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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242004/expression-of-toll-like-receptors-2-4-and-6-in-different-cell-populations-of-the-equine-endometrium
#1
Sandra Schöniger, Hilke Gräfe, Heinz-Adolf Schoon
Subfertility in mares is mainly caused by endometrial diseases. Alterations of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are associated with endometrial disorders in women. This study investigated TLRs 2, 4 and 6 in the equine endometrium. Endometria of 21 mares were examined by histology, PCR and immunohistochemistry. Tissues from 2 mares were considered normal. The remaining showed endometritis, endometrosis and/or angiosclerosis. TLRs 2, 4 and 6 were expressed as transcripts and proteins in all endometria. Immunohistochemistry detected TLRs 2, 4 and 6 in mast cells, luminal and glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells, endothelia, vascular smooth muscle and/or inflammatory cells...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242003/factors-affecting-induction-of-peripheral-ifn-%C3%AE-recall-response-to-influenza-a-virus-vaccination-in-pigs
#2
Zahra F Olson, Matthew R Sandbulte, Carine Kunzler Souza, Daniel R Perez, Amy L Vincent, Crystal L Loving
While T cell contribution to IAV immunity is appreciated, data comparing methods to evaluate IFN-γ production by IAV-specific T cells elicited following vaccination is limited. To understand the differential immunogenicity between live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) and whole-inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines in relation to induction of peripheral T cell responses, ELISpot and ELISA were used to assess IFN-γ production by peripheral lymphocytes following antigen restimulation. Following restimulation, peripheral blood lymphocytes from WIV-vaccinated pigs had a greater quantity of IFN-γ secreting cells (SC) and IFN-γ secreted compared to LAIV vaccinated and non-vaccinated (NV) pigs...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242002/canine-peripheral-blood-cd4-cd8-double-positive-tcell-subpopulations-exhibit-distinct-tcell-phenotypes-and-effector-functions
#3
Kathrin Rothe, Doris Bismarck, Mathias Büttner, Gottfried Alber, Heiner von Buttlar
Canine peripheral blood CD4(+)CD8α(+) double-positive (dp) Tcells represent a small population of T lymphocytes that are not only derived from single-positive (sp) CD4(+) but also from CD8(+) Tcells. Dp Tcells can be subdivided in three different subpopulations according to their expression levels of CD4 and CD8α, i.e. the CD4(dim)CD8α(bright), CD4(bright)CD8α(bright), and the CD4(bright)CD8α(dim) subsets. Previously we could show that total canine peripheral CD4(+)CD8α(+) dp Tcells have features of activated Tcells...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242001/comparative-study-of-the-vaccine-potential-of-six-outer-membrane-proteins-of-edwardsiella-tarda-and-the-immune-responses-of-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-after-vaccination
#4
Fuguo Liu, Xiaoqian Tang, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
To obtain effective vaccine candidates for Edwardsiella tarda, six outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of E. tarda were selected and recombinantly expressed. Western blotting analysis showed that flounder anti-E. tarda serum could recognize rOmpV, rOmpK, rOmpX and rOmpI, but not rOmpH and rOmpR. Immunization of flounder with different rOMPs resulted in high levels of protection following the E. tarda challenge with relative percent survivals (RPS) of 92.1% (rOmpI), 84.2% (rOmpX), 68.4% (rOmpK), 60.5% (rOmpV), 57...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242000/cytokine-levels-in-colostrum-and-in-foals-serum-pre-and-post-suckling
#5
J Mariella, C Castagnetti, A Prosperi, A Scagliarini, A Peli
The purpose of this study is to investigate the presence of IL-4, IL-8, IL-13 and IFN-γ in equine colostrum and in foals' serum. Samples were obtained from 14 mares and their healthy foals. Soon after parturition, 10ml of colostrum was collected, filtered, centrifuged and frozen until assayed. Blood samples were obtained from each foal at birth (TO) and again after 24h (T24), after which they were frozen until assayed. Serum IgG was measured at 24h of age with an immunoturbidimetric quantitative method. Cytokine concentration was determined using commercially available ELISA tests...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241999/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-mammalian-cell-derived-and-modified-vaccinia-ankara-vectored-african-swine-fever-subunit-antigens-in-swine
#6
Jaime Lopera-Madrid, Jorge E Osorio, Yongqun He, Zuoshuang Xiang, L Garry Adams, Richard C Laughlin, Waithaka Mwangi, Sandesh Subramanya, John Neilan, David Brake, Thomas G Burrage, William Clay Brown, Alfonso Clavijo, Mangkey A Bounpheng
A reverse vaccinology system, Vaxign, was used to identify and select a subset of five African Swine Fever (ASF) antigens that were successfully purified from human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) cells and produced in Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) viral vectors. Three HEK-purified antigens [B646L (p72), E183L (p54), and O61R (p12)], and three MVA-vectored antigens [B646L, EP153R, and EP402R (CD2v)] were evaluated using a prime-boost immunization regimen swine safety and immunogenicity study. Antibody responses were detected in pigs following prime-boost immunization four weeks apart with the HEK-293-purified p72, p54, and p12 antigens...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241998/the-uremic-toxin-methylguanidine-increases-the-oxidative-metabolism-and-accelerates-the-apoptosis-of-canine-neutrophils
#7
A M Bosco, B F M Almeida, P P Pereira, D B Dos Santos, Á J S Neto, W L Ferreira, P C Ciarlini
We investigated the hypothesis that the increased concentration of plasma methylguanidine (MG) increases oxidative metabolism and accelerates apoptosis of neutrophils from dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To achieve this, the levels of MG were quantified in healthy (n=16) and uremic dogs with CKD stage 4 of according to the guidelines of the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS, 2015) (n=16) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To evaluate the isolated effect of MG on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and apoptosis, neutrophils isolated from 12 healthy dogs were incubated with the highest concentration of plasma MG (0...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241997/surveillance-of-infectious-bovine-rhinotracheitis-in-marker-vaccinated-dairy-herds-application-of-a-recombinant-ge-elisa-on-bulk-milk-samples
#8
Elvira Muratore, Luigi Bertolotti, Chiara Nogarol, Claudio Caruso, Laura Lucchese, Bryan Iotti, Dario Ariello, Angela Moresco, Loretta Masoero, Stefano Nardelli, Sergio Rosati
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) occurs worldwide, requiring significant resources for eradication programs or surveillance purposes. The status of infection is usually detected by serological methods using the virus neutralization test (VNT) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on individual sera. The gE DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccines approach, adopted in order to reduce the virus circulation and prevent clinical signs, have tightened the range of available methods for the serological diagnosis...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166932/hyaluronan-mediates-the-adhesion-of-porcine-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-to-poly-i-c-treated-intestinal-cells-and-modulates-their-cytokine-production
#9
María José Docampo, Jennifer Cabrera, Anna Bassols
Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), has been increasingly recognized as a regulator of inflammation. Its role is complex since it has pro- and anti-inflammatory actions by modulating the expression of inflammatory genes, the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the production of inflammatory cytokines, but also by attenuating the course of inflammation and providing protection against tissue damage. Certain viruses and other inflammatory stimuli induce organization of HA into cable-like structures, which may be responsible for leukocyte recruitment and, on the other hand, low molecular weight fragments of HA have been shown to activate various inflammatory responses...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166931/evaluation-of-a-panel-of-antibodies-for-the-immunohistochemical-identification-of-immune-cells-in-paraffin-embedded-lymphoid-tissues-of-new-and-old-world-camelids
#10
Ann-Kathrin Uhde, Annika Lehmbecker, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ingo Spitzbarth
Different species of camelids play an important role in the epidemiology of various emerging infectious diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome. For precise investigations of the immunopathogenesis in these host species, appropriate immunohistochemical markers are highly needed in order to phenotype distinct immune cells populations in camelids. So far, specific immunohistochemical markers for camelid immune cells are rarely commercially available, and cross-reactivity studies are restricted to the use of frozen dromedary tissues...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166930/polymeric-antigen-blsomp31-in-aluminium-hydroxide-induces-serum-bactericidal-and-opsonic-antibodies-against-brucella-canis-in-dogs
#11
Maria Clausse, Alejandra G Díaz, Romina P Pardo, Vanesa Zylberman, Fernando A Goldbaum, Silvia M Estein
Polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 is an immunogenic vaccine candidate that confers protection against Brucella canis in mice. In this preliminary study, the immunogenicity and safety of BLSOmp31 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel (BLSOmp31-AH) were evaluated in Beagle dogs. In addition, the potential to elicit serum antibodies with complement-dependent bactericidal activity and/or to enhance phagocytosis by neutrophils were analyzed. Dogs were immunized three times with BLSOmp31-AH by subcutaneous route, followed by an annual booster...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166929/kinetics-of-plasma-procalcitonin-soluble-cd14-ccl2-and-il-10-after-a-sublethal-infusion-of-lipopolysaccharide-in-horses
#12
Francesca Bonelli, Valentina Meucci, Thomas J Divers, Bettina Wagner, Luigi Intorre, Micaela Sgorbini
Endotoxemia represents a significant clinical and economic problem for the equine industry. This study assesses the kinetics of soluble CD14 (sCD14), chemokine (CC motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and plasma procalcitonin (PCT) in healthy horses after the intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim was to contribute to the basic understanding of the equine species-specific kinetics of these molecules in response to LPS exposure, which could support further findings in clinical studies and identify valuable inflammatory biomarkers for equine practice...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166928/interleukin-8-haplotypes-drive-divergent-responses-in-uterine-endometrial-cells-and-are-associated-with-somatic-cell-score-in-holstein-friesian-cattle
#13
Bojan Stojkovic, Michael P Mullen, Gaetano Donofrio, Rachel M McLoughlin, Kieran G Meade
Interleukin 8 is a proinflammatory chemokine involved in neutrophil recruitment and activation in response to infection and also in the resolution of inflammation. Our previous studies identified a number of genetic polymorphisms in the bovine IL8 promoter region which segregate into two haplotypes, with balanced frequencies in the Holstein-Friesian (HF). We subsequently showed that these haplotypes confer divergent IL8 activity both in vitro in mammary epithelial cells and in vivo in response to LPS. In this study, we hypothesised that the balanced frequency of IL8 haplotype in HF could be explained by divergent selection pressures acting on this locus...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166927/effect-of-artificial-rearing-of-piglets-on-the-volume-densities-of-m-cells-in-the-tonsils-of-the-soft-palate-and-ileal-peyer-s-patches
#14
S Prims, N Pintens, H Vergauwen, S Van Cruchten, C Van Ginneken, C Casteleyn
The high prolificacy of modern hybrid sows has increased the mean litter size during the last decades. However, rearing large litters is challenging and has increased the use of alternative management strategies such as euthanasia of weak piglets, cross-fostering, supplementing piglets with milk, split-nursing and split-weaning. The latter includes artificial rearing on brooders where piglets have ad libitum access to milk replacer. The effect of this artificial rearing on the immune system of the piglet is the subject of various studies...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063479/positive-immunomodulatory-effects-of-heterologous-dna-vaccine-modified-live-vaccine-prime-boost-immunization-against-the-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-infection
#15
Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Teerawut Nedumpun, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Jirapat Arunorat, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is one of the most important swine pathogens, and causes a major economic impact worldwide. Recently, a new variant type 2 PRRSV, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) has emerged and continued to circulate in Southeast Asia region. Currently, commercially available PRRSV vaccines, modified live PRRS vaccines (MLV) are not able to provide complete protection against HP-PRRSV and been reported to induce negative immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly, a novel DNA vaccine was developed and successfully used to improve PRRSV-specific immune responses following MLV vaccination...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063478/developmental-expression-of-b-cell-molecules-in-equine-lymphoid-tissues
#16
J M B Prieto, R L Tallmadge, M J B Felippe
Identification and classification of B cell subpopulations has been shown to be challenging and inconsistent among different species. Our study tested aspects of ontogeny, phenotype, tissue distribution, and function of equine CD5(hi) B cells, which represented a greater proportion of B cells early in development and in the peritoneal cavity. CD5(hi) and CD5(lo) B cells differentially expressed B cell markers (CD2, CD21, IgM) measured using flow cytometry, but similar mRNA expression of signature genes (DGKA, FGL2, PAX5, IGHM, IL10) measured using quantitative RT-PCR...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063477/evaluation-of-serum-cytokines-in-cats-with-and-without-degenerative-joint-disease-and-associated-pain
#17
Margaret E Gruen, Kristen M Messenger, Andrea E Thomson, Emily H Griffith, Lauren A Aldrich, Shelly Vaden, B Duncan X Lascelles
Degenerative joint disease is common in cats, with signs of pain frequently found on orthopedic examination and radiographs often showing evidence of disease. However, understanding of the pathophysiology of degenerative joint disease and associated pain remains limited. Several cytokines have been identified as having a role in pain in humans, but this has not been investigated in cats. The present study was performed to use a multiplex platform to evaluate the concentration of 19 cytokines and chemokines in serum samples obtained from cats with and without degenerative joint disease and associated pain...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063476/short-communication-immunohistochemical-localization-of-the-immune-cell-marker-cd68-in-bovine-adipose-tissue-impact-of-tissue-alterations-and-excessive-fat-accumulation-in-dairy-cows
#18
S Häussler, D Germeroth, L Laubenthal, L F Ruda, J Rehage, S Dänicke, H Sauerwein
With the onset of lactation energy from feed intake is mostly insufficient to meet the requirements of dairy cows. Lipid mobilization from adipose tissue (AT) could lead to a compromised inflammatory response enhancing the incidence for diseases. In addition, tissue alterations can occur, displaying areas of necrosis and inflammation. Furthermore, over-conditioned cows mobilizing more lipids from AT than thin cows are prone to develop metabolic disorders. This might lead to an increased infiltration of phagocytic immune cells into AT...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063475/characterisation-of-monoclonal-antibodies-specific-for-hamster-leukocyte-differentiation-molecules
#19
Jennifer Rees, David Haig, Victoria Mack, William C Davis
Flow cytometry was used to identify mAbs that recognize conserved epitopes on hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules (hLDM) and also to characterize mAbs developed against hLDM. Initial screening of mAbs developed against LDMs in other species yielded mAbs specific for the major histocompatibility (MHC) II molecule, CD4 and CD18. Screening of sets of mAbs developed against hLDM yielded 22 new mAbs, including additional mAbs to MHC II molecules and mAbs that recognize LDMs expressed on all leukocytes, granulocytes, all lymphocytes, all T cells, a subset of T cells, or on all B cells...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063474/porcine-gpx1-enhances-gp5-based-dna-vaccination-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#20
Luping Du, Bin Li, Fengjiao Pang, Zhengyu Yu, Xiangwei Xu, Baochao Fan, Yeping Tan, Kongwang He, Kehe Huang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been causing huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Commercial PRRSV vaccines including killed and modified live ones are available. However the protective efficacy of these vaccines is incomplete. Thus, it is in urgent need to develop safer and more effective PRRSV vaccines. In this study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid co-expressing porcine glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) and the envelope glycoprotein (GP5) encoding-gene of PRRSV (pcDNA3...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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