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Immunobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317110/cationic-liposomes-formulated-with-a-novel-whole-leishmania-lysate-wll-as-a-vaccine-for-leishmaniasis-in-murine-model
#1
Iman Jafari, Vahid Heravi Shargh, Maryam Shahryari, Azam Abbasi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Ali Khamesipour, Ali Badiee
Although there have been numerous attempts to develop a successful vaccine against leishmaniasis, based on the clinical trial in this field, no vaccine against Leishmania in routine way can be found for globally effective vaccination in human. Amongst, first generation vaccines consisting of parasite fractions or whole killed Leishmania showed more successful results in clinical trials. It seems that the main reason for the low efficacy of these vaccines is lack of a suitable adjuvant. In this study, a crude extract of detergent-solubilized L...
December 28, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269115/elimination-of-eosinophils-using-anti-il-5-receptor-alpha-antibodies-effectively-suppresses-il-33-mediated-pulmonary-arterial-hypertrophy
#2
Masashi Ikutani, Shinya Ogawa, Tsutomu Yanagibashi, Terumi Nagai, Kazuki Okada, Yoko Furuichi, Kiyoshi Takatsu
Interleukin (IL)-5 is a critical regulator of eosinophils and a therapeutic target for asthma. The administration of anti-IL-5 or anti-IL-5 receptor (IL-5R) antibodies has been shown to reduce eosinophil counts and ameliorate asthmatic symptoms in studies on animal models of allergy as well as in human clinical trials. In order to explore other potential clinical uses of IL-5R antibodies, we used an animal model of IL-33-mediated pulmonary arterial hypertrophy. We first generated chimeric monoclonal antibodies against the mouse IL-5 receptor α chain (IL-5Rα), which comprised an Fc region from human IgG1 and a Fab region from a previously established anti-mouse IL-5Rα monoclonal antibody...
December 13, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246401/applications-of-chemokines-as-adjuvants-for-vaccine-immunotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Teena Mohan, Wandi Zhu, Ye Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Vaccinations are expected to aid in building immunity against pathogens. This objective often requires the addition of an adjuvant with certain vaccine formulations containing weakly immunogenic antigens. Adjuvants can improve antigen processing, presentation, and recognition, thereby improving the immunogenicity of a vaccine by simulating and eliciting an immune response. Chemokines are a group of small chemoattractant proteins that are essential regulators of the immune system. They are involved in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis, antitumor immunity, and antimicrobial activity and also play a critical role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses...
December 8, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331323/regulation-of-inflammatory-factors-by-double-stranded-rna-receptors-in-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179985/cardiac-cd68-and-stabilin-1-macrophages-in-wound-healing-following-myocardial-infarction-from-experiment-to-clinic
#5
Vyacheslav Ryabov, Aleksandra Gombozhapova, Yuliya Rogovskaya, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Mariya Rebenkova, Rostislav Karpov
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Macrophages are key innate immune cells that play a significant role in transition from the inflammatory to the regenerative phase during wound healing following MI. The scavenger receptor stabilin-1 is one of the most interesting macrophage biomarkers. This receptor contributes to wound healing, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. We suggested a research protocol using macrophage biomarkers to study the cellular basis of cardiac remodeling and healing in patients with acute MI...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162324/modulation-of-human-macrophage-activity-by-ascaris-antigens-is-dependent-on-macrophage-polarization-state
#6
Sara Almeida, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams
Parasitic worms (helminths) are known to actively modulate host immune responses and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate if adult body fluid (ABF) from the helminth Ascaris suum has immunomodulatory effects on different subtypes of human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸ) in vitro. Mɸs were exposed to A. suum ABF at different stages of their differentiation and/or polarization. Mɸ were first differentiated from monocytes into either uncommitted (M-), classically activated (M(GM-CSF)) or alternatively activated (M(M-CSF)) phenotypes and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
November 15, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150026/regulatory-t-cells-friends-or-foe-in-human-mycobacterium-leprae-infection
#7
Ana T Chaves, Atvaldo F Ribeiro-Junior, Sandra Lyon, Nayara I Medeiros, Fábio Cassirer-Costa, Karina S Paula, Edilamar S Alecrim, Cristiane A S Menezes, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Manoel O C Rocha, Juliana A S Gomes
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to control immune responses by suppressing the antigen-presenting and effector T cells. Some mechanisms adopted by Tregs in combating Mycobacterium infections have been proposed. Nevertheless, in M. leprae infection, also known as leprosy or Hansen's disease, the role of Tregs has not been completely elucidated. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of different cell surface and intracellular molecules present in Tregs from peripheral blood samples of leprosy patients...
November 13, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146235/macrophages-their-role-activation-and-polarization-in-pulmonary-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Shweta Arora, Kapil Dev, Beamon Agarwal, Pragnya Das, Mansoor Ali Syed
Macrophages, circulating in the blood or concatenated into different organs and tissues constitute the first barrier against any disease. They are foremost controllers of both innate and acquired immunity, healthy tissue homeostasis, vasculogenesis and congenital metabolism. Two hallmarks of macrophages are diversity and plasticity due to which they acquire a wobbling array of phenotypes. These phenotypes are appropriately synchronized responses to a variety of different stimuli from either the tissue microenvironment or - microbes or their products...
November 12, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108874/corrigendum-to-hmgb1-modulates-lewis-cell-autophagy-and-promotes-cell-survival-via-rage-hmgb1-erk1-2-positive-feedback-during-nutrient-depletion-immunobiology-220-may-5-2015-539-44
#9
Z Su, T Wang, H Zhu, P Zhang, R Han, Y Liu, P Ni, H Shen, W Xu, H Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146236/infectious-bursal-disease-virus-protein-vp4-suppresses-type-i-interferon-expression-via-inhibiting-k48-linked-ubiquitylation-of-glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-gilz
#10
Zhiyuan He, Xiang Chen, Mengjiao Fu, Jun Tang, Xiaoqi Li, Hong Cao, Yongqiang Wang, Shijun J Zheng
Viruses have developed a variety of methods to evade host immune response. Our previous study showed that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) inhibited type I interferon production via interaction of VP4 with cellular glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we found that IBDV VP4 suppressed GILZ degradation by inhibiting K48-linked ubiquitylation of GILZ. Furthermore, mutation of VP4 (R41G) abolished the inhibitory effect of VP4 on IFN-β expression and GILZ ubiquitylation, indicating that the amino acid 41R of VP4 was required for the suppression of IFN-β expression and GILZ ubiquitylation...
October 28, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126656/the-effect-of-i%C3%AE%C2%BAk-16-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-impaired-monocytes
#11
Norman J Galbraith, Stephen Manek, Samuel Walker, Campbell Bishop, Jane V Carter, Meredith Cahill, Sarah A Gardner, Hiram C Polk, Susan Galandiuk
This study focuses on impaired monocyte function, which occurs in some patients after trauma, major elective surgery, or sepsis. This monocyte impairment increases the risk of secondary infection and death. We aimed to determine the influence IκK-16 had on monocytes using an ex-vivo model of human monocyte impairment. We included the effects of the well-studied comparators interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on impaired monocytes. Primary human monocytes were stimulated with 10ng/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 16h and then challenged with 100ng/mL LPS to assess the monocyte inflammatory response...
October 28, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111316/concentrations-of-sp-a-and-hsp70-are-associated-with-polarization-of-macrophages-in-pleural-effusions-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Mariusz Kaczmarek, Malgorzata Lagiedo, Agnieszka Masztalerz, Magdalena Kozlowska, Agata Nowicka, Beata Brajer, Halina Batura-Gabryel, Jan Sikora
Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules can initiate an immune response through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). DAMPs are released from cells as a response to the extracellular danger and can be by-products of tissue damage. In cancer microenvironment necrotic cells release debris which has potency to become DAMPs. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is often accompanied by pleural effusion (PE), which contains a variety of DAMPs. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) are important DAMPs in the respiratory tract...
October 27, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111315/protective-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonists-in-skin-barrier-and-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Kazuhisa Furue, Chikage Mitoma, Gaku Tsuji, Masutaka Furue
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is one of the three isoforms of PPARs, which are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors. PPARα is highly expressed in liver and its agonists are widely used to treat hyperlipidemia. Epidermal keratinocytes express all three isoforms (α, β/δ, and γ) of PPARs and PPARα is particularly important for regulating the epidermal barrier and inflammation. Agonistic ligation of PPARα protects the epidermal barrier function and inhibits the inflammatory response in dermatitis...
October 27, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096944/an-in-vitro-inflammation-model-to-study-the-nrf2-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-crosstalk-in-presence-of-ferulic-acid-as-modulator
#14
Nadia Lampiasi, Giovanna Montana
The aim of this study was to evaluate the crosstalk between Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways and to explore the modulating activity actuated by ferulic acid. In the inflammation process, a key player is the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor pathway. On the contrary, the activation of Nrf2 inhibits inflammation and impairs degenerative disease providing an interface between redox and anti-inflammatory responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that protein phosphorylation of IKK complex is a potential mechanism for the activation of both Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways...
October 27, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092744/dual-requirement-for-stat-signaling-in-dendritic-cell-immunobiology
#15
Gloria Donninelli, Isabella Sanseverino, Cristina Purificato, Sandra Gessani, Maria Cristina Gauzzi
Dendritic cells (DC) represent an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of the immune system and enhancement of insufficient immune response in cancer. STAT family members play key roles in the differentiation and activation of DC, a feature that is currently being exploited in DC-based therapies. We previously reported that the small-molecule Stattic, originally developed as a STAT3-specific inhibitor, also inhibits STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation in DC exposed to cytokines or LPS. Aim of this study was to investigate the functional consequences of in vitro treatment with Stattic on DC immunobiology...
October 27, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113699/involvement-of-caspase-4-in-il-1-beta-production-and-pyroptosis-in-human-macrophages-during-dengue-virus-infection
#16
Ka Tik Cheung, Daniel Man-Yuen Sze, Kwok Hung Chan, Polly Hang-Mei Leung
Caspase-4 physically interacts with caspase-1 and is believed to be a proinflammatory caspase that can induce the inflammatory form of programmed cell death (pyroptosis) and the release of mature interleukin (IL)-1β. However, the function of caspase-4 in dengue virus infection is not yet fully understood. We examined the function of caspase-4 in IL-1β production and pyroptosis during dengue virus serotype-2 (DENV-2) infection in human macrophages. In this study, DENV-2 infection increased IL-1β protein level with activated caspase-4 activity...
October 26, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089144/adenoviral-vector-mediated-gm-csf-gene-transfer-improves-anti-mycobacterial-immunity-in-mice-role-of-regulatory-t-cells
#17
Alena Singpiel, Julia Kramer, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Lara Friederike Bittersohl, Jack Gauldie, Martin Kolb, Tobias Welte, Tim Sparwasser, Ulrich A Maus
Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in differentiation, survival and activation of myeloid and non-myeloid cells with important implications for lung antibacterial immunity. Here we examined the effect of pulmonary adenoviral vector-mediated delivery of GM-CSF (AdGM-CSF) on anti-mycobacterial immunity in M. bovis BCG infected mice. Exposure of M. bovis BCG infected mice to AdGM-CSF either applied on 6h, or 6h and 7days post-infection substantially increased alveolar recruitment of iNOS and IL-12 expressing macrophages, and significantly increased accumulation of IFNγ(pos) T cells and particularly regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
October 26, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074302/endogenous-antibody-responses-to-mucin-1-in-a-large-multiethnic-cohort-of-patients-with-breast-cancer-and-healthy-controls-role-of-immunoglobulin-and-fc%C3%AE-receptor-genes
#18
Janardan P Pandey, Aryan M Namboodiri, Bethany Wolf, Motoki Iwasaki, Yoshio Kasuga, Gerson S Hamada, Shoichiro Tsugane
High levels of naturally occurring IgG antibodies to mucin 1 (MUC1), a membrane-bound glycoprotein that is overexpressed in patients with breast cancer, are associated with good prognosis. This suggests that endogenous anti-MUC1 antibodies have a protective effect and, through antibody-mediated host immunosurveillance mechanisms, might contribute to a cancer-free state. To test this possibility, we characterized a large number of multiethnic patients with breast cancer and matched controls for IgG antibodies to MUC1...
February 2018: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042061/analysis-of-selected-aspects-of-inflammasome-function-in-the-monocytes-from-neonates-born-extremely-and-very-prematurely
#19
Magdalena Zasada, Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Małgorzata Stec, Nina Mól, Ola Czyz, Maciej Siedlar, Przemko Kwinta
BACKGROUND: Inflammasomes regulate activation of caspase-1, which cleaves and activates interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, the cytokines that trigger pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial responses. There is very little known about inflammasome function in the subsets of monocytes (MO) isolated from preterm neonates born extremely and very prematurely. METHODS: A group of 76 very low birth weight patients without early-onset sepsis was divided into extremely preterm (<28 gestational week) or very preterm (28-32 gestational week) neonates...
January 2018: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032836/the-impact-of-interferon-regulatory-factors-to-macrophage-differentiation-and-polarization-into-m1-and-m2
#20
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Victor V Revin, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
The mononuclear phagocytes control the body homeostasis through the involvement in resolving tissue injury and further wound healing. Indeed, local tissue microenvironmental changes can significantly influence the functional behavior of monocytes and macrophages. Such microenvironmental changes for example occur in an atherosclerotic plaque during all progression stages. In response to exogenous stimuli, macrophages show a great phenotypic plasticity and heterogeneity. Exposure of monocytes to inflammatory or anti-inflammatory conditions also induces predominant differentiation to proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophage subsets and phenotype switch between macrophage subsets...
January 2018: Immunobiology
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