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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

Netanya Bernitz, Charlene Clarke, Eduard O Roos, Wynand J Goosen, David Cooper, Paul D van Helden, Sven D C Parsons, Michele A Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
P Alarcon, C Manosalva, M D Carretta, A I Hidalgo, C D Figueroa, A Taubert, C Hermosilla, M A Hidalgo, R A Burgos
Fatty and hydroxycarboxylic acids are one of the main intermediates of energy metabolism in ruminants and critical in the milk production of cattle. High production demands on a dairy farm can induce nutritional imbalances and metabolism disorders, which have been widely associated with the onset of sterile inflammatory processes and increased susceptibility to infections. The literature suggests that short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and hydroxycarboxylic acids are relevant modulators of the host innate inflammatory response...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Ryo Miyamoto, Sena Kurita, Hiroyuki Tani, Masato Kobayashi, Soudai Sugiura, Kae Shigihara, Yuka Sato, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Kyoichi Tamura, Makoto Bonkobara
Feline histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive and uncommon tumor originating from dendritic cells/macrophages. Here, a feline HS cell line, FHS-1, was established from a case of feline HS and characterized. Immunohistochemically, FHS-1 cells were positive for vimentin and Iba-1, and negative for MHC class II and CD163. FHS-1 cells were positive for α-naphthyl butyrate esterase staining, which was clearly inhibited by sodium fluoride. FHS-1 cells had phagocytic and antigen uptake/processing activities. Moreover, FHS-1 cells were tested for susceptibility to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strain 79-1146; however, this cell line was not susceptible to this viral strain...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Roxane Boivin, Amandine Vargas, Patricia Cano, Jean-Pierre Lavoie
Recurrent inflammation in severe equine asthma causes a remodeling of the airways leading to incompletely reversible airway obstruction. Despite the improvement of clinical signs and lung function with glucocorticoids (GC), inflammation, translated by an increased percentage of neutrophils, persists in the airways. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and play an important role in balancing the immune response by suppressing effector lymphocyte activity. However, interactions between Treg, neutrophils and glucocorticosteroids in vivo are unclear, particularly in asthma...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Isabel M Gimeno, Ayanna Glaize, Aneg L Cortes
The effect of two Marek's disease (MD) vaccines on the chicken embryo immune responses were evaluated. Transcription of interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-λ, and IFN-γ) and interferon-I receptors (IFN-AR1 and IFN-AR2), as well as transcription of toll like receptors (TLR-3, TLR-7, and TLR-21) were evaluated in the bursa, thymus, spleen and lung of 1-day-old chickens that had been vaccinated with HVT, CVI988, or sham inoculated at embryonic day 18 (ED18). Each vaccine had a unique effect on the transcription of the evaluated genes and it differs among tissues...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
I Tosi, F Bureau, F Farnir, J M Denoix, P Lekeux, T Art
Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG-ODN) has been described as a potent immunostimulatory agent in different species. No study reported the effect of a P-class CpG when administered systemically in healthy horses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and the effect of an intramuscularly administered P-class CpG-ODN on hematology and on plasma cytokines (IFN-α, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) in 8 healthy horses. Intra-muscular CpG-ODN or placebo (PBS) was administered twice at a 7 days-interval. Groups were inversed after 2 months of washout period...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Catherine E Vrentas, Robert G Schaut, Paola M Boggiatto, Steven C Olsen, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Mahtab Moayeri
The inflammasome serves as a mechanism by which the body senses damage or danger. These multiprotein complexes form in the cytosol of myeloid, epithelial and potentially other cell types to drive caspase-1 cleavage and the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Different types of inflammasomes, centered on (and named after) their cytosolic NLRs, respond to signals from bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as "sterile inflammatory" triggers. Despite the large body of research accumulated on rodent and human inflammasomes over the past 15 years, only recently have studies expanded to consider the role of inflammasomes in veterinary and wildlife species...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Eduard O Roos, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Peter Buss, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist, David Cooper, Robin M Warren, Paul D van Helden, Sven D C Parsons, Michele A Miller
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in several areas of South Africa and has been reported in multiple species, including common warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). Limited diagnostic tests and disease control programs exist for African wildlife. Thus, there is a need to develop techniques for bTB detection in species such as warthogs to assess their role in disease maintenance and spread in multi-host ecosystems. In this study, we obtained blood samples from warthogs in bTB endemic areas to investigate biomarkers for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Paoul S Martinez, Eric S Storey, Cherie M Pucheu-Haston
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pilot study was to use a multiplexed assay to measure cytokines in normal stimulated canine tears. METHODS: 25 healthy dogs were included in the study. Stimulated tears were collected in capillary tubes from the right (OD) and left (OS) eyes and stored at -80 °C until batch sample analysis was performed. The samples were analyzed utilizing Luminex® canine-validated multiplex beads on a Bio-Rad multiplex analyzer for IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sigridur Jonsdottir, Sara Bjork Stefansdottir, Sæmundur Bjarni Kristinarson, Vilhjalmur Svansson, Jon Mar Bjornsson, Arna Runarsdottir, Bettina Wagner, Eliane Marti, Sigurbjorg Torsteinsdottir
Insect bite hypersensitivity is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides midges. Sufficient amount of pure, endotoxin-free allergens is a prerequisite for development and monitoring of preventive and therapeutic allergen immunotherapy. Aims of the study were to compare the Culicoides nubeculosus (Cul n) allergens Cul n 3 and Cul n 4, produced in transgenic barley grains with the corresponding E. coli or insect cells expressed proteins for measuring antibody and cytokine responses. Allergen-specific IgG responses were measured by ELISA in sera from twelve horses not exposed to Culicoides, before and after vaccination with E...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
S M Albarrak, W R Waters, J R Stabel, J M Hostetter
In the present study, we evaluated expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β by mucosal cells, including WC1+ γδ T cells, in ileal tissues taken from non-infected cattle and cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP). Infected cattle were either in the subclinical or clinical stage of infection. We hypothesized that the cytokine profile of the WC1+ γδ T cell subset would be different between subclinical and clinical cattle. Our data indicate a significant increase in the numbers of WC1+ γδ T cells expressing IL-10 in clinical cattle compared to subclinical and non-infected cattle...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Hung-Yueh Yeh, Kyoko Kojima, James A Mobley
Salmonella, a Gram-negative rod, is the leading foodborne pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The Salmonella flagellum is responsible for bacterial movement, colonization and invasion in the host gastrointestinal tract. The flagellum has a complex structure, composed of more than 35 proteins. Among them, we were interested in the flagellar hook-associated protein (FlgK), which is an immunodominant protein in chickens. In this communication, we applied mass spectrometry-based proteomics in conjunction with chicken immunized sera to map the linear immunoepitopes in the FlgK protein, validated the epitopes with peptide ELISA, and determined serum reactivity to the epitopes from commercial chickens...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Giovanni Di Teodoro, Giuseppe Marruchella, Francesco Mosca, Andrea Di Provvido, Flavio Sacchini, Pietro Giorgio Tiscar, Massimo Scacchia
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, a severe respiratory disorder caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). The present study investigated the generation of ROS by different strains of Mmm, as well as their effect on the oxidative response of bovine neutrophils. The production of ROS was indirectly measured using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. Our results confirm that Mmm can produce ROS via the metabolism of glycerol, significant differences existing between African and European strains...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
C Clarke, D Cooper, W J Goosen, R McFadyen, R M Warren, P D van Helden, S D C Parsons, M A Miller
Effective disease management of wildlife relies on the strategic application of ante-mortem diagnostic tests for early identification and removal of M. bovis-infected animals. To improve diagnostic performance, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are often used in conjunction with the tuberculin skin test (TST). Since buffaloes are major maintenance hosts of M. bovis, optimal application of bovine TB diagnostic tests are especially important. We aimed to determine whether the timing of blood collection relative to the TST has an influence on IFN-γ production and diagnostic outcome in African buffaloes...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Douglas C Hodgins, Aart Lammers, Tamiru Negash Alkie, Shayan Sharif
With the ongoing intensification of the poultry industry and the continuous need to control pathogens, there is a critical need to extend our understanding of the avian immune system and the role of nutritional interventions on development of immune competence in neonatal chicks. In this review, we will focus on the ontogeny of the lymphoid organs during embryonic life and the first 2 weeks post-hatch, and how early feeding practices improve heath and modulate the development and function of the immune system in young chicks...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Jiye Gao, Maaike R Scheenstra, Albert van Dijk, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Henk P Haagsman
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play an important role in the innate immune system as part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). They have a pro-inflammatory signature (M1-polarized macrophages) or anti-inflammatory signature (M2-polarized macrophages) based on expression of surface receptors and secretion of cytokines. However, very little is known about the culture of macrophages from pigs and more specific about the M1 and M2 polarization in vitro. METHODS: Porcine monocytes or mononuclear bone marrow cells were used to culture M1- and M2-polarized macrophages in the presence of GM-CSF and M-CSF, respectively...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
John J Bromfield, Meghan M Watt, Sossi M Iacovides
Bacterial contamination of the uterus following calving is ubiquitous in the dairy cow, 40% of cows develop postpartum uterine infection, including metritis. While predisposing factors like twinning and dystocia are associated with metritis, it is unclear why some cows remain healthy following calving and others develop uterine infection, negatively impacting animal health, milk production and economic return. Here, we profiled peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cows before calving and during postpartum metritis...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Manfred Henrich, Svenja Scheffold, Werner Hecht, Manfred Reinacher
Analysis of clonality is gaining importance in diagnosing lymphomas in veterinary medicine. Usually, PCR for the analysis of antigen receptor rearrangement (PARR) is followed by electrophoretic separation of the PCR products. Aim of this study was to test the feasibility of HRM for the assessment of clonality in B-cell lymphomas of cats. High resolution melting analysis differentiates PCR products by their different melting point using the decrease in fluorescence of an intercalating dye during melting of the PCR product...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
J Díaz-Delgado, R Ressio, K R Groch, J L Catão-Dias
A considerable amount of knowledge on natural and anthropogenic pathologic conditions affecting different cetacean species has been gained over the last decades. Nonetheless, the immunopathological bases for most of these processes have been poorly documented or remain unknown. Comparative immunopathological investigations in these species are precluded by the limited number of specific antibodies, most of which are not commercially available, and the reduced spectrum of validated and/or cross-reactive ones...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Jina Lee, Yun-Mi Kim, Ju-Heon Kim, Cheong-Weon Cho, Jong-Woon Jeon, Jin-Kyu Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Bong-Joo Lee
In this study, we administered specially developed chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated BV (CH/AL-BV) which has slow-releasing properties and mucosal adhesiveness to pig via nasal route and evaluate whether it can facilitate systemic immune response and improve clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The CH/AL-BV-administered group with PRRSV vaccination showed significantly enhanced Th1-related responses including a high population of CD4+ T lymphocyte and cytokine mRNA levels including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-12 and increased PRRSV-specific IgG levels...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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