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Immunobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089363/pertussis-toxin-targets-the-innate-immunity-through-dap12-fcr%C3%AE-and-myd88-adaptor-proteins
#1
Vongsavanh Phongsisay, Ei'ichi Iizasa, Hiromitsu Hara, Hiroki Yoshida
Activation of the innate immunity by adjuvants, such as pertussis toxin (PTX), in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes and antigen mimicry is sufficient to trigger autoimmunity. Toll-like, C-type lectin, and immunglobulin-like receptors play an important role in the innate immunity by sensing a variety of microbial products through several adaptor proteins, including MyD88, DAP12, and FcRγ. This study investigated the interaction between PTX and innate immune components. The direct interactions between coated PTX and receptor-fusion proteins were examined using ELISA-based binding assays...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069296/inflammatory-early-events-associated-to-the-role-of-p2x7-receptor-in-acute-murine-toxoplasmosis
#2
Gladys Corrêa, Carolina de Almeida Lindenberg, Aline Cristina de Abreu Moreira-Souza, Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Christina Maeda Takiya, Camila Marques-da-Silva, Rossiane Claudia Vommaro, Robson Coutinho-Silva
Activation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor by extracellular ATP (eATP) potentiates proinflammatory responses during infections by intracellular pathogens. Extracellular ATP triggers an antimicrobial response in macrophages infected with Toxoplasma gondii in vitro, suggesting that purinergic signaling may stimulate host defense mechanisms against toxoplasmosis. Here, we provide in vivo evidence in support of this hypothesis, by showing that P2X7(-/-) mice are more susceptible than P2X7(+/+) mice to acute infection by the RH strain of T...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069295/short-term-memory-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-against-bacterial-pathogens-involves-creb-transcription-factor
#3
Udayakumar Prithika, Ramaraj Vikneswari, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan
One of the key issues pertaining to the control of memory is to respond to a consistently changing environment or microbial niche present in it. Human cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor which plays a crucial role in memory has a homolog in C. elegans, crh-1. crh-1 appears to influence memory processes to certain extent by habituation of the host to a particular environment. The discrimination between the pathogen and a non-pathogen is essential for C. elegans in a microbial niche which determines its survival...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065450/the-effects-of-increased-heme-oxygenase-1-on-the-lymphoproliferative-response-in-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#4
Breno Fernando Martins de Almeida, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira Silva, Vanessa Marim Chiku, Aline Aparecida Correa Leal, Gabriela Lovizutto Venturin, Luis Gustavo Narciso, Maria Fernanda Cereijido Bersni Fink, Flavia de Rezende Eugênio, Paulo Sergio Patto Dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Ciarlini, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is known to affect the cellular immunity of infected dogs, through impairing lymphoproliferation and microbicidal mechanisms. This study examined heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its metabolites, oxidative stress and IL-10 levels in CVL and investigated correlations between these parameters. Additionally, the effects of HO-1 inhibition on the lymphoproliferative response and cytokine production in lymph node cells (LNCs) from infected dogs were evaluated. Forty-four dogs, 24 controls and 20 dogs with CVL were selected...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065449/a-specific-immune-tolerance-toward-offspring-cells-is-to-exist-after-the-mother-lymphocyte-infusion
#5
Haizhou Xing, Shiqin Liu, Xue Chen, Fang Fang, Xueqiang Wu, Ping Zhu
PURPOSE: To examine immune tolerance between maternal lymphocytes and offspring tissue after a donor lymphocyte infusion. METHODS: Mouse models were established by mating female BALB/c mice with male C57BL mice. Splenic lymphocytes from donors of different genetic backgrounds were labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and 1×10(7) of the labeled cells were intravenously injected into a recipient. At 6h, 24h, 72h and 120h after the infusion, mononuclear cells in recipient spleen, liver, thymus, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood were collected...
December 26, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017495/oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-suppressed-antitumor-immunity-through-induction-of-pd-l1-expression-on-tumor-associated-macrophages
#6
Canhua Jiang, Fulai Yuan, Jie Wang, Limeng Wu
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common solid tumor in the oral cavity. Development and progression of OSCC is associated with the elevated presence of inhibitory M2 type tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). However, the underlying mechanism leading to the enrichment of M2 TAMs and the pathway through which TAMs foster tumor progression are still unclear. In this study, we harvested TAMs and tumor cells from primary OSCC resections of stage II and stage III patients. We showed that compared to peritumoral macrophages, TAMs presented upregulated expression of PD-L1 and elevated capacity in inducing T cell apoptosis...
December 14, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989425/curdlan-induces-selective-mast-cell-degranulation-without-concomitant-release-of-ltc4-il-6-or-ccl2
#7
Valéria C Barbosa-Lorenzi, Simon Peyda, Annika Scheynius, Gunnar Nilsson, Carolina Lunderius-Andersson
Mast cells are sentinel cells with a tissue-specific localization in the interface between the host and the external environment. Their quick and selective response upon encountering pathogens is part of the innate host response and typically initiates the following adaptive immune response. Among several pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in the recognition of pathogens by mast cells, the C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1 has been associated with the recognition of fungi. Our previous studies have shown that mast cells are the predominant cell type expressing Dectin-1 in human skin, and they also recognize and respond to Malassezia sympodialis by producing cytokines connected to the innate host response and upregulating the expression of Dectin-1...
December 6, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012583/nkt-cells-in-leishmaniasis
#8
Jaime Zamora-Chimal, Joselín Hernández-Ruiz, Ingeborg Becker
The role of NKT cells in the resistance or susceptibility towards Leishmania infections remains to be defined, since controversial data persist. The response of these cells seems to depend on many variables such as the infection site, the number of infecting parasites, the virulence of the strain and the Leishmania species. We here revise the activation pathways leading to NKT cell activation. NKT cells can be activated by the direct pathway, in which Leishmania glycolipids are presented by CD1d molecules on antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC), leading to the secretion of diverse cytokines by NKT...
December 5, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916281/intratumoral-heterogeneity-of-macrophages-and-fibroblasts-in-breast-cancer-is-associated-with-the-morphological-diversity-of-tumor-cells-and-contributes-to-lymph-node-metastasis
#9
Lubov A Tashireva, Evgeny V Denisov, Tatiana S Gerashchenko, Daria N Pautova, Mikhail A Buldakov, Marina V Zavyalova, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Nadezhda V Cherdyntseva, Vladimir M Perelmuter
Recent studies have highlighted the heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment (ME) and the importance of its analysis to the understanding of its impact on clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to analyze the intratumoral distribution of macrophages and fibroblasts in breast cancer (BC) based on the morphological diversity of tumor cells (tubular, alveolar, solid, trabecular and discrete structures) and the clinicopathological parameters of the disease. Thirty-six patients with invasive breast carcinoma of no special type were included in the study...
November 27, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899210/comparative-analysis-of-the-internalization-of-the-macrophage-receptor-sialoadhesin-in-human-and-mouse-primary-macrophages-and-cell-lines
#10
Marjorie De Schryver, Annelies Leemans, Isabel Pintelon, Davie Cappoen, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon, Paul Cos, Peter L Delputte
Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a surface receptor expressed on resident macrophages with the ability to bind with sialic acids. During inflammation, an upregulation of Sn is observed. Upon binding of monoclonal antibodies to Sn, the receptor becomes internalized and this has been observed in multiple species. The latter characteristic, combined with the strong upregulation of Sn on inflammatory macrophages and the fact that Sn-positive macrophages contribute to certain inflammatory diseases, makes Sn an interesting entry portal for phenotype-modulating or cytotoxic drugs...
November 21, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889311/structural-evaluation-of-a-nanobody-targeting-complement-receptor-vsig4-and-its-cross-reactivity
#11
Yurong Wen, Zhenlin Ouyang, Steve Schoonooghe, Siyu Luo, Patrick De Baetselier, Wuyuan Lu, Serge Muyldermans, Geert Raes, Fang Zheng
Vsig4 is a recently identified immune regulatory protein related to the B7 family with dual functionality: a negative regulator of T cell activation and a receptor for the complement components C3b and C3c. Here we present a structural evaluation of a nanobody, Nb119, against the extracellular IgV domain protein of both mouse and human recombinant Vsig4, which have a high degree of sequence identity. Although mouse and human Vsig4 bind to Nb119 with a 250 times difference in dissociation constants, the interaction results in a highly identical assembly with a RMSD of 0...
November 18, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986304/kinetic-analysis-of-changes-in-t-and-b-lymphocytes-after-anti-cd20-treatment-in-renal-pathology
#12
Alexis Sentís, Fritz Diekmann, Arturo Llobell, Noemí de Moner, Gerard Espinosa, Jordi Yagüe, Josep Maria Campistol, Eduard Mirapeix, Manel Juan
INTRODUCTION: The main objective of this study is to describe qualitatively and quantitatively the different immune lymphocyte phenotypes of patients with renal disease after treatment with anti-CD20. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two cohorts of transplanted and autoimmune kidney patients were compared: (1) Those who began treatment with Rituximab, matched (for sex, age and general clinical parameters) with (2) Non-treated control kidney patients. Different analyses were performed: (A) B-lymphocyte subpopulations; (B) T-cell subpopulations; (C) serum levels of BAFF, APRIL, Rituximab and anti-Rituximab; (D) rs396991 polymorphism of CD16a and at different time points for each type of analysis: (i) at baseline, (ii) day 15, (iii) at three and (iv) six months post-antiCD20...
November 17, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890297/digesting-the-role-of-bone-marrow-macrophages-on-hematopoiesis
#13
REVIEW
Esther Heideveld, Emile van den Akker
Tissue resident macrophages are found in various tissues like Langerhans cells in the skin or alveolar macrophages in the lung, and their main function is to regulate organ homeostasis. They have also been observed in the bone marrow and these cells in particular have been gaining importance in recent years as they are key players in hematopoiesis. However, as the characterization and classification of these putatively different bone marrow resident macrophages is far from established there is a need to generate an overview of tissue resident macrophages of the bone marrow...
November 17, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887739/differences-in-the-modulation-of-reactive-species-lipid-bodies-cyclooxygenase-2-5-lipoxygenase-and-ppar-%C3%AE-in-cerebral-malaria-susceptible-and-resistant-mice
#14
Tatiana K S Borges, Érica A R Alves, Henda A R Vasconcelos, Fabiana P Carneiro, André M Nicola, Kelly G Magalhães, Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira
Proinflammatory responses are associated with the severity of cerebral malaria. NO, H2O2, eicosanoid and PPAR-γ are involved in proinflammatory responses, but regulation of these factors is unclear in malaria. This work aimed to compare the expression of eicosanoid-forming-enzymes in cerebral malaria-susceptible CBA and C57BL/6 and -resistant BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, and the survival rates and parasitemia curves were assessed. On the sixth day post-infection, cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase in brain sections were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and, NO, H2O2, lipid bodies, and PPAR-γ expression were assessed in peritoneal macrophages...
November 17, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871781/crocin-inhibits-rankl-induced-osteoclast-formation-and-bone-resorption-by-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-activation
#15
Lijia Fu, Fang Pan, Yong Jiao
Crocin is a dietary compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effects on bone resorption have not been well characterized. Here we address this issue by examining the direct effects of crocin on osteoclast cells in vitro. Osteoclastogenesis was induced by RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand) in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages in the absence or presence of crocin at various concentrations. Further, the bone resorption activity of mature osteoclast treated with crocin was assessed by pit assay...
November 15, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012584/severe-disease-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-fecal-calprotectin-levels
#16
Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Maria Papale, Novella Rotolo, Donatella Aloisio, Lucia Tardino, Maria Grazia Scuderi, Vincenzo Di Benedetto, Raffaella Nenna, Fabio Midulla, Salvatore Leonardi
Fecal calprotectin (FC) is used to asses the presence of intestinal inflammation also in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and recent studies showed a correlation between bowel and lung disease in these patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of FC in CF and correlate them with different phenotypes of disease. We enrolled a cohort of 54 CF patients and 50 healthy controls. In these patients, calprotectin has been assayed on a stools sample using an ELISA kit. In all patients we analyzed, FC levels were elevated above the cut-off value and significantly higher than in healthy controls...
November 13, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876379/microrna-profiling-of-human-intermediate-monocytes
#17
Adam M Zawada, Lu Zhang, Insa E Emrich, Kyrill S Rogacev, Nicolas Krezdorn, Björn Rotter, Danilo Fliser, Yvan Devaux, Loems Ziegler-Heitbrock, Gunnar H Heine
Among the three human monocyte subsets, intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes have been characterized as particularly proinflammatory cells in experimental studies and as potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in clinical cohorts. To further substantiate the distinct role of intermediate monocytes within human monocyte heterogeneity, we assessed subset-specific expression of miRNAs as central epigenetic regulators of gene expression. We hypothesized that intermediate monocytes have a distinct miRNA profile compared to classical and non-classical monocytes...
November 13, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843000/changes-in-gene-expression-induced-by-histamine-fexofenadine-and-osthole-expression-of-histamine-h1-receptor-cox-2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ccr1-chemokine-ccl5-rantes-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-pbmc-allergic-and-non-allergic-patients
#18
Natalia Karolina Kordulewska, Elżbieta Kostyra, Anna Cieślińska, Michał Matysiewicz, Ewa Fiedorowicz, Edyta Sienkiewicz-Szłapka
INTRODUCTION: Fexofenadine (FXF) is a third-generation antihistamine drug and osthole is assumed as a natural antihistamine alternative. This paper compares results of histamine, FXF and osthole impact on HRH-1, COX-2, NF-κB-p50, CCR1 mRNA expression. We also measured mRNA expression of IL-1β and CCL5/RANTES in incubated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to compared how histamine, FXF and osthole had influence on expression level and interacts on product secretion. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to investigate expression pattern in asthma PBMC...
November 10, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839836/different-antiviral-effects-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-ifn%C3%AE-in-an-hbv-mouse-model
#19
Yun Zhou, Sheng Li, Zongsheng Tang, Chunli Xu, Shunmei Huang, Jun Wu, Ulf Dittmer, Julia Dickow, Kathrin Sutter, Mengji Lu, Dongliang Yang, Jingjiao Song
Interferons α and β (IFNα and IFNβ) are type I interferons produced by the host to control pathogen propagation. However, only a minority of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients generate a sustained response after treatment with recombinant IFNα. The anti-HBV effect of IFNβ and the underlying mechanism are not well-understood. Here, we compared the antiviral activities of IFNα and IFNβ by application of IFNα or IFNβ expression plasmids using the well-established HBV hydrodynamic injection (HI) mouse model...
November 8, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908642/negative-regulation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-by-sirt1-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#20
Yanxiang Li, Xiaofeng Yang, Yanhao He, Weirong Wang, Jiye Zhang, Wei Zhang, Ting Jing, Bo Wang, Rong Lin
NLRP3 inflammasome not only functions as a critical effector in innate immunity, but also triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines involved in inflammation-associated diseases. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays an important role in the regulation of cellular inflammation. However, whether the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is regulated by SIRT1 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effect of SIRT1 on NLRP3 inflammasome and the underlying mechanisms. We found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
November 4, 2016: Immunobiology
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