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Peter J Lachmann
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March 23, 2018: Immunobiology
Hannah Prebble, Sean Cross, Edward Marks, Joe Healy, Emily Searle, Raja Aamir, Anthony Butler, Justin Roake, Barry Hock, Nigel Anderson, Steven P Gieseg
Atherosclerotic plaques are complex tissues containing many different cell types. Macrophages contribute to inflammation, formation of the necrotic core, and plaque rupture. We examined whether macrophages in plaque can be activated and compared this to monolayer cells. The volume of calcium in the plaque was compared to the level of macrophage activation measured by total neopterin output. Carotid plaque samples were cut into 3 mm sections and cultured for up to 96 h. Live sections were stimulated with interferon-γ, phytohaemagglutinin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate...
March 23, 2018: Immunobiology
Peter J Lachmann
The alternative pathway of complement originated from the Properdin pathway originally described by the Pillemer laboratory in the 1950s. This work generated great controversy and it took several decades for a consensus on its components, its reaction sequence and its functions to emerge. This paper reviews this history and attempts to clarify some of the ambiguities that remain.
March 6, 2018: Immunobiology
Rabi Yacoub, Alexander Jacob, Josette Wlaschin, Matthew McGregor, Richard J Quigg, Jessy J Alexander
Microbiota consists of more than 1014 microorganisms that inhabit different areas of the body including the gastrointestinal tract, mainly the mouth and gut. It includes viruses, fungi, protozoa, archaea and bacteria. The microbiota interacts closely with host leading to a dynamic relationship that results in the biological effects observed. Its diverse genetic material (microbiome) interacts closely with the host immune system and cells, and therefore is closely associated with inflammation, immune tolerance, adaptive immunity and autoimmune diseases...
June 2018: Immunobiology
Dejan Pavlovic, Mayur A Patel, Andriani C Patera, Ilse Peterson
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the central nervous system caused by neuropathogenic prototypes of ubiquitous community-acquired JC virus (JCV). The disease became of particular concern following its association with certain therapies that modulate immune system function without heavy immunosuppression. Due to lack of prophylactic/treatment options and poor outcomes, which often include severe disability or death, PML is a considerable concern for development of new drugs that interfere with immune system functions...
June 2018: Immunobiology
Irina Mitrofanova, Marina Zavyalova, Vladimir Riabov, Nadezhda Cherdyntseva, Julia Kzhyshkowska
Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis play a crucial role in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) induce both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in mouse breast cancer models and positively correlate with these processes in human breast cancer patients. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a widely used therapeutic option for cancer treatment. However, the effect of NAC on the distribution of TAM within intratumoral compartments and their correlation with angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis remained unknown...
June 2018: Immunobiology
Sui-Chu Yin, En-Chih Liao, Chi-Xin Ye, Ching-Yun Chang, Jaw-Ji Tsai
The major mite allergenic components of protease allergens (group 1,3) and non-protease allergens (group 2,7) derived from Dermatophagoides peronyssinus (Dp) and D. farinae (Df) are reported to be capable of sensitizing 80-90% of mite-allergic patients. Although protease and non-protease allergens have been demonstrated to trigger innate and adaptive immune responses through epithelium activation, the simultaneous or sequential effects of both groups of allergens has not been reported. Since all allergens are present in the mite crude extracts, it is important to determine whether these allergens can synergistically trigger the immune responses to cause airway inflammation...
June 2018: Immunobiology
Deepthi Kappala, Ratanti Sarkhel, Sunil Kumar Dixit, Lalsangpuii, Manish Mahawar, Mithilesh Singh, Saravanan Ramakrishnan, Tapas Kumar Goswami
Bacterial attachment to host cell is the first event for pathogen entry. The attachment is mediated through membrane expressed adhesins present on the organism and receptors on the cell surface of host. The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of Fc receptors (FcRs), actin filament polymerization, mannose receptors (MRs), carbohydrate moieties like N-linked glycans and sialic acid on chicken macrophages for invasion of S. Typhimurium. Opsonisation of S. Typhimurium resulted in three folds more invasion in chicken monocyte derived macrophages...
June 2018: Immunobiology
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
June 2018: Immunobiology
Iman Jafari, Vahid Heravi Shargh, Maryam Shahryari, Azam Abbasi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Ali Khamesipour, Ali Badiee
Although there have been numerous attempts to develop a successful vaccine against leishmaniasis, based on the clinical trial in this field, no vaccine against Leishmania in routine way can be found for globally effective vaccination in human. Amongst, first generation vaccines consisting of parasite fractions or whole killed Leishmania showed more successful results in clinical trials. It seems that the main reason for the low efficacy of these vaccines is lack of a suitable adjuvant. In this study, a crude extract of detergent-solubilized L...
June 2018: Immunobiology
Masashi Ikutani, Shinya Ogawa, Tsutomu Yanagibashi, Terumi Nagai, Kazuki Okada, Yoko Furuichi, Kiyoshi Takatsu
Interleukin (IL)-5 is a critical regulator of eosinophils and a therapeutic target for asthma. The administration of anti-IL-5 or anti-IL-5 receptor (IL-5R) antibodies has been shown to reduce eosinophil counts and ameliorate asthmatic symptoms in studies on animal models of allergy as well as in human clinical trials. In order to explore other potential clinical uses of IL-5R antibodies, we used an animal model of IL-33-mediated pulmonary arterial hypertrophy. We first generated chimeric monoclonal antibodies against the mouse IL-5 receptor α chain (IL-5Rα), which comprised an Fc region from human IgG1 and a Fab region from a previously established anti-mouse IL-5Rα monoclonal antibody...
June 2018: Immunobiology
Teena Mohan, Wandi Zhu, Ye Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Vaccinations are expected to aid in building immunity against pathogens. This objective often requires the addition of an adjuvant with certain vaccine formulations containing weakly immunogenic antigens. Adjuvants can improve antigen processing, presentation, and recognition, thereby improving the immunogenicity of a vaccine by simulating and eliciting an immune response. Chemokines are a group of small chemoattractant proteins that are essential regulators of the immune system. They are involved in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis, antitumor immunity, and antimicrobial activity and also play a critical role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses...
June 2018: Immunobiology
Ruth S E Tamadaho, Achim Hoerauf, Laura E Layland
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogeneous cells capable of abrogating T and B cells responses and have been identified in numerous cancers. As with other regulatory cell populations, they aim to maintain balance between host-defence-associated inflammation and ensuing tissue pathology. MDSC accumulation and/or activation involve several growth factors and cytokines including Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Interleukin (IL)-6 and suppression has been linked to receptors such as IL-4Rα...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Emese Ugor, Lilla Prenek, Ramóna Pap, Gergely Berta, Dávid Ernszt, József Najbauer, Péter Németh, Ferenc Boldizsár, Tímea Berki
OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that glucocorticoids (GC) are important therapeutic tools, their effects on regulatory T cells (Treg) are not well defined. The aim of our work was to investigate how GCs influence in vivo the thymic (tTreg) and peripheral Treg (pTreg) differentiation, survival and cytokine production. METHODS: Tregs were detected with flow cytometry in lymphatic organs of 4-6 weeks old BALB/c mice after repeated (2-4days), high-dose in vivo GC treatment using CD4/CD25 cell surface and Foxp3/IL-10/TGFβ/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) intracellular staining...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Vyacheslav Ryabov, Aleksandra Gombozhapova, Yuliya Rogovskaya, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Mariya Rebenkova, Rostislav Karpov
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Macrophages are key innate immune cells that play a significant role in transition from the inflammatory to the regenerative phase during wound healing following MI. The scavenger receptor stabilin-1 is one of the most interesting macrophage biomarkers. This receptor contributes to wound healing, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. We suggested a research protocol using macrophage biomarkers to study the cellular basis of cardiac remodeling and healing in patients with acute MI...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Sara Almeida, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams
Parasitic worms (helminths) are known to actively modulate host immune responses and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate if adult body fluid (ABF) from the helminth Ascaris suum has immunomodulatory effects on different subtypes of human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸ) in vitro. Mɸs were exposed to A. suum ABF at different stages of their differentiation and/or polarization. Mɸ were first differentiated from monocytes into either uncommitted (M-), classically activated (M(GM-CSF)) or alternatively activated (M(M-CSF)) phenotypes and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Ana T Chaves, Atvaldo F Ribeiro-Junior, Sandra Lyon, Nayara I Medeiros, Fábio Cassirer-Costa, Karina S Paula, Edilamar S Alecrim, Cristiane A S Menezes, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Manoel O C Rocha, Juliana A S Gomes
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to control immune responses by suppressing the antigen-presenting and effector T cells. Some mechanisms adopted by Tregs in combating Mycobacterium infections have been proposed. Nevertheless, in M. leprae infection, also known as leprosy or Hansen's disease, the role of Tregs has not been completely elucidated. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of different cell surface and intracellular molecules present in Tregs from peripheral blood samples of leprosy patients...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Zhiyuan He, Xiang Chen, Mengjiao Fu, Jun Tang, Xiaoqi Li, Hong Cao, Yongqiang Wang, Shijun J Zheng
Viruses have developed a variety of methods to evade host immune response. Our previous study showed that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) inhibited type I interferon production via interaction of VP4 with cellular glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we found that IBDV VP4 suppressed GILZ degradation by inhibiting K48-linked ubiquitylation of GILZ. Furthermore, mutation of VP4 (R41G) abolished the inhibitory effect of VP4 on IFN-β expression and GILZ ubiquitylation, indicating that the amino acid 41R of VP4 was required for the suppression of IFN-β expression and GILZ ubiquitylation...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Shweta Arora, Kapil Dev, Beamon Agarwal, Pragnya Das, Mansoor Ali Syed
Macrophages, circulating in the blood or concatenated into different organs and tissues constitute the first barrier against any disease. They are foremost controllers of both innate and acquired immunity, healthy tissue homeostasis, vasculogenesis and congenital metabolism. Two hallmarks of macrophages are diversity and plasticity due to which they acquire a wobbling array of phenotypes. These phenotypes are appropriately synchronized responses to a variety of different stimuli from either the tissue microenvironment or - microbes or their products...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Norman J Galbraith, Stephen Manek, Samuel Walker, Campbell Bishop, Jane V Carter, Meredith Cahill, Sarah A Gardner, Hiram C Polk, Susan Galandiuk
This study focuses on impaired monocyte function, which occurs in some patients after trauma, major elective surgery, or sepsis. This monocyte impairment increases the risk of secondary infection and death. We aimed to determine the influence IκK-16 had on monocytes using an ex-vivo model of human monocyte impairment. We included the effects of the well-studied comparators interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on impaired monocytes. Primary human monocytes were stimulated with 10ng/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 16h and then challenged with 100ng/mL LPS to assess the monocyte inflammatory response...
April 2018: Immunobiology
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