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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129227/t-and-b-cell-activation-profiles-from-cows-with-and-without-johne-s-disease-in-response-to-in-vitro-stimulation-with-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis
#1
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R B Sporer, Brian W Kirkpatrick, Paul M Coussens
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic wasting disease of ruminants caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). JD is particularly problematic on US dairy farms: estimates show that over 50% of farms are MAP-contaminated and as many as 91% of dairy herds could be infected. Although estimates vary widely, JD may cost the dairy industry between $200 million and $1.5 billion every year. One major obstacle to JD management is that JD is difficult to detect in many animals, in part due to the variable immunity against MAP demonstrated by JD+ cattle...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129226/measuring-bovine-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-function-at-the-site-of-mycobacterium-bovis-infection
#2
Rachel A Rusk, Mitchell V Palmer, W Ray Waters, Jodi L McGill
Bovine γδ T cells are amongst the first cells to accumulate at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection; however, their role in the developing lesion remains unclear. We utilized transcriptomics analysis, in situ hybridization, and a macrophage/γδ T cell co-culture system to elucidate the role of γδ T cells in local immunity to M. bovis infection. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that γδ T cells upregulated expression of several novel, immune-associated genes in response to stimulation with M. bovis antigen...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129225/lipopolysaccharide-induced-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-canine-neutrophils-is-dependent-on-histone-h3-citrullination-by-peptidylarginine-deiminase
#3
Ronald H L Li, Geena Ng, Fern Tablin
Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are extracellular chromatin decorated with histones and antimicrobial proteins. Although known for antimicrobial properties, overzealous production of NETs (NETosis) may lead to cytotoxicity and multiple organ failure in sepsis. Pathogen-induced NETosis has been extensively studied in mice but its importance in dogs remains largely unknown. This study sought to characterize in vitro NETosis induced by E.coli LPS, including assessing the role of peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) in canine NETosis...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129224/quantification-and-phenotypic-characterisation-of-peripheral-ifn-%C3%AE-producing-leucocytes-in-chickens-vaccinated-against-newcastle-disease
#4
S H Andersen, L Vervelde, K Sutton, L R Norup, E Wattrang, H R Juul-Madsen, T S Dalgaard
The aim of this study was to optimise and evaluate an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay for assessment of T cell IFN-γ responses in chickens vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND). We aimed to validate currently available antibodies to chicken IFN-γ using transfected CHO cells. Moreover, this ICS assay was evaluated for use to detect mitogen and antigen induced IFN-γ production in chicken peripheral blood leucocytes. Chickens from an inbred white leghorn line containing two MHC haplotypes, B19 and B21, were divided into three experimental groups; one group was kept as naive controls, one group was vaccinated intramuscularly twice with a commercial inactivated ND virus (NDV) vaccine, and the last group was vaccinated orally twice with a commercial live attenuated NDV vaccine...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129223/infectious-pancreatic-necrosis-virus-infection-of-fish-cell-lines-preliminary-analysis-of-gene-expressions-related-to-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-and-immunity
#5
Melina Villalba, Valeria Pérez, Laura Herrera, Cristopher Stepke, Nicolas Maldonado, Fernanda Fredericksen, Alejandro Yáñez, Víctor H Olavarría
The pathogenic infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes high economic losses in fish farming. This virus can modulate several cellular processes during infection, but little is known about the infection mechanism. To investigate gene activation in response to IPNV, CHSE/F and SHK-1 cell line were infected with a cytopathic Sp field isolate of IPNV, and the expression profiles of proinflammatory, antiviral cytokine, and extracellular matrix markers were analyzed. IPNV induced the production of perlecan, fibulin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, 14-3-3β, interleukin-1β, Mx1, and interferon regulatory factors-1, -3, and -9...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129222/both-cytopathic-and-non-cytopathic-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-bvdv-induced-autophagy-at-a-similar-rate
#6
Mrigendra K S Rajput, Karim Abdelsalam, Mahmoud F Darweesh, Lyle J Braun, Jason Kerkvliet, Adam D Hoppe, Christopher C L Chase
Autophagy is a cellular process that maintains cellular homeostasis by the proteolytic recycling of cytoplasm. Autophagy occurs at basal levels in almost all cells. It is upregulated in cellular stress including starvation, oxidative stress or during infection. Several viruses including flavivirus have developed strategies to subvert or use autophagy for their efficient replication. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and the pestivirus virus group. BVDV is responsible for significant economic loss in cattle industry worldwide...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042016/bacteria-causing-pyometra-in-bitch-and-queen-induce-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#7
M R Rebordão, G Alexandre-Pires, M Carreira, L Adriano, C Carneiro, T Nunes, L Mateus, G Ferreira-Dias
Neutrophils are capable of releasing their DNA in response to infectious agents to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to destroy pathogens. Even though pyometra in queens and bitches is a common disease, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of NETs in the endometrium of queens and bitches suffering from pyometra. Pyometra and normal uteri were obtained after ovariohysterectomy from adult queens and bitches in diestrus. Uterine contents were evaluated for bacterial isolation and identification and for NETs presence...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042015/identification-of-monoclonal-antibodies-cross-reactive-with-bottlenose-dolphin-orthologues-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-and-leukocyte-differentiation-molecules
#8
Mahmoud M Elnaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, Stephanie K Venn-Watson, Eric D Jensen, Victoria Hulubei, Lindsay M Fry, Randy E Sacco, William C Davis
The slow progress in understanding immunotoxic effects of environmental contaminants and their influence on disease susceptibility in whales is largely due to the limited information available on the immune systems and immune function of species included in the Cetancodontamorpha clade. Studies in species in the other major clades included in the Artiodactylamorpha, Ruminantiamorpha, Suinamorpha, and Camelidamorpha have revealed the immune systems are similar, but not identical. The present study was undertaken to expand the available monoclonal antibody reagents needed to gain insight into the composition, function, and evolution of the immune system in Cetancodontamorpha, using the dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) as a model cetacean species...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042014/effects-of-cathelicidin-derived-peptide-from-reptiles-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-intestinal-inflammation-in-weaned-piglets
#9
Haiwen Zhang, Bingxi Zhang, Xiaomeng Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Kebang Wu, Qingfeng Guan
Cathelicidins are the largest family of antimicrobial peptides. C-BF, which is short for Cathelicidin-Bungarus Fasciatus, was isolated from snake venom. C-BF was found to be the most potential substitutes for antibiotics. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cathelicidin-derived peptide C-BF, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal damage in weaned piglets, to evaluate the therapeutic effect of C-BF on infectious disease of piglets. Twenty-four piglets were randomly assigned into four groups: control, C-BF, LPS, and C-BF+LPS...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042013/inhibition-of-microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-mpges-1-selectively-suppresses-pge2-in-an-in-vitro-equine-inflammation-model
#10
Emily M Martin, Samuel L Jones
Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production effectively limits inflammation in horses, however nonspecific prostaglandin blockade via cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition elicits deleterious gastrointestinal side effects in equine patients. Thus, more selective PGE2 targeting therapeutics are needed to treat inflammatory disease in horses. One potential target is microsomal prostaglandin E-synthase-1 (mPGES-1), which is the terminal enzyme downstream of COX-2 in the inducible PGE2 synthesis cascade. This enzyme has yet to be studied in equine leukocytes, which play a pivotal role in equine inflammatory disease...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042012/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-ompgrp-l2-from-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#11
Ju Hye Jang, Hyun Kim, Ju Hyun Cho
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are innate immune molecules that are structurally conserved through evolution in both invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In teleost fish, several PGRPs have been characterized recently. They have both amidase activity and bactericidal activity and are involved in indirectly killing bacteria and regulating multiple signaling pathways. However, the knowledge of functional similarity and divergence between PGRP paralogs for their role as an immune modulator in teleost fish is still limited...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042011/differences-in-innate-and-adaptive-immune-response-traits-of-pahari-indian-non-descript-indigenous-breed-and-jersey-crossbred-cattle
#12
Subhash Verma, Aneesh Thakur, Shailja Katoch, Chander Shekhar, Aasim Habib Wani, Sandeep Kumar, Shweta Dohroo, Geetanjali Singh, Mandeep Sharma
Cattle are an integral part of the largely agrarian economy of India. Indigenous breeds of cattle comprise about 80% of total cattle population of the country and contribute significantly to the overall milk production. There are 40 recognized indigenous breeds of cattle and a number of uncharacterized non-descript cattle. Pahari cattle of Himachal Pradesh in Northern India are one such non-descript indigenous breed. Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of haematobiochemical parameters and innate and adaptive immune response traits of Pahari cattle and a comparison with Jersey crossbred cattle...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042010/purification-of-chicken-igy-by-binding-capture-using-elastin-like-polypeptide-tagged-immunoglobulin-binding-domain-of-streptococcal-protein-g
#13
Wenlong Xia, Huipeng Lu, Yangyang Li, Jun Cao, Xiaohui Zhou, Xinyu Zhang, Xiaoli Xia, Huaichang Sun
Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin, but its practical application is limited due to the complex purification procedure. In this study, the C2 domain of streptococcal protein G (SPG) with the binding affinity for chicken IgY was expressed in E. coli as an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) fusion protein, and purified to a high purity by inverse transition cycling (ITC). Binding experiments showed that chicken IgY could bind to and eluted off the ELP-C2 fusion protein in pH-, temperature- and/or time-dependent manners...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042009/identification-of-new-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotide-motifs-that-induce-expression-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-nitric-oxide-in-avian-macrophages
#14
Astia Sanjaya, Jacob R Elder, Devendra H Shah
Unmethylated CpG motifs are known to stimulate mammalian toll-like receptor-9 expressing cells such as macrophages. However, the magnitude of immune-stimulation by CpG-motif can be sequence- and host-specific, implying the importance of identifying new immune-stimulatory motifs. This study aimed to determine the frequency distribution of 256 unique hexamers CpG-motifs in the Salmonella genome and to characterize their immune-stimulatory activity in avian host. We synthesized 256 CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) each containing triplicates of a unique hexamer CpG-motif and tested their ability to induce expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in avian macrophages using q-RT PCR in four rounds of screening assays...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895871/type-i-interferons-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-canine-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Daniela Klotz, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ingo Gerhauser
Type I interferons (IFNs) such as IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-κ, and IFN-ω represent cytokines, which are deeply involved in the regulation and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. They possess strong antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities allowing their use in the therapy of different viral diseases, neoplasms, and immune-mediated disorders, respectively. Initially, treatment strategies were based on nonspecific inducers of type I IFNs, which were soon replaced by different recombinant proteins...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895870/protection-of-commercial-turkeys-following-inactivated-or-recombinant-h5-vaccine-application-against-the-2015u-s-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#16
Darrell R Kapczynski, Matthew J Sylte, Mary L Killian, Mia K Torchetti, Klaudia Chrzastek, David L Suarez
Between December 2014 and June 2015, North America experienced the largest recorded foreign animal disease outbreak with over 47 million poultry dead or euthanized from viral exposure to a clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic. Soon after the epizootic began, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) began testing the efficacy of different vaccines as a possible future control strategy. The aim of these studies were to evaluate the efficacy three H5 vaccines to aid in control of HPAI in commercial turkeys...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895869/amiloride-interferes-with-platelet-activating-factor-induced-respiratory-burst-and-mmp-9-release-in-bovine-neutrophils-independent-of-na-h-exchanger-1
#17
C S Larrazabal, M D Carretta, M A Hidalgo, R A Burgos
Cytoplasmic pH homeostasis is required for an appropriate response in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). In these cells, chemotaxis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are reduced by the use of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-1) inhibitors, but these results are mainly obtained using amiloride, a non-selective NHE-1 inhibitor. In bovine PMNs, the role of NHE-1 in functional responses has not been confirmed yet. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NHE-1 using amiloride and zoniporide in pH regulation, ROS production, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) release and calcium flux in bovine PMNs induced by the platelet activation factor (PAF), additionally we evaluated the presence of NHE-1 and NHE-2 mRNA Our data show the presence only of NHE-1 but not NHE-2 in bovine PMNs...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895868/identification-of-novel-biomarkers-for-treatment-monitoring-in-canine-leishmaniosis-by-high-resolution-quantitative-proteomic-analysis
#18
Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Anita Horvatic, Damian Escribano, Luis Pardo-Marin, Meric Kocaturk, Vladimir Mrljak, Richard Burchmore, Jose J Ceron, Zeki Yilmaz
The objective of this study was to use the Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) isobaric label-based proteomic approach, in order to identify new potential biomarkers for the treatment monitoring of canine leishmaniosis that could not be identified by the use of gel-based techniques. For this purpose serum samples were obtained from 5 clinically diseased dogs before and one month after the treatment of canine leishmaniosis. The non-depleted serum samples were subjected to reduction, alkylation and trypsin digestion, and the resulting peptides were labeled using 6-plex TMT reagents...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895867/markedly-different-immune-responses-and-virus-kinetics-in-littermates-infected-with-porcine-circovirus-type-2-or-porcine-parvovirus-type-1
#19
Tanja Opriessnig, Priscilla F Gerber, Shannon R Matzinger, Xiang-Jin Meng, Patrick G Halbur
Porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are small single-stranded DNA viruses with high prevalence in the global pig population. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast PCV2 and PPV1 infections in high-health status pigs and to describe PCV2 long-term infection dynamics. Six caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived pigs were randomly divided into two groups and were experimentally infected with PCV2 or PPV1 at 5 weeks of age. All pigs had detectable viremia by day (D) 3 post-infection...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895866/specific-immunotypes-of-canine-t-cell-lymphoma-are-associated-with-different-outcomes
#20
Nariman Deravi, Olaf Berke, J Paul Woods, Dorothee Bienzle
Canine lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease with many different subtypes. Lymphoma of T cell type in particular is variable in outcome, and includes subtypes with non-progressive, slowly- and rapidly-progressive disease course. Association of immunotype with disease course is incompletely defined. Here, results of flow cytometric immunotyping of 127 canine T cell lymphomas were analyzed in relation to survival and progression free interval. Samples originated from 101 multicentric, 8 mediastinal, 6 cutaneous, 5 hepatosplenic, 5 gastrointestinal and 2 other anatomic subtypes of T cell lymphoma...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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