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Lindsay K Nicholson, Harsh Pratap, Elisabeth Bowers, Elise Gunzburger, Srinivasa R Bandi, Edward M Gardner, Brent E Palmer, Timothy Wright, John Kittelson, Edward N Janoff
Identifying HIV-1-associated B cell defects and responses to activation may direct interventions to circumvent their impaired antibody responses to infection and vaccines. Among 34 viremic HIV-1-infected and 20 seronegative control adults, we measured baseline frequencies and activation of B and T cell subsets, expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), potential determinants of B cell activation in vivo and B and T cell responses in vitro. At baseline, HIV-1 infection was associated with increased IgM memory and decreased anergic cell frequencies, as well as increased activation in all 10 B cell subsets compared with controls...
September 7, 2018: Immunobiology
Zhao Chen, Fengming Dong, Jiamei Lu, Linting Wei, Lifang Tian, Heng Ge, Yixin Zou, Xiaoqin Ma, Yanyan Yang, Lin Zhou, Jin Han, Rongguo Fu, Li Wang
This study planned to explore the effects of M2c macrophages on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). Human monocytic leukaemia cells were induced by TPA and IL-10 to differentiate M2c macrophages. Subsequently HK-2 cells were co-cultured with the M2c macrophages in Transwell chamber. After 48 h of co-culturing the HK-2 cells were detected in the mRNA and protein expression of E-cadherin, α-SMA and vimentin with RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot respectively...
August 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Tatiana Al Reef, Esther Ghanem
To date, numerable reviews are found in the literature prominent to the effect of caffeine on the immune system, with the latest review published in 2006. Database screening reveals around three thousand articles that have been published during the last decade. Interestingly, less than hundred articles involved humans and rodents as tested models, out of which 20% is of interest to this paper excluding studies done on the nervous and cardiac systems, and in pregnant and cancer cases. In this review, information pertaining to the experimental setup of various studies, namely, the tested model, the study type (in vivo or in vitro), and caffeine dose is covered to discern the behaviour of major cellular and molecular immune components in light of caffeine exposure...
August 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Luciana Rodrigues da Cunha Colombo Tiveron, Isabela Rios da Silva, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues, Virmondes Rodrigues
Keloid scars are currently considered a chronic inflammatory process and no longer a benign skin tumor. Keloids are defined as highly inflamed, hyperproliferative pathological scars. Growth factors and cytokines have important functions in the keloid inflammatory etiopathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the in situ expression of cytokines and growth factors in keloid scars in comparison with that in normal scars. Among them, we specifically assessed TGF-β, FGF, IL-33, IL-22, ARG-1, ARG-2, iNOS, VIP, VIP-R1, TAC, and TAC-R1...
August 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Shereen A Baioumy, Marwa M Esawy, Marwa A Shabana
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a chronic type characterized by episodes of wheals with or without angioedema. Autoantibody against the alpha subunit of Fc epsilon receptor (FcεRIa) was detected in CSU patients' sera. The study aims to evaluate the clinical utility of skin tests in CSU patients. In addition, it assesses the presence of circulating FcεRIa in CSU patients and their correlation with other clinical and immunological variables. The study includes 40 healthy controls and 40 CSU patients who had urticaria symptoms for at least 8 weeks...
August 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Abílio Luciano, Eduardo Namalango, Asli Bauer, Nilesh Bhatt, Britta Wahren, Charlotta Nilsson, Christof Geldmacher, Gabriella Scarlatti, Ilesh Jani, Luc Kestens
Little is known about regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) in the context of HIV vaccines. Tregs can be differentiated into resting (FoxP3+ CD45RA+ - rTregs), activated (FoxP3High CD45RA- - aTregs) and memory (FoxP3Low CD45RA- - mTregs). Tregs, as CD4 T cells, are also frequent targets for HIV infection. We studied how the abundance and phenotypes of Tregs in terms of activation status and expression of HIV-1 binding molecules would have changed during vaccination in healthy volunteers participating in a phase IIa HIV vaccine clinical trial...
August 12, 2018: Immunobiology
Lorena Guasconi, Verónica L Burstein, Ignacio Beccacece, Cristian Mena, Laura S Chiapello, Diana Teresa Masih
Fasciolosis is a zoonotic disease of increasing importance due to its worldwide distribution and elevated economic losses. Previously, we demonstrated that Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory products (FhESP) induce immunomodulatory effects on peritoneal macrophages in a Dectin-1 dependent manner. In this study, we observed that peritoneal macrophages from naive BALB/c mice stimulated in vitro with FhESP presented increased expression levels of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and this effect was dependent on Syk, protein kinase C (PKC) and Dectin-1...
August 10, 2018: Immunobiology
Andrea González, Steffen Härtel, Jorge Mansilla, Fernando Sánchez-Valdéz, Arturo Ferreira
Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCalr, formerly known as TcCRT), upon binding to Complement (C) C1 and ficolins, inhibits the classical and lectin pathways and promotes infectivity. This virulence correlates with the expression of TcCalr. The TcCalr C inhibitory capacity was shown in a previous work using a clonal epimastigote cell line from the TCC T. cruzi strain, lacking one TcCalr allele (TcCalr+/-) or over expressing it (TcCalr+). In this work, we detected atypical morphology in TcCalr+/- and in TcCalr+ parasites, as compared to the wild-type (WT) strain...
August 10, 2018: Immunobiology
Tokiko Suzuki, Kimimasa Sakata, Natsumi Mizuno, Sailesh Palikhe, Shigeyuki Yamashita, Kohshi Hattori, Naoyuki Matsuda, Yuichi Hattori
Pulmonary endothelial injury is central in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). The MAPK signaling cascades are generally thought to be involved in the molecular mechanism underlying the ALI development, but their roles in pulmonary endothelial injury is poorly understood. We thus examined the involvement of the MAPK family member in inflammatory responses of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) stimulated with LPS and IFN-γ. HPMVECs were found to exhibit the upregulation of expression of Toll-like receptor 4 by IFN-γ, resulting in potentiation of inflammatory cytokine release by LPS stimulation...
August 9, 2018: Immunobiology
Fatemeh Salami, Amin Tavassoli, Jalil Mehrzad, Abbas Parham
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of multipotent cells with the ability of expansion and plastic-adherence in vitro. MSCs can differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes; they lack co-stimulatory molecules and have small amount of MHC-I that makes no immunogenicity. These characteristics are empowering MSCs' huge in vivo applications. In addition, MSCs possess the ability of regulating the immune responses in many diseases. Many studies have shown that MSCs have immunosuppressive as well as immunoenhancing properties such as inhibition of T-lymphocytes proliferation and cytokines production which lead to the balance of Th1 and Th2...
August 6, 2018: Immunobiology
Tojoniaina-Herinjaka Andriamandimbisoa, Jean-Emmanuel Kahn, Frédéric Bourdain, Dominique François, Marc Vasse
Protein Z (PZ) is a vitamin K-dependent protein involved in the down-regulation of coagulation by forming a complex with the protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor. The complex inhibits the activated factor X on phospholipid surface. Presence of anti-PZ (aPZ) antibodies was first described in women with pathological pregnancies but the significance of aPZ antibodies in other pathological situations was poorly studied. In this work we analyzed the frequency of aPZ antibodies in a series of 86 consecutive patients with anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies and studied the association of aPZ with other antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies [lupus anticoagulant (LAC) and anti-ß2GP-1 antibodies] and the clinical signification of these aPZ antibodies in term of thrombosis or fetal loss...
August 6, 2018: Immunobiology
Jessy J Alexander, Jeyantt S Sankaran, Kenneth L Seldeen, Ramkumar Thiyagarajan, Alexander Jacob, Richard J Quigg, Bruce R Troen, Stefan Judex
Complement system is an important arm of the immune system that promotes inflammation. Complement Factor H (FH) is a critical regulator of the alternative complement pathway. Its absence causes pathology in different organs resulting in diseases such as age related macular degeneration and dense deposit disease. Recent studies suggest that the complement system plays a role in bone development and homeostasis. To determine the role of FH in bone architecture, we studied the FH knockout (fh-/-) mice. 3D reconstructions of femur from 16 week old fh-/- mice reveal significant changes, such as decreased BV/TV (4...
August 1, 2018: Immunobiology
Fernanda Ayane de Oliveira Santos, Nilton Lincopan, Elizabeth De Gaspari
BACKGROUND: The Neisseria meningitidis bacterium is a Gram-negative diplococcus that can be classified into different serogroups according to the capsular structure. Six of them (A, B, C, W, X, Y) are responsible for causing Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD). The strategies for the development of a vaccine for serogroup B have been directed to the use of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of antigenic determinants from OMVs of N...
July 19, 2018: Immunobiology
Wioleta M Zelek, Claire L Harris, B Paul Morgan
Complement assays have for many years utilised buffers based on barbitone (veronal) despite the well-recognised toxicity of this agent and the tight regulations on its use in most countries. The use of barbitone in complement assay buffers is steeped in history, from a time when no other suitable buffers were available. This is no longer the case, encouraging us to explore alternatives to barbitone for complement assays. We compared a simple, non-toxic HEPES buffer with commercially sourced complement fixation test diluent (CFD), the "gold standard" barbitone buffer, in several clinically relevant complement activity assays and across species...
July 19, 2018: Immunobiology
Csaba Orbán, Zsófia Vásárhelyi, Anna Bajnok, Florentina Sava, Gergely Toldi
Caffeine and selective PDE inhibitors are widely used in clinical management of preterm and term neonates. However, little is known about how these compounds interact with the neonatal adaptive immune system. We aimed to describe the effects of caffeine, milrinone and sildenafil on the activation and cytokine production of T cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB) compared to adult peripheral blood (APB). We isolated mononuclear cells from 10 APB and 6 UCB samples. We assessed intracellular cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17) of stimulated CD4 cells and parameters of calcium influx and ROS production following treatment with caffeine, milrinone, sildenafil, dbcAMP or a specific A2A receptor antagonist, ZM241385 using flow cytometry...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Dhamodharan Umapathy, Sireesh Dornadula, Ezhilarasi Krishnamoorthy, Vairamani Mariappanadar, Vijay Viswanathan, Kunka Mohanram Ramkumar
Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is an important cause of morbidity and death amongst diabetes. Persistent micro and macroalbuminuria are well known predictors of DN leading to progressive end-stage renal disease. However, albuminuria has several limitations. Increasing evidences show that YKL-40 is highly expressed in variety of inflammatory diseases and also recognized as a non-invasive prognostic biomarker for inflammation. In the present study, we measured plasma YKL-40 levels in different stages of albuminuria and assessed its diagnostic accuracy as a biomarker for DN and correlated with different families of circulatory cytokines...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Peter Arend
The metabolic relationship between the formation of the ABO(H) blood group phenotype and human fertility is evident in the case of the (Oh) or Bombay blood type, which Charles Darwin would have interpreted as resulting from reduced male fertility in consanguinities, based on the history of his own family, the Darwin/Wedgwood Dynasty. The classic Bombay type occurs with the extremely rare, human-specific genotype (h/h; se/se), which (due to point mutations) does not encode fucosyltransferases 1(FUT1) and 2 (FUT2)...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Lauren M K Mason, Jeroen Coumou, Jasmin I Ersöz, Anneke Oei, Joris J T H Roelofs, Thomas Vogl, Tom van der Poll, Joppe W R Hovius
Myeloid-related protein (MRP)8 and MRP14 form a complex (MRP8/14) that is released by activated neutrophils and monocytes during infection. MRP8/14 has been shown to have bacteriostatic activity in vitro against Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme borreliosis. Furthermore, levels of MRP8/14 have been shown to be elevated in the joints of patients with Lyme arthritis. We hypothesized that MRP8/14 has a protective effect during B. burgdorferi infection. To determine the role of MRP8/14 in the immune response to B...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Natalia Karolina Kordulewska, Anna Cieślińska, Ewa Fiedorowicz, Beata Jarmołowska, Krystyna Piskorz-Ogórek, Elżbieta Kostyra
BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases can expand at any age as a result of complicated interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Through the years, studies have found that allergic diseases are primarily described by elevated Th2 pathway activation, leading to increased serum IgE levels, allergen reactivity, blood eosinophil counts and secreted interleukins. METHODS: A total of 20 patients with allergy and 20 matched controls participants were recruited for the study...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Ulrich H Weidle, Ina Rohwedder, Fabian Birzele, Elisabeth H Weiss, Christian Schiller
The LST1 gene is located in the MHC class III cluster between the MHC class I and II regions. While most genes in this cluster have been sufficiently characterised, a definitive function and expression pattern for LST1 still remains elusive. In the present review we describe its promotor, gene organisation, splice variants and expression in human tissues, cell lines and cancer. We focus on LST1 expression in inflammation and discuss known correlations with autoimmune diseases and cancer. Current data on LST1 polymorphisms and their known associations with pathologies are also discussed in detail...
November 2018: Immunobiology
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