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Immunobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318800/autoimmune-disease-development-based-on-possible-mislocalization-of-intracellular-and-extracellular-proteins
#1
Borros Arneth
BACKGROUND: T helper cells can differentiate into several subsets of T lymphocytes, including Th1, Th2, and regulatory T (Treg) cells. As a result of this ability to differentiate, the corresponding T cell receptor (TCR) spectra display considerable cellular plasticity and interchangeability. In contrast, T lymphocyte differentiation and separation into CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) T cell lines creates stable populations over a person's lifetime, which abrogates the plasticity and interchange between these cell types and their corresponding TCR spectra but results in considerable stability regarding the corresponding TCR sequences and spectra...
February 27, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318799/transcriptome-analysis-of-il-10-stimulated-m2c-macrophages-by-next-generation-sequencing
#2
Emily B Lurier, Donald Dalton, Will Dampier, Pichai Raman, Sina Nassiri, Nicole M Ferraro, Ramakrishan Rajagopalan, Mahdi Sarmady, Kara L Spiller
Alternatively activated "M2" macrophages are believed to function during late stages of wound healing, behaving in an anti-inflammatory manner to mediate the resolution of the pro-inflammatory response caused by "M1" macrophages. However, the differences between two main subtypes of M2 macrophages, namely interleukin-4 (IL-4)-stimulated "M2a" macrophages and IL-10-stimulated "M2c" macrophages, are not well understood. M2a macrophages are characterized by their ability to inhibit inflammation and contribute to the stabilization of angiogenesis...
February 20, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233577/tnf%C3%AE-induced-downregulation-of-microrna-186-contributes-to-apoptosis-in-rat-primary-cardiomyocytes
#3
Hua Xu, Jingyao Li, Yue Zhao, Dayi Liu
Progressive loss of cardiac cardiomyocytes is involved in pathogenesis of heart failure. Inflammation is considered as a major risk factor that triggers cardiomyocytes apoptosis or induces cellular damage. Proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα can directly activate cell apoptosis or promote oxidant production that damages cellular structure eventually. We investigated TNFα mediated apoptosis in cultured rat primary cardiomyocytes. Annexin V/PI staining and apoptosis biomarker expression were used to examine cardiomyocytes cell apoptosis response...
February 16, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237664/il-10-deficient-mice-express-ifn-%C3%AE-mrna-and-clear-leptospira-interrogans-from-their-kidneys-more-rapidly-than-normal-c57bl-6-mice
#4
Amy A Devlin, Priya J Halvorsen, Jennifer C Miller, Scott M Laster
Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), the causative agent of leptospirosis, is a widespread zoonotic spirochete that lives a dual lifestyle. L. interrogans infects mice, rats, and wildlife in a persistent and asymptomatic fashion, while also causing productive and acute infections in other mammals such as humans and hamsters. Infections in humans can be fatal, accompanied by a cytokine storm and shock-like symptoms. Production of IL-10 has been noted in both rodent and human infections which has led a number of investigators to hypothesize that IL-10 plays a role in the pathogenesis of this disease...
February 10, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209270/crosstalk-between-glucocorticoids-and-il-4-modulates-ym1-expression-in-alternatively-activated-myeloid-cells
#5
Nathalie Ng Kuet Leong, Frank Brombacher, Alexander H Dalpke, Michael Weitnauer
Airway epithelial cells induce a tolerogenic microenvironment by modulating immune cells in the lung. We recently showed that the supernatant of airway epithelial cells induces two marker genes of alternative activation, Ym1 and Ms4a8a, in respiratory myeloid cells. This induction was partially mediated by glucocorticoids, secreted by airway epithelial cells. In this study, we further investigated Ym1 and Ms4a8a regulation in alternatively activated myeloid cells in the presence of the TH2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13...
February 9, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190533/the-roles-of-a-ribosomal-protein-s19-polymer-in-a-mouse-model-of-carrageenan-induced-acute-pleurisy
#6
Koji Yamanegi, Toru Kawakami, Naoko Yamada, Shunsuke Kumanishi, Hiroyuki Futani, Keiji Nakasho, Hiroshi Nishiura
C5-deficient mice usually present moderate neutrophil activation during the initiation phase of acute inflammation. Conversely, C5a receptor (C5aR)-deficient mice show unusually excessive activation of neutrophils. We identified the ribosomal protein S19 (RP S19) polymer, which is cross-linked at Lys122 and Gln137 by transglutaminases in apoptotic neutrophils, as a second C5aR ligand during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. The RP S19 polymer promotes apoptosis via the neutrophil C5aR and phagocytosis via the macrophage C5aR...
February 7, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189340/molecular-identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-tumor-necrosis-factor-tnf-gene-in-crassostrea-hongkongensis
#7
Fufa Qu, Zhiming Xiang, Yang Zhang, Jun Li, Shu Xiao, Yuehuan Zhang, Yanping Qin, Yingli Zhou, Ziniu Yu
Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) represents a group of multifunctional inflammatory cytokines that have been shown to participate in a variety of pathological and immunological process. However, the functions of these proteins in oyster are still poorly understood. In the present study, an oyster TNF homolog (named ChTNF) was identified from a cDNA library of Crassostrea hongkongensis. The complete cDNA of ChTNF was 2457bp in length containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1044bp, a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 381bp and a 3'-UTR of 1032bp...
February 6, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159395/can-pan-allergens-affect-the-sensitization-pattern
#8
Giorgio Ciprandi, Paola Comite, Marco Bruzzone, Vincenzo Fontana
The present study tested the hypothesis that a pan-allergen sensitization may affect the sensitization pattern. For this reason, 22 sensitization pattern allergens (SPA), common in Genoa (Italy), were selected for analyses. Successively, five of them, such as Pru p 3 as representative for LTP family, Bet v 1 and Pru p 1 for PR-10, and Bet v 2 and Pru p 4 for Profilin, were used as target allergens (TA). This retrospective study included 1059 subjects, (396 males and 663 females, mean age 42.8 years). The current study showed that sensitization to a pan-allergen entails higher odds to have other sensitizations...
January 28, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187901/enhanced-immune-response-to-a-dual-promoter-anti-caries-dna-vaccine-orally-delivered-by-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium
#9
Hao Jiang, Yijun Hu, Mei Yang, Hao Liu, Guangshui Jiang
The strength of immune responses induced by DNA vaccine is closely associated with the expression level of cloned antigens available to the antigen presenting cells (APCs). To acquire a larger and more persistent amount of antigen, a dual-promoter, which could double the target antigen output through its expression both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, was employed in the constructed anti-caries DNA vaccine with attenuated Salmonella as mucosal delivery vector in this study. Here, both CMV and nirB promoters were included in the plasmid that harbors the genes encoding the functional epitopes of two virulence factors of S...
January 25, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139257/robust-8-color-flow-cytometry-panel-reveals-enhanced-effector-function-of-nkg2c-cd57-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5r%C3%AE-nk-cells-in-cmv-seropositive-human-blood-donors
#10
Thomas Nerreter, Stephan Zeiß, Thomas Herrmann, Hermann Einsele, Ruth Seggewiss-Bernhardt
Increasing evidence suggests that human NK cells may develop memory-like features. Here, we report the establishment of a robust 8-color flow cytometry panel that allows quantification and functional analysis of different memory-like NK cell subsets (NKG2C(+)/CD57(+), FcεRγ(-)) from relatively small blood samples. We could confirm previous publications reporting an enhanced prevalence of the mentioned memory-like NK cell subsets in CMV seropositive human donors and were able to show a clear congruence between enhanced expression of NKG2C and CD57, the absence of FcεRγ and CMV seropositivity supporting the hypothesis of memory-like NK cell development following viral infections...
January 25, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126263/treponema-pallidum-flagellins-elicit-proinflammatory-cytokines-from-human-monocytes-via-tlr5-signaling-pathway
#11
Man Xu, Yafeng Xie, Chuanhao Jiang, Yongjian Xiao, Xingxing Kuang, Yating Wen, Yuan Tan, Manyi Tan, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Yimou Wu
The tissue damage caused by syphilis infection may be associated with inflammation. However, the virulence factors of Treponema pallidum are still unclear, nor are the molecular mechanisms for leading to the productions of proinflammatory cytokines. Flagellin, a classic pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a potent immunogen that induces inflammation. In the present study, we have demonstrated that stimulations of human monocytes with Treponema pallidum FlaB1, FlaB2, and FlaB3 result in the up regulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8...
January 21, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132721/hepatic-interleukin-6-production-is-maintained-during-endotoxin-tolerance-and-facilitates-lipid-accumulation
#12
Anna Dembek, Stephan Laggai, Sonja M Kessler, Beate Czepukojc, Yvette Simon, Alexandra K Kiemer, Jessica Hoppstädter
Gut-derived bacterial endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), contribute to the pathogenesis of steatosis and steatohepatitis by activating Kupffer cells, the resident liver macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to low doses of LPS causes hyporesponsiveness upon subsequent endotoxin challenge, a phenomenon termed endotoxin or LPS tolerance. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether LPS-induced lipid accumulation is affected by endotoxin tolerance. LPS pretreatment reduced the expression of proinflammatory mediators upon subsequent high-dose LPS treatment in murine livers...
January 20, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122660/nlrc5-polymorphism-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-chronic-periodontitis
#13
Luisa Zupin, Chiara Ottavia Navarra, Antonietta Robino, Lorenzo Bevilacqua, Roberto Di Lenarda, Paolo Gasparini, Sergio Crovella
Periodontitis is a chronic oral pathology caused by impaired immune response against oral bacteria resulting in tissue inflammation and damage. Among the members of innate immune response, the first line of defence against pathogens, inflammasomes are macro-molecular protein complexes that can be activated by different stimuli, comprised bacteria infections. Different proteins are involved in inflammasoma formation; the most important are molecules belonging from the family of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 12, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118940/anomalies-in-the-dominant-sarcoidosis-paradigm-justify-its-displacement
#14
Jerome M Reich
The prevailing paradigm defines sarcoidosis as a disease of unknown etiology characterized by a systemic noncaseating epithelioid granulomatous response (SGR). This formulation fails to account for the elusiveness of the etiological agent, the nature of the Kveim response, the paradox of cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity anergy in a setting of intense immune response and the appearance of SGR, indistinguishable from sarcoidosis, in persons with lymphohematogenous and solid neoplasms and a variety of cellular immune deficiencies...
January 6, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089363/pertussis-toxin-targets-the-innate-immunity-through-dap12-fcr%C3%AE-and-myd88-adaptor-proteins
#15
Vongsavanh Phongsisay, Ei'ichi Iizasa, Hiromitsu Hara, Hiroki Yoshida
Activation of the innate immunity by adjuvants, such as pertussis toxin (PTX), in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes and antigen mimicry is sufficient to trigger autoimmunity. Toll-like, C-type lectin, and immunglobulin-like receptors play an important role in the innate immunity by sensing a variety of microbial products through several adaptor proteins, including MyD88, DAP12, and FcRγ. This study investigated the interaction between PTX and innate immune components. The direct interactions between coated PTX and receptor-fusion proteins were examined using ELISA-based binding assays...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069296/inflammatory-early-events-associated-to-the-role-of-p2x7-receptor-in-acute-murine-toxoplasmosis
#16
Gladys Corrêa, Carolina de Almeida Lindenberg, Aline Cristina de Abreu Moreira-Souza, Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Christina Maeda Takiya, Camila Marques-da-Silva, Rossiane Claudia Vommaro, Robson Coutinho-Silva
Activation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor by extracellular ATP (eATP) potentiates proinflammatory responses during infections by intracellular pathogens. Extracellular ATP triggers an antimicrobial response in macrophages infected with Toxoplasma gondii in vitro, suggesting that purinergic signaling may stimulate host defense mechanisms against toxoplasmosis. Here, we provide in vivo evidence in support of this hypothesis, by showing that P2X7(-/-) mice are more susceptible than P2X7(+/+) mice to acute infection by the RH strain of T...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069295/short-term-memory-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-against-bacterial-pathogens-involves-creb-transcription-factor
#17
Udayakumar Prithika, Ramaraj Vikneswari, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan
One of the key issues pertaining to the control of memory is to respond to a consistently changing environment or microbial niche present in it. Human cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor which plays a crucial role in memory has a homolog in C. elegans, crh-1. crh-1 appears to influence memory processes to certain extent by habituation of the host to a particular environment. The discrimination between the pathogen and a non-pathogen is essential for C. elegans in a microbial niche which determines its survival...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065450/the-effects-of-increased-heme-oxygenase-1-on-the-lymphoproliferative-response-in-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#18
Breno Fernando Martins de Almeida, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira Silva, Vanessa Marim Chiku, Aline Aparecida Correa Leal, Gabriela Lovizutto Venturin, Luis Gustavo Narciso, Maria Fernanda Cereijido Bersni Fink, Flavia de Rezende Eugênio, Paulo Sergio Patto Dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Ciarlini, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is known to affect the cellular immunity of infected dogs, through impairing lymphoproliferation and microbicidal mechanisms. This study examined heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its metabolites, oxidative stress and IL-10 levels in CVL and investigated correlations between these parameters. Additionally, the effects of HO-1 inhibition on the lymphoproliferative response and cytokine production in lymph node cells (LNCs) from infected dogs were evaluated. Forty-four dogs, 24 controls and 20 dogs with CVL were selected...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780588/the-non-mammalian-mif-superfamily
#19
REVIEW
Amanda Sparkes, Patrick De Baetselier, Kim Roelants, Carl De Trez, Stefan Magez, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Geert Raes, Richard Bucala, Benoît Stijlemans
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was first described as a cytokine 50 years ago, and emerged in mammals as a pleiotropic protein with pro-inflammatory, chemotactic, and growth-promoting activities. In addition, MIF has gained substantial attention as a pivotal upstream mediator of innate and adaptive immune responses and with pathologic roles in several diseases. Of less importance in mammals is an intrinsic but non-physiologic enzymatic activity that points to MIF's evolution from an ancient defense molecule...
March 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769564/in-vivo-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-novel-cytokine-il-38-in-murphy-roths-large-mrl-lpr-mice
#20
Man Chu, Lai Shan Tam, Jing Zhu, Delong Jiao, De Hua Liu, Zhe Cai, Jie Dong, Christopher Wei Kai Lam, Chun Kwok Wong
The newly named interleukin (IL)-36 subfamily member IL-38 has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory activity. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory activity of IL-38 was poorly investigated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have investigated the expression of CD4(+)IL-17(+) Th17, CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) Th1 and CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells and the related immunopathological mechanisms in female MRL/lpr mice model of spontaneous lupus-like disease, with or without IL-38 treatment. Intravenous administration of murine recombinant IL-38 into MRL/lpr mice can ameliorate the lupus-like clinical symptoms including proteinuria, leukocyteuria and skin lesions...
March 2017: Immunobiology
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