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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166932/hyaluronan-mediates-the-adhesion-of-porcine-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-to-poly-i-c-treated-intestinal-cells-and-modulates-their-cytokine-production
#1
María José Docampo, Jennifer Cabrera, Anna Bassols
Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), has been increasingly recognized as a regulator of inflammation. Its role is complex since it has pro- and anti-inflammatory actions by modulating the expression of inflammatory genes, the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the production of inflammatory cytokines, but also by attenuating the course of inflammation and providing protection against tissue damage. Certain viruses and other inflammatory stimuli induce organization of HA into cable-like structures, which may be responsible for leukocyte recruitment and, on the other hand, low molecular weight fragments of HA have been shown to activate various inflammatory responses...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166931/evaluation-of-a-panel-of-antibodies-for-the-immunohistochemical-identification-of-immune-cells-in-paraffin-embedded-lymphoid-tissues-of-new-and-old-world-camelids
#2
Ann-Kathrin Uhde, Annika Lehmbecker, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ingo Spitzbarth
Different species of camelids play an important role in the epidemiology of various emerging infectious diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome. For precise investigations of the immunopathogenesis in these host species, appropriate immunohistochemical markers are highly needed in order to phenotype distinct immune cells populations in camelids. So far, specific immunohistochemical markers for camelid immune cells are rarely commercially available, and cross-reactivity studies are restricted to the use of frozen dromedary tissues...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166930/polymeric-antigen-blsomp31-in-aluminium-hydroxide-induces-serum-bactericidal-and-opsonic-antibodies-against-brucella-canis-in-dogs
#3
Maria Clausse, Alejandra G Díaz, Romina P Pardo, Vanesa Zylberman, Fernando A Goldbaum, Silvia M Estein
Polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 is an immunogenic vaccine candidate that confers protection against Brucella canis in mice. In this preliminary study, the immunogenicity and safety of BLSOmp31 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel (BLSOmp31-AH) were evaluated in Beagle dogs. In addition, the potential to elicit serum antibodies with complement-dependent bactericidal activity and/or to enhance phagocytosis by neutrophils were analyzed. Dogs were immunized three times with BLSOmp31-AH by subcutaneous route, followed by an annual booster...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166929/kinetics-of-plasma-procalcitonin-soluble-cd14-ccl2-and-il-10-after-a-sublethal-infusion-of-lipopolysaccharide-in-horses
#4
Francesca Bonelli, Valentina Meucci, Thomas J Divers, Bettina Wagner, Luigi Intorre, Micaela Sgorbini
Endotoxemia represents a significant clinical and economic problem for the equine industry. This study assesses the kinetics of soluble CD14 (sCD14), chemokine (CC motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and plasma procalcitonin (PCT) in healthy horses after the intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim was to contribute to the basic understanding of the equine species-specific kinetics of these molecules in response to LPS exposure, which could support further findings in clinical studies and identify valuable inflammatory biomarkers for equine practice...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166928/interleukin-8-haplotypes-drive-divergent-responses-in-uterine-endometrial-cells-and-are-associated-with-somatic-cell-score-in-holstein-friesian-cattle
#5
Bojan Stojkovic, Michael P Mullen, Gaetano Donofrio, Rachel M McLoughlin, Kieran G Meade
Interleukin 8 is a proinflammatory chemokine involved in neutrophil recruitment and activation in response to infection and also in the resolution of inflammation. Our previous studies identified a number of genetic polymorphisms in the bovine IL8 promoter region which segregate into two haplotypes, with balanced frequencies in the Holstein-Friesian (HF). We subsequently showed that these haplotypes confer divergent IL8 activity both in vitro in mammary epithelial cells and in vivo in response to LPS. In this study, we hypothesised that the balanced frequency of IL8 haplotype in HF could be explained by divergent selection pressures acting on this locus...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166927/effect-of-artificial-rearing-of-piglets-on-the-volume-densities-of-m-cells-in-the-tonsils-of-the-soft-palate-and-ileal-peyer-s-patches
#6
S Prims, N Pintens, H Vergauwen, S Van Cruchten, C Van Ginneken, C Casteleyn
The high prolificacy of modern hybrid sows has increased the mean litter size during the last decades. However, rearing large litters is challenging and has increased the use of alternative management strategies such as euthanasia of weak piglets, cross-fostering, supplementing piglets with milk, split-nursing and split-weaning. The latter includes artificial rearing on brooders where piglets have ad libitum access to milk replacer. The effect of this artificial rearing on the immune system of the piglet is the subject of various studies...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063479/positive-immunomodulatory-effects-of-heterologous-dna-vaccine-modified-live-vaccine-prime-boost-immunization-against-the-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-infection
#7
Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Teerawut Nedumpun, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Jirapat Arunorat, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is one of the most important swine pathogens, and causes a major economic impact worldwide. Recently, a new variant type 2 PRRSV, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) has emerged and continued to circulate in Southeast Asia region. Currently, commercially available PRRSV vaccines, modified live PRRS vaccines (MLV) are not able to provide complete protection against HP-PRRSV and been reported to induce negative immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly, a novel DNA vaccine was developed and successfully used to improve PRRSV-specific immune responses following MLV vaccination...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063478/developmental-expression-of-b-cell-molecules-in-equine-lymphoid-tissues
#8
J M B Prieto, R L Tallmadge, M J B Felippe
Identification and classification of B cell subpopulations has been shown to be challenging and inconsistent among different species. Our study tested aspects of ontogeny, phenotype, tissue distribution, and function of equine CD5(hi) B cells, which represented a greater proportion of B cells early in development and in the peritoneal cavity. CD5(hi) and CD5(lo) B cells differentially expressed B cell markers (CD2, CD21, IgM) measured using flow cytometry, but similar mRNA expression of signature genes (DGKA, FGL2, PAX5, IGHM, IL10) measured using quantitative RT-PCR...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063477/evaluation-of-serum-cytokines-in-cats-with-and-without-degenerative-joint-disease-and-associated-pain
#9
Margaret E Gruen, Kristen M Messenger, Andrea E Thomson, Emily H Griffith, Lauren A Aldrich, Shelly Vaden, B Duncan X Lascelles
Degenerative joint disease is common in cats, with signs of pain frequently found on orthopedic examination and radiographs often showing evidence of disease. However, understanding of the pathophysiology of degenerative joint disease and associated pain remains limited. Several cytokines have been identified as having a role in pain in humans, but this has not been investigated in cats. The present study was performed to use a multiplex platform to evaluate the concentration of 19 cytokines and chemokines in serum samples obtained from cats with and without degenerative joint disease and associated pain...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063476/short-communication-immunohistochemical-localization-of-the-immune-cell-marker-cd68-in-bovine-adipose-tissue-impact-of-tissue-alterations-and-excessive-fat-accumulation-in-dairy-cows
#10
S Häussler, D Germeroth, L Laubenthal, L F Ruda, J Rehage, S Dänicke, H Sauerwein
With the onset of lactation energy from feed intake is mostly insufficient to meet the requirements of dairy cows. Lipid mobilization from adipose tissue (AT) could lead to a compromised inflammatory response enhancing the incidence for diseases. In addition, tissue alterations can occur, displaying areas of necrosis and inflammation. Furthermore, over-conditioned cows mobilizing more lipids from AT than thin cows are prone to develop metabolic disorders. This might lead to an increased infiltration of phagocytic immune cells into AT...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063475/characterisation-of-monoclonal-antibodies-specific-for-hamster-leukocyte-differentiation-molecules
#11
Jennifer Rees, David Haig, Victoria Mack, William C Davis
Flow cytometry was used to identify mAbs that recognize conserved epitopes on hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules (hLDM) and also to characterize mAbs developed against hLDM. Initial screening of mAbs developed against LDMs in other species yielded mAbs specific for the major histocompatibility (MHC) II molecule, CD4 and CD18. Screening of sets of mAbs developed against hLDM yielded 22 new mAbs, including additional mAbs to MHC II molecules and mAbs that recognize LDMs expressed on all leukocytes, granulocytes, all lymphocytes, all T cells, a subset of T cells, or on all B cells...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063474/porcine-gpx1-enhances-gp5-based-dna-vaccination-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#12
Luping Du, Bin Li, Fengjiao Pang, Zhengyu Yu, Xiangwei Xu, Baochao Fan, Yeping Tan, Kongwang He, Kehe Huang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been causing huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Commercial PRRSV vaccines including killed and modified live ones are available. However the protective efficacy of these vaccines is incomplete. Thus, it is in urgent need to develop safer and more effective PRRSV vaccines. In this study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid co-expressing porcine glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) and the envelope glycoprotein (GP5) encoding-gene of PRRSV (pcDNA3...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063473/transfer-of-maternal-immunity-to-piglets-is-involved-in-early-protection-against-mycoplasma-hyosynoviae-infection
#13
K Tølbøll Lauritsen, T Hagedorn-Olsen, G Jungersen, U Riber, H Stryhn, N F Friis, P Lind, B Kristensen
Mycoplasma hyosynoviae causes arthritis in pigs older than 12 weeks. The role of colostrum in protection of piglets against M. hyosynoviae infection is not clear. Our objective was therefore to investigate whether transfer of maternal immunity to piglets was involved in early protection against the infection. Experimental infections were carried out in three groups of weaners receiving different levels of M. hyosynoviae-specific colostrum components; Group NC derived from Mycoplasma free sows and possessed no specific immunity to M...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063472/the-effect-of-free-and-carrier-bound-cortisol-on-equine-neutrophil-function
#14
Melanie A Fratto, Kelsey A Hart, Natalie A Norton, Michelle H Barton, Steeve Giguère, David J Hurley
Cortisol is a key anti-inflammatory hormone that increases in bacterial sepsis and circulates predominantly bound to cortisol binding globulin (CBG). Only unbound cortisol was believed to be biologically active, but recent evidence suggests that CBG-bound cortisol also regulates inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of free and CBG-bound cortisol on equine neutrophil function ex vivo. We hypothesized that CBG would enhance cortisol-mediated suppression of neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063471/comparison-of-assays-for-the-detection-of-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-equine-serum-after-natural-infection-or-vaccination
#15
REVIEW
Kinga Joó, Tamás Bakonyi, Ottó Szenci, Sára Sárdi, Emőke Ferenczi, Mónika Barna, Péter Malik, Zdenek Hubalek, Orsolya Fehér, Orsolya Kutasi
West Nile virus (WNV) mainly infects birds, horses and humans. Outcomes of the infection range from mild uncharacteristic signs to fatal neurologic disease. The main objectives of the present study were to measure serum IgG and IgM antibodies in naturally exposed and vaccinated horses and to compare results of haemagglutination inhibition test (HIT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT). Altogether 224 animals were tested by HIT for WNV antibodies and 41 horses were simultaneously examined by ELISA and PRNT...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863558/development-of-an-autologous-canine-cancer-vaccine-system-for-resectable-malignant-tumors-in-dogs
#16
J R Yannelli, R Wouda, T J Masterson, M G Avdiushko, D A Cohen
While conventional therapies exist for canine cancer, immunotherapies need to be further explored and applied to the canine setting. We have developed an autologous cancer vaccine (K9-ACV), which is available for all dogs with resectable disease. K9-ACV was evaluated for safety and immunogenicity for a variety of cancer types in a cohort of companion dogs under veterinary care. The autologous vaccine was prepared by enzymatic digestion of solid tumor biopsies. The resultant single cell suspensions were then UV-irradiated resulting in immunogenic cell death of the tumor cells...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863557/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-effects-of-temperature-on-phagocytosis-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-apoptosis-in-bovine-polymorphonuclear-cells
#17
Cristina Lecchi, Nicola Rota, Andrea Vitali, Fabrizio Ceciliani, Nicola Lacetera
Heat stress exerts a direct negative effect on farm animal health, triggering physiological responses. Environmental high temperature induces immunosuppression in dairy cows, increasing the risk of mastitis and milk somatic cell counts. The influence of heat stress on leukocytes activities has not been fully elucidated. The present in vitro study was aimed at assessing whether the exposure to temperature simulating conditions of severe whole body hyperthermia affects defensive functions of bovine blood polymorphonuclear cells...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863556/oral-vaccination-of-cattle-with-heat-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-does-not-compromise-bovine-tb-diagnostic-tests
#18
Gareth J Jones, Sabine Steinbach, Iker A Sevilla, Joseba M Garrido, Ramon Juste, H Martin Vordermeier
In this study we investigated whether oral uptake of a heat inactivated M. bovis wildlife vaccine by domestic cattle induced systemic immune responses that compromised the use of tuberculin or defined antigens in diagnostic tests for bovine TB. Positive skin test and blood-based IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) results were observed in all calves vaccinated via the parenteral route (i.e. intramuscular). In contrast, no positive responses to tuberculin or defined antigens were observed in either the skin test or IGRA test when performed in calves vaccinated via the oral route...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863555/test-performance-of-three-serological-assays-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-common-warthogs-phacochoerus-africanus
#19
Eduard O Roos, Peter Buss, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist, Jennie Hewlett, Guy A Hausler, Leana Rossouw, Alicia J McCall, David Cooper, Paul D van Helden, Sven D C Parsons, Michele A Miller
Sporadic cases of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) have been reported in warthogs in Southern Africa and confirmed through mycobacterial culture. However, there are no validated ante-mortem tests currently available for bTB in warthogs. In this study, we evaluated the use of three serological assays for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in warthogs; an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using bovine purified protein derivative (PPDb) as a capture antigen (indirect PPD ELISA), as well as two commercial assays, the TB ELISA-VK(®) and DPP(®) VetTB Assay...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863554/acute-phase-protein-haptoglobin-as-inflammatory-marker-in-serum-and-synovial-fluid-in-an-equine-model-of-arthritis
#20
Laura Barrachina, Ana Rosa Remacha, Lourdes Soler, Natalia García, Antonio Romero, Francisco José Vázquez, Arantza Vitoria, María Ángeles Álava, Fermín Lamprave, Clementina Rodellar
Acute phase proteins are useful inflammatory markers in horses. Haptoglobin (Hp) serum level is increased in horses undergoing different inflammatory processes, including arthritis. However, Hp concentration has not been assessed in inflammatory synovial fluid (SF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the Hp response in serum and SF in horses undergoing experimentally induced arthritis. For this purpose, serum and SF samples were collected from 12 animals before amphotericin B-induced arthritis was created (T0, healthy) and 15days after the lesion induction (T1, joint inflammation) and Hp was determined by single radial immunodiffusion...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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