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Saibo Cheng, Fenghua Zhou, Yuling Xu, Xiaoyu Liu, Yu Zhang, Minhua Gu, Zhijie Su, Dandan Zhao, Lei Zhang, Yuhua Jia
Atherosclerosis (AS) is the common pathological basis of chronic cardiovascular diseases and is associated with inflammation and lipid metabolism dysfunction. Geniposide, the main active ingredient of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, exhibits a variety of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative functions; however, its role in AS remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of geniposide in alleviating inflammation and thereby attenuating the development of AS. ApoE-/- mice were fed a high fat diet to induce AS and were treated with geniposide (50 mg/kg) for 12 weeks...
December 27, 2018: Immunobiology
Ramóna Pap, Emese Ugor, Tímea Litvai, Lilla Prenek, József Najbauer, Péter Németh, Tímea Berki
OBJECTIVE: Functional disturbances in regulatory T cells (Treg) have been described in autoimmune diseases, and their potential therapeutic use is intensively studied. Our goal was to investigate the influence of glucocorticoid hormone on the in vitro differentiation of Treg cells from thymic and splenic CD4+ T cells under different conditions to establish methods for generating stable and functionally suppressive iTregs for future use in adoptive transfer experiments. METHODS: Thymic and splenic CD4+ T lymphocytes were isolated from 3 to 4 week-old control and in vivo dexamethasone (DX) pretreated BALB/c mice using magnetic bead negative selection, followed by CD25 positive selection...
December 27, 2018: Immunobiology
Cecilie Bo Hansen, Anton Willer, Rafael Bayarri-Olmos, Claudia Kemper, Peter Garred
Complement activation is traditionally thought to occur in the extracellular space. However, it has been suggested that complement proteins are activated and function at additional locations. T cells contain intracellular stores of C3 and C5 that can be cleaved into C3a and C5a and bind to intracellular receptors, which have been shown to be of vital importance for the differentiation and function of these cells. However, whether the origin of the complement proteins located within T cells is derived from endogenous produced complement or from an uptake dependent mechanism is unknown...
December 27, 2018: Immunobiology
Fatemeh Shojaei Jeshvaghani, Jafar Amani, Rouhollah Kazemi, Ahmad Karimi Rahjerdi, Mahyat Jafari, Shahsanam Abbasi, Ali Hatef Salmanian
The most bacterial cause of infectious diseases associated with diarrhea are enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (ETEC and EHEC, respectively). These strains use colonization factors for the attachment to the human intestinal mucosa, followed by enterotoxins production that could induce more host damage. The Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and colonization factors (CFs) are momentous factors for the pathogenesis of ETEC. Also, Intimin and Shiga like toxin (STX) are the main pathogenic factors expressed by EHEC...
December 11, 2018: Immunobiology
Sonja E van Roeden, Mirjam H A Hermans, Peet T G A Nooijen, Alexandra Herbers, Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers, Andy I M Hoepelman, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Peter C Wever
PURPOSE: Coxiella burnetii has been suggested as a potential cause of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), as C. burnetii was detected in B-NHL tissues. To further investigate this potential relationship, we hypothesized that among subjects previously exposed to C. burnetii, the bacterium is more frequently detectable in tissues of patients with B-NHL (cases) compared to patients without B-NHL (controls). METHODS: We aimed to evaluate this hypothesis by assessing the presence of C...
December 5, 2018: Immunobiology
Xiuli Luan, Bo Peng, Zhongyu Li, Lingli Tang, Chaoqun Chen, Lili Chen, Haiying Wu, Zhenjie Sun, Chunxue Lu
Previously we reported that recombinant Chlamydia muridarum macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP) provided partial protection against C. muridarum genital tract infection in mice. On the other hand, Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid encoded Pgp3could induce the protection against C. muridarum air way infection. This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of MIP and Pgp3 from C. trachomatis serovar D and further investigate whether MIP and Pgp3 provide cross-serovar protection against C. muridarum genital tract infection in mice...
December 5, 2018: Immunobiology
Marco Iannetta, Stefano Savinelli, Raffaella Rossi, Claudia Mascia, Raffaella Marocco, Serena Vita, Paola Zuccalà, Maria Antonella Zingaropoli, Fabio Mengoni, Anna Paola Massetti, Mario Falciano, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Maria Rosa Ciardi, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo, Miriam Lichtner
HIV infection is characterized by a state of chronic activation of the immune system, which is not completely reversed by antiretroviral treatment (ART). The aim of this study was to assess myeloid and lymphoid activation markers during HIV infection, before and one year after ART initiation, in AIDS and non-AIDS presenters. Treatment naïve HIV positive patients were enrolled in this study. Myeloid dendritic cell (mDC), plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC), slanDC, monocyte and T-lymphocyte cell counts and activation status, were assessed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood samples...
November 28, 2018: Immunobiology
Yoshinobu Abe, Natsuo Yamamoto, Kiwamu Nakamura, Kazuaki Arai, Chiye Sakurai, Kiyotaka Hatsuzawa, Yasunori Ogura, Ken Iseki, Choichiro Tase, Keiji Kanemitsu
To investigate the role of IL-13 during a severe systemic Candida albicans infection, BALB/c control and IL-13-/- mice were examined for colony forming units (CFU) in the kidneys and survival days after intravenous infection. Proinflammatory mediators and cell recruitment into the tissue were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, a multiple ELISA system, and morphological cell differentiation. The IL-13-/- group exhibited a lower CFU number in the kidneys at 4 days and survived longer than the control mice, which was accompanied by significantly higher expression of C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2), IFN-γ, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the infected kidneys...
November 24, 2018: Immunobiology
Gilberto Vargas-Alarcon, Oscar Perez-Mendez, Gabriel Herrera-Maya, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Rosalinda Posadas-Sanchez, Julian Ramirez-Bello, Galileo Escobedo, Jose Manuel Fragoso
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of rs1805193, rs5361, and rs5355 E-selectin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of developing subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) in a group of Mexicans individuals. SNPs were determined by TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 287 individuals with SA and 688 healthy controls. Under different models, the T allele of the 5'UTR G98 T (rs1805193) (OR = 1.71, 95%CI: 1.00-2.93, pCCo-dominant = 0.0006, OR = 2.02, 95%CI: 1.21-3.38, pCDominant = 0...
November 24, 2018: Immunobiology
G Wietzorrek, M Drexel, M Trieb, S Santos-Sierra
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is currently investigated as a potential therapeutic target in diseases with underlying inflammation like sepsis and arthritis. We reported the discovery, by virtual screening and biological testing, of eight TLR2 antagonists (AT1-AT8) which showed TLR2-inhibitory activity in human cells (Murgueitio et al., 2014). In this study, we have deepened in the mechanism of action and selectivity (TLR2/1 or TLR2/6) of those compounds in mouse primary cells and in vivo. The antagonists reduced, in a dose-dependent way the TNFα production (e...
November 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Namarta Kalia, Jatinder Singh, Sujata Sharma, Manpreet Kaur
Recurrent vulvovaginal infections (RVVI), owing to their adverse health consequences, have become a serious dilemma worldwide. Low serum levels of Mannose-Binding Lectin (sMBL), a main component of innate immunity, was found to be associated with RVVI risk, though complete genetic bases are still elusive. To reveal unrecognised regulatory variants, 3'-UTR region of MBL2 with six putative functional SNPs i.e. rs10824792, rs2120132, rs2120131, rs2165813, rs2099903 and rs2099902 was sequenced and genotyped in the present study for 109 RVVI cases and age matched healthy controls...
November 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Heng Choon Cheong, Chalystha Yie Qin Lee, Yi Ying Cheok, Esaki M Shankar, Negar S Sabet, Grace Min Yi Tan, Elaheh Movahed, Tee Cian Yeow, Sofiah Sulaiman, Won Fen Wong, Chung Yeng Looi, Rishein Gupta, Jamiyah Hassan, Bernard Arulanandam, Sazaly AbuBakar
BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in the female genital compartment represents one of the major causes of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and infertility in females. Here, we examined the pro-inflammatory cytokine response following stimulation with three different types of C. trachomatis antigens, viz. chlamydial protease-like factor (CPAF), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP). METHODS: A total of 19 patients with genital C...
November 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Ankur Datta, Saibal Moitra, Sk Md Omar Faruk, Prasanta K Das, Somnath Mondal, Iman Hazra, Anjan K Basu, Santanu K Tripathi, Swapna Chaudhuri
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, increasing in prevalence worldwide. Reduced T cell apoptosis may interfere with the down-regulation of an immune response resulting in T cell accumulation contributing to the chronic inflammation of asthma. Most studies focused so far on apoptosis of eosinophils but the detailed role of T lymphocytes apoptosis in allergic diseases is unclear yet. The present experimental study was designed to discern the modulation of various apoptotic proteins of splenic T lymphocytes in a previously established rat model of Alstonia scholaris pollen induced airway allergy...
November 16, 2018: Immunobiology
Martin Juenemann, Holger Nef, Helge Möllmann, Pratibha Singh, Christian Troidl, Patrick Schramm, Manfred Kaps, Tibo Gerriets, Franz Blaes, Marlene Tschernatsch
BACKGROUND: An association between Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) and underlying malignancies has been observed, suggesting that TTC might be the consequence of paraneoplastic phenomena. This study investigates the presence of autoantibodies against cardiomyocytes as well as adrenergic (β1 , β2 ) and muscarinic (M2) receptors in patients with TTC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum from 20 TTC patients and 20 controls with ischemic heart disease was obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence testing for intracellular autoantibodies against cardiomyocytes showed a homogenous distribution, as in both groups 9 of 20 sera displayed a characteristic binding pattern of antibodies including vascular walls and intracellular structures...
November 15, 2018: Immunobiology
Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Akanksha Sharma, Ajay Verma, Irfan Ahmad Ansari, Premendra D Dwivedi
In the course of analyzing amino acid sequence of an allergen (≈20 kDa), we found this protein has a homology with the amino acid sequence of putative α-Dioxygenase fragment (ADF). Allergy caused by many allergens having an enzymatic activity have been reported previously, but allergenicity to neither α-Dioxygenase enzyme nor to it's any constituents has been reported. We sought to purify an ADF (≈19.5 kDa) from chickpea to investigate it's inherent allergic potential in BALB/c mice. The ADF showed IgE-affinity in sera of sensitized BALB/c mice and allergic patients...
November 15, 2018: Immunobiology
J L Ebersole, S Kirakodu, M J Novak, L Orraca, A J Stormberg, J Gonzalez-Martinez, A Burgos, O A Gonzalez
Host-derived pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are necessary for effective innate immune engagement of pathogens that express microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) ligands for these PRRs. This study used a nonhuman primate model to evaluate the expression of these sensing molecules in gingival tissues. Macaca mulatta aged 12-24 with a healthy periodontium (n = 13) or periodontitis (n = 11) provided gingival tissues for assessment of naturally-occurring periodontitis. An additional group of animals (12-23 years; n = 18) was subjected to a 5 month longitudinal study examining the initiation and progression of periodontitis, RNA was isolated and microarray analysis conducted for gene expression of the sensing PRRs...
November 15, 2018: Immunobiology
Enza D'Auria, Mara De Amici, Amelia Licari, Silvia Caimmi, Cecilia Mantegazza, GianVincenzo Zuccotti, Gianluigi Marseglia
INTRODUCTION: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterized by recurrent itchy wheals, angioedema or both, that persist for longer than six weeks. In children, up to 40% of chronic spontaneous urticaria is due to mast cells and basophils-activating autoantibodies, mostly directed against the IgE high-affinity receptor subunit (FcεRI). Indirect basophil activation test (BAT) has been proposed in the diagnosis of autoimmune urticaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera from sixteen patients, aged from 2 to 15 yrs, with CSU were evaluated through indirect BAT by flow cytometry using a commercial kit (Flow CAST®, BUHLMANN Laboratories, Schonenbuch, Switzerland) according to the manufacturer's instructions...
November 13, 2018: Immunobiology
Yelizavet D Lomakova, Jennifer Londregan, Jeffrey Maslanka, Naomi Goldman, John Somerville, James E Riggs
Tumors may include a high proportion of immune modulatory cells and molecules that restrain the anti-cancer response. Activation of T cells to eliminate cancer cells within the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment remains a challenge. We have shown that C57BL/6 J peritoneal cell culture models features of macrophage-dense tumors as TCR ligation fails to activate T cells unless IFNγ is neutralized or iNOS is inhibited. We tested other forms of T cell activation and found phytohemagglutinin (PHA) distinctive in the ability to markedly expand CD8 T cells in this model...
November 3, 2018: Immunobiology
Borivoj Bijelić, Ivana Z Matić, Irina Besu, Ljiljana Janković, Zorica Juranić, Senka Marušić, Sladjana Andrejević
The etiology of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) remains unknown. RAS can be presented as primary, idiopathic condition and as a secondary RAS, which is associated with a systemic disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence and concentrations of antibodies specific for celiac disease (CeD) and antibodies related to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in patients with RAS without gastrointestinal symptoms. Antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG), deaminated gliadin peptides (DGP), deaminated gliadin-analogous fragments (anti-GAF-3X) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) were determined by ELISA and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by indirect immunoflurescence (IIF) in 57 patients with RAS and 60 control subjects...
November 2, 2018: Immunobiology
Cássio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva, Erivan S Ramos-Junior, Ana Carolina Morandini, Gabrielle da Costa Rocha, Ygor Marinho, Augusto Shuiti Tamura, Kívia Queiroz de Andrade, Maria Bellio, Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Julio Scharfstein, David M Ojcius, Robson Coutinho-Silva
The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with periodontitis. We previously demonstrated that P2X7 receptor activation by extracellular ATP (eATP) triggers elimination of intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania amazonensis, Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia trachomatis. We also showed that eATP-induced IL-1β secretion via the P2X7 receptor is impaired by P. gingivalis fimbriae. Furthermore, enhanced P2X7 receptor expression was detected in the maxilla of P. gingivalis-orally infected mice as well as in human periodontitis patients...
November 2, 2018: Immunobiology
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