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Ultrastructural Pathology

Hala F Abd-Ellah, Nadia R A Abou-Zeid, Nadia M Nasr
The purpose of this study is to investigate structural and ultrastructural alterations in the rat's brain cerebral cortex after aspartame (ASP) treatment and to evaluate the possible ameliorating role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and folic acid (FA). Forty adult rats were divided into four equal groups: Group I, received appropriate vehicle only and served as control. Group II, received oral doses of both NAC (600 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) and FA (12 mg/kg b.w.) daily for 42 days. Group III, received oral doses of ASP (500 mg/kg b...
February 26, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Mikako Warren, Gary Mierau, Eric P Wartchow, Hiroyuki Shimada, Shoji Yano
Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSD) are rare autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorders and include severe (Zellweger syndrome) and milder phenotypes [neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and infantile Refsum disease (IRD)]. ZSD are characterized by impaired peroxisomal functions and lack of peroxisomes detected by electron microscopy (EM). ZSD are caused by mutations in any of the 14 PEX genes. Patients with ZSD commonly demonstrate nonspecific hepatic symptoms within the first year, often without clinical suspicion of ZSD...
February 26, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Venni Heinonen, Timo J Ruotsalainen, Lauri Paavola, Jopi J Mikkonen, Pekka Asikainen, Arto P Koistinen, Arja M Kullaa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphological and cellular changes in dental extraction socket that has been irradiated after the tooth extraction and to describe morphological characteristics of the osteocytes and osteocyte-lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five beagle dogs aged 1-2 years were used in this study. One side of each mandible was irradiated in two sessions and the other side of mandible (non-irradiated) served as a control...
February 9, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Rosalyn Jewell, Paul Brewer, Sophie Stenton, Ian R Berry, Sue Chatfield, James A Fernandes, Cesar Peres, Bart E Wagner, Christopher Bennett
Geroderma osteodysplasticum (GO) has clinical and histological features that overlap with other causes of wrinkly skin. Here we present the case of a child diagnosed with GO following exome sequencing of a panel of genes covering the wide differential diagnosis. The histological features of the overlapping conditions are presented, highlighting the utility of panel testing for conditions of this type. This is relevant to many genetic conditions and can influence ongoing management as exemplified by this case...
February 9, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Jayram Sastry, Heba Mohammed, Maria Mercedes Campos, Jack Uetrecht, Mones Abu-Asab
Nevirapine (NVP) therapy is associated with a high risk of serious liver injury and skin rash. Treatment of Brown Norway rats with NVP causes an immune-mediated skin rash. Even though NVP does not cause serious liver injury in wildtype animals, incubation of hepatocytes with NVP leads to the release of presumably danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), which activate macrophages. In this study, we examined the liver biopsies of Brown Norway rats treated with NVP to determine the histologic correlate to the release of DAMPs by hepatocytes...
February 9, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Sarah Hassan, Soheir S Mansy, Sahar A Tabak, Ahmed S AbdelFattah, Ahmed M Abdel-Aziz, Olfat Hamam, Mohammed I Seleem, Amr Abdelaal
Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucial for successful therapy. The present work examined the value of ultrastructural morphometric image analysis of hepatocyte nuclei in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) versus HCC cases with chronic HCV and the corresponding surgical tumor-free safe margins (TFMs), to highlight any early predictive signs of neoplastic cellular transformation. This work also performed an immunohistochemical assessment of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and Ki-67-positive cells to visualize any associated proliferative activity in the examined groups...
February 9, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Hector L Osorio, Hector J Finol, L Roschman Gonzalez, Carlos E Sardiñas
In this study, we describe, compare, and discuss several subcellular alterations found in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma and peritumoral tissue using transmission electron microscopy, morphometry, and statistical analysis. Tissue samples from anterior resections were collected from patients diagnosed with Colorectal Adenocarcinoma in the University Hospital of Caracas. Samples were processed according to the typical protocol for their observation through transmission electron microscopy. The resulting images were analyzed using specialized software for the collection of morphometric data...
February 8, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Mohammed A Dallak, Ismaeel Bin-Jaliah, Alia Albawardi, Mohamed A Haidara, Hussein F Sakr, Refaat A Eid, W N Hassan, Bahjat Al-Ani
Excessive consumption of carbohydrate and fat increases the risk of liver disease. We hypothesized that swim exercise can protect hepatocytes from ultra-structural damage induced by high cholesterol and fructose diets (HCFD). Rats were either fed with HCFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. Swim exercise trained rats started the treatment from the 11th week until the sacrifice day, end of week 15. Blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury and adiponectin...
February 8, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Nour S Erekat
Cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) death has been shown to occur in essential tremor, ataxia, and many other neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Shaker mutant rats have an X-linked recessive mutation that causes hereditary degeneration of "at risk" cerebellar PCs. This defect can occur in the restricted anterior (ADC) and posterior (PDC) vermal degeneration compartments postnatally within 7 to 14 weeks of age as a natural phenotype in the shaker mutant rat. "Secure" PCs persist in a flocculonodular survival compartment (FNSC)...
February 8, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ayman N Abunimer, Heba Mohammed, Katherine L Cook, David R Soto-Pantoja, Maria Mercedes Campos, Mones S Abu-Asab
We have previously described the process by which mitochondria donate their membranes for the formation of autophagosomes, and in this study we show that the same process could be involved in drug sequestration and exocytosis resulting in multidrug-resistant cancerous cells. We examine the implications of mitochondrial vesicle formation of mitoautophagosomes (MAPS) in response to the cytotoxic drug MKT-077, which targets mortalin, in a drug-resistant breast carcinoma cell line overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp)...
February 8, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Elda E Sánchez, Roschman González, Sara Lucena, Stefanie García, Héctor J Finol, Montamas Suntravat, María E Girón, Irma Fernández, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta
Crotamine is a cationic, non-enzymatic, protein integrating a minor family of myotoxins, composed of 42 amino acid residues, described in Viperidae and Crotalidae snake's families that has been used in neuroscience research, drug progressing and molecular diversity reports. Crotamine-like protein (CLP) from C.o.helleri venom was isolated in fraction 5 from 7 peaks obtained by sulfopropyl waters protein pak cationic exchange column. In tricine-SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions this CLP showed a single band of ~8 kDa molecular weight...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ola A Hussein, Amel M M Abdel-Hafez, Ayat Abd El Kareim
Limb ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with serious local and systemic effects. Reperfusion may augment tissue injury in excess of that produced by ischemia alone. The hippocampus has been reported to be vulnerable to I/R injury. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an endogenous antioxidant with a powerful antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. We studied the probable restorative effect of ALA on limb I/R-induced structural damage of rat hippocampus. Forty adult male albino rats were divided equally into four groups: group I (sham); group II (I/R-1 day) has undergone bilateral femoral arteries occlusion (3 h), then reperfusion for 1 day; group III (I/R-7 days) has undergone reperfusion for seven days; group IV (I/R-ALA) has undergone I/R as group III and received an intraperitoneal injection of ALA (100 mg/kg) for 7 days...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Amel A M Abdel-Hafez, Asmaa M S Gomaa, Raghda Elsherif
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes have been implicated as potentially exerting both neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities in Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether glial cells negatively impact the neuron integrity remains to be determined. We aimed to assess the vulnerability of glia and vessels in rat substantia nigra in a rotenone PD model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups: vehicle-control group (received dimethylsulfoxide + polyethylene glycol (PEG)-300, 1:1 v/v) and rotenone-treated group (received six doses of rotenone, 1...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ashley Flowers, Xin Gu, Guillermo A Herrera, Sandy Gibson, Judy King
Acute renal failure in the setting of infection with human immunodeficiency virus can be due to various causes including pre-renal causes such as hypotension, sepsis, and nephrotoxic agents; thrombotic microangiopathy; or direct renal parenchymal infections by opportunistic organisms. We present a case of cryptococcal nephritis in a patient with systemic cryptococcosis and discuss the clinical findings as well as the histological, immunofluorescent, and transmission electron microscopy findings in the renal biopsy...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Yomna I Mahmoud
Hypogonadism is a well-known complication in males with chronic liver diseases. However, the consequences of chronic hepatopathies on female reproductive capacities have received relatively little attention. The present study evaluates the effect of chronic obstructive jaundice on the ovary of adult cycling rats. Estrous cyclicity was monitored to check the functional status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Ovarian changes were assessed using histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural techniques...
January 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Elif Guzel Meydanli, Asli Gumusel, Serbay Ozkan, Gamze Tanriverdi, M B Can Balci, Seval Develi Is, A Ismet Hazar, Mujdat Uysal, Seldag Bekpinar
This study investigated whether a high-fructose (HFr) diet changes the morphology of seminiferous tubules (ST) in rats and resveratrol (RES) has a possible restoring effect in this sense. Fructose (30%; w/v) was administered to rats alone or together with RES (50 mg/L) in drinking water for 8 weeks. In the HFr group, destruction of the germinal epithelium led to the detection of immature germ cells in the lumen. HFr diet gave rise to a decrease in the ST diameters (p < 0.05), Johnsen's tubular biopsy score values (p < 0...
January 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Tiina Lampi, Hannah Dekker, Chris M Ten Bruggenkate, Engelbert A J M Schulten, Jopi J W Mikkonen, Arto Koistinen, Arja M Kullaa
The aim of this study was to define the acid-etching technique for bone samples embedded in polymethyl metacrylate (PMMA) in order to visualize the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human jaw bone tissue samples (N = 18) were collected from the study population consisting of patients having received dental implant surgery. After collection, the bone samples were fixed in 70% ethanol and non-decalcified samples embedded routinely into polymethyl metacrylate (PMMA)...
January 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Yong-Xin Ru, Shi-Xuan Zhao, Shu-Xu Dong, Hao-Yue Liang, Ying Wang
The ultrastructural characteristics of apoptosis have been described microscopically for four decades. Alterations of nuclei, apoptotic bodies, cytoplasm, and some organelles have been illustrated and investigated during apoptosis. The successive changes of cellular components corresponding with differentiation of apoptotic cells are illustrated in the present review, based on ultrastructural observation of leukemia cells of patients in our routine clinic work by transmission electron microscopy. Most electron micrographs demonstrated that membranous components of nuclear envelop, rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria were degenerated step by step during apoptosis...
January 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Hulya Elbe, Mehmet Gul, Asli Cetin, Elif Taslidere, Fatma Ozyalin, Yusuf Turkoz, Ali Otlu
INTRODUCTION: Hepatotoxicity is a major complication of acetaminophen (APAP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring diphenol and it has anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the beneficial effects of RSV on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Group 1: Ethanol, Group 2: Saline, Group 3: RSV (10 mg/kg/ip), Group 4: APAP (1000 mg/kg/ip/single dose), Group 5: APAP+RSV (20 min after administration of APAP)...
January 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Yang Gao, Qing Ma, Yan-Bin Ma, Liang Ding, Xiao-Long Xu, De-Fei Wei, Lei Wei, Jing-Wei Zhang
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of betulinic acid (BA) on triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and observe the ultrastructural changes. The concentration of BA required to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells has been previously reported. In this study, a cell counting kit-8 proliferation assay was used to measure cell viability and the apoptosis rate. Western blotting was performed to observe the protein expression levels of Bcl-2. Cell morphology and changes in cell density were observed by microscopy...
January 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
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