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Psychiatry Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917154/neural-activation-in-stress-related-exhaustion-cross-sectional-observations-and-interventional-effects
#1
Hanna Malmberg Gavelin, Anna Stigsdotter Neely, Micael Andersson, Therese Eskilsson, Lisbeth Slunga Järvholm, Carl-Johan Boraxbekk
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients with clinical diagnosis of exhaustion disorder were administered the n-back task during fMRI scanning at baseline. Ten patients completed a 12-week cognitive training intervention, as an addition to stress rehabilitation...
September 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923435/ptsd-burnout-and-well-being-among-rescue-workers-seeking-to-understand-the-impact-of-the-european-refugee-crisis-on-rescuers
#2
Vasiliki-Eirini Chatzea, Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla, Sofia-Aikaterini Vlachaki, Evangelos Melidoniotis, Georgia Pistolla
Individuals who perform rescue and recovery duties, as part of their daily work activities, confront diverse stressors that can affect their mental state and overall well-being. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and the factors associated with self-assessed PTSD, perceived well-being and burnout among rescue workers operating at Lesvos during the European refugees crisis. 217 rescuers participated in the study, while the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Well-being Index (WHO-5) were utilized...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918862/meta-analysis-of-sensorimotor-gating-in-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Pei-Ying S Chan, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Chia-Yih Liu
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response is a well-established neurophysiological marker of sensorimotor gating ability in psychiatric patients including those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PPI has been utilized as an indicator of the central inhibitory function and is potentially linked to the clinical features of this disease. However, it remains inconclusive whether ASD patients exhibit PPI deficits compared with healthy controls. The present meta-analysis aimed to explore the pooled effect sizes of PPI in ASD patients...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923434/personality-organization-and-its-association-with-clinical-and-functional-features-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#4
Álvaro Esguevillas, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Celso Arango, Ángel Luis Del Rey-Mejías, Enrique G Bernardo, Carlos Delgado, John F Clarkin, José Luis Carrasco
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show poor psychosocial functioning over the course of their lives. To date, predictors of functionality in BPD patients have remained mostly unexplored. In this study, we aimed to assess the association between personality organization and clinical and functional features in a sample of 50 patients with BPD referred to a specialized outpatient clinic. We used the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO) to assess personality organization and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale to measure functionality...
September 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923432/knowledge-and-attitudes-on-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-germany-a-web-based-survey
#5
Saskia Wilhelmy, Vasilija Rolfes, Michael Grözinger, Yvonne Chikere, Sabrina Schöttle, Dominik Groß
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to examine knowledge and attitudes on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) among the German population. METHOD: A web-based population survey based on a standardized questionnaire was used to examine knowledge and attitudes towards ECT as a treatment of severe depression among the general public (sample of 1000; representative in terms of age, gender and federal states of the German population). RESULTS: ECT is not well known and negatively connoted among the German population...
September 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923431/both-anxiety-and-joint-laxity-determine-the-olfactory-features-in-panic-disorder
#6
Emma Burón, Antonio Bulbena, Andrea Bulbena-Cabré, Sílvia Rosado, Guillem Pailhez
Previous research showed a high sensitivity in sensorial modalities in panic disorder (PD). This disorder has been consistently associated to the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS). In non-clinical samples, this collagen alteration has been also related to an enhanced sensitivity in some sensorial modalities. The main aim of this study is to explore the olfactory functioning in PD in relation to JHS. Sixty patients with PD and sixty healthy controls performed the Sniffin' Sticks Test (SST) (threshold subtest), and completed the Affective Impact of Odors scale (AIO), the Relational Scale of Olfaction (EROL), and the Odor Awareness Scale (OAS)...
September 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918269/excess-social-media-use-in-normal-populations-is-associated-with-amygdala-striatal-but-not-with-prefrontal-morphology
#7
Qinghua He, Ofir Turel, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
This study aims to investigate the gray matter volume (GMV) of key neural systems possibly associated with Excess Social Media Use (ESMU) in the general user population. It employs a sex-balanced case (relatively high ESMU scores) - control (relatively low ESMU scores) design with 50 random university students who have reported varying levels of ESMU. The case and control groups included 25 subjects each. Brain volumes were calculated with Voxel-Based Morphometry techniques applied to structural MRI scans. Results based on voxel-wise and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses showed that the case group had reduced GMV in the bilateral amygdala and right ventral striatum...
September 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917443/alternative-models-of-dsm-5-ptsd-examining-diagnostic-implications
#8
Siobhan Murphy, Maj Hansen, Ask Elklit, Yoke Yong Chen, Siti Raudzah Ghazali, Mark Shevlin
The factor structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven-factor Hybrid model. However, despite myriad studies examining PTSD symptom structure few have assessed the diagnostic implications of these proposed models. This study aimed to generate PTSD prevalence estimates derived from the 7 alternative factor models and assess whether pre-established risk factors associated with PTSD (e.g., transportation accidents and sexual victimisation) produce consistent risk estimates...
September 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917442/abcb1-c3435t-polymorphism-is-associated-with-tetrahydrocannabinol-blood-levels-in-heavy-cannabis-users
#9
LETTER
Oussama Kebir, Genevieve Lafaye, Lisa Blecha, Boris Chaumette, Fayçal Mouaffak, Xavier Laqueille, Amine Benyamina
ABCB1 polymorphisms are known to modify drug pharmacokinetics but have yet to be studied for their role in generating and maintaining cannabis dependence. The objective of this study is to determine if ABCB1 C3435T (rs1045642) polymorphism may modulate Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) blood levels in a sample of heavy cannabis users. The study sample includes 39 Caucasian individuals, recruited in two French addictology centres, with isolated cannabis dependence and heavy use (defined as ≥ 7 joints per week)...
September 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918861/exercise-self-efficacy-correlates-in-people-with-psychosis
#10
Davy Vancampfort, Paul Gorczynski, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst, Annetie Naisiga, David Basangwa, James Mugisha
Despite the recognition of the importance of exercise self-efficacy in exercise adoption and maintenance, previous investigations on exercise self-efficacy in people with psychosis is scarce. The present study aimed to (1) explore if exercise self-efficacy differed between stages of behavior change in Ugandan outpatients with psychosis, and (2) assess sociodemographic, clinical and motivational correlates of exercise self-efficacy. In total, 48 patients (24 women) completed the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES), the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, the Brief Symptoms Inventory-18 (BSI-18), and questions pertaining to intrinsic motivation in the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918860/prevalence-of-work-related-common-psychiatric-disorders-in-primary-care-the-french-h%C3%A3-racl%C3%A3-s-study
#11
M Rivière, L Plancke, A Leroyer, T Blanchon, T Prazuck, H Prouvost, B Sobczak, C De Pauw, L Ferreira Carreira, Y Toullic, P Lerouge, M Melchior, N Younès
General practitioners (GP), on the frontline for individuals with mental health problems, often deal with work-related common psychiatric disorders. We aimed to determine the prevalence of work-related common psychiatric disorders in general practice and associated patients' and GPs' characteristics. HERACLES, a cross-sectional study among 2019 working patients of 121 GPs in the Nord - Pas-de-Calais region in France. Common psychiatric disorders were assessed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview, patient-perceived psychological distress and GP-diagnosed psychiatric disorders...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918268/a-structural-mri-study-of-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder-and-its-relationship-to-clinical-severity
#12
Michael D Harries, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Brian L Odlaug, Austin W Blum, Jon E Grant
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) shares symptomology with other obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Few studies, however, have examined the neurological profile of patients with SPD. This study examined differences in cortical thickness and basal ganglia structural volumes between 20 individuals with SPD and 16 healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no significant differences in demographic variables (age, gender, education and race) between groups. All subjects completed a structural MRI scan and completed a battery of clinical assessments focusing on SPD symptom severity, depression and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916298/childhood-trauma-depression-and-sleep-quality-and-their-association-with-psychotic-symptoms-and-suicidality-in-schizophrenia
#13
Esin Evren Kilicaslan, Asli Tugba Esen, Meltem Izci Kasal, Erdal Ozelci, Murat Boysan, Mustafa Gulec
This study involved the examination of the relationship between childhood trauma and both psychotic symptoms and suicidality in patients with schizophrenia after controlling for the possible confounding factors, such as clinical features, depression, and sleep quality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the suicidality subscale of Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were administered to 199 patients with schizophrenia...
September 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923433/the-association-between-symptoms-of-autism-and-neuropsychological-performance-in-females-with-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Heather Westwood, William Mandy, Kate Tchanturia
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and performance on measures of set-shifting and central coherence in a sample of females with anorexia nervosa (AN). Ninety-nine females aged 12-47, recruited from inpatient and day patient eating disorder services, were assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2), as well as the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, 2nd edition (WASI-II); Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST); Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT) and self-report questionnaires assessing eating disorder pathology, depression, cognitive rigidity and attention to detail...
September 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916297/neuro-cognition-and-social-cognition-elements-of-social-functioning-and-social-quality-of-life
#15
Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Michal Mashiach-Eizenberg, Nitzan Arnon-Ribenfeld, Shlomo Kravetz, David Roe
Previous studies have shown that deficits in social cognition mediate the association between neuro-cognition and functional outcome. Based on these findings, the current study presents an examination of the mediating role of social cognition and includes two different outcomes: social functioning assessed by objective observer and social quality of life assessed by subjective self-report. Instruments measuring different aspects of social cognition, cognitive ability, social functioning and social quality of life were administered to 131 participants who had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness...
September 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899612/the-schizotypal-personality-questionnaire-brief-lacks-measurement-invariance-across-three-countries
#16
Shujuan Liu, David Mellor, Mathew Ling, José L Saiz, Eugenia V Vinet, Xiaoyan Xu, Solomon Renati, Linda K Byrne
The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) is a commonly-used tool for measuring schizotypal personality traits and due to its wide application, its cross-cultural validity is of interest. Previous studies suggest that the SPQ-B either has a three- or four-factor structure, but the majority of studies have been conducted in Western contexts and little is known about the psychometric properties of the scale in other populations. In this study factorial invariance testing across three cultural contexts-Australia, China and Chile was conducted...
September 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918863/more-haste-less-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-thinking-latencies-during-planning-in-people-with-psychosis
#17
REVIEW
Andrew J Watson, Eileen M Joyce, Andrew J B Fugard, Verity C Leeson, Thomas R E Barnes, Vyv Huddy
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychosis, with slowed processing speed thought to be a prominent impairment in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, findings from the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) planning task suggest changes in processing speed associated with the illness may include faster responses in early stages of planning, though findings are inconsistent. This review uses meta-analytic methods to assess thinking times in psychosis across the available literature. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar...
September 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893412/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-callous-unemotional-traits-as-moderators-of-conduct-problems-when-examining-impairment-in-emerging-adults
#18
Dara E Babinski, Kristina A Neely, Allen Kunselman, Daniel A Waschbusch
This study examines attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits as moderators of the association between conduct problems (CP) and young adult functioning. Young adults (n = 283; Mage = 20.82 years; 53.4% female), oversampled for attention and behavior problems, provided self-ratings of ADHD, CP, and CU, and adaptive functioning and psychopathology. ADHD and CU simultaneously moderated relationships between CP and family functioning, tobacco use, and internalizing symptoms...
September 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892733/depression-in-chronic-ketamine-users-sex-differences-and-neural-bases
#19
Chiang-Shan R Li, Sheng Zhang, Chia-Chun Hung, Chun-Ming Chen, Jeng-Ren Duann, Ching-Po Lin, Tony Szu-Hsien Lee
Chronic ketamine use leads to cognitive and affective deficits including depression. Here, we examined sex differences and neural bases of depression in chronic ketamine users. Compared to non-drug using healthy controls (HC), ketamine-using females but not males showed increased depression score as assessed by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We evaluated resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), a prefrontal structure consistently implicated in the pathogenesis of depression...
September 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911851/cortisol-awakening-response-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-during-acute-episodes-and-partial-remission-a-pilot-study
#20
Ming-Chyi Huang, Shan-Chi Chuang, Mei-Chih Meg Tseng, Yi-Ling Chien, Shih-Cheng Liao, Hsi-Chung Chen, Po-Hsiu Kuo
This exploratory study examined the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) at acute phases and partial remission of manic or depressive episodes. Saliva samples of twenty-seven BPD inpatients and 25 healthy controls were collected to determine the CAR patterns, and 12 patients were sampled again at partial remission. BPD patients exhibited a non-enhanced CAR pattern. Lower cortisol expression and a blunted CAR distinguished bipolar-depressive patients from the controls. The intra-individual follow-up for both patient groups revealed a non-significant improvement in CAR patterns, indicating a trend of a normalized CAR after partial remission for BPD patients...
September 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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