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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

Amelia G White, Domenico Santoro, Kim Ahrens, Rosanna Marsella
Ciclosporin (CsA) is a common treatment for canine atopic dermatitis (cAD). cAD is a very common skin disease with a multifactorial pathogenesis due to complex interactions between the host and the environment. The purpose of this study was to describe the physical and immunological effects of CsA in cAD using a canine model of AD. Fourteen beagles were enrolled; seven received CsA orally every 24 h for 28 days, and seven received placebo. All dogs were exposed to relevant allergens, house dust mite solution, one day prior to treatment and once weekly thereafter for 28 consecutive days...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Jingjing Wang, Chong Xiao, Zhengkai Wei, Yanan Wang, Xu Zhang, Yunhe Fu
Liver X Receptors (LXRs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, have been reported that activation of LXRs with synthetic ligands has anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory diseases. This study aims at investigating the effects of T0901317 (T0), a synthetic LXRs ligand, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). BMECs were stimulated by LPS in the presence or absence of T0. The results showed that treatment with T0 significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Peter Ross, Paige S Nemec, Alexander Kapatos, Keith R Miller, Jennifer C Holmes, Steven E Suter, Adam S Buntzman, Erik J Soderblom, Edward J Collins, Paul R Hess
Ideally, CD8+ T-cell responses against virally infected or malignant cells are defined at the level of the specific peptide and restricting MHC class I element, a determination not yet made in the dog. To advance the discovery of canine CTL epitopes, we sought to determine whether a putative classical MHC class Ia gene, Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA)-88, presents peptides from a viral pathogen, canine distemper virus (CDV). To investigate this possibility, DLA-88*508:01, an allele prevalent in Golden Retrievers, was expressed as a FLAG-tagged construct in canine histiocytic cells to allow affinity purification of peptide-DLA-88 complexes and subsequent elution of bound peptides...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Tracy Prysliak, Teresia Maina, Jose Perez-Casal
The current avenues for prevention and/or control of Mycoplasma bovis infection in cattle involve antibiotic treatment of affected animals, herd management practices including separation and or culling infected animals, and the use of commercial vaccines, which offer limited protection. Some bacterin vaccines may cause negative reactions; therefore a different approach is needed, such as the use of recombinant vaccines based on protective antigens formulated with effective adjuvants. The role of Th-17 immune responses in protection against bacterial infections has been investigated for several pathogens...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Ming-Hui Chien, Shaw-Yun Wu, Cheng-Hui Lin
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection causes viral nervous necrosis, inflicting serious economic losses in marine fish cultivation. Vaccination is the most effective choice for controlling and preventing viral infection. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are considered a novel vaccine platform because they are not infectious and they induce neutralizing antibodies efficiently. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the recombinant orange-spotted grouper NNV (OSGNNV) capsid proteins produced in Escherichia coli and cell-free self-assembled into VLPs on protective immune responses in orange-spotted grouper following immersion, intramuscular injection and oral immunization...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
T M Archer, J V Stokes, E Kummari, C Fellman, J Thomason, J Haraschak, R Wills, L Pinchuk, A Mackin
Cyclosporine and aspirin are routinely used in combination to treat immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in dogs. Cyclosporine is a potent immunosuppressive agent that targets T cell production of the cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ. Low-dose aspirin is often used to inhibit platelet function in dogs with IMHA, since these animals are prone to life-threatening thromboembolic disease. In rodents and humans, aspirin and cyclosporine have both been shown to variably affect T cell cytokine production, and also numbers of circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Lenka Kavanová, Romana Moutelíková, Jana Prodělalová, Matin Faldyna, Miroslav Toman, Jiří Salát
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) causes lifelong latent infections in swine. The pathogen is occasionally associated with inclusion body rhinitis and pneumonia in piglets, reproductive disorders in pregnant sows and respiratory disease complex in older pigs. Immunosuppressive potential of PCMV infection is discussed. Macrophages were recognised as one of target cell types where propagation of virus occurs. The aim of present study was to set up model PCMV infection of monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) in vitro for PCMV immunobiology research...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Anna Wagner, Johannes Junginger, Frederik Lemensieck, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein
Intestinal Mϕ play a pivotal role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis, but can also contribute to inflammation such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In contrast to human tissues, little is known about phenotypes of Mϕ in the canine gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, an immunohistochemical study was performed using Abs against Mϕ-associated molecules (Cluster of differentiation (CD)64, CD163, CD204, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, L1 Ag, and MHC II) on stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon from non-IBD dogs...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Richard T Kangethe, Rudolf Pichler, Francis N J Chuma, Giovanni Cattoli, Viskam Wijewardana
During both human and animal vaccine development phases, animal testing is necessary to demonstrate vaccine efficacy. Since the number of antigen candidates for testing is usually large when developing a potential vaccine, it is too costly, time consuming and would involve higher risks to carry out selection using in vivo models. The currently available in vitro assays that measure immunogenicity do not adequately reproduce the in vivo state and this is especially true for vaccine research in livestock species...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Yan-Hong Yong, Shao-Feng Liu, Guo-Hong Hua, Ru-Min Jia, Ravi Gooneratne, Yun-Tao Zhao, Ming Liao, Xiang-Hong Ju
Induction of the innate immune pathways is critical for early anti-viral defense. How geese recognize viral molecules and activate these pathways is not well understood. In mammals, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA. Activation of TLR3 induces the activation of NF-кB and the production of type-I interferon. In this study, the goose TLR3 gene was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Goose TLR3 encoded an 896-amino-acid protein, containing a signal secretion peptide, 14 extracellular leucine-rich repeat domains, a transmembrane domain, a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor signaling domain, and shared 46...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Fatai S Oladunni, Sanjay Sarkar, Stephanie Reedy, Udeni B R Balasuriya, David W Horohov, Thomas M Chambers
Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection is an important and highly prevalent disease in equine populations worldwide. Previously we have demonstrated that a neuropathogenic strain of EHV-1, T953, suppresses the host cell's antiviral type-I interferon (IFN) response in vitro. Whether or not this is unique to EHV-1 strains possessing the neuropathogenic genotype has been undetermined. Here, we examined whether there is any direct relationship between neuropathogenic genotype and the induced IFN-β response in equine endothelial cells (EECs) infected with 10 different strains of EHV-1...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
J A Kull, P D Krawczel, G M Pighetti
Assessing white blood cell (WBC) differentials is one way to assess cow health and well-being. The objective of this study was to determine the agreement between WBC populations identified by manual evaluation via microscopy and an automated approach. Data were collected from mid-to-late lactation dairy cows sampled at 6-h intervals starting at 2100 over a 48 period (n = 192). The agreement between the two methods was calculated using a regression model in SAS (v9.4, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to construct limits of agreement...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Emna Ayari-Fakhfakh, Abdeljelil Ghram, Emmanuel Albina, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah
The mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe diseases in domesticated animals including cattle, sheep, camels and goats. Capripoxviruses (CPV) are suitable vectors for multivalent vaccine development. A recombinant rKS1-based CPV expressing the gene encoding the viral glycoprotein Gn of RVFV has been shown to induce protection in mice and sheep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity induced by this candidate vaccine in goats, and the level of cytokines produced by RVFV-specific Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Pamela Holzlöhner, Monique Butze, Natalia Maier, Nicole Hebel, Erik Schliebs, Burkhard Micheel, Jonas Füner, Gabriele Heidicke, Katja Hanack
Camelids possess antibodies with a conventional four-chain structure consisting of two heavy and two light chains (of subclass IgG1) but further they also generate heavy-chain only antibodies (of subclass IgG2 and 3) which are fully functional in antigen binding. In this study subclass-specific murine monoclonal antibodies specific to conventional camelid IgG1 and heavy-chain only IgG2/3 were generated and validated for the use as potent secondary detection reagents. The monoclonal antibodies are able to differentiate between all camelid IgGs, conventional four-chain camelid antibodies (of subclass IgG1) and exclusively heavy chain-only antibodies (of subclasses IgG2 and IgG3)...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Nannan Guo, Menghan Su, Zicong Xie, Kankan Wang, Hongming Yuan, Mengjing Li, Jianing Li, Minghao Liu, Jing Bai, Jing Liu, Hongsheng Ouyang, Daxin Pang, Huping Jiao
To elucidate how antigen exposure and selection shape the porcine antibody repertoires, we investigated the immunoglobulin lambda light chain (IGL) gene repertoires of the binary cross-bred (Yorkshire×Landrace) pig at different developmental stages, pre-suckle neonate (0days), wean piglet (35days) and growing pig (75days) under normal farming conditions. Immunoglobulin lambda light transcript (IGLV-J-C) clones of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from these different developmental stages were assessed for IGL combination, junction and sequence diversity...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Wasin Charerntantanakul, Dante Fabros
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suppresses innate immune response following infection of myeloid antigen-presenting cells. Poor innate immune response results in weak and delayed PRRSV-specific adaptive immunity, and facilitates PRRSV replication, pathogenesis, and persistent infection. Numerous efforts have been made to enhance the effective innate and adaptive immune defenses to PRRSV, however, only a few attempts have so far elicited satisfactory results. The present study aims to evaluate in vitro the potential of saponin quil A to enhance the expression of type I interferon (IFN)-regulated gene, type I and II IFNs, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in PRRSV-inoculated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Jean-Pierre Desforges, Lindsay Jasperse, Trine Hammer Jensen, Carsten Grøndahl, Mads F Bertelsen, Sylvain De Guise, Christian Sonne, Rune Dietz, Milton Levin
Natural killer (NK) cells are a vital part of the rapid and non-specific immune defense against invading pathogens and tumor cells. This study evaluated NK cell-like activity by flow cytometry for the first time in three ecologically and culturally important Arctic mammal species: polar bear (Ursus maritimus), muskox (Ovibos moschatus) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). NK cell-like activity for all three species was most effective against the mouse lymphoma cell line YAC-1, compared to the human leukemia cell line K562; NK cell response displayed the characteristic increase in cytotoxic activity when the effector:target cell ratio increased...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Peyman Asadian, Gillian Finnie, Dorothee Bienzle
SAMHD1 restricts lentiviruses by limiting availability of deoxynucleoside triphosphates for reverse transcription. HIV-2 and SIV have virion-associated proteins to counteract SAMHD1. Cats have an ortholog to human SAMHD1 and the FIV is restricted by human SAMHD1, but expression of feline SAMHD1 is unknown. Using a whole-body tissue microarray consisting of 24 tissues for immunohistochemistry, SAMHD1 expression was identified in a wide range of cat tissues. SAMHD1 was most strongly expressed in skin and mucosal epithelium, and in hemolymphatic and spermatogenic tissues...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Maria C Naskou, Natalie A Norton, Ian B Copland, Jacques Galipeau, John F Peroni
Platelet lysate (PL) has been extensively used for the laboratory expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in order to avoid fetal bovine serum (FBS) which has been associated with immune-mediated host reactions and transmission of bovine-origin microbial contaminants. Before suggesting the routine use of PL for MSC culture, we wanted to further investigate whether PL alone might trigger inflammatory responses when exposed to reactive white blood cells such as monocytes. Our objectives were to evaluate the inflammatory profile of equine monocytes cultured with equine PL (ePL) and to determine if ePL can modulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Kumudika de Silva, Karren Plain, Auriol Purdie, Douglas Begg, Richard Whittington
Paratuberculosis is an insidious, chronic disease of ruminants that has significant animal welfare implications and reduces on-farm profitability globally. Not all animals exposed to the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), succumb to disease and this unique, long-term trial was designed to track animals that were resilient. The advantages of understanding immune protection include the management option to retain resilient individuals in a herd/flock and the potential for deliberate manipulation of the host immune response using novel vaccines...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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