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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

Henriette Loss, Jörg R Aschenbach, Friederike Ebner, Karsten Tedin, Ulrike Lodemann
Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial for maintaining intestinal homeostasis and generating proper immune responses to bacteria occurring in the gut. Microbial stimuli can be recognized by intracellular receptors called inflammasomes, e.g., nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3). The aim of the present study was to unravel the inflammasome response of porcine monocyte-derived DC (MoDC). We investigated the capacity of probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to elicit inflammasome activation...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Caitlin J Jenvey, Jesse M Hostetter, Adrienne L Shircliff, Judith R Stabel
Johne's disease is an enteric disease caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Upon translocation from the lumen of the small intestine, mycobacteria have the ability to thwart innate defense mechanisms and persist within the macrophage in the lamina propria. In an effort to understand how the pathology of disease is reflected in current diagnostic tests, immunofluorescent (IFA) labeling was performed to quantitate macrophage and MAP numbers in the ileum of infected cattle and correlate results with common methods for diagnosis of MAP infection; including ELISA, IFN-γ assay, RT-PCR, culture of MAP, and histological classification of tissue sections...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
E J T Finding, C Lawson, J Elliott, P A Harris, N J Menzies-Gow
Microvesicles are small (up to 1 μm) vesicles found in plasma and other bodily fluids. They are recognised as part of the normal system of inter-cellular communication but altered numbers are also used as biomarkers of disease. Microvesicles have not been studied in detail in the horse but may be relevant to diseases such as laminitis. Identification of equine cell specific microvesicles was performed by developing a panel of cross reactive antibodies to use in flow cytometry to detect microvesicles of platelet, leucocyte and endothelial origin in plasma from healthy ponies and those predisposed to laminitis...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Jennifer L Higgins, Richard A Bowen, Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero
Brucella melitensis is the etiologic agent of brucellosis in small ruminants and a common cause of disease in humans. While the protective immune response against this pathogen has been well studied in the mouse model, little is known of the immune response triggered by B. melitensis infection in natural hosts. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the caprine immune response over the course of infection with virulent B. melitensis strain 16 M and reduced virulence vaccine strain Rev. 1. Pregnant goats were infected at 11-14 weeks of gestation with 8 × 106 or 8 × 107 CFU of B...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Julia B Montgomery, Michelle L Husulak, Hayley Kosolofski, Scott Dos Santos, Hilary Burgess, Melissa D Meachem
The objective of this study was to determine if TNF-α protein concentration differs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from healthy horses, horses with naturally occurring exacerbations of severe equine asthma and horses in remission from severe equine asthma. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α) protein concentrations were determined in BALF by commercial equine ELISA. Horses with naturally occurring exacerbation of severe equine asthma were found to have significantly lower BALF TNF-α protein concentrations than healthy horses (p = 0...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Xianghui Kong, Li Wang, Chao Pei, Jie Zhang, Xianliang Zhao, Li Li
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) functions in transporting polymeric immunoglobulin across epithelial cells into external secretion in animals. During animal evolution, fish was situated at a transition point on the phylogenetic spectrum between species possessing only innate immunity (i.e., invertebrates) and species depending heavily on adaptive immunity (i.e., mammals). Previous studies reported that fish and mammals significantly differ in pIgR. This review summarized the differences in pIgR structure, function, and transcriptional regulation between fish and mammals...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Ellen E Sparger, Brian G Murphy, Farina Mustaffa Kamal, Boaz Arzi, Diane Naydan, Chrisoula T Skouritakis, Darren P Cox, Katherine Skorupski
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer in the cat and presents as a locally aggressive lesion for which an effective therapeutic protocol remains elusive. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) shares many clinical characteristics with human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Accordingly, present studies were conducted to determine similarities for immune markers shared by feline OSCC and human HNSCC. Biopsies harvested from a feline patient cohort-1 (n = 12) were analyzed for lymphoid cell infiltrates by immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Andrea Rossi, Amy Mónaco, Julio Guarnaschelli, Fernando Silveira, Andrés Iriarte, Arndt G Benecke, José A Chabalgoity
Polyvalent clostridial vaccines, composed of a complex mixture of toxoids from up to 9 different species, are highly effective in controlling clostridial diseases in cattle and sheep. Commercially available vaccines usually state that in normal field conditions two doses administered 4 to 6 weeks apart elicit protective antibody levels that will last for one year. However, studies on the development and duration of the antibody response against the different Clostridium species in target animals are scarce and only partial...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Alisdair M Boag, Michael R Christie, Kerry A McLaughlin, Harriet M Syme, Peter Graham, Brian Catchpole
Autoantibodies directed against the P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) have been recently described in dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism, consistent with an immune-mediated pathogenesis of this endocrinopathy. In human autoimmune Addison's disease, autoantibodies may have a predictive value, being detectable before clinical signs developing, and have been shown to persist for a period of time after diagnosis. Furthermore, an autoantibody positive status post-diagnosis has been associated with successful remission of Addison's disease following B-cell depletion, suggesting active immunopathology in these cases...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Catherine A Mowbray, Sherko S Niranji, Kevin Cadwell, Richard Bailey, Kellie A Watson, Judith Hall
The Avian β-defensin (AvBD) gene cluster contains fourteen genes; within this, two groups (AvBD6/7 and AvBD8 -10) encode charged peptides of >+5 (AvBD6/7), indicative of potent microbial killing activities, and ≤+4 (AvBD8-10), suggestive of reduced antimicrobial activities. Chicken broiler gut tissues are constantly exposed to microbes in the form of commensal bacteria. This study examined whether tissue expression patterns of AvBD6-10 reflected microbial exposure and the encoded peptides a functional antimicrobial hierarchy...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Jennifer M Cassano, Lisa A Fortier, Rebecca B Hicks, Rebecca M Harman, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have the therapeutic potential to decrease inflammation due to their immunomodulatory properties. They can be isolated from various tissue sources such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, and blood, but it is unknown how the tissue source of origin affects the responses of MSC to inflammatory stimuli. Here, we conceptually addressed this question by evaluating the immune-related gene expression profiles of equine MSC from different tissue sources in response to interferon gamma (IFN-γ) stimulation, with the goal to determine if there is a preferable MSC source for clinical application in an inflammatory environment...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Mei-Hua Hwang, Nikos Darzentas, Dorothee Bienzle, Peter F Moore, Jodi Morrison, Stefan M Keller
The ability to mount adaptive immune responses to a diverse array of pathogens is essential to maintaining the health of an individual. The outcome of adaptive immune responses is influenced by the pool of available lymphocyte antigen receptors. Understanding the composition and dynamics of immune repertoires is hence of relevance to characterizing physiologic immunological processes as well as understanding disease pathogenesis. The dog is increasingly recognized as a model for human disease. The objective of this study was to utilize NGS for comprehensive and unbiased analysis of the IGH repertoire in healthy dogs...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
A M Bosco, B F M Almeida, T C Valadares, L Baptistiolli, D J Hoffmann, A A F Pereira, V M F Lima, P C Ciarlini
High occurrence of obesity currently constitutes the main nutritional disease of the canine species. There is evidence that leptin increases during obesity in dogs. Hyperleptinemia is associated with increased neutrophil oxidative metabolism in obese humans and contributes to oxidative stress. However, in obese dogs, the probable relationship between this condition and the activation of the oxidative metabolism of neutrophils has yet to be established. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis that neutrophil activation and systemic oxidative stress occur in dogs with hyperleptinemia...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Alicja Iwaszko, Hieronim Borowicz, Stanislaw Graczyk, Malwina Slowikowska, Aleksandra Pliszczak-Krol, Artur Niedzwiedz
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), also known as heaves, is an allergic respiratory condition that develops in horses following an exposure to aeroallergens in hay and straw. This is manifested by airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, bronchoconstriction, as well as a leukocyte and platelet infiltration into the airways. Platelet activation and an increase in circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates may lead to airway remodeling. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of seven-day antigen challenge on dynamics of platelet indices and CD41/61 and CD62 P expression on platelets in horses with RAO...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
M D Johansen, K de Silva, K M Plain, D J Begg, R J Whittington, A C Purdie
Pathogenic mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis are capable of utilising cholesterol as a primary carbon-based energy source in vitro but there has been little research examining the significance of cholesterol in vivo. Johne's disease is a chronic enteric disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). This study sought to evaluate the levels of total serum cholesterol in the host following exposure to MAP. Blood samples were collected from both sheep and cattle prior to experimental challenge with MAP and at monthly intervals post-challenge...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Russell S Fraser, Luis G Arroyo, Ann Meyer, Brandon N Lillie
Collagenous lectins are a family of soluble pattern recognition receptors that play an important role in innate immune resistance to infectious disease. Through recognition of carbohydrate motifs on the surface of pathogens, some collagenous lectins can activate the lectin pathway of complement, providing an effective means of host defense. Genetic polymorphisms in collagenous lectins have been shown in several species to predispose animals to a variety of infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are an important cause of morbidity in horses, however little is known regarding the role of equine collagenous lectins...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Shugui Zheng, Guixin Qin, Jing Chen, Fei Zhang
Gly m 6 (glycinin) is one of the major antigenic proteins in soybeans responsible for transient hypersensitivity to soybean meal in weaned piglets. The globulin is a hexamer consisting of subunits containing basic and acidic polypeptides. Multiple acidic polypeptides have long been demonstrated to be allergens for humans and play a key role in the overall allergenicity of Gly m 6. To date, knowledge on the allergenicity of the acidic polypeptides for piglets is very limited. The purpose of this study was to identify the acidic polypeptides that were allergenic for piglets and to characterize these acidic polypeptides by ELISA, western blot, skin prick and basophile histamine release test...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
R Hoikhman, H Kudlackova, V Babak, M Faldyna, P Jahn
Rheumatoid factor (RF) is used in human and veterinary medicine in the form of IgM RF traditionally to support the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the latest diagnostic criteria, presence of anti - citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) was added to the grading system for the diagnosis of RA in humans. A change which is not integrated or routinely used in veterinary medicine. The criteria changed partly because of RF's diagnostic shortcomings, which include its increased titer detection in humans with non-rheumatoid diseases, inability to predict the disease and increased titers over the limit in the older population...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Florian Hansmann, Nicole Jungwirth, Ning Zhang, Thomas Skripuletz, Veronika Maria Stein, Andrea Tipold, Martin Stangel, Wolfgang Baumgärtner
In recent years stem cell therapies have been broadly applied in various disease models specifically immune mediated and degenerative diseases. Whether adipose-derived stem cells might represent a useful therapeutic option in virus-triggered central nervous system diseases has not been investigated so far. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) and canine distemper encephalitis are established, virus-mediated animal models sharing many similarities with multiple sclerosis (MS). Canine adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were selected since dogs might serve as an important translational model for further therapeutic applications...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Anna Teresa Palatucci, Diego Piantedosi, Valentina Rubino, Angela Giovazzino, Jacopo Guccione, Vlenia Pernice, Giuseppina Ruggiero, Laura Cortese, Giuseppe Terrazzano
Over-nutrition and obesity have been associated with impaired immunity and low-grade inflammation in humans and mouse models. In this context, a causal role for unbalanced T regulatory cell (Treg)-dependent mechanisms has been largely suggested. Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in dogs. However, it is not defined whether canine obesity may influence circulating Treg as well as if their number variation might be associated with the occurrence of systemic inflammation. The present study investigated the immune profile of healthy adult obese dogs belonging to the Labrador Retriever breed, in comparison with the normal weight counterpart...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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