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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

Meric Kocaturk, Oya Eralp-Inan, A Tvarijonaviciute, Mehmet Cansev, M Ozgur Ozyigit, J J Ceron, Zeki Yilmaz, M Mufit Kahraman
The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of intravenous (i.v.) choline treatment on serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), MMP tissue inhibitors (TIMP) and immunoglobulins (Igs), and to determine if there were relations between serum MMPs/TIMPs and C-reactive protein (CRP) (as a marker of the acute phase response), immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM) (as a maker of the Ig responses) and markers of organ damage such as muscular damage (creatine phosphokinase, [CPK]), liver damage (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) and renal dysfunction (blood urea nitrogen [BUN] and creatinine, [Cr]) in dogs with endotoxemia...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Anna-Karin E Palm, Ove Wattle, Torbjörn Lundström, Eva Wattrang
This study aimed to increase the knowledge on salivary antibodies in the horse since these constitute an important part of the immune defence of the oral cavity. For that purpose assays to detect horse immunoglobulin A (IgA) including secretory IgA (SIgA) were set up and the molecular weights of different components of the horse IgA system were estimated. Moreover, samples from 51 clinically healthy horses were tested for total SIgA and IgG amounts in saliva and relative IgG3/5 (IgG(T)) and IgG4/7 (IgGb) content were tested in serum and saliva...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Huisheng Liu, Qiao Xue, Qiaoying Zeng, Zhanqin Zhao
Glässer's disease, which is caused by Haemophilus parasuis, is a major threat to swine throughout the world. At present, the predominant method of controlling this disease is through vaccination with an inactivated vaccine, which has many limitations. For example, there is no available method to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals. In addition, inactivated vaccines do not contain all of the virulent serovars that circulate in a region. Additionally, novel vaccines that address the shortcomings of inactivated vaccines are not available...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Xiaochen Guo, Hongxue Cao, Yunxin Wang, Yang Liu, Yanmin Chen, Nan Wang, Shan Jiang, Shengqi Zhang, Qiang Wu, Tianhe Li, Yingjie Zhang, Bing Zhou, Jiechao Yin, Deshan Li, Guiping Ren
We have previously reported an antigen and antibody co-expression (AAC) technology to demonstrate the interaction between a known antigen and antibody. To validate the co-expression system for screening antibody libraries, a single chain fragment variable(scFv)antibody library was constructed from chickens immunized with the VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The genes of both VP2 and scFv antibodies were inserted into the pBFD-Ab-Ag vector. The co-expression library was subjected to three rounds of screening by flow cytometry (FCM) using a polyclonal antibody against VP2 through a bacteria display system...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Brett A Sponseller, Sandra K Clark, Jessica Gilbertie, David M Wong, Kate Hepworth, Sarah Wiechert, Prashanth Chandramani, Beatrice T Sponseller, Cody J Alcott, Bryan Bellaire, Andrew C Petersen, Douglas E Jones
Reactive intermediates contribute to innate immunity by providing phagocytes with a mechanism of defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites. To better characterize the role of CD154 in the production of reactive intermediates, we cloned and expressed recombinant equine CD154 (reqCD154) in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO). In co-culture experiments, CHO cells ectopically expressing reqCD154 elicited superoxide production in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Collectively, our results indicate that regulation of CD154 expression plays a role in innate host defenses...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Mitchell V Palmer, Tyler C Thacker, W Ray Waters
Regardless of host, pathogenic mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex such as Mycobacterium bovis, induce a characteristic lesion known as a granuloma, tubercle or tuberculoid granuloma. Granulomas represent a distinct host response to chronic antigenic stimuli, such as foreign bodies, certain bacterial components, or persistent pathogens such as M. bovis. Granulomas are composed of specific cell types including epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes and a morphologically distinctive cell type, the multinucleated giant cell...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Deborah A Grosenbaugh, Daniel R Rissi, Paula M Krimer
Lyme disease in dogs can be effectively prevented by vaccination against antigens expressed by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi during transmission by the tick vector Ixodes sp. Lyme vaccine efficacy has traditionally been based on indicators of infection following wild-caught tick challenge whereas most other types of vaccine are required to demonstrate protection from clinical signs of disease. In this vaccination-challenge study we sought to demonstrate the ability of a nonadjuvanted, outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine to protect from infection and to prevent synovial lesions consistent with Borreliosis...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Phillip Delekta, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. The latently infected CD4(+) T cells carry the virus to visceral organs, peripheral nerves, and feather follicle epithelium (FFE). FFE is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virus particles are produced and disseminated into the environment...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Valerie Johnson, Brandy Burgess, Paul Morley, Ryan Bragg, Anne Avery, Steven Dow
Cytokine abnormalities have been described previously in dogs with varied immune mediated and inflammatory conditions such as IMHA and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to establish references ranges for cytokine levels in dogs and to compare cytokine levels in normal dogs and dogs with two common inflammatory diseases (sepsis and IMHA). We hypothesized that cytokine response profiles in dogs with sepsis would be significantly different from those in dogs with IMHA due to the very different etiologies of the two diseases...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Raquel Moya, Jerónimo Carnés, Nuria Sinovas, Laura Ramió, Pilar Brazis, Anna Puigdemont
BACKGROUND: Canine atopic dermatitis is a pruritic allergic skin disease. House dust mites have been identified as the main non-seasonal responsible agent. Unlike in human allergic patients, groups 1 and 2 antigens have been described as minor allergens in dogs, while groups 15 and 18 are considered the major allergens. Despite these differences, allergic dogs have traditionally been treated using extracts intended for human immunotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the immunological characteristics and the allergen reactivity of dogs with atopic dermatitis using a Dermatophagoides farinae commercial extract...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Tian-Fei Yu, Bo Ma, Jun-Wei Wang
Goose parvovirus (GPV) infection can cause a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings which is widespread in all major goose (Anser anser) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss. Humoral immune responses play a major role in GPV immune protection during GPV infection. However, it is still unknown for the localization and immunological characteristics of B-cell epitopes on GPV non-structural protein (NSP). Therefore, in this study, the epitopes on the NSP of GPV were identified by means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Madhubanti Basu, Saswati S Lenka, Mahismita Paichha, Banikalyan Swain, Bhakti Patel, Rajanya Banerjee, Pallipuram Jayasankar, Surajit Das, Mrinal Samanta
Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in protecting host against diverse pathogenic invasion and diseases. Among all Ig isotypes, IgD is the most recently-evolved and enigmatic molecule detected in all vertebrates species except birds. In South-East Asia, Labeo rohita (rohu) is the leading candidate fish species for freshwater aquaculture, and this article describes about IgD gene expression in rohu following viral, bacterial and parasitic antigenic challenges. The partial cDNA (761bp) of Labeo rohita-IgD (LrIgD) was cloned and submitted in the GenBank with the accession no KT883581...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sarah N Schlink, Kelly M Lager, Susan L Brockmeier, Crystal L Loving, Laura C Miller, Ann C Vorwald, Han-Chun Yang, Marcus E Kehrli, Kay S Faaberg
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for one of the most economically important diseases in swine worldwide. It causes reproductive failure in sows and pneumonia in pigs that predisposes them to secondary bacterial infections. Methods to control PRRSV and/or limit secondary bacterial infections are desired to reduce the impact of this virus on animal health. Neutrophils play a major role in combatting infection; they can act as phagocytes as well as produce and release lytic enzymes that have potent antimicrobial effects leading to the destruction and clearance of bacterial pathogens...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Verónica Álvarez, Francisco-Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Rebeca Blázquez, Raquel Tarazona, Javier G Casado
The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most promising cell types for human and veterinary use and their therapeutic effect is associated with their immunomodulatory properties. Farm animal models, such as pigs, have become a valuable tool to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adoptively transferred MSCs in the setting of veterinary medicine. In order to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of stem cell-based therapies in porcine breeds, a deep analysis and comparison of MSCs and leukocyte subsets are absolutely necessary...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Z Karalyan, H Voskanyan, Z Ter-Pogossyan, D Saroyan, E Karalova
The interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 pathway plays a crucial role in various forms of inflammation but its function in acute African swine fever (ASF) is not well understood. Thus, in this study, we aimed to find out whether IL-23/IL-17/G-CSF is released in acute ASF and what function it may have. The present study revealed that the production of IL-17 and IL-23 were significantly increased in the sera of ASFV infected pigs. Using ELISA, we found that the serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 have overexpressed in ASF virus infected pigs compared with healthy controls...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
N C Pedersen, J K Dhanota, H Liu
Specific polymorphisms in the endoplasmic reticulum amino peptidase genes ERAP1 and ERAP2, when present with certain MHC class receptor types, have been associated with increased risk for specific cancers, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders in humans. This increased risk has been linked to distinct polymorphisms in both ERAPs and MHC class I receptors that affect the way cell-generated peptides are screened for antigenicity. The incidence of cancer, infectious disease and autoimmune disorders differ greatly among pure breeds of dogs as it does in humans and it is possible that this heightened susceptibility is also due to specific polymorphisms in ERAP1 and ERAP2...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
S Bühler, J Frahm, R Tienken, S Kersten, U Meyer, K Huber, S Dänicke
The periparturient period of dairy cows is accompanied by an immunosuppression that leaves the animal more susceptible to infections and metabolic disorders. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) which peak shortly after parturition due to lipolysis are known to impair immune cell functions. Niacin with its well-known anti-lipolytic effect may have the ability to ameliorate this situation. Additionally, niacin shows also anti-inflammatory effects that may be beneficial to the immune status of the cow...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Noa Safra, Peta L Hitchens, Emanual Maverakis, Anupam Mitra, Courtney Korff, Eric Johnson, Amir Kol, Michael J Bannasch, Niels C Pedersen, Danika L Bannasch
Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) (hypertrophic osteodystrophy) is a developmental disorder of unexplained etiology affecting dogs during rapid growth. Affected dogs experience relapsing episodes of lytic/sclerotic metaphyseal lesions and systemic inflammation. MO is rare in the general dog population; however, some breeds (Weimaraner, Great Dane and Irish Setter) have a much higher incidence, supporting a hereditary etiology. Autoinflammatory childhood disorders of parallel presentation such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), involve impaired innate immunity pathways and aberrant cytokine production...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
L Soler, N García, A Unzueta, M Piñeiro, M A Álava, F Lampreave
Inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been isolated from acute phase dog sera by affinity chromatography with insolubilized polyclonal antibodies anti pig Major Acute phase Protein (Pig-MAP) and with p-Aminophenyl Phosphoryl Choline, respectively. Isolated proteins were used to prepare specific polyclonal rabbit antisera that have allowed quantifying their concentration in serum samples by single radial immunodifussion. Both proteins were quantified in sera from female dogs that had undergone ovariohysterectomy (OVH, n=9) or mastectomy (n=10)...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sonia Martínez-Martínez, Rafael Frandoloso, Elías-Fernando Rodríguez-Ferri, María-José García-Iglesias, Claudia Pérez-Martínez, Álvaro Álvarez-Estrada, César-Bernardo Gutiérrez-Martín
This study aimed to characterize the type of immune response induced by an experimental vaccine based on a mutant Haemophilus parasuis transferrin binding protein (Tbp) B (Y167A) defective in its ability to bind porcine transferrin. Clinical and pathological signs, bacterial clearance, antibody response and the cytokine profile in alveolar macrophages and spleen after the vaccination and challenge of twenty-two colostrum-deprived pigs with 10(8) CFU of H. parasuis were analysed. Pigs vaccinated with Y167A were compared to those vaccinated with native TbpB (nTbpB), those treated with a commercial bacterin (CB) against Glässer's disease, those unvaccinated challenged (CH) and those unvaccinated unchallenged (UNCH) pigs...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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