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Peter J Lachmann
The alternative pathway of complement originated from the Properdin pathway originally described by the Pillemer laboratory in the 1950s. This work generated great controversy and it took several decades for a consensus on its components, its reaction sequence and its functions to emerge. This paper reviews this history and attempts to clarify some of the ambiguities that remain.
March 6, 2018: Immunobiology
Dejan Pavlovic, Mayur A Patel, Andriani C Patera, Ilse Peterson
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the central nervous system caused by neuropathogenic prototypes of ubiquitous community-acquired JC virus (JCV). The disease became of particular concern following its association with certain therapies that modulate immune system function without heavy immunosuppression. Due to lack of prophylactic/treatment options and poor outcomes, which often include severe disability or death, PML is a considerable concern for development of new drugs that interfere with immune system functions...
February 2, 2018: Immunobiology
Agnese Fiori, Vincenzo Terlizzi, Heiner Kremer, Julian Gebauer, Hans-Peter Hammes, Martin C Harmsen, Karen Bieback
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial microvascular disease induced by hyperglycemia and subsequent metabolic abnormalities. The resulting cell stress causes a sequela of events that ultimately can lead to severe vision impairment and blindness. The early stages are characterized by activation of glia and loss of pericytes, endothelial cells (EC) and neuronal cells. The integrity of the retinal microvasculature becomes affected, and, as a possible late response, macular edema may develop as a common reason for vision loss in patients with non-proliferative DR...
February 2, 2018: Immunobiology
Deepthi Kappala, Ratanti Sarkhel, Sunil Kumar Dixit, Lalsangpuii, Manish Mahawar, Mithilesh Singh, Saravanan Ramakrishnan, Tapas Kumar Goswami
Bacterial attachment to host cell is the first event for pathogen entry. The attachment is mediated through membrane expressed adhesins present on the organism and receptors on the cell surface of host. The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of Fc receptors (FcRs), actin filament polymerization, mannose receptors (MRs), carbohydrate moieties like N-linked glycans and sialic acid on chicken macrophages for invasion of S. Typhimurium. Opsonisation of S. Typhimurium resulted in three folds more invasion in chicken monocyte derived macrophages...
January 29, 2018: Immunobiology
Iman Jafari, Vahid Heravi Shargh, Maryam Shahryari, Azam Abbasi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Ali Khamesipour, Ali Badiee
Although there have been numerous attempts to develop a successful vaccine against leishmaniasis, based on the clinical trial in this field, no vaccine against Leishmania in routine way can be found for globally effective vaccination in human. Amongst, first generation vaccines consisting of parasite fractions or whole killed Leishmania showed more successful results in clinical trials. It seems that the main reason for the low efficacy of these vaccines is lack of a suitable adjuvant. In this study, a crude extract of detergent-solubilized L...
December 28, 2017: Immunobiology
Ruth S E Tamadaho, Achim Hoerauf, Laura E Layland
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogeneous cells capable of abrogating T and B cells responses and have been identified in numerous cancers. As with other regulatory cell populations, they aim to maintain balance between host-defence-associated inflammation and ensuing tissue pathology. MDSC accumulation and/or activation involve several growth factors and cytokines including Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Interleukin (IL)-6 and suppression has been linked to receptors such as IL-4Rα...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Emese Ugor, Lilla Prenek, Ramóna Pap, Gergely Berta, Dávid Ernszt, József Najbauer, Péter Németh, Ferenc Boldizsár, Tímea Berki
OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that glucocorticoids (GC) are important therapeutic tools, their effects on regulatory T cells (Treg) are not well defined. The aim of our work was to investigate how GCs influence in vivo the thymic (tTreg) and peripheral Treg (pTreg) differentiation, survival and cytokine production. METHODS: Tregs were detected with flow cytometry in lymphatic organs of 4-6 weeks old BALB/c mice after repeated (2-4days), high-dose in vivo GC treatment using CD4/CD25 cell surface and Foxp3/IL-10/TGFβ/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) intracellular staining...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Vyacheslav Ryabov, Aleksandra Gombozhapova, Yuliya Rogovskaya, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Mariya Rebenkova, Rostislav Karpov
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Macrophages are key innate immune cells that play a significant role in transition from the inflammatory to the regenerative phase during wound healing following MI. The scavenger receptor stabilin-1 is one of the most interesting macrophage biomarkers. This receptor contributes to wound healing, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. We suggested a research protocol using macrophage biomarkers to study the cellular basis of cardiac remodeling and healing in patients with acute MI...
April 2018: Immunobiology
Sara Almeida, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams
Parasitic worms (helminths) are known to actively modulate host immune responses and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate if adult body fluid (ABF) from the helminth Ascaris suum has immunomodulatory effects on different subtypes of human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸ) in vitro. Mɸs were exposed to A. suum ABF at different stages of their differentiation and/or polarization. Mɸ were first differentiated from monocytes into either uncommitted (M-), classically activated (M(GM-CSF)) or alternatively activated (M(M-CSF)) phenotypes and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
April 2018: Immunobiology
O A Gonzalez, S Kirakodu, M J Novak, A J Stromberg, L Orraca, J Gonzalez-Martinez, A Burgos, J L Ebersole
Host-bacterial interactions at mucosal surfaces require recognition of the bacteria by host cells enabling targeted responses to maintain tissue homeostasis. It is now well recognized that an array of host-derived pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), both cell-bound and soluble, are critical to innate immune engagement of microbes via microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMP). This report describes the use of a nonhuman primate model to evaluate changes in the expression of these sensing molecules related to aging in healthy gingival tissues...
March 2018: Immunobiology
Janardan P Pandey, Aryan M Namboodiri, Bethany Wolf, Motoki Iwasaki, Yoshio Kasuga, Gerson S Hamada, Shoichiro Tsugane
High levels of naturally occurring IgG antibodies to mucin 1 (MUC1), a membrane-bound glycoprotein that is overexpressed in patients with breast cancer, are associated with good prognosis. This suggests that endogenous anti-MUC1 antibodies have a protective effect and, through antibody-mediated host immunosurveillance mechanisms, might contribute to a cancer-free state. To test this possibility, we characterized a large number of multiethnic patients with breast cancer and matched controls for IgG antibodies to MUC1...
February 2018: Immunobiology
Magdalena Zasada, Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Małgorzata Stec, Nina Mól, Ola Czyz, Maciej Siedlar, Przemko Kwinta
BACKGROUND: Inflammasomes regulate activation of caspase-1, which cleaves and activates interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, the cytokines that trigger pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial responses. There is very little known about inflammasome function in the subsets of monocytes (MO) isolated from preterm neonates born extremely and very prematurely. METHODS: A group of 76 very low birth weight patients without early-onset sepsis was divided into extremely preterm (<28 gestational week) or very preterm (28-32 gestational week) neonates...
January 2018: Immunobiology
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Victor V Revin, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
The mononuclear phagocytes control the body homeostasis through the involvement in resolving tissue injury and further wound healing. Indeed, local tissue microenvironmental changes can significantly influence the functional behavior of monocytes and macrophages. Such microenvironmental changes for example occur in an atherosclerotic plaque during all progression stages. In response to exogenous stimuli, macrophages show a great phenotypic plasticity and heterogeneity. Exposure of monocytes to inflammatory or anti-inflammatory conditions also induces predominant differentiation to proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophage subsets and phenotype switch between macrophage subsets...
January 2018: Immunobiology
Yong Zhang, Shushan Jia, Tianqin Gao, Ruyi Zhang, Zhaoguo Liu, Yaoqi Wang
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory conditions. Previous studies demonstrated that intranasal injections of IL-17 resulted in pulmonary inflammation and lung damage, we therefore hypothesize that dexmedetomidine, a potent α2 adrenergic receptor agonist that shows anti-inflammation effects in several animal models of inflammation, would attenuate IL-17 induced lung injury. We examined the lung damage using a histological approach, and assessed the number of lung-infiltrating neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
January 2018: Immunobiology
Marek Nowak, Ewa Głowacka, Przemysław Lewkowicz, Małgorzata Banasik, Krzysztof Szyłło, Kinga Zimna, Katarzyna Bednarska, Magdalena Klink
Primary cytoreduction, followed by chemotherapy, is a standard treatment of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the effectiveness of this treatment depend on various elements e.g. type of operation. It is accepted that optimal surgery correlates with longer survival of patients. The other element, an efficiency of immune system after surgical intervention although important is less elucidated. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of optimal and sub-optimal operation on immunological status of EOC patients regarding also their overall survival (OS)...
January 2018: Immunobiology
Masashi Ikutani, Shinya Ogawa, Tsutomu Yanagibashi, Terumi Nagai, Kazuki Okada, Yoko Furuichi, Kiyoshi Takatsu
Interleukin (IL)-5 is a critical regulator of eosinophils and a therapeutic target for asthma. The administration of anti-IL-5 or anti-IL-5 receptor (IL-5R) antibodies has been shown to reduce eosinophil counts and ameliorate asthmatic symptoms in studies on animal models of allergy as well as in human clinical trials. In order to explore other potential clinical uses of IL-5R antibodies, we used an animal model of IL-33-mediated pulmonary arterial hypertrophy. We first generated chimeric monoclonal antibodies against the mouse IL-5 receptor α chain (IL-5Rα), which comprised an Fc region from human IgG1 and a Fab region from a previously established anti-mouse IL-5Rα monoclonal antibody...
December 13, 2017: Immunobiology
Teena Mohan, Wandi Zhu, Ye Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Vaccinations are expected to aid in building immunity against pathogens. This objective often requires the addition of an adjuvant with certain vaccine formulations containing weakly immunogenic antigens. Adjuvants can improve antigen processing, presentation, and recognition, thereby improving the immunogenicity of a vaccine by simulating and eliciting an immune response. Chemokines are a group of small chemoattractant proteins that are essential regulators of the immune system. They are involved in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis, antitumor immunity, and antimicrobial activity and also play a critical role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses...
December 8, 2017: Immunobiology
Laura A Doorley, Kim S LeMessurier, Amy R Iverson, Maneesha Palipane, Amali E Samarasinghe
Humoral immunity serve dual functions of direct pathogen neutralization and enhancement of leukocyte function. Antibody classes are determined by antigen triggers, and the resulting antibodies can contribute to disease pathogenesis and host defense. Although asthma and influenza are immunologically distinct diseases, since we have found that allergic asthma exacerbation promotes antiviral host responses to influenza A virus, we hypothesized that humoral immunity may contribute to allergic host protection during influenza...
December 2017: Immunobiology
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
Rabi Yacoub, Alexander Jacob, Josette Wlaschin, Matthew McGregor, Richard J Quigg, Jessy J Alexander
Microbiota consists of more than 1014 microorganisms that inhabit different areas of the body including the gastrointestinal tract, mainly the mouth and gut. It includes viruses, fungi, protozoa, archaea and bacteria. The microbiota interacts closely with host leading to a dynamic relationship that results in the biological effects observed. Its diverse genetic material (microbiome) interacts closely with the host immune system and cells, and therefore is closely associated with inflammation, immune tolerance, adaptive immunity and autoimmune diseases...
November 16, 2017: Immunobiology
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