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Ultrastructural Pathology

Kurt J Knowles, Firas Al-Delfi, Jehan Abdulsattar, Robin Lacour, Destin Black, Shabnum Chaudhery, Elba A Turbat-Herrera
Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are rare soft tissue neoplasms which may be multicentric. The vast majority are benign, however approximately 100 malignant GCTs have been reported, with only 8 originating in the vulva. Malignant GCTs are very aggressive with very poor survival rates. As the diagnosis of malignant GCT carries an extremely poor prognosis, the utilization of EM ensures that the most accurate diagnosis possible can be rendered.
May 8, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Sidika Yalim, Kenan Dağlıoğlu, Gülfidan Coskun, Sait Polat
Recent studies suggest that nerve growth factor (NGF) protects olfactory cells and axons from injury in vitro. Eighteen Wistar-Albino rats randomly divided into three groups: control group, diabetic group without NGF, and diabetic with NGF. Intranasal NGF (6 µg/day) was administered over a 5-day period. At the end of 30 days, the olfactory epithelium (OE) of NGF-applied diabetic rats regenerated, the epithelium thickness was significantly higher, and caspase-3 expression was not significantly different from the control...
April 25, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Grzegorz Niemczyk, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Piotr Radziszewski, Paweł Włodarski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska
Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms are major urological issues that significantly affect patient's quality of life and may lead to severe complications. The prevalence of both is increasing each year, raising the burden to health system. Therefore, casual and symptomatic treatment should be of great importance. However, management of symptoms is often difficult as their pathophysiology is multifactorial and not well elucidated. Recently urothelium has gathered much attention as one of the potential causal agents...
April 19, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Guillermo A Herrera, Jiamin Teng, Chun Zeng, Hongzhi Xu, Man Liang, J Steven Alexander, Bing Liu, Chris Boyer, Elba A Turbat-Herrera
Mesangiopathies produced by glomerulopathic monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (GLCs) acting on the glomerular mesangium produce two characteristic lesions: AL-amyloidosis (AL-Am) and light chain deposition disease (LCDD). In both cases, the pathology is centered in the mesangium, where initial and progressive damage occurs. In AL-Am the mesangial matrix is destroyed and replaced by amyloid fibrils and in LCDD, the mesangial matrix is increased and remodeled. The collagen IV rich matrix is replaced by tenascin...
April 18, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Abdalla Mohamed Attia, Ola Ahmed Bakry, Hossam Yassin, Naglaa Sarhan, Rehab Samaka, Nahla Gamal
The effect of tramadol addiction on epididymal structure was not investigated before. Therefore, this experimental study was carried out to investigate the effect of chronic tramadol use on the epididymal structure using light and electron microscopies. Thirty adult Wister Albino male rats were divided into two groups: control group (five rats) and tramadol-treated group (25 rats), which was further subdivided into five subgroups that received tramadol orally at 4.5, 9, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 18 weeks...
April 18, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Qing Ma, Yang Gao, De-Fei Wei, Nan-Hui Jiang, Liang Ding, Xin He, Lei Wei, Jing-Wei Zhang
This study sought to investigate the effects of celecoxib on the proliferation and morphological changes of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 cells. In this study, after MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with a certain concentration of celecoxib, a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) proliferation assay was used to detect cell viability. Western blotting was utilized to analyze the expression level of caspase-3, which is an apoptosis-related protein. In addition, the morphological changes in the cells and nuclei were determined with fluorescence and electron microscope...
April 18, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Serbay Ozkan, Basak Isildar, Mahmut Oncul, Zafer Baslar, Semih Kaleli, Meral Koyuturk
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as an important tool for regenerative medicine and experimental treatments. Unveiling the ultrastructural changes during the differentiation of MSCs might help us to understand the nature of the process and to develop novel therapeutic approaches. For this purpose, human umbilical cord (hUC) was chosen as MSC source. In the first place, MSCs were isolated from sub-amniotic, intervascular and perivascular areas of hUC by enzymatic and tissue explant method to determine the most favorable region of hUC and technique for further processing...
April 6, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Chiara Terracciano, Christa Pachatz, Emanuele Rastelli, Francesco Saverio Pastore, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Roberto Massa
Plexiform neurofibroma is pathognomonic of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). An NF1-associated peripheral neuropathy has been described in a small minority of NF1 patients but its histopathological features are poorly characterized. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman presenting with bilateral supraclavicular painful masses without other stigmata of NF1. MRI showed bilateral plexiform lesions extending from cervical roots to the elbows. Nerve conduction studies documented a sensory motor polyneuropathy. Morphometric analysis of sural nerve biopsy showed a preferential loss of large-caliber myelinated fibers with a g ratio of 0...
March 27, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Aanchal Kakkar, Mehar C Sharma, Aruna Nambirajan, Sheffali Gulati, Rohit Bhatia, Vaishali Suri, Chitra Sarkar
Pompe disease (PD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by glycogen accumulation in muscle, with infantile-onset (IOPD) and late-onset (LOPD) types. Nineteen cases of PD were diagnosed over a 14-year period on muscle biopsy by ultrastructural examination. Pools of glycogen (intralysosomal and cytoplasmic) and excessive phagocytosis were seen in myofibers on electron microscopy. Glycogen was noted in endothelial cells in IOPD. Although PD accounts for a small fraction of muscle diseases, timely accurate diagnosis is imperative as it is treatable...
March 22, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ahmed Al-Emam, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Refaat Eid, Mohamed Alfaifi, Mohamed Al-Shehri, Mahmoud Fawzy Moustafa, Khaled Radad
Medicinal plants have recently gained increasing scientific interest as an important source of molecules with different therapeutic potentials. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to investigate ultrastructural changes induced by the aqueous extract of Solanum incanum (SI) fruit on human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT 116 cells). Examination of SI-treated HCT 116 cells with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated numerous ultrastructural changes in the form of loss of the surface microvilli, mitochondrial damage and dilatation of cristae, and formation of autophagic vacuoles and increasing numbers of lipid droplets...
March 22, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Hala F Abd-Ellah, Nadia R A Abou-Zeid, Nadia M Nasr
The purpose of this study is to investigate structural and ultrastructural alterations in the rat's brain cerebral cortex after aspartame (ASP) treatment and to evaluate the possible ameliorating role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and folic acid (FA). Forty adult rats were divided into four equal groups: Group I, received appropriate vehicle only and served as control. Group II, received oral doses of both NAC (600 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) and FA (12 mg/kg b.w.) daily for 42 days. Group III, received oral doses of ASP (500 mg/kg b...
February 26, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Mikako Warren, Gary Mierau, Eric P Wartchow, Hiroyuki Shimada, Shoji Yano
Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSD) are rare autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorders and include severe (Zellweger syndrome) and milder phenotypes [neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and infantile Refsum disease (IRD)]. ZSD are characterized by impaired peroxisomal functions and lack of peroxisomes detected by electron microscopy (EM). ZSD are caused by mutations in any of the 14 PEX genes. Patients with ZSD commonly demonstrate nonspecific hepatic symptoms within the first year, often without clinical suspicion of ZSD...
February 26, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Elda E Sánchez, Roschman González, Sara Lucena, Stefanie García, Héctor J Finol, Montamas Suntravat, María E Girón, Irma Fernández, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta
Crotamine is a cationic, non-enzymatic, protein integrating a minor family of myotoxins, composed of 42 amino acid residues, described in Viperidae and Crotalidae snake's families that has been used in neuroscience research, drug progressing and molecular diversity reports. Crotamine-like protein (CLP) from C.o.helleri venom was isolated in fraction 5 from 7 peaks obtained by sulfopropyl waters protein pak cationic exchange column. In tricine-SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions this CLP showed a single band of ~8 kDa molecular weight...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ola A Hussein, Amel M M Abdel-Hafez, Ayat Abd El Kareim
Limb ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with serious local and systemic effects. Reperfusion may augment tissue injury in excess of that produced by ischemia alone. The hippocampus has been reported to be vulnerable to I/R injury. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an endogenous antioxidant with a powerful antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. We studied the probable restorative effect of ALA on limb I/R-induced structural damage of rat hippocampus. Forty adult male albino rats were divided equally into four groups: group I (sham); group II (I/R-1 day) has undergone bilateral femoral arteries occlusion (3 h), then reperfusion for 1 day; group III (I/R-7 days) has undergone reperfusion for seven days; group IV (I/R-ALA) has undergone I/R as group III and received an intraperitoneal injection of ALA (100 mg/kg) for 7 days...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Amel A M Abdel-Hafez, Asmaa M S Gomaa, Raghda Elsherif
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes have been implicated as potentially exerting both neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities in Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether glial cells negatively impact the neuron integrity remains to be determined. We aimed to assess the vulnerability of glia and vessels in rat substantia nigra in a rotenone PD model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups: vehicle-control group (received dimethylsulfoxide + polyethylene glycol (PEG)-300, 1:1 v/v) and rotenone-treated group (received six doses of rotenone, 1...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ashley Flowers, Xin Gu, Guillermo A Herrera, Sandy Gibson, Judy King
Acute renal failure in the setting of infection with human immunodeficiency virus can be due to various causes including pre-renal causes such as hypotension, sepsis, and nephrotoxic agents; thrombotic microangiopathy; or direct renal parenchymal infections by opportunistic organisms. We present a case of cryptococcal nephritis in a patient with systemic cryptococcosis and discuss the clinical findings as well as the histological, immunofluorescent, and transmission electron microscopy findings in the renal biopsy...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Venni Heinonen, Timo J Ruotsalainen, Lauri Paavola, Jopi J Mikkonen, Pekka Asikainen, Arto P Koistinen, Arja M Kullaa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphological and cellular changes in dental extraction socket that has been irradiated after the tooth extraction and to describe morphological characteristics of the osteocytes and osteocyte-lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five beagle dogs aged 1-2 years were used in this study. One side of each mandible was irradiated in two sessions and the other side of mandible (non-irradiated) served as a control...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Rosalyn Jewell, Paul Brewer, Sophie Stenton, Ian R Berry, Sue Chatfield, James A Fernandes, Cesar Peres, Bart E Wagner, Christopher Bennett
Geroderma osteodysplasticum (GO) has clinical and histological features that overlap with other causes of wrinkly skin. Here we present the case of a child diagnosed with GO following exome sequencing of a panel of genes covering the wide differential diagnosis. The histological features of the overlapping conditions are presented, highlighting the utility of panel testing for conditions of this type. This is relevant to many genetic conditions and can influence ongoing management as exemplified by this case...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Jayram Sastry, Heba Mohammed, Maria Mercedes Campos, Jack Uetrecht, Mones Abu-Asab
Nevirapine (NVP) therapy is associated with a high risk of serious liver injury and skin rash. Treatment of Brown Norway rats with NVP causes an immune-mediated skin rash. Even though NVP does not cause serious liver injury in wildtype animals, incubation of hepatocytes with NVP leads to the release of presumably danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), which activate macrophages. In this study, we examined the liver biopsies of Brown Norway rats treated with NVP to determine the histologic correlate to the release of DAMPs by hepatocytes...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Sarah Hassan, Soheir S Mansy, Sahar A Tabak, Ahmed S AbdelFattah, Ahmed M Abdel-Aziz, Olfat Hamam, Mohammed I Seleem, Amr Abdelaal
Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucial for successful therapy. The present work examined the value of ultrastructural morphometric image analysis of hepatocyte nuclei in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) versus HCC cases with chronic HCV and the corresponding surgical tumor-free safe margins (TFMs), to highlight any early predictive signs of neoplastic cellular transformation. This work also performed an immunohistochemical assessment of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and Ki-67-positive cells to visualize any associated proliferative activity in the examined groups...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
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