July 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609138/giant-cell-ependymoma-presentation-of-a-case-of-the-sacral-region-and-literature-review
#11
Hugo R Domínguez-Malagón, Diana B Sevilla-Lizcano, Leonardo S Lino-Silva
Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system neoplasm with an even rarer morphologic variant called giant-cell ependymoma (GCE). GCE has a characteristic discrepant, malignant-like morphology but indolent behavior. We present the case of a 21-year-old female with an extra-axial GCE located in the sacral region. To date, 16 cases of sacral GCE have been reported in the literature, with 4 cases in the sacral region; however, all those cases were intra-axial. We present the first case of an extra-axial sacral GCE...
July 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506098/long-term-influence-of-sialoadenectomy-on-the-liver-of-male-albino-rat
#12
Abeer A Mahmoud, Ebtehal Z Hassan, Eman M Askar
Epidermal growth factor is an endocrine product of the submandibular gland; the liver is an important target of its action and is affected by sialoadenectomy. Thirty rats were used in this study and divided into group I (sham-operated animals), group II (sialoadenectomy after 4 weeks), and group III (sialoadenectomy after 10 weeks). Liver samples were processed for light and electron microscope examination. Sialoadenectomy induced mild-to-moderate liver damage which persists up to 10 weeks after the operation...
May 16, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463081/ultrastructural-and-immunofluorescence-studies-of-zika-infection
#13
Viroj Wiwanitkit
This letter to the editor is for discussion on publication of "Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies of Zika infection".
May 2, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463061/exercise-protects-against-insulin-dependent-diabetes-induced-osteoarthritis-in-rats-a-scanning-electron-microscopy-study
#14
Fahaid Al-Hashem, Abbas O El Karib, Ismaeel Bin-Jaliah, Mohammad Dallak, Hussein F Sakr, Refaat A Eid, Mohamed Samir A Zaki, Mariam Al-Shamsi, Mohamed A Haidara, Bahjat Al-Ani
We tested the hypothesis that swim exercise can protect the articular cartilage from damages induced secondary to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in rats using the scanning electron microscopy and to monitor the blood levels of oxidative and antioxidative stress biomarkers that are known to be modulated in osteoarthritis (OA). A profound damage to the cartilage was observed in the diabetic rats. Our findings also show that swim exercise protects the knee joints from damage induced by diabetes as well as significantly inhibiting OA-induced upregulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and augmented superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition by OA...
May 2, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524812/em-proves-invaluable-in-the-confirmation-of-chordoma-in-the-sacral-mass-of-a-middle-aged-man
#15
A Flowers, E Turbat-Herrera
A case of a 47-year-old male with a sacral spine mass was investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and electron microscopy (EM). The light microscopy of the first core biopsy revealed scant cellularity with spindle and round cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm within a fibromyxoid background. Immunostaining with pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 19, and S100 was nonspecific. Another biopsy was attempted to obtain a more definitive diagnosis. Light microscopy of the second core had scant cellular material...
May 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494215/potential-ultrastructure-predicting-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hcv-infected-patients
#16
Soheir S Mansy, Eman El-Ahwany, Soheir Mahmoud, Sara Hassan, Mohammed I Seleem, Amr Abdelaal, Ahmed H Helmy, Mona K Zoheiry, Ahmed S AbdelFattah, Moataz H Hassanein
Hepatitis C virus represents one of the rising causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the early diagnosis of HCC is vital for successful curative treatment, the majority of lesions are diagnosed in an irredeemable phase. This work deals with a comparative ultrastructural study of experimentally gradually induced HCC, surgically resected HCC, and potential premalignant lesions from HCV-infected patients, with the prospect to detect cellular criteria denoting premalignant transformation. Among the main detected pathological changes which are postulated to precede frank HCC: failure of normal hepatocyte regeneration with star shape clonal fragmentation, frequent elucidation of hepatic progenitor cells and Hering canals, hepatocytes of different electron density loaded with small sized rounded monotonous mitochondria, increase junctional complexes bordering bile canaliculi and in between hepatocyte membranes, abundant cellular proteinaceous material with hypertrophied or vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), sequestrated nucleus with proteinaceous granular material or hypertrophied RER, formation of lipolysosomes, large autophagosomes, and micro-vesicular fat deposition...
May 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414554/antitumor-activity-of-the-pachymic-acid-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells
#17
Yan-Hua Zhang, Yong Zhang, Xiu-Ying Li, Xu-Dong Feng, Wei Jian, Rong-Qing Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antitumour efficacy of pachymic acid (PA), which is a fungal extract component, on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells CNE-1, CNE-2. METHODS: We have chosen NPC cell line CNE-2 for the study, and the cells were treated with PA before the detection. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the proliferative ability, and Annexin V-PI double staining was used for the detection of apoptosis rate; and the nucleus damage was detected by transmission electron microscope, the protein expression of the DNA damage pathway were detected by Western blot...
April 17, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375672/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-mitochondria-associated-membranes-abnormalities-in-human-astrocytomas-functional-and-therapeutics-implications
#18
Gabriel Arismendi-Morillo, Alan Castellano-Ramírez, Thomas N Seyfried
Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) are currently considered an intracellular organelle "hot spot" for the intracellular signaling. MAMs are thought to function in cellular energy homeostasis, apoptosis, and calcium signaling. MAM ultrastructure in surgical specimens from human astrocytic neoplasms was studied. Abnormalities in respect to density, length, and width were found. Poorly differentiated glioma like-stem cells deficient in MAM and well-differentiated glioma cells abundant in MAM were observed...
April 4, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296538/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-findings-of-post-acute-renal-failure-in-light-and-electron-microscopy
#19
Wiesława Salwa-Żurawska, Jakub Żurawski, Aldona Woźniak, Elżbieta Bortkiewicz, Paweł Burchardt, Przemysław Kwiatkowski, Monika Seget, Piotr Tabaczewski
The blood count test results of six patients (five male adolescents and one female adult) who were diagnosed with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome are presented. Certain diverse lesions and especially, their different intensity, were observed. They were referred to the clinical process and the time from syndrome occurrence to biopsy.
March 15, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277149/in-vitro-activity-of-a-partially-purified-and-characterized-bark-extract-of-castanea-sativa-mill-enc%C3%A2-against-chlamydia-spp
#20
Valentina Papa, Laura Ginocchietti, Roberta Budriesi, Matteo Micucci, Roberta Costa, Roberta Biondi, Roberto Cevenini, Alberto Chiarini, Rita Aldini, Manuela Donati, Gian Matteo Pollini, Giovanna Cenacchi
Castanea sativa Mill (ENC®), containing tannins against 33 Chlamydia strains, was compared to SMAP-29 with inhibitory effect against C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. The ENC® activity against Chlamydia spp. was evaluated determining the lowest concentration to achieve more than half reduction of intact chlamydial inclusions versus controls. ENC® reduced all Chlamydia strains tested at 1 µg/mL, while SMAP-29 induced reductions of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infectivity at 10 µg/mL. A great reduction of C...
March 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
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