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Jingyun Xu, Pengcheng Yu, Lijia Wu, Mingxu Liu, Yixin Lu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD), are chronic autoimmune diseases with a high recurrence rate. Epidemiological data have shown that the incidence of IBD increases annually because of improved sanitary conditions and reduced parasitic infection rates. In this experiment, experimental colitis was induced in mice by administering 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) 28 days after they were infected with Trichinella spiralis to confirm that T. spiralis infection could alleviate the severity of TNBS-induced colitis...
October 25, 2018: Immunobiology
Chelsea R White, Matthew Dungan, Michael D Carrithers
Prior work demonstrated that a splice variant of SCN5A, a voltage-gated sodium channel gene, acts as a cytoplasmic sensor for viral dsRNA in human macrophages. Expression of this channel also polarizes macrophages to an anti-inflammatory phenotype in vitro and in vivo. Here we utilized global expression analysis of splice variants to identify novel channel-dependent signaling mechanisms. Pharmacological activation of voltage-gated sodium channels in human macrophages, but not treatment with cytoplasmic poly I:C, was associated with splicing of a retained intron in transcripts of PPP1R10, a regulator of phosphatase activity and DNA repair...
October 24, 2018: Immunobiology
Jelena Kulas, Ivana Mirkov, Dina Tucovic, Lidija Zolotarevski, Jasmina Glamoclija, Katarina Veljovic, Maja Tolinacki, Nataša Golic, Milena Kataranovski
Microbiota inhabiting mucosal tissues is involved in maintenance of their immune homeostasis. Growing body of evidence indicate that dysbiosis in gut influence immune responses at distal sites including lungs. There are also reports concerning gut involvement with pulmonary injury/inflammation in settings of respiratory viral and bacterial infections. The impact of infections with other microorganisms on gut homeostasis is not explored. In this study, the rat model of sublethal pulmonary infection with Aspergillus fumigatus was used to investigate the effect of fungal respiratory infection on gut immune-mediated homeostasis...
October 13, 2018: Immunobiology
Gerhild Wildner
In contrast to rats, mouse models are nowadays generally used for the investigation of immune responses and immune-mediated diseases, there are many different strains and mouse-specific tools available, and it is easy to generate transgenic and constitutive or inducible knockout mice for any gene. Many immune markers and mechanisms have been detected in mice and have been introduced as gold standard in immunology, however, some turned out to be not unconditionally transferable to the human immune system. Rats have been used more frequently in former days but are mostly outstripped by mice due to the fact that fewer strains are available, they need more space than mice, are more expensive to maintain and breed, and it is extremely difficult to generate transgenic or ko-rats...
October 12, 2018: Immunobiology
Sarjan H N, Yajurvedi H N
The present study was undertaken to investigate whether or not chronic stress effect and its reversibility on lymphoid organs is duration dependent. Male rats were exposed to restraint (1 h) followed by a gap of 4 h to forced swimming exercise (15 min) daily for 2, 4 and 8 weeks. After each exposure period, rats were allowed to recover for 6 weeks. Stress exposure resulted in duration dependent decreases in weight of thymus and axillary lymph nodes, lymphocyte counts of spleen, thymus and axillary lymph nodes and number of islets of white pulp of spleen and increases in apoptotic index of splenocytes, thymocytes and lymphocytes of axillary lymph nodes...
September 28, 2018: Immunobiology
Karla MacDonald-Ramos, Marcia Arenas-Hernandez, Ismael Mancilla-Herrera, Claudia Rangel-Escareño, Rodrigo Vega-Sanchez
Leukocytes found at the human maternal-fetal interface participate in the inflammatory process associated with both preterm and term labor; therein, effective methods for their isolation that allow further phenotypic and functional analyses are necessary. Leukocyte isolation is usually carried out through scraping or enzyme digestion of the choriodecidua, however both methods usually limit the use of downstream immunophenotyping or transcriptomic techniques. Here we describe an isolation method based on gentle trypsin digestion that yields a leukocyte-enriched cell mixture with high lymphocyte viability, although less viable myeloid cells...
September 22, 2018: Immunobiology
Beatriz C S Salles, Daniel S Dias, Bethina T Steiner, Daniela P Lage, Fernanda F Ramos, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Thaís T O Santos, Mariana P Lima, Lourena E Costa, Ana T Chaves, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Ricardo T Fujiwaraa, Lílian L Buenoa, Rachel B Caligiorne, Danielle F de Magalhães-Soares, Julia A G Silveira, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Denise U Gonçalves, Eduardo A F Coelho
Serological tests are important tools for the diagnosis of Leishmania infection. However, they are not effective markers to diagnose asymptomatic cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and patients developing tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL), since antileishmanial antibodies can be encountered in low levels resulting in false-negative results in the serological trials. In this context, antigens able to be recognized by antibodies in sera from both VL and TL patients will be desirable to be employed in a more sensitivity and specific diagnosis of disease...
September 21, 2018: Immunobiology
Haojie Wu, Qixiang Shao
Inhibitor of binding or differentiation 2 (Id2), a member of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional factors, is recently reported as an important regulator of the development or differentiation of immune cells. It has been demonstrated that Id2 plays a critical role in the early lymphopoiesis. However, it has been discovered recently that Id2 displays new functions in different immune cells. In the adaptive immune cells, Id2 is required for determining T-cell subsets and B cells. In addition, Id2 is also involved in the development of innate immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, and other innate lymphoid cells (ILCs)...
September 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Lindsay K Nicholson, Harsh Pratap, Elisabeth Bowers, Elise Gunzburger, Srinivasa R Bandi, Edward M Gardner, Brent E Palmer, Timothy Wright, John Kittelson, Edward N Janoff
Identifying HIV-1-associated B cell defects and responses to activation may direct interventions to circumvent their impaired antibody responses to infection and vaccines. Among 34 viremic HIV-1-infected and 20 seronegative control adults, we measured baseline frequencies and activation of B and T cell subsets, expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), potential determinants of B cell activation in vivo and B and T cell responses in vitro. At baseline, HIV-1 infection was associated with increased IgM memory and decreased anergic cell frequencies, as well as increased activation in all 10 B cell subsets compared with controls...
September 7, 2018: Immunobiology
Zhao Chen, Fengming Dong, Jiamei Lu, Linting Wei, Lifang Tian, Heng Ge, Yixin Zou, Xiaoqin Ma, Yanyan Yang, Lin Zhou, Jin Han, Rongguo Fu, Li Wang
This study planned to explore the effects of M2c macrophages on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). Human monocytic leukaemia cells were induced by TPA and IL-10 to differentiate M2c macrophages. Subsequently HK-2 cells were co-cultured with the M2c macrophages in Transwell chamber. After 48 h of co-culturing the HK-2 cells were detected in the mRNA and protein expression of E-cadherin, α-SMA and vimentin with RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot respectively...
August 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Tatiana Al Reef, Esther Ghanem
To date, numerable reviews are found in the literature prominent to the effect of caffeine on the immune system, with the latest review published in 2006. Database screening reveals around three thousand articles that have been published during the last decade. Interestingly, less than hundred articles involved humans and rodents as tested models, out of which 20% is of interest to this paper excluding studies done on the nervous and cardiac systems, and in pregnant and cancer cases. In this review, information pertaining to the experimental setup of various studies, namely, the tested model, the study type (in vivo or in vitro), and caffeine dose is covered to discern the behaviour of major cellular and molecular immune components in light of caffeine exposure...
August 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Luciana Rodrigues da Cunha Colombo Tiveron, Isabela Rios da Silva, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues, Virmondes Rodrigues
Keloid scars are currently considered a chronic inflammatory process and no longer a benign skin tumor. Keloids are defined as highly inflamed, hyperproliferative pathological scars. Growth factors and cytokines have important functions in the keloid inflammatory etiopathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the in situ expression of cytokines and growth factors in keloid scars in comparison with that in normal scars. Among them, we specifically assessed TGF-β, FGF, IL-33, IL-22, ARG-1, ARG-2, iNOS, VIP, VIP-R1, TAC, and TAC-R1...
August 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Shereen A Baioumy, Marwa M Esawy, Marwa A Shabana
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a chronic type characterized by episodes of wheals with or without angioedema. Autoantibody against the alpha subunit of Fc epsilon receptor (FcεRIa) was detected in CSU patients' sera. The study aims to evaluate the clinical utility of skin tests in CSU patients. In addition, it assesses the presence of circulating FcεRIa in CSU patients and their correlation with other clinical and immunological variables. The study includes 40 healthy controls and 40 CSU patients who had urticaria symptoms for at least 8 weeks...
August 20, 2018: Immunobiology
Csaba Orbán, Zsófia Vásárhelyi, Anna Bajnok, Florentina Sava, Gergely Toldi
Caffeine and selective PDE inhibitors are widely used in clinical management of preterm and term neonates. However, little is known about how these compounds interact with the neonatal adaptive immune system. We aimed to describe the effects of caffeine, milrinone and sildenafil on the activation and cytokine production of T cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB) compared to adult peripheral blood (APB). We isolated mononuclear cells from 10 APB and 6 UCB samples. We assessed intracellular cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17) of stimulated CD4 cells and parameters of calcium influx and ROS production following treatment with caffeine, milrinone, sildenafil, dbcAMP or a specific A2A receptor antagonist, ZM241385 using flow cytometry...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Dhamodharan Umapathy, Sireesh Dornadula, Ezhilarasi Krishnamoorthy, Vairamani Mariappanadar, Vijay Viswanathan, Kunka Mohanram Ramkumar
Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is an important cause of morbidity and death amongst diabetes. Persistent micro and macroalbuminuria are well known predictors of DN leading to progressive end-stage renal disease. However, albuminuria has several limitations. Increasing evidences show that YKL-40 is highly expressed in variety of inflammatory diseases and also recognized as a non-invasive prognostic biomarker for inflammation. In the present study, we measured plasma YKL-40 levels in different stages of albuminuria and assessed its diagnostic accuracy as a biomarker for DN and correlated with different families of circulatory cytokines...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Peter Arend
The metabolic relationship between the formation of the ABO(H) blood group phenotype and human fertility is evident in the case of the (Oh) or Bombay blood type, which Charles Darwin would have interpreted as resulting from reduced male fertility in consanguinities, based on the history of his own family, the Darwin/Wedgwood Dynasty. The classic Bombay type occurs with the extremely rare, human-specific genotype (h/h; se/se), which (due to point mutations) does not encode fucosyltransferases 1(FUT1) and 2 (FUT2)...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Lauren M K Mason, Jeroen Coumou, Jasmin I Ersöz, Anneke Oei, Joris J T H Roelofs, Thomas Vogl, Tom van der Poll, Joppe W R Hovius
Myeloid-related protein (MRP)8 and MRP14 form a complex (MRP8/14) that is released by activated neutrophils and monocytes during infection. MRP8/14 has been shown to have bacteriostatic activity in vitro against Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme borreliosis. Furthermore, levels of MRP8/14 have been shown to be elevated in the joints of patients with Lyme arthritis. We hypothesized that MRP8/14 has a protective effect during B. burgdorferi infection. To determine the role of MRP8/14 in the immune response to B...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Natalia Karolina Kordulewska, Anna Cieślińska, Ewa Fiedorowicz, Beata Jarmołowska, Krystyna Piskorz-Ogórek, Elżbieta Kostyra
BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases can expand at any age as a result of complicated interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Through the years, studies have found that allergic diseases are primarily described by elevated Th2 pathway activation, leading to increased serum IgE levels, allergen reactivity, blood eosinophil counts and secreted interleukins. METHODS: A total of 20 patients with allergy and 20 matched controls participants were recruited for the study...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Ulrich H Weidle, Ina Rohwedder, Fabian Birzele, Elisabeth H Weiss, Christian Schiller
The LST1 gene is located in the MHC class III cluster between the MHC class I and II regions. While most genes in this cluster have been sufficiently characterised, a definitive function and expression pattern for LST1 still remains elusive. In the present review we describe its promotor, gene organisation, splice variants and expression in human tissues, cell lines and cancer. We focus on LST1 expression in inflammation and discuss known correlations with autoimmune diseases and cancer. Current data on LST1 polymorphisms and their known associations with pathologies are also discussed in detail...
November 2018: Immunobiology
Ji In Yong, Dae Won Kim, Min Jea Shin, Hyo Sang Jo, Jung Hwan Park, Su Bin Cho, Chi Hern Lee, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Eun Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Ji An Kim, Jung Soon Hwang, Duk-Soo Kim, Hyun Ah Kim, Yong-Jun Cho, Keun Wook Lee, Kyu Hyung Han, Jinseu Park, Won Sik Eum, Soo Young Choi
Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA15) plays a multi-functional role in neuronal cell survival, however the effects of PEA15 against inflammation have not been investigated yet. To examine the effects of PEP-1-PEA15 protein against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in Raw 264.7 cells and in a 12-O-tetradecanoylphobol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse model, we constructed and purified PEP-1-PEA15 protein, which can transduce into cells or tissues. PEP-1-PEA15 inhibited LPS-induced damage in cells including that caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA fragmentation...
November 2018: Immunobiology
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