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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863558/development-of-an-autologous-canine-cancer-vaccine-system-for-resectable-malignant-tumors-in-dogs
#1
J R Yannelli, R Wouda, T J Masterson, M G Avdiushko, D A Cohen
While conventional therapies exist for canine cancer, immunotherapies need to be further explored and applied to the canine setting. We have developed an autologous cancer vaccine (K9-ACV), which is available for all dogs with resectable disease. K9-ACV was evaluated for safety and immunogenicity for a variety of cancer types in a cohort of companion dogs under veterinary care. The autologous vaccine was prepared by enzymatic digestion of solid tumor biopsies. The resultant single cell suspensions were then UV-irradiated resulting in immunogenic cell death of the tumor cells...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863557/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-effects-of-temperature-on-phagocytosis-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-apoptosis-in-bovine-polymorphonuclear-cells
#2
Cristina Lecchi, Nicola Rota, Andrea Vitali, Fabrizio Ceciliani, Nicola Lacetera
Heat stress exerts a direct negative effect on farm animal health, triggering physiological responses. Environmental high temperature induces immunosuppression in dairy cows, increasing the risk of mastitis and milk somatic cell counts. The influence of heat stress on leukocytes activities has not been fully elucidated. The present in vitro study was aimed at assessing whether the exposure to temperature simulating conditions of severe whole body hyperthermia affects defensive functions of bovine blood polymorphonuclear cells...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863556/oral-vaccination-of-cattle-with-heat-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-does-not-compromise-bovine-tb-diagnostic-tests
#3
Gareth J Jones, Sabine Steinbach, Iker A Sevilla, Joseba M Garrido, Ramon Juste, H Martin Vordermeier
In this study we investigated whether oral uptake of a heat inactivated M. bovis wildlife vaccine by domestic cattle induced systemic immune responses that compromised the use of tuberculin or defined antigens in diagnostic tests for bovine TB. Positive skin test and blood-based IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) results were observed in all calves vaccinated via the parenteral route (i.e. intramuscular). In contrast, no positive responses to tuberculin or defined antigens were observed in either the skin test or IGRA test when performed in calves vaccinated via the oral route...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863555/test-performance-of-three-serological-assays-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-common-warthogs-phacochoerus-africanus
#4
Eduard O Roos, Peter Buss, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist, Jennie Hewlett, Guy A Hausler, Leana Rossouw, Alicia J McCall, David Cooper, Paul D van Helden, Sven D C Parsons, Michele A Miller
Sporadic cases of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) have been reported in warthogs in Southern Africa and confirmed through mycobacterial culture. However, there are no validated ante-mortem tests currently available for bTB in warthogs. In this study, we evaluated the use of three serological assays for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in warthogs; an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using bovine purified protein derivative (PPDb) as a capture antigen (indirect PPD ELISA), as well as two commercial assays, the TB ELISA-VK(®) and DPP(®) VetTB Assay...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863554/acute-phase-protein-haptoglobin-as-inflammatory-marker-in-serum-and-synovial-fluid-in-an-equine-model-of-arthritis
#5
Laura Barrachina, Ana Rosa Remacha, Lourdes Soler, Natalia García, Antonio Romero, Francisco José Vázquez, Arantza Vitoria, María Ángeles Álava, Fermín Lamprave, Clementina Rodellar
Acute phase proteins are useful inflammatory markers in horses. Haptoglobin (Hp) serum level is increased in horses undergoing different inflammatory processes, including arthritis. However, Hp concentration has not been assessed in inflammatory synovial fluid (SF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the Hp response in serum and SF in horses undergoing experimentally induced arthritis. For this purpose, serum and SF samples were collected from 12 animals before amphotericin B-induced arthritis was created (T0, healthy) and 15days after the lesion induction (T1, joint inflammation) and Hp was determined by single radial immunodiffusion...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863553/a-comparison-of-serum-and-plasma-cytokine-values-using-a-multiplexed-assay-in-cats
#6
Margaret E Gruen, Kristen M Messenger, Andrea E Thomson, Emily H Griffith, Hayley Paradise, Shelly Vaden, B D X Lascelles
BACKGROUND: Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is highly prevalent in cats, and pain contributes to morbidity. In humans, alterations of cytokine concentrations have been associated with joint deterioration and pain. Similar changes have not been investigated in cats. Cytokine concentrations can be measured using multiplex technology with small samples of serum or plasma, however, serum and plasma are not interchangeable for most bioassays. Correlations for cytokine concentrations between serum and plasma have not been evaluated in cats...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863552/generation-of-potent-porcine-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-modcs-by-modified-culture-protocol
#7
Teerawut Nedumpun, Patcharee Ritprajak, Sanipa Suradhat
In vitro derivation of dendritic cells (DCs) is an alternative approach to overcome the low frequency of primary DCs and the difficulty of isolation techniques for studying DC immunobiology. To date, the conventional culture protocol of porcine monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) has been widely used. However, this protocol is not practical due to the requirement of a substantial number of blood monocytes, and the process often interferes with DC maturation. To improve in vitro porcine MoDC generation, we modified the previous conventional DC generation protocol, based on the human and mouse primary DC culture system, and compared phenotypic and functional features of MoDCs derived from the modified protocol to the conventional protocol...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863551/in-vitro-cow-uterine-response-to-escherichia-coli-leukotrienes-and-cytokines
#8
A J Korzekwa, M Łupicka, B M- Socha, A A Szczepańska, E Piotrowicz, W Barański
The aim was to determine the dynamic profile of interactions between Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the actions of leukotrienes (LTs) and TNF and INFγ (cytokines) in the uterus in vitro. Uterine explants (N=6) were incubated for 2, 12 and 24h either as E. coli-treated (10(6)CFU) or non-treated and/or with: LTB4 and C4 (10(-6)M, for both LTs), LTs receptors antagonists (aLTR; 10(-6)M) and/or cytokines (each 10ng/ml). Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression increased in explants incubated with E. coli, cytokines and LTs after 2 and 12h and aLTR inhibited the effect of LTs in explants incubated with E...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863550/cc-chemokine-ligand-2-and-cxc-chemokine-ligand-8-as-neutrophil-chemoattractant-factors-in-canine-idiopathic-polyarthritis
#9
Kohei Murakami, Shingo Maeda, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Naoaki Matsuki
Canine idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA) is characterized by increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the synovial fluid (SF). In humans, CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) recruit monocytes and neutrophils, respectively, and are involved in various inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the roles of these chemokines in driving PMNs infiltration into the joints of dogs with IPA. SF samples were collected from dogs with IPA (n=19) and healthy controls (n=8), and the concentrations of SF CCL2 and CXCL8 were determined by ELISA...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863549/cytokine-and-chemokine-profiles-of-aqueous-humor-and-serum-in-horses-with-uveitis-measured-using-multiplex-bead-immunoassay-analysis
#10
Elizabeth Curto, Kristen M Messenger, Jacklyn H Salmon, Brian C Gilger
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether horses with clinically diagnosed Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) and those with Leptospirosis infection have a specific cytokine profile in their aqueous humor (AH) and serum that differs from horses with uveitis secondary to other ocular inflammatory processes and from horses with normal eyes. ANIMALS STUDIED: Twenty-five client-owned horses with uveitis that were presented to the North Carolina State University Ophthalmology Service, and four University-owned horses without history or clinical signs of ocular disease...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863548/impact-of-in-vitro-treatments-of-physiological-levels-of-estradiol-and-progesterone-observed-in-pregnancy-on-bovine-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cell-differentiation-and-maturation
#11
Brianna Pomeroy, Suzanne Klaessig, Ynte Schukken
The specific factors which regulate differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells in bovine pregnancy remain unclear. We evaluated the influence of physiologically relevant in vitro treatments of progesterone (PG) and estradiol (E2) observed in late pregnancy on the differentiation and maturation of CD14+ monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDC) from non-pregnant, lactating dairy cows (n=7). We found that moDC differentiated in the presence of both E2 and PG had impaired E. coli-induced phenotypic maturation, specifically a significant reduction in CD80 and MHC II expression...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863547/identification-of-histamine-receptors-in-the-canine-gastrointestinal-tract
#12
Alyssa Sullivant, Andrew Mackin, Todd Pharr, Jim Cooley, Robert Wills, Todd Archer
The important role of histamine in chronic gastrointestinal diseases has been increasingly recognized over the last two decades in human medicine. Histamine is released following mast cell activation and exerts its action through binding to four different histamine receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4). Histamine receptors are dispersed throughout the body, and each different receptor mediates a unique response. Documentation of the presence and type of histamine receptors in the differing sections of the canine gastrointestinal tract will provide additional research opportunities to further explore the role of histamine and its receptors in chronic canine enteropathies, as well as potential therapeutic options...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863546/identification-of-three-novel-b-cell-epitopes-of-vmh-protein-from-vibrio-mimicus-by-screening-a-phage-display-peptide-library
#13
Ning Xiao, Ji Cao, Hao Zhou, Shu-Quan Ding, Ling-Yan Kong, Jin-Nian Li
Vibrio mimicus is the causative agent of ascites disease in fish. The heat-labile hemolytic toxin designated VMH is an immunoprotective antigen of V. mimicus. However, its epitopes have not been well characterized. Here, a commercially available phage displayed 12-mer peptide library was used to screen epitopes of VMH protein using polyclonal rabbit anti-rVMH protein antibodies, and then five positive phage clones were identified by sandwich and competitive ELISA. Sequences analysis showed that the motif of DPTLL displayed on phage clone 15 and the consensus motif of SLDDDST displayed on the clone 4/11 corresponded to the residues 134-138 and 238-244 of VMH protein, respectively, and the synthetic motif peptides could also be recognized by anti-rVMH-HD antibody in peptide-ELISA...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863545/porcine-treg-depletion-with-a-novel-diphtheria-toxin-based-anti-human-ccr4-immunotoxin
#14
Zhaohui Wang, Nalu Navarro-Alvarez, Jigesh A Shah, Huiping Zhang, Qi Huang, Qian Zheng, Joren C Madsen, David H Sachs, Christene A Huang, Zhirui Wang
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to play an important role in immunoregulation and have been shown to facilitate induction of transplantation tolerance. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4 (CCR4) is expressed on the surface of effector Tregs involved in controlling alloimmune and autoimmune responses. Recently we have developed a novel diphtheria-toxin based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin for depleting CCR4(+) cells in vivo. In this study, we have demonstrated that the anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin bound to porcine lymphocytes including CD4(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863544/effect-of-a-post-weaning-diet-supplemented-with-functional-feed-additives-on-ileal-transcriptome-activity-and-serum-cytokines-in-piglets-challenged-with-lipopolysaccharide
#15
N Bissonnette, X R Jiang, J J Matte, F Guay, G Talbot, V Bontempo, J Gong, Q Wang, M Lessard
This study evaluated the potential of a weanling diet supplemented with trace minerals, vitamins, prebiotics, essential oils, antioxidants and bovine colostrum (BC) to modulate the inflammatory response of low-weight (LW) and high-weight (HW) piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). At weaning (20±1 d), litters from 32 sows were assigned to four groups: control diet (CTL), CTL plus dietary supplements (DS) or the antibiotic chlortetracycline (ATB), or DS plus BC in place of plasma proteins in the weanling diet (DS+BC)...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863543/reduced-humoral-immunity-and-atypical-cell-mediated-immunity-in-response-to-vaccination-in-cows-naturally-infected-with-bovine-leukemia-virus
#16
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R Sporer, Joseph C Wallace, Roger K Maes, Lorraine M Sordillo, Paul C Bartlett, Paul M Coussens
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that is widely distributed across US dairy herds: over 83% of herds are BLV-infected and within-herd infection rates can approach 50%. BLV infection reduces both animal longevity and milk production and can interfere with normal immune health. With such a high prevalence of BLV infection in dairy herds, it is essential to understand the circumstances by which BLV negatively affects the immune system of infected cattle. To address this question, BLV- and BLV+ adult, lactating Holstein dairy cows were vaccinated with Bovi-Shield GOLD(®) FP(®) 5 L5 HB and their immune response to vaccination was measured over the course of 28days...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863542/optimisation-and-validation-of-a-pcr-for-antigen-receptor-rearrangement-parr-assay-to-detect-clonality-in-canine-lymphoid-malignancies
#17
Elspeth M Waugh, Alice Gallagher, Hayley Haining, Pamela E J Johnston, Francesco Marchesi, Ruth F Jarrett, Joanna S Morris
PCR for antigen receptor gene rearrangements (PARR) analysis is being increasingly used to assist diagnosis of canine lymphoma. In this study, PARR was carried out on consecutive samples received as part of routine diagnostic practice from 271 patients: 195 with lymphoid malignancies, 53 with reactive conditions and 23 with other neoplasms. Initially, published primer sets were used but later minor primer modifications were introduced and primers were rationalised to give a PARR panel that provides a good compromise between sensitivity and cost...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863541/cellular-endocytic-compartment-localization-of-expressed-canine-cd1-molecules
#18
Mette Schjaerff, Stefan M Keller, Verena K Affolter, Annemarie T Kristensen, Peter F Moore
CD1 molecules are glycoproteins present primarily on dendritic cells (DCs), which recognize and present a variety of foreign- and self-lipid antigens to T-cells. Humans have five different CD1 isoforms that survey distinct cellular compartments allowing for recognition of a large repertoire of lipids. The canine CD1 family consists of seven functional CD1 molecules (canine CD1a2, CD1a6, CD1a8, CD1a9, CD1b, CD1c and CD1e) and one presumed non-functional isoform (canine CD1d) due to a disrupted gene structure...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863540/comparison-of-serum-cytokine-levels-between-dogs-with-multicentric-lymphoma-and-healthy-dogs
#19
Jerome Calvalido, Geoffrey A Wood, Anthony J Mutsaers, Darren Wood, William Sears, J Paul Woods
In humans, multiple cytokines have been linked to the development of lymphoma, and are relevant biomarkers for response to chemotherapy and prognosis. In contrast, only a few circulating cytokines have been studied in dogs with lymphoma. We prospectively enrolled thirty-one dogs newly diagnosed with multicentric lymphoma. Immunophenotype was determined by flow cytometry in all dogs, separating them into 2 subgroups: B cell lymphoma (n=21) and T cell lymphoma (n=10). Nineteen healthy dogs were enrolled in the control group...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863539/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-major-histocompatibility-class-ii-haplotypes-are-associated-with-potential-resistance-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-german-shepherd-dogs
#20
Atiyeh Peiravan, Karin Allenspach, Alisdair M Boag, Francesca Soutter, Angela Holder, Brian Catchpole, Lorna J Kennedy, Dirk Werling, Fabio Procoli
German shepherd dogs (GSD) in the UK are at increased risk of developing the Inflammatory Bowel Disaese (IBD). IBD is believed to be a multifactorial immune mediated disease affecting genetically predisposed dogs. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether susceptibility to IBD in GSD is associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II locus (Dog Leukocyte Antigen, DLA). Sequence-based genotyping of the three polymorphic DLA genes DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 was performed in 56 GSDs affected by IBD and in 50 breed-matched controls without any history of gastrointestinal signs...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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