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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290960/fetal-environment-and-fetal-intestine-are-sterile-during-the-third-trimester-of-pregnancy
#1
Nilusha Malmuthuge, Philip J Griebel
Recent next generation sequencing studies on host-associated microbiomes generated debatable conclusions regarding the central dogma of fetal gut sterility. These observations challenge the concepts that microbial colonization of the gut begins during and after birth as well as the concept of antigen-independent prenatal maturation of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue in ruminants and humans. The placental barrier varies markedly among mammalian species with mice and humans having haemochorial placentas (fetal tissue in direct contact with maternal blood) versus epitheliochorial placentation (maternal and fetal blood separated by six tissue layers) in ruminants...
September 26, 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243378/antibody-mediated-bacterial-killing-of-ichthyobacterium-seriolicida-in-japanese-amberjack
#2
Tomomasa Matsuyama, Yutaka Fukuda, Tomokazu Takano, Takamitsu Sakai, Chihaya Nakayasu
Ichthyobacterium seriolicida is the causative agent of bacterial hemolytic jaundice (BHJ) in Japanese amberjack, Seriola quinqueradiata. Fish recovering from BHJ acquire protective immunity against reinfection. In this study, fish were passively immunized to determine whether serum antibody is involved in protection against BHJ. The susceptibility of I. seriolicida to the bactericidal activity of Japanese amberjack serum was also investigated. In passive immunization tests, significantly lower mortality was noted in fish that received convalescent serum...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243377/pharmacokinetics-of-human-recombinant-c1-esterase-inhibitor-and-development-of-anti-drug-antibodies-in-healthy-dogs
#3
Cheryl Wong, Daniela Hernandez Muguiro, Sidonie Lavergne, Erica Behling-Kelly, Robert Goggs
Complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis occurs in canine immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). Complement inhibitors such as recombinant C1 esterase inhibitor (rC1-INH) might prevent this process and alter the disease course. This study aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of a single 500 IU IV dose of rC1-INH in 8 healthy beagle dogs, evaluate the dogs for any adverse effects of drug administration, and determine whether rC1-INH administration induces anti-drug antibody formation. Serum rC1-INH concentrations were measured using a commercial functional ELISA at baseline and at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, 720, 960, and 1440 min post drug administration...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243376/comment-on-the-domestic-cat-antibody-responseto-fhv-1-increases-with-age
#4
LETTER
James A Roth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243375/enhancing-purification-and-plasma-stability-of-porcine-interferon-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-by-fusion-to-elastin-like-polypeptide
#5
Yajie Wang, Xiao Tan, Yang Zong, Huipeng Lu, Xinyu Zhang, Xiaoli Xia, Huaichang Sun
The clinical use of recombinant interferons (rIFNs) is limited by higher purification cost and quick clearance from circulation. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a novel tag for recombinant protein purification and half-life extension. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of ELP fusion for simple purification and half-life extension of recombinant porcine IFNs (rPoIFNs). After construction of five different fusion expression vectors, we optimized the conditions for soluble protein expression and purification...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243374/lack-of-cross-reactivity-of-human-and-porcine-reagents-to-quantify-manatee-trichechus-manatus-cytokines
#6
Milton Levin, Lindsay Jasperse, Erika Gebhard, Estelle Rousselet, Catherine Walsh
Veterinary medical examinations, including both physical examination and diagnostic tests, are important to monitor the health of both managed-care and wild marine mammals. However, limited species-specific reagents and assays are available that may contribute to a broader medical examination. This project evaluated if commercially available human and porcine antibodies and reagents would cross-react with manatee (Trichechus manatus) cytokines as the first step to validate a new diagnostic tool for manatees...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243373/the-expression-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-ido-is-reduced-in-granulomas-from-bcg-vaccinated-cattle-compared-to-granulomas-from-unvaccinated-controls-after-experimental-challenge-with-mycobacterium-bovis
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Waldo L Garcia-Jimenez, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos, Duncan Grainger, R Glyn Hewisnon, Hans M Vordermeier, Francisco J Salguero
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), is a major economic disease of livestock worldwide. Vaccination is considered as a potentially sustainable adjunct to the current control strategy. Cattle vaccination with the live attenuated M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) confers variable protection; the reasons for this variability are not understood. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), through the catalysis of tryptophan, is thought to have an immunoregulatory role in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243372/detection-of-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibodies-in-dogs-with-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases
#8
Takashi Tamamoto, Aki Nagao, Mizuki Sugano
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) is a type of autoantibody against neutrophil cytoplasm. In veterinary medicine, few studies have reported the detection of ANCA in dogs, and most of these studies were performed in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ANCA is detected in dogs with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) other than IBD. Serum samples were collected before treatment initiation from 40 client-owned dogs with various diseases and 22 healthy beagle dogs; the dogs were classified into two groups: IMID group (n = 16) and control group (n = 46)...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243371/benzo-a-pyrene-suppresses-tracheal-antimicrobial-peptide-gene-expression-in-bovine-tracheal-epithelial-cells
#9
Laura A Bourque, Stephen Raverty, Carmon Co, Brandon N Lillie, Pierre-Yves Daoust, Mary Ellen Clark, Jeff L Caswell
Respiratory disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cetaceans, which are also threatened by environmental degradation caused by crude oil spills. Following oil spills, cetaceans at the water surface may inhale droplets of oil containing toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could potentially alter respiratory immunity via activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and its subsequent interaction with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). β-defensins are antimicrobial peptides secreted by airway epithelial cells and their expression is known to be dependent on NF-κB...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243370/blood-serum-acute-phase-proteins-and-iron-dynamics-during-acute-phase-response-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-dublin-experimentally-infected-buffalo-calves
#10
André M Santana, Daniela G Silva, Funmilola C Thomas, Priscila A Bernardes, Lucas J L Pizauro, Clarissa H Santana, Richard J S Burchmore, Peter D Eckersall, José J Fagliari
The study aimed to evaluate clinical signs, blood serum acute phase proteins (APP) and iron dynamics during the acute phase response (APR) of Salmonella Dublin experimentally infected Murrah buffalo calves. Six buffalo calves constituted the control group (CNT) and six were orally inoculate with 108 CFU of S. Dublin (INF). Clinical evaluation was performed, rectal swabs to detect S. Dublin strains were collected and venous blood was sampled before and throughout seven days after inoculation. The APP fractions β-haptoglobin, α-haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin and transferrin were analyzed by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243369/resveratrol-administration-increases-phagocytosis-decreases-oxidative-burst-and-promotes-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-in-healthy-dogs
#11
Leanne M Mathew, Rowena A Woode, Sandra M Axiak-Bechtel, Juliana R Amorim, Amy E DeClue
Resveratrol is a polyphenol that is safe to administer to dogs and has immunomodulating properties. Canine in vitro work indicated that resveratrol spared polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) phagocytosis but reduced the robustness of PMN oxidative burst and resulted in a pro-inflammatory leukocyte cytokine profile. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of resveratrol on the healthy canine innate immune system in vivo. The hypothesis was that resveratrol would spare phagocytosis, depress the vigor of PMN oxidative burst, and result in a proinflammatory stimulated leukocyte cytokine profile in vivo...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243368/use-of-elisa-and-western-blot-for-serological-detection-of-antibodies-to-e-s-antigens-of-trichinella-spiralis-muscle-larvae-in-sera-of-swine-experimentally-infected-with-trichinella-spiralis
#12
Michał Gondek, Justyna Bień, Zygmunt Nowakowski
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the detection of trichinellosis using ELISA, and to determine the degree of variation of IgG antibodies against excretory-secretory (E-S) antigens of T. spiralis muscle larvae. Ten young Polish Large White native breed pigs were experimentally inoculated with a low dose of 300 invasive Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) muscle larvae (ML). Pig sera were collected at 7 and 9 days prior to the experimental infection with T. spiralis and at 9, 14, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33, 37, 41 and 46 days post-infection (d...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243367/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analyses-of-immunoglobulin-tau-heavy-chain-igt-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#13
Xiaoqian Tang, Yang Du, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
Immunoglobulins (Igs) are humoral mediators playing the prevailing role in the innate and adaptive immunities of jawed vertebrates and provide obligatory duties to protect the organism from a wide variety of pathogens. In the present study, the membrane-bound and secretory immunoglobulin T (mIgT and sIgT) genes of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were cloned for the first time with the intention of better understanding the IgT functions. The mIgT cDNA is 2, 049 bp in length including a leader region, a variable region, four constant regions and a transmembrane region (TM), while the 1, 932 bp sIgT cDNA lacks the transmembrane region...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143242/effects-of-a-pathogenic-etec-strain-and-a-probiotic-enterococcus-faecium-strain-on-the-inflammasome-response-in-porcine-dendritic-cells
#14
Henriette Loss, Jörg R Aschenbach, Friederike Ebner, Karsten Tedin, Ulrike Lodemann
Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial for maintaining intestinal homeostasis and generating proper immune responses to bacteria occurring in the gut. Microbial stimuli can be recognized by intracellular receptors called inflammasomes, e.g., nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3). The aim of the present study was to unravel the inflammasome response of porcine monocyte-derived DC (MoDC). We investigated the capacity of probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to elicit inflammasome activation...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078604/relationship-between-the-pathology-of-bovine-intestinal-tissue-and-current-diagnostic-tests-for-johne-s-disease
#15
Caitlin J Jenvey, Jesse M Hostetter, Adrienne L Shircliff, Judith R Stabel
Johne's disease is an enteric disease caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Upon translocation from the lumen of the small intestine, mycobacteria have the ability to thwart innate defense mechanisms and persist within the macrophage in the lamina propria. In an effort to understand how the pathology of disease is reflected in current diagnostic tests, immunofluorescent (IFA) labeling was performed to quantitate macrophage and MAP numbers in the ileum of infected cattle and correlate results with common methods for diagnosis of MAP infection; including ELISA, IFN-γ assay, RT-PCR, culture of MAP, and histological classification of tissue sections...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078603/cell-specific-microvesicles-vary-with-season-and-disease-predisposition-in-healthy-and-previously-laminitic-ponies
#16
E J T Finding, C Lawson, J Elliott, P A Harris, N J Menzies-Gow
Microvesicles are small (up to 1 μm) vesicles found in plasma and other bodily fluids. They are recognised as part of the normal system of inter-cellular communication but altered numbers are also used as biomarkers of disease. Microvesicles have not been studied in detail in the horse but may be relevant to diseases such as laminitis. Identification of equine cell specific microvesicles was performed by developing a panel of cross reactive antibodies to use in flow cytometry to detect microvesicles of platelet, leucocyte and endothelial origin in plasma from healthy ponies and those predisposed to laminitis...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078602/cell-mediated-immune-response-in-goats-after-experimental-challenge-with-the-virulent-brucella-melitensis-strain-16m-and-the-reduced-virulence-strain-rev-1
#17
Jennifer L Higgins, Richard A Bowen, Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero
Brucella melitensis is the etiologic agent of brucellosis in small ruminants and a common cause of disease in humans. While the protective immune response against this pathogen has been well studied in the mouse model, little is known of the immune response triggered by B. melitensis infection in natural hosts. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the caprine immune response over the course of infection with virulent B. melitensis strain 16 M and reduced virulence vaccine strain Rev. 1. Pregnant goats were infected at 11-14 weeks of gestation with 8 × 106 or 8 × 107 CFU of B...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078601/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-protein-concentrations-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-healthy-horses-and-horses-with-severe-equine-asthma
#18
Julia B Montgomery, Michelle L Husulak, Hayley Kosolofski, Scott Dos Santos, Hilary Burgess, Melissa D Meachem
The objective of this study was to determine if TNF-α protein concentration differs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from healthy horses, horses with naturally occurring exacerbations of severe equine asthma and horses in remission from severe equine asthma. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α) protein concentrations were determined in BALF by commercial equine ELISA. Horses with naturally occurring exacerbation of severe equine asthma were found to have significantly lower BALF TNF-α protein concentrations than healthy horses (p = 0...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078600/comparison-of-polymeric-immunoglobulin-receptor-between-fish-and-mammals
#19
REVIEW
Xianghui Kong, Li Wang, Chao Pei, Jie Zhang, Xianliang Zhao, Li Li
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) functions in transporting polymeric immunoglobulin across epithelial cells into external secretion in animals. During animal evolution, fish was situated at a transition point on the phylogenetic spectrum between species possessing only innate immunity (i.e., invertebrates) and species depending heavily on adaptive immunity (i.e., mammals). Previous studies reported that fish and mammals significantly differ in pIgR. This review summarized the differences in pIgR structure, function, and transcriptional regulation between fish and mammals...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078599/investigation-of-immune-cell-markers-in-feline-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Ellen E Sparger, Brian G Murphy, Farina Mustaffa Kamal, Boaz Arzi, Diane Naydan, Chrisoula T Skouritakis, Darren P Cox, Katherine Skorupski
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer in the cat and presents as a locally aggressive lesion for which an effective therapeutic protocol remains elusive. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) shares many clinical characteristics with human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Accordingly, present studies were conducted to determine similarities for immune markers shared by feline OSCC and human HNSCC. Biopsies harvested from a feline patient cohort-1 (n = 12) were analyzed for lymphoid cell infiltrates by immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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