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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

Daniela Klotz, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ingo Gerhauser
Type I interferons (IFNs) such as IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-κ, and IFN-ω represent cytokines, which are deeply involved in the regulation and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. They possess strong antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities allowing their use in the therapy of different viral diseases, neoplasms, and immune-mediated disorders, respectively. Initially, treatment strategies were based on nonspecific inducers of type I IFNs, which were soon replaced by different recombinant proteins...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Darrell R Kapczynski, Matthew J Sylte, Mary L Killian, Mia K Torchetti, Klaudia Chrzastek, David L Suarez
Between December 2014 and June 2015, North America experienced the largest recorded foreign animal disease outbreak with over 47 million poultry dead or euthanized from viral exposure to a clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic. Soon after the epizootic began, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) began testing the efficacy of different vaccines as a possible future control strategy. The aim of these studies were to evaluate the efficacy three H5 vaccines to aid in control of HPAI in commercial turkeys...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
C S Larrazabal, M D Carretta, M A Hidalgo, R A Burgos
Cytoplasmic pH homeostasis is required for an appropriate response in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). In these cells, chemotaxis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are reduced by the use of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-1) inhibitors, but these results are mainly obtained using amiloride, a non-selective NHE-1 inhibitor. In bovine PMNs, the role of NHE-1 in functional responses has not been confirmed yet. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NHE-1 using amiloride and zoniporide in pH regulation, ROS production, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) release and calcium flux in bovine PMNs induced by the platelet activation factor (PAF), additionally we evaluated the presence of NHE-1 and NHE-2 mRNA Our data show the presence only of NHE-1 but not NHE-2 in bovine PMNs...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Anita Horvatic, Damian Escribano, Luis Pardo-Marin, Meric Kocaturk, Vladimir Mrljak, Richard Burchmore, Jose J Ceron, Zeki Yilmaz
The objective of this study was to use the Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) isobaric label-based proteomic approach, in order to identify new potential biomarkers for the treatment monitoring of canine leishmaniosis that could not be identified by the use of gel-based techniques. For this purpose serum samples were obtained from 5 clinically diseased dogs before and one month after the treatment of canine leishmaniosis. The non-depleted serum samples were subjected to reduction, alkylation and trypsin digestion, and the resulting peptides were labeled using 6-plex TMT reagents...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Tanja Opriessnig, Priscilla F Gerber, Shannon R Matzinger, Xiang-Jin Meng, Patrick G Halbur
Porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are small single-stranded DNA viruses with high prevalence in the global pig population. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast PCV2 and PPV1 infections in high-health status pigs and to describe PCV2 long-term infection dynamics. Six caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived pigs were randomly divided into two groups and were experimentally infected with PCV2 or PPV1 at 5 weeks of age. All pigs had detectable viremia by day (D) 3 post-infection...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Nariman Deravi, Olaf Berke, J Paul Woods, Dorothee Bienzle
Canine lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease with many different subtypes. Lymphoma of T cell type in particular is variable in outcome, and includes subtypes with non-progressive, slowly- and rapidly-progressive disease course. Association of immunotype with disease course is incompletely defined. Here, results of flow cytometric immunotyping of 127 canine T cell lymphomas were analyzed in relation to survival and progression free interval. Samples originated from 101 multicentric, 8 mediastinal, 6 cutaneous, 5 hepatosplenic, 5 gastrointestinal and 2 other anatomic subtypes of T cell lymphoma...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Abubakar Garba, Delphine D Acar, Inge D M Roukaerts, Lowiese M B Desmarets, Bert Devriendt, Hans J Nauwynck
Mesenchymal cells are multipotent stromal cells with self-renewal, differentiation and immunomodulatory capabilities. We aimed to develop a co-culture model for differentiating hematopoietic cells on top of immortalized mesenchymal cells for studying interactions between hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, useful for adequately exploring the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal cells. In this study, we investigated the survival, proliferation and differentiation of porcine red bone marrow hematopoietic cells co-cultured with immortalized porcine bone marrow mesenchymal cells for a period of five weeks...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Gollahalli Eregowda Chethan, Jugal Garkhal, Shubhankar Sircar, Yash Pal Singh Malik, Reena Mukherjee, Nihar Ranjan Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal, Ujjwal Kumar De
A non-blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory potential of β-glucan (BG) in piglet diarrhoea associated with type A rotavirus infection. A total of 12 rotavirus-infected diarrheic piglets were randomly divided into two groups: wherein six rotavirus-infected piglets were treated with supportive treatment (ST) and other six rotavirus-infected piglets were treated with BG along with ST (ST-BG). Simultaneously, six healthy piglets were also included in the study which served as control...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Heather Freer, Julia M Hillegas, Christine Wimer, Cynthia Baldwin, Joanna LaBresh, Bettina Wagner
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a T cell growth factor and major modulator of T helper (Th) cell differentiation. Here, we have developed and characterized a monoclonal antibody to equine IL-2 (anti-IL-2 mAb, clone 158-1). The IL-2 mAb detected rIL-2 by ELISA, intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting. The IL-2 mAb was also paired with a polyclonal IL-2 detection antibody in both ELISA and a fluorescent bead-based assay. When these two assays were compared using identical reagents there was an improved analytical sensitivity (46pg/ml) and wider linear quantification range (46-100,000pg/ml) of IL-2 quantification using the fluorescent bead assay...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Hyung-Kyu Chae, Woo-Jin Song, Jin-Ok Ahn, Qiang Li, Bo-Yeon Lee, Kyeong Kweon, Sang-Chul Park, Hwa-Young Youn
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunomodulatory functions and differentiation capacity, and their clinical use is increasing in veterinary species. Although MSCs have been applied in the treatment in various inflammatory diseases, mechanistic research on feline MSCs is lacking. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanisms of MSCs isolated from feline adipose tissue (fATMSCs). fATMSCs from healthy cats were cultured in an appropriate manner and cocultured with transwell-separated allogeneic feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (fPBMCs) and RAW264...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Mohanned Naif Alhussien, Ajay Kumar Dang
Mastitis is a highly prevalent and one of the costliest diseases of dairy cows affecting the mammary gland. Milk neutrophils present in the mammary gland serve as an integral part of the mammary immunity, and their performance is influenced by different environmental conditions and lactation stages. To investigate the combined effects of seasons and lactation stages on the mammary immunity, milk and blood samples were collected from three groups of high producing indigenous Sahiwal cows. Function and receptor expression of milk neutrophils together with cortisol and inflammatory interleukins concentration in blood were studied...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Emma Drinkall, Matthew J Wass, Tracey J Coffey, Robin J Flynn
Cryptosporidium parvum causes diarrhoea, due to villi damage, in livestock and humans globally. Immunity develops after repeated infections but initial infections can be severe, highlighting the importance of early infection dynamics. We have modelled early C. parvum infection in bovine jejunum biopsies. IL-17A accumulated over time peaking at 9h post-infection, with no effect of infection on IL-1β; antibiotics positively influenced IL-17A as higher levels were found in cultures with antibiotics. Infection of primary fibroblasts resulted in lower plaque formation when fibroblasts were primed with IL-17A...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Irene Soria, Javier Alvarez, Ana I Manzano, Juan López-Relaño, Bárbara Cases, Ana Mas-Fontao, F Javier Cañada, Enrique Fernández-Caldas, Miguel Casanovas, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, Oscar Palomares, Luis M Viñals-Flórez, José L Subiza
We have recently reported that grass pollen allergoids conjugated with nonoxidized mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisae using glutaraldehyde results in a novel hypoallergenic mannan-allergen complex with improved properties for allergen vaccination. Using this approach, human dendritic cells show a better allergen uptake and cytokine profile production (higher IL-10/IL-4 ratio) for therapeutic purposes. Here we aim to address whether a similar approach can be extended to dogs using canine dendritic cells. Six healthy Spanish Greyhound dogs were used as blood donors to obtain canine dendritic cells (DC) derived from peripheral blood monocytes...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
S M Albarrak, W R Waters, J R Stabel, J M Hostetter
A role for γδ T cells in protection against mycobacterial infections including Johne's disease (JD) has been suggested. In neonatal calves where the risk to infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is high, the majority of circulating CD3(+) lymphocytes are γδ TCR(+). Bovine γδ T cells are divided into two major subsets based on the surface expression of workshop cluster 1 (WC1). The WC1(+) subset, the predominant subset in periphery, is further divided into WC1.1(+) and WC1.2(+) subpopulations...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Akiko Inoue, Shingo Maeda, Ryohei Kinoshita, Masaya Tsuboi, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Naoaki Matsuki
Although tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) play a key role in anti-tumor immunity, their involvement in canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is not well-documented. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between TIL number and prognosis in dogs with urinary bladder TCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD3 and granzyme B was performed using canine TCC (n=32) and normal bladder (n=10) tissues. The numbers of CD3(+) and granzyme B(+) cells located in peritumoral stroma of canine TCC were significantly higher than those in normal controls...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Lydia Siebert, Susan Headrick, Mark Lewis, Barbara Gillespie, Charlie Young, Leszek Wojakiewicz, Oudessa Kerro-Dego, Maria E Prado, Raul Almeida, Stephen P Oliver, Gina M Pighetti
Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, costs the dairy industry billions of dollars in lost revenues annually. The prevalence and costs associated with mastitis has made genetic selection methods a target for research. Previous research has identified amino acid changes at positions 122, 207, 245, 327, and 332 in the IL8 receptor, CXCR1, that result in three dominant amino acid haplotypes: VWHKH, VWHRR, and AWQRR. We hypothesize different haplotype combinations influence a cow's resistance, strength, and duration of response to mastitis...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Yi-Qun Li, Jian Zhang, Jun Li, Li Sun
In mammals, CD22 is a member of the Ig superfamily that serves as an inhibitor during B cell responses to foreign antigens. In this study, we characterized for the first time a fish CD22 from tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis (CsCD22). CsCD22 possesses the conserved structural features of CD22 and shares 35%-54% sequence identities with other fish CD22. mRNA expression of CsCD22 was most abundant in head kidney and heart. CsCD22 protein was detected on the surface of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). In the presence of rCsCD22 antibody, the proliferation, phagocytosis, and antibacterial activity of PBL were significantly increased...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Mohammad Jafar Taebipour, Habibollah Dadras, Saeed Nazifi, Mina Afsar, Maryam Ansari-Lari
In the present study, after vaccination and challenge with Newcastle disease virus, changes in the population of blood monocytes and lymphocytes of broiler chickens were evaluated using flow cytometry. 300 apparently healthy 1-day-old Cobb broiler chicks were divided randomly into four experimental groups (n=75). At 20days of age the chicks in group 1 and 2 were vaccinated with live B1 ND vaccine. Those in group 2 were additionally injected with a killed vaccine simultaneously and group 3 chicks received only the adjuvant of the killed vaccine...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Natalie Gibbons, Michelle R Goulart, Yu-Mei Chang, Konstantinos Efstathiou, Robert Purcell, Ying Wu, Laureen M Peters, Mark Turmaine, Balazs Szladovits, Oliver A Garden
Monocytes are key cells of the innate immune system. Their phenotypic and functional roles have been investigated in humans, mice and other animals, such as the rat, pig and cow. To date, detailed phenotypic analysis of monocytes has not been undertaken in dogs. Two important surface markers in human monocytes are CD14 and MHC class II (MHC II). By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that canine monocytes can be subdivided into three separate populations: CD14(pos)MHC II(neg), CD14(pos)MHC II(pos) and CD14(neg)MHC II(pos)...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sakthivel Subramaniam, Pablo Piñeyro, Rachel J Derscheid, Darin M Madson, Drew R Magstadt, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine viral disease worldwide. Current modified live-attenuated vaccines are ineffective against heterologous strains of PRRS virus (PRRSV) circulating in the field. In this study, we evaluated three dendritic cell (DC)-targeted vaccine candidates for their protective efficacy against heterologous PRRSV challenge. Ectodomain regions of DNA-shuffled structural proteins GP3, GP4, GP5 and M of PRRSV were fused together to form the vaccine antigen which was in turn fused with one of three recombinant antibodies each specific to a DC receptor: DC-SIGN, Langerin, and DEC205...
August 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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