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Ultrastructural Pathology

Dalia G Mostafa, Salwa Fares Ahmed, Ola A Hussein
Cadmium (Cd) has been recognized as one of the most important environmental and industrial pollutants. This study investigated the impact of acute exposure to Cd on oxidative stress and the inflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the plasma of rats and the histological picture of liver and kidney, as well as to examine the potential protective effect of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). METHODS: Rats were divided into control group, Cd group that received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of 4 mg/kg b...
December 29, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Tijana Subotički, Olivera Mitrović Ajtić, Mileva Mićić, Tamara Kravić Stevović, Dragoslava Đikić, Miloš Diklić, Danijela Leković, Mirjana Gotić, Vladan P Čokić
In accordance with increased proliferation in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), the goal is to evaluate the immunoexpression of: β-catenin, PPAR-γ and Ki67 protein, to compare them with bone marrow ultrastructural characteristics in patients with MPN. Immunoexpression and electron microscopy of bone marrow was analyzed in 30 Ph-negative MPN patients, including per 10 patients with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The quantity of β-catenin immunoreactive cells was significantly higher in PV then in ET (p < 0...
December 24, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Asterios Triantafyllou, Lauge Hjorth Mikkelsen, Douglas R Gnepp, Simon Andreasen, Jennifer L Hunt, Kenneth O Devaney, Vincent Vander Poorten, Alessandra Rinaldo, Stefan M Willems, Alfio Ferlito
Salivary myoepithelial cells bear particular appendages and are involved in processes that have received incomplete attention in previous reviews. Here, cilia on myoepithelial cells are reviewed as regards substructure, occurrence, detection (electron microscopy, double immunofluorescence together with confocal microscopy), and roles (sensory reception, evolutionary homology, paracrine interaction). Attention is drawn to regressive changes affecting those cells (e.g. accumulation of lipofuscin), possible alterations of their cytoskeleton, internalization of apoptotic bodies and haemosiderin, and role in salivary microcalcification...
December 10, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Mohamed A Haidara, Mohammad Dallak, Abbas O El Karib, Mohamed Abd Ellatif, Refaat A Eid, El Hassan A Heidar, Bahjat Al-Ani
Diabetic complications that affect vital organs such as the heart and liver represent a major public health concern. The potential protective effects of the hormone insulin against hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations induced secondary to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in a rat model of the disease have not been investigated before. Therefore, rats were injected once with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (T1DM group) and the protection group (T1DM+Ins) received a daily injection of insulin 48 h post diabetic induction by streptozotocin and continued until being sacrificed at week 8...
November 29, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ida Perrotta
Atherosclerotic plaque formation starts early in life, develops silently over decades, and often displays clear evidence of accelerated biological aging. Lipofuscin has been classically defined as "the most consistent and phylogenetically conserved cellular morphologic change of aging," however, despite this traditional view different lines of evidence have recently demonstrated that, besides aging, various noxious influences can engeder its accumulation in cells and also that specific experimental conditions can revert this effect...
November 22, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Arafah Maha
Podocytes can handle proteins when the glomerular filtration barrier is injured with leak of proteins out of the vasculature into the urine. The correlation between the number of podocytes involved in handling leaked proteins, as well as the extent of up-taken proteins in podocytes cytoplasm on one side, and the level of proteinuria in the concerned patients on the other side, is evaluated. A retrospective study of 22 patients with clinical proteinuria caused by various glomerulopathies was retrieved and analyzed...
November 1, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Lucio Díaz-Flores, Ricardo Gutiérrez, Hugo Alvarez-Argüelles, Lucio Díaz-Flores, Rebeca González, Pablo Martín-Vasallo, José Luis Carrasco
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous population involved in intercellular communication. Little attention has been paid to a peculiar EV type with the appearance of a multivesicular body: extracellular multivesicular body (EMVB), also termed matrix vesicle cluster/multivesicular cargo. The aim of this work is to assess the ultrastructural characteristics, participation, and tissue location of EMVBs in inflammation/repair and tumors (with physiopathological processes involving intense intercellular communication), for which representative specimens were used...
September 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Jacques Gilloteaux, Kritika Subramanian, Nadia Solomon, Charles Nicaise
Young male Zucker rats with a leptin receptor mutation are obese, have a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and other endocrinopathies. Tibial branches of the sciatic nerve reveal a progressive demyelination that progresses out of the Schwann cells (SCs) where electron-contrast deposits are accumulated while the minor lines or intermembranous SC contacts display exaggerated spacings. Cajal bands contain diversely contrasted vesicles adjacent to the abaxonal myelin layer with blemishes; they appear dispatched centripetally out of many narrow electron densities, regularly spaced around the myelin annulus...
September 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ming-Bai Hu, Jing-Wei Zhang, Jing-Bo Gao, Yu-Wen Qi, Yang Gao, Liu Xu, Yanbing Ma, Zheng-Zhuan Wei
This article explores the effects of atorvastatin on cultured breast cancer cells. Our experiment demonstrated that atorvastatin triggered autophagy and inhibited proliferation in breast cancer cells. A CCK8 assay indicated that atorvastatin can inhibit the activity of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Western blotting results showed that atorvastatin increased the conversion of light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3-II). Confocal microscopy was used to reveal the appearance of a punctate structure in the cytoplasm, and electron microscopy was used to reveal the formation of double-membrane autophagosome...
September 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Refaat A Eid, Attalla Farag El-Kott, Mohamed Samir Ahmed Zaki, Muhammad Alaa Eldeen, Fahaid H Al-Hashem, Mahmoud A Alkhateeb, Mohammed Alassiri, Hussain Aldera
NAD(P)H dependent oxidase derived-reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in blood vessels postmyocardial infarction MI or during the HF leads to endothelium dysfunction and enhanced apoptosis. Acylated ghrelin (AG) is a well-reported cardioprotective and antiapoptotic agent for the heart. AG receptors are widely distributed in most of blood vessels, suggesting a role in the regulation of endothelial function and survival. This study investigated if AG can protect aorta of rats' postmyocardial infarction (MI)-induced damage and endothelial dysfunction...
September 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Sufia Husain, Ibrahim Ginawi, Abdelhafiz Ibrahim Bashir, Hala Kfoury, Tariq Eid Al Johani, Hanan Hagar, Lama Raddaoui, Mohammed Al Ghonaim, Abdulkareem Alsuwaida
AIM: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common progressive chronic renal disease. Podocyte injury and loss are the postulated pivotal events that trigger FSGS. In this study, the authors aim to examine the evolution of FSGS in murine models histologically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically with special emphasis on podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: FSGS resembling primary FSGS in humans was initiated in Wistar rats using intravenous Adriamycin injections...
September 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
John K Brealey, Yung Tran, Ruth Ninnes, Asanga Abeyaratne
A multiple myeloma patient, who had been treated with a hematopoietic stem cell transplant, underwent a renal biopsy for investigation of a possible relapse of disease as indicated by increased serum creatinine and positive urinary Bence-Jones protein containing increased kappa light chain. Paraprotein-related renal disease was not evident by light microscopy or immunofluorescence microscopy however electron microscopy demonstrated a proximal tubulopathy with intracytoplasmic non-crystalline inclusions. The ultrastructural findings suggested possible end-organ involvement by the disease and follow-up studies subsequently revealed a relapsed multiple myeloma in the patient...
September 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Elvan Sahin, Gursel Ortug, Alpen Ortug
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the influence of smoke exposure of variable duration on the ultrastructure of and histopathologic and morphologic alterations in the olfactory epithelium. METHODS: A total of 24 Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to three groups and fed a standard rat chow and tap water. Experimental rats in groups I and II were exposed to cigarette smoke in a glass cabin over a period of 2 months for 5 or 15 min, respectively, four times daily; control rats (group III) were not exposed to cigarette smoke...
September 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Shoujun Chen, Elba A Turbat-Herrera, Guillermo A Herrera, Meghna Chadha, Rodney E Shackelford, Eric X Wei
This is a case report of a 46-year-old white male who presented with dyspnea. Thoracic and abdominal examinations showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass in the right kidney, multiple pulmonary nodules, and left pleural thickening with large pleural effusion. Pleura biopsy revealed a malignant neoplasm composed of cells with predominantly clear cytoplasm. Considering the large mass in the right kidney, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was the main differential diagnosis. The diagnosis in this case was not definitive by histology alone since clear cell RCC markers such as RCC and AE1/AE3 were negative, and CD10 was only focally positive...
July 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Hala Kfoury, Mohammed Mubarak, Abd Assalam Qannus, Malak Alshareef, Jwaher Alharbi, Hadeel Alghurair, Alanoud Bin Omair, Najd Alshamlan, Lama Raddaoui, Hisham Alkhalidi
AIM: To identify the underlying diseases with TRI-positive kidney biopsies, and describe the histological pattern and spectrum of TRI-positive kidney biopsies. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients' chart that underwent renal biopsy at King Saud University Medical City between 2012 and 2017 was done. Kidney biopsies that indicated a positive result for tubuloreticular inclusions (TRI's) on electron microscopy were reviewed and the underlying disease and histological pattern was extracted...
July 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Yomna I Mahmoud, Faten S Abo-Zeid
Testicular atrophy and testesterone insufficiency have been commonly reported associated with chronic liver diseases. Though testosterone dependent, the epididymal changes induced by liver disease have never been studied before. Thus, this study aimed to assess the ultrastructural events in the epididymis of rats with chronic obstructive jaundice. Chronic cholestasis induced many epididymal structural alterations manifested by the reduced tubular diameters, thickening of the tubular basement membrane, and regression of the principal cells...
July 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Refaat A Eid, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Yahya Al-Falki, Ahmed Al-Emam, Nasser A Alsabaani, Khaled Radad
Injury to lacrimal glands represents a major health problem after radiation therapy of the head and neck malignancies. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate significant ultrastructural changes of lacrimal glands and some of their underlying mechanisms following the exposure to different fractionated doses of irradiation. In this study, 28 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to four groups (seven rats each): Group I acted as control and received no irradiation. Groups II-IV received fractionated irradiation of 5 Gy (100 cGy/fraction daily for 5 days), 9 Gy (300 cGy/fraction daily for 3 days), and 20 Gy (one fraction), respectively...
July 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Yomna I Mahmoud, Asmaa A Mahmoud, Faten S Abo-Zeid, Nagui H Fares
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a widespread nutritional "anti-aging" supplement. Exogenous supplementation of DHEA is now being commonly used to augment ovarian stimulation in perimenopausal women with diminished ovarian reserve. Whether DHEA causes side effects in such age is, however, unknown. Thus, this study investigates the effects of pharmacological doses of DHEA supplementation on the liver of perimenopausal rats. DHEA supplementation to perimenopausal rats resulted in slight hepatomegaly and steatosis, hepatocytic hypertrophy, mitochondrial swelling, elevation in serum alanine aminotransaminase levels, in addition to the accumulation of lipid droplets and lipolysosomes in a dose-dependent manner...
July 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Yong-Xin Ru, Shu-Xu Dong, Yuan Li, Shi-Xuan Zhao, Hao-Yue Liang, Xiao-Fan Zhu, Yi-Zhou Zheng, Feng-Kui Zhang
Sixteen patients with mild anemia and hemolysis were difficult to be classified into any known category based on laboratory examinations and light microscopy. To make a definite diagnosis and investigate the pathomechanism, ultrastructural study was performed on erythroid cells from 16 patients. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a series of alterations of cytoplasm, including cytoplasm sequestration, membranous transformation, and degeneration in erythroblasts and reticulocytes at different stages...
July 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
John K Brealey, John Cassidy, Jim Manavis
Microvascular injury is an important factor in renal allograft survival. Repeated episodes of endothelial injury from chronic antibody-mediated rejection typically manifest at the ultrastructural level as circumferential multilayering of remodeled glomerular basement membrane material and peritubular capillary basal lamina. In contrast to this typical pattern of microvascular injury, a renal transplantation case is presented in which focally dilated and multilayered segments of peritubular capillary basal lamina bearing lipid droplets were interspersed with ultrastructurally normal unilayered segments of basal lamina devoid of lipid droplets...
July 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
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