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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413052/purified-natural-pig-immunoglobulins-can-substitute-dietary-zinc-in-reducing-piglet-post-weaning-diarrhoea
#1
Chris J Hedegaard, Charlotte Lauridsen, Peter M H Heegaard
Enteric infectious disease in weaner piglets, including postweaning diarrhoea (PWD), are usually treated and/or prevented with antibiotics and/or zinc oxide in the piglet feed. However extensive use of antibiotics and zinc oxide in intensive animal production is unwanted as it may promote microbial antibiotic resistance and pose environmental problems. Recently, in an experimental model of PWD, we observed that oral administration of purified porcine immunoglobulin G (ppIgG) from pooled natural pig plasma could reduce enteric infection...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413051/protective-efficacy-of-a-novel-recombinant-marek-s-disease-virus-vector-vaccine-against-infectious-bursal-disease-in-chickens-with-or-without-maternal-antibodies
#2
Kai Li, Yongzhen Liu, Yanping Zhang, Li Gao, Changjun Liu, Hongyu Cui, Xiaole Qi, Yulong Gao, Li Zhong, Xiaomei Wang
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) causes significant clinical and economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Current vaccine programs using live attenuated and inactivated vaccines have numerous drawbacks. As an alternative solution to control IBD, a Marek's disease virus (MDV) vector vaccine (rMDV-VP2) expressing the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) has been developed. In this study, the protective efficacy of rMDV-VP2 was evaluated in a dose-related experiment which showed that a single dose of 1000 PFU was sufficient to fully protect chickens against IBDV infection...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413050/toll-like-receptor-2-gene-polymorphisms-in-chinese-holstein-cattle-and-their-associations-with-bovine-tuberculosis
#3
Zhanqin Zhao, Yun Xue, Zhigang Hu, Feng Zhou, Beibei Ma, Ta Long, Qiao Xue, Huisheng Liu
This study evaluated whether there was an association between polymorphisms within the Toll-like receptor 2 gene (TLR2) of Chinese Holstein cattle and susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (BTB). In a case-control study including 210 BTB cases and 237 control cattle, we found only two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the entire coding region of the TLR2 gene, A631G (rs95214857) and T1707C (rs1388116488). Additionally, the allele and genotype distributions of A631G and T1707C were not different between case and control groups, indicated that these SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to BTB...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413049/evaluation-of-blood-t-lymphocyte-subpopulations-involved-in-host-cellular-immunity-in-dogs-with-mammary-cancer
#4
Maria Karayannopoulou, Tilemachos Anagnostou, Apostolia Margariti, Charalampos Kostakis, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Dimitra Psalla, Ioannis Savvas
Cancer-bearing patients are often immunosuppressed. In dogs with mammary or other cancers, various alterations in blood cell populations involved in host cellular immunity have been reported; among these cell populations some T-lymphocyte subsets play an important role against cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate any alterations in circulating T-lymphocyte subpopulations involved in cellular immunity in bitches with mammary cancer, in comparison to age-matched healthy intact bitches. Twenty eight dogs with mammary cancer and 14 control dogs were included in this study...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413048/milk-c-reactive-protein-in-canine-mastitis
#5
Iosif Vasiu, Roman Dąbrowski, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Jose J Ceron, Anna Wdowiak, Raul Alexandru Pop, Florinel Gheorghe Brudaşcă, Josep Pastor, Asta Tvarijonaviciute
Presence of mastitis in lactating bitches can become life threatening for both the bitch and pups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in both milk and serum for canine mastitis diagnosis. Our study showed that milk CRP levels ranged between 0.1 and 4.9μg/mL and from 0.3 to 40.0μg/mL in healthy and diseased bitches (P<0.01), respectively, while serum CRP levels ranged between 2.0 and 8.6μg/mL and between 0.3 and 162.3μg/mL in healthy and diseased bitches (P<0...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413047/a-homolog-of-teleostean-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3-stat3-from-rock-bream-oplegnathus-fasciatus-structural-insights-transcriptional-modulation-and-subcellular-localization
#6
S D N K Bathige, William Shanthakumar Thulasitha, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan, J D H E Jayasinghe, Qiang Wan, Bo-Hye Nam, Jehee Lee
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of the crucial transcription factors in the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT signaling pathway, and it was previously considered as acute phase response factor. A number of interleukins (ILs) such as IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-22 are known to be involved in activation of STAT3. In addition, various growth factors and pathogenic or oxidative stresses mediate the activation of a wide range of functions via STAT3. In this study, a STAT3 homolog was identified and functionally characterized from rock bream (RbSTAT3), Oplegnathus fasciatus...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413046/heat-stress-decreases-expression-of-the-cytokines-avian-%C3%AE-defensins-4-and-6-and-toll-like-receptor-2-in-broiler-chickens-infected-with-salmonella-enteritidis
#7
W M Quinteiro-Filho, A S Calefi, D S G Cruz, T P A Aloia, A Zager, C S Astolfi-Ferreira, J A Piantino Ferreira, S Sharif, J Palermo-Neto
A high ambient temperature is a highly relevant stressor in poultry production. Heat stress (HS) has been reported to reduce animal welfare, performance indices and increase Salmonella susceptibility. Salmonella spp. are major zoonotic pathogen that cause over 1 billion of human infections worldwide annually. Therefore, the current study was designed to analyze the effect of heat stress on Salmonella infection in chickens through modulation of the immune responses. Salmonella Enteritidis was inoculated via gavage at one day of age (10(6)cfu/mL)...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413045/effector-mechanisms-of-humoral-immunity-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#8
REVIEW
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to afflict swine nearly 30 years after it was first discovered as the causative agent of "mystery swine disease". Immunological tools of vaccination and exposure to virulent viruses have not succeeded in achieving control and prevention of PRRSV. Humoral immunity, mediated by antibodies, is a hallmark of anti-viral immunity, but little is known about the effector mechanisms of humoral immunity against PRRSV. It is essential to understand the immunological significance of antibody functions, including recently described broadly neutralizing antibodies and potential non-neutralizing activities, in the immune response to PRRSV...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413044/expression-profiling-feline-peripheral-blood-monocytes-identifies-a-transcriptional-signature-associated-with-type-two-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Caroline A O'Leary, Mamdouh Sedhom, Mia Reeve-Johnson, John Mallyon, Katharine M Irvine
Diabetes mellitus is a common disease of cats and is similar to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans, especially with respect to the role of obesity-induced insulin resistance, glucose toxicity, decreased number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic amyloid deposition. Cats have thus been proposed as a valuable translational model of T2D. In humans, inflammation associated with adipose tissue is believed to be central to T2D development, and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) are important in the inflammatory cascade which leads to insulin resistance and β-cell failure...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242004/expression-of-toll-like-receptors-2-4-and-6-in-different-cell-populations-of-the-equine-endometrium
#10
Sandra Schöniger, Hilke Gräfe, Heinz-Adolf Schoon
Subfertility in mares is mainly caused by endometrial diseases. Alterations of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are associated with endometrial disorders in women. This study investigated TLRs 2, 4 and 6 in the equine endometrium. Endometria of 21 mares were examined by histology, PCR and immunohistochemistry. Tissues from 2 mares were considered normal. The remaining showed endometritis, endometrosis and/or angiosclerosis. TLRs 2, 4 and 6 were expressed as transcripts and proteins in all endometria. Immunohistochemistry detected TLRs 2, 4 and 6 in mast cells, luminal and glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells, endothelia, vascular smooth muscle and/or inflammatory cells...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242003/factors-affecting-induction-of-peripheral-ifn-%C3%AE-recall-response-to-influenza-a-virus-vaccination-in-pigs
#11
Zahra F Olson, Matthew R Sandbulte, Carine Kunzler Souza, Daniel R Perez, Amy L Vincent, Crystal L Loving
While T cell contribution to IAV immunity is appreciated, data comparing methods to evaluate IFN-γ production by IAV-specific T cells elicited following vaccination is limited. To understand the differential immunogenicity between live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) and whole-inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines in relation to induction of peripheral T cell responses, ELISpot and ELISA were used to assess IFN-γ production by peripheral lymphocytes following antigen restimulation. Following restimulation, peripheral blood lymphocytes from WIV-vaccinated pigs had a greater quantity of IFN-γ secreting cells (SC) and IFN-γ secreted compared to LAIV vaccinated and non-vaccinated (NV) pigs...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242002/canine-peripheral-blood-cd4-cd8-double-positive-tcell-subpopulations-exhibit-distinct-tcell-phenotypes-and-effector-functions
#12
Kathrin Rothe, Doris Bismarck, Mathias Büttner, Gottfried Alber, Heiner von Buttlar
Canine peripheral blood CD4(+)CD8α(+) double-positive (dp) Tcells represent a small population of T lymphocytes that are not only derived from single-positive (sp) CD4(+) but also from CD8(+) Tcells. Dp Tcells can be subdivided in three different subpopulations according to their expression levels of CD4 and CD8α, i.e. the CD4(dim)CD8α(bright), CD4(bright)CD8α(bright), and the CD4(bright)CD8α(dim) subsets. Previously we could show that total canine peripheral CD4(+)CD8α(+) dp Tcells have features of activated Tcells...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242001/comparative-study-of-the-vaccine-potential-of-six-outer-membrane-proteins-of-edwardsiella-tarda-and-the-immune-responses-of-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-after-vaccination
#13
Fuguo Liu, Xiaoqian Tang, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
To obtain effective vaccine candidates for Edwardsiella tarda, six outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of E. tarda were selected and recombinantly expressed. Western blotting analysis showed that flounder anti-E. tarda serum could recognize rOmpV, rOmpK, rOmpX and rOmpI, but not rOmpH and rOmpR. Immunization of flounder with different rOMPs resulted in high levels of protection following the E. tarda challenge with relative percent survivals (RPS) of 92.1% (rOmpI), 84.2% (rOmpX), 68.4% (rOmpK), 60.5% (rOmpV), 57...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242000/cytokine-levels-in-colostrum-and-in-foals-serum-pre-and-post-suckling
#14
J Mariella, C Castagnetti, A Prosperi, A Scagliarini, A Peli
The purpose of this study is to investigate the presence of IL-4, IL-8, IL-13 and IFN-γ in equine colostrum and in foals' serum. Samples were obtained from 14 mares and their healthy foals. Soon after parturition, 10ml of colostrum was collected, filtered, centrifuged and frozen until assayed. Blood samples were obtained from each foal at birth (TO) and again after 24h (T24), after which they were frozen until assayed. Serum IgG was measured at 24h of age with an immunoturbidimetric quantitative method. Cytokine concentration was determined using commercially available ELISA tests...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241999/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-mammalian-cell-derived-and-modified-vaccinia-ankara-vectored-african-swine-fever-subunit-antigens-in-swine
#15
Jaime Lopera-Madrid, Jorge E Osorio, Yongqun He, Zuoshuang Xiang, L Garry Adams, Richard C Laughlin, Waithaka Mwangi, Sandesh Subramanya, John Neilan, David Brake, Thomas G Burrage, William Clay Brown, Alfonso Clavijo, Mangkey A Bounpheng
A reverse vaccinology system, Vaxign, was used to identify and select a subset of five African Swine Fever (ASF) antigens that were successfully purified from human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) cells and produced in Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) viral vectors. Three HEK-purified antigens [B646L (p72), E183L (p54), and O61R (p12)], and three MVA-vectored antigens [B646L, EP153R, and EP402R (CD2v)] were evaluated using a prime-boost immunization regimen swine safety and immunogenicity study. Antibody responses were detected in pigs following prime-boost immunization four weeks apart with the HEK-293-purified p72, p54, and p12 antigens...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241998/the-uremic-toxin-methylguanidine-increases-the-oxidative-metabolism-and-accelerates-the-apoptosis-of-canine-neutrophils
#16
A M Bosco, B F M Almeida, P P Pereira, D B Dos Santos, Á J S Neto, W L Ferreira, P C Ciarlini
We investigated the hypothesis that the increased concentration of plasma methylguanidine (MG) increases oxidative metabolism and accelerates apoptosis of neutrophils from dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To achieve this, the levels of MG were quantified in healthy (n=16) and uremic dogs with CKD stage 4 of according to the guidelines of the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS, 2015) (n=16) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To evaluate the isolated effect of MG on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and apoptosis, neutrophils isolated from 12 healthy dogs were incubated with the highest concentration of plasma MG (0...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241997/surveillance-of-infectious-bovine-rhinotracheitis-in-marker-vaccinated-dairy-herds-application-of-a-recombinant-ge-elisa-on-bulk-milk-samples
#17
Elvira Muratore, Luigi Bertolotti, Chiara Nogarol, Claudio Caruso, Laura Lucchese, Bryan Iotti, Dario Ariello, Angela Moresco, Loretta Masoero, Stefano Nardelli, Sergio Rosati
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) occurs worldwide, requiring significant resources for eradication programs or surveillance purposes. The status of infection is usually detected by serological methods using the virus neutralization test (VNT) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on individual sera. The gE DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccines approach, adopted in order to reduce the virus circulation and prevent clinical signs, have tightened the range of available methods for the serological diagnosis...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166932/hyaluronan-mediates-the-adhesion-of-porcine-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-to-poly-i-c-treated-intestinal-cells-and-modulates-their-cytokine-production
#18
María José Docampo, Jennifer Cabrera, Anna Bassols
Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), has been increasingly recognized as a regulator of inflammation. Its role is complex since it has pro- and anti-inflammatory actions by modulating the expression of inflammatory genes, the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the production of inflammatory cytokines, but also by attenuating the course of inflammation and providing protection against tissue damage. Certain viruses and other inflammatory stimuli induce organization of HA into cable-like structures, which may be responsible for leukocyte recruitment and, on the other hand, low molecular weight fragments of HA have been shown to activate various inflammatory responses...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166931/evaluation-of-a-panel-of-antibodies-for-the-immunohistochemical-identification-of-immune-cells-in-paraffin-embedded-lymphoid-tissues-of-new-and-old-world-camelids
#19
Ann-Kathrin Uhde, Annika Lehmbecker, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ingo Spitzbarth
Different species of camelids play an important role in the epidemiology of various emerging infectious diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome. For precise investigations of the immunopathogenesis in these host species, appropriate immunohistochemical markers are highly needed in order to phenotype distinct immune cells populations in camelids. So far, specific immunohistochemical markers for camelid immune cells are rarely commercially available, and cross-reactivity studies are restricted to the use of frozen dromedary tissues...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166930/polymeric-antigen-blsomp31-in-aluminium-hydroxide-induces-serum-bactericidal-and-opsonic-antibodies-against-brucella-canis-in-dogs
#20
Maria Clausse, Alejandra G Díaz, Romina P Pardo, Vanesa Zylberman, Fernando A Goldbaum, Silvia M Estein
Polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 is an immunogenic vaccine candidate that confers protection against Brucella canis in mice. In this preliminary study, the immunogenicity and safety of BLSOmp31 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel (BLSOmp31-AH) were evaluated in Beagle dogs. In addition, the potential to elicit serum antibodies with complement-dependent bactericidal activity and/or to enhance phagocytosis by neutrophils were analyzed. Dogs were immunized three times with BLSOmp31-AH by subcutaneous route, followed by an annual booster...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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