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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

Irene Soria, Javier Alvarez, Ana I Manzano, Juan López-Relaño, Bárbara Cases, Ana Mas-Fontao, F Javier Cañada, Enrique Fernández-Caldas, Miguel Casanovas, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, Oscar Palomares, Luis M Viñals-Flórez, José L Subiza
We have recently reported that grass pollen allergoids conjugated with nonoxidized mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisae using glutaraldehyde results in a novel hypoallergenic mannan-allergen complex with improved properties for allergen vaccination. Using this approach, human dendritic cells show a better allergen uptake and cytokine profile production (higher IL-10/IL-4 ratio) for therapeutic purposes. Here we aim to address whether a similar approach can be extended to dogs using canine dendritic cells. Six healthy Spanish Greyhound dogs were used as blood donors to obtain canine dendritic cells (DC) derived from peripheral blood monocytes...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
S M Albarrak, W R Waters, J R Stabel, J M Hostetter
A role for γδ T cells in protection against mycobacterial infections including Johne's disease (JD) has been suggested. In neonatal calves where the risk to infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is high, the majority of circulating CD3(+) lymphocytes are γδ TCR(+). Bovine γδ T cells are divided into two major subsets based on the surface expression of workshop cluster 1 (WC1). The WC1(+) subset, the predominant subset in periphery, is further divided into WC1.1(+) and WC1.2(+) subpopulations...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Akiko Inoue, Shingo Maeda, Ryohei Kinoshita, Masaya Tsuboi, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Naoaki Matsuki
Although tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) play a key role in anti-tumor immunity, their involvement in canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is not well-documented. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between TIL number and prognosis in dogs with urinary bladder TCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD3 and granzyme B was performed using canine TCC (n=32) and normal bladder (n=10) tissues. The numbers of CD3(+) and granzyme B(+) cells located in peritumoral stroma of canine TCC were significantly higher than those in normal controls...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Lydia Siebert, Susan Headrick, Mark Lewis, Barbara Gillespie, Charlie Young, Leszek Wojakiewicz, Oudessa Kerro-Dego, Maria E Prado, Raul Almeida, Stephen P Oliver, Gina M Pighetti
Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, costs the dairy industry billions of dollars in lost revenues annually. The prevalence and costs associated with mastitis has made genetic selection methods a target for research. Previous research has identified amino acid changes at positions 122, 207, 245, 327, and 332 in the IL8 receptor, CXCR1, that result in three dominant amino acid haplotypes: VWHKH, VWHRR, and AWQRR. We hypothesize different haplotype combinations influence a cow's resistance, strength, and duration of response to mastitis...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Yi-Qun Li, Jian Zhang, Jun Li, Li Sun
In mammals, CD22 is a member of the Ig superfamily that serves as an inhibitor during B cell responses to foreign antigens. In this study, we characterized for the first time a fish CD22 from tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis (CsCD22). CsCD22 possesses the conserved structural features of CD22 and shares 35%-54% sequence identities with other fish CD22. mRNA expression of CsCD22 was most abundant in head kidney and heart. CsCD22 protein was detected on the surface of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). In the presence of rCsCD22 antibody, the proliferation, phagocytosis, and antibacterial activity of PBL were significantly increased...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Mohammad Jafar Taebipour, Habibollah Dadras, Saeed Nazifi, Mina Afsar, Maryam Ansari-Lari
In the present study, after vaccination and challenge with Newcastle disease virus, changes in the population of blood monocytes and lymphocytes of broiler chickens were evaluated using flow cytometry. 300 apparently healthy 1-day-old Cobb broiler chicks were divided randomly into four experimental groups (n=75). At 20days of age the chicks in group 1 and 2 were vaccinated with live B1 ND vaccine. Those in group 2 were additionally injected with a killed vaccine simultaneously and group 3 chicks received only the adjuvant of the killed vaccine...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Natalie Gibbons, Michelle R Goulart, Yu-Mei Chang, Konstantinos Efstathiou, Robert Purcell, Ying Wu, Laureen M Peters, Mark Turmaine, Balazs Szladovits, Oliver A Garden
Monocytes are key cells of the innate immune system. Their phenotypic and functional roles have been investigated in humans, mice and other animals, such as the rat, pig and cow. To date, detailed phenotypic analysis of monocytes has not been undertaken in dogs. Two important surface markers in human monocytes are CD14 and MHC class II (MHC II). By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that canine monocytes can be subdivided into three separate populations: CD14(pos)MHC II(neg), CD14(pos)MHC II(pos) and CD14(neg)MHC II(pos)...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sakthivel Subramaniam, Pablo Piñeyro, Rachel J Derscheid, Darin M Madson, Drew R Magstadt, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine viral disease worldwide. Current modified live-attenuated vaccines are ineffective against heterologous strains of PRRS virus (PRRSV) circulating in the field. In this study, we evaluated three dendritic cell (DC)-targeted vaccine candidates for their protective efficacy against heterologous PRRSV challenge. Ectodomain regions of DNA-shuffled structural proteins GP3, GP4, GP5 and M of PRRSV were fused together to form the vaccine antigen which was in turn fused with one of three recombinant antibodies each specific to a DC receptor: DC-SIGN, Langerin, and DEC205...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Andreia T Marques, Laura Nordio, Cristina Lecchi, Guido Grilli, Chiara Giudice, Fabrizio Ceciliani
Acute phase proteins (APP) are plasma proteins that can modify their expression in response to inflammation caused by tissue injury, infections, immunological disorders or stress. Although APP are produced mainly in liver, extrahepatic production has also been described. As a prerequisite to get insight the expression of APP in chicken during diseases, this study investigated the presence of five APP, including alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), Serum Amyloid A (SAA), PIT54, C-Reactive protein (CRP) and Ovotransferrin (OVT) in twenty tissues collected from healthy chicken (Gallus gallus) by quantitative Real Time PCR and immunohistochemistry...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Akila Sathyamoorthi, Prasanth Bhatt, Gayathri Ravichandran, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jesu Arockiaraj
Chemokines have been known for their wide range of functions including chemoattractant property in humans and other vertebrate organisms. They act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune system. In the present study, we have identified a CXC chemokine from the cDNA library of C. striatus; on the basis of orthology study, it was found highly identical to interleukin 8 (IL8). The bioinformatics analysis of the chemokine revealed the presence of a typical γ-core domain and a CXC motif at the N-terminal region of the molecule...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Tiziana Cubeddu, Carla Cacciotto, Salvatore Pisanu, Vittorio Tedde, Alberto Alberti, Marco Pittau, Simone Dore, Agnese Cannas, Sergio Uzzau, Stefano Rocca, Maria Filippa Addis
Cathelicidins are well-characterized antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are present in significant amounts in mastitic milk. Neutrophils are believed to be the main producers of these AMPs, while the role of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in their production and release is still unclear. In this work, cathelicidin production patterns were investigated in mammary tissues of ewes infected by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, or Mycoplasma agalactiae, with a combined approach including immunohistochemistry, immune-colocalization, and fluorescent in situ hybridization...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Ludivine Chapat, Florence Hilaire, Jérome Bouvet, Daniel Pialot, Corinne Philippe-Reversat, Anne-Laure Guiot, Lydie Remolue, Jacques Lechenet, Christine Andreoni, Hervé Poulet, Michael J Day, Karelle De Luca, Carine Cariou, Lionel Cupillard
The assessment of vaccine combinations, or the evaluation of the impact of minor modifications of one component in well-established vaccines, requires animal challenges in the absence of previously validated correlates of protection. As an alternative, we propose conducting a multivariate analysis of the specific immune response to the vaccine. This approach is consistent with the principles of the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction and Replacement) and avoids repeating efficacy studies based on infectious challenges in vivo...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Nanhua Chen, Benjamin R Trible, Raymond R R Rowland
Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) play an important role in protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the characterization of PRRSV nAb repertoires is rarely investigated. In this study, we developed a swine VDJ amplification method and selection criteria for the characterization of PRRSV-activated VDJ repertoires. According to clonal expansion theory, two separated aliquots of lymph nodes from pigs producing different PRRSV nAbs were utilized to determine the activated B-cell repertoires...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Andrew R Williams, Tina V A Hansen, Lukasz Krych, Hajar Fauzan Bin Ahmad, Dennis S Nielsen, Kerstin Skovgaard, Stig M Thamsborg
Dietary phytonutrients such as cinnamaldehyde (CA) may contribute to immune function during pathogen infections, and CA has been reported to have positive effects on gut health when used as feed additive for livestock. Here, we investigated whether CA could enhance antibody production and specific immune responses during infection with an enteric pathogen. We examined the effect of dietary CA on plasma antibody levels in parasite-naïve pigs, and subsequently acquisition of humoral immune responses during infection with the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Michael P Sheridan, John A Browne, Mairead B Doyle, Tara Fitzsimons, Kevina McGill, Eamonn Gormley
The measurement of bovine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) forms the basis of a diagnostic test for bovine tuberculosis where Mycobacterium bovis sensitised effector T cells produce IFN-γ following in vitro stimulation with tuberculin antigens. In cattle infected with M. bovis it is also known that the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine can inhibit in vitro production of IFN-γ leading to a reduced response in the IFN-γ diagnostic test. In order to investigate this in greater detail, whole blood samples from tuberculin skin test positive and negative cattle were stimulated with bovine and avian tuberculin antigens and in parallel with a neutralising anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Xiaocheng Li, Peng Zhang, Xiaosong Jiang, Huarui Du, Chaowu Yang, Zengrong Zhang, Shuai Men, Zhikun Zhang, Wei Jiang, Hongning Wang
Salmonella enterica serovar (S. enteritidis) is a pathogenic bacterium that can cause symptoms of food poisoning, leading to death of poultry, resulting in serious economic losses. The MyD88 and TRIF signalling pathways play important roles in activating innate and adaptive immunity in chickens infected with S. enteritidis. The objective of the present study was to characterize in vivo mRNA expressions, protein levels and methylation levels of genes in the above two pathways in both Tibetan chickens and DaHeng S03 chickens infected with S...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Kathy Dernivoix, Virginie Roupie, Sarah Welby, Sophie Roelandt, Sophie Viart, Jean-Jacques Letesson, Ruddy Wattiez, Kris Huygen, Marc Govaerts
Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic granulomatous enteritis which primarily affects domestic and wild ruminants, resulting in serious economic losses for dairy and beef industry around the world. There is no satisfactory cure or vaccine, and actual diagnostic tests need improvement, particularly for the initial stages of the disease. Map specific cell-mediated immune responses may allow early detection of the infection at subclinical stages. In this study, over a period of 39 months, we collected 548 blood samples in two culture-confirmed Map-infected herds, 95 blood samples in five dairy herds that scored negative during 3 consecutive years of Map serology testing and 79 samples in three culture-confirmed M...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Ana Cantos-Barreda, Damián Escribano, Luis J Bernal, Luis Pardo-Marín, José J Cerón, Silvia Martínez-Subiela
The aims of this study were (1) to develop and validate time resolved-immunofluorometric assays for the detection of anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies in canine serum and (2) to evaluate the ability of these assays to quantify different amounts of anti-Leishmania antibodies in Leishmania-seronegative and seropositive dogs, determined by a commercial ELISA assay, and between different clinical stages according to LeishVet guidelines. The analytical validation showed that the assays had a good precision with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation lower than 10%...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Kader Yildiz, Sami Gokpinar, Aycan Nuriye Gazyagci, Cahit Babur, Neslihan Sursal, Ahmet Kursat Azkur
The main aim of this study was to compare extracellular traps (NETs) formation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of cattle and sheep when exposed to T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro. The effects of parasite concentrations and different incubation periods on NETs development in cattle and sheep PMNs were studied. The effect of NET structures on host cell invasion by tachyzoites was also studied. This is the first report of NETs development by sheep and cattle PMNs against T. gondii in vitro. T. gondii-induced extracellular DNA production from PMNs was dependent on tachyzoite concentrations and incubation time in both sheep and cattle...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Yuko Nakano, Masato Kobayashi, Makoto Bonkobara, Masamine Takanosu
Imatinib-resistance is a major therapeutic problem in human chronic myeloid leukemia, human gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and canine mast cell tumors. In the present study, we identified the secondary mutation c.2006C>T in c-KIT exon 14 in a mast cell tumor obtained from a dog carrying c.1663-1671del in exon 11 and showing resistance to imatinib. The mutation in exon 14 resulted in substitution of threonine with isoleucine at position 669, which was located at the center of the ATP binding site as a gatekeeper and played an important role in binding to imatinib...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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