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Psychiatry Research

Cassidy A Gutner, Eric R Pedersen, Sean P A Drummond
Inclusion of consumer preferences to disseminate evidence-based psychosocial treatment (EBPT) is crucial to effectively bridge the science-to-practice quality chasm. We examined this treatment gap for insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and comorbid symptoms in a sample of 622 young adult veterans through preference in symptom focus, treatment modality, and related gender differences among those screening positive for each problem. Data were collected from veteran drinkers recruited through targeted Facebook advertisements as part of a brief online alcohol intervention...
March 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Michael J Zvolensky, Andrew H Rogers, Kara Manning, Julianna B D Hogan, Daniel J Paulus, Julia D Buckner, Nubia A Mayorga, Gerald Hallford, Norman B Schmidt
Cannabis is among the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States, and rates of cannabis use and cannabis-related problems are increasing. Anxiety sensitivity, or the fear of aversive interoceptive sensations, may be relevant to better understanding cannabis use problems and other significant cannabis use processes (e.g., beliefs about quitting). Previous research has primarily focused on the global anxiety sensitivity construct; however, anxiety sensitivity lower-order facets (Cognitive Concerns, Physical Concerns, and Social Concerns) tend to be differentially related to substance use processes in non-cannabis specific studies...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Paweł Krukow, Kamil Jonak, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Arkadiusz Podkowiński, Katarzyna Jonak, Magdalena Borys, Michał Harciarek
This study aimed at identifying abnormal cortico-cortical functional connectivity patterns that could predict cognitive slowing in patients with schizophrenia. A group of thirty-two patients with the first-episode schizophrenia and comparable healthy controls underwent resting-state qEEG and cognitive assessment. Phase Lag Index (PLI) was applied as a connectivity index and the synchronizations were analyzed in six frequencies. Pairs of electrodes were grouped to separately cover frontal, temporal, central, parietal and occipital regions...
March 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Anton Gollwitzer, Magdalena Wilczynska, Edo S Jaya
Targeting the antecedents of paranoia may be one potential method to reduce or prevent paranoia. For instance, targeting a potential antecedent of paranoia - loneliness - may reduce paranoia. Our first research question was whether loneliness heightens subclinical paranoia and whether negative affect may mediate this effect. Second, we wondered whether this potential effect could be targeted via two interventionist pathways in line with an interventionist-causal model approach: (1) decreasing loneliness, and (2) intervening on the potential mediator - negative affect...
March 1, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Emma M Savilahti, Henna Haravuori, Minna Rytilä-Manninen, Nina Lindberg, Kirsi Kettunen, Mauri Marttunen
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used in assessing adolescents' psychological wellbeing, but occasionally the result diverges from diagnostics. Our aim was to identify factors associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population. The study comprised 206 inpatients (13-17 years old) and 203 age and gender matched non-referred adolescents. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), alcohol use (AUDIT), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ-R), and on background information and adverse life events...
March 1, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Yuri Seo, Youjin Je
This study was conducted to compare the association between depression and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Korean adults. This study was based on the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2012-2014. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 10,359 subjects aged 19-64 years were selected, and 432 subjects (74 men, 358 women) were included in the physician-diagnosed depression group...
February 26, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Miri Kestler-Peleg, Osnat Lavenda
The present study examines a mother's perception of her pregnancy as risking herself and her fetus, as a mediator of the association between depressive symptoms during pregnancy and depressive symptoms 5 years after giving birth, regardless of actual objective risk. 290 Jewish Israeli mothers filled out self-reported questionnaires dealing with objective risk, subjective risk and depressive symptoms. The findings confirmed partial mediation effect, implying a potential negative impact of the preventive efforts usually made, by increasing risk perception with long-term costs for mothers, especially for those who have already developed depressive symptoms...
February 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Melissa Kirkovski, Chao Suo, Peter Gregory Enticott, Murat Yücel, Paul Bernard Fitzgerald
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was utilized to investigate sex differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and neurotypical (NT) controls. GABA at the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) is reported for 12 ASD and 14 NT participants. The results show no group differences in GABA. There was, however, a significant positive association between GABA at the STS and autism-related social impairments in females with ASD. These findings provide preliminary support for sex differences in GABAergic distribution and processes that contribute to social functioning in ASD...
February 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Philippe A Melas, Peter Guban, Md Shafiqur Rahman, Catharina Lavebratt, Yvonne Forsell
The heritability of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of human personality is high, but few genes have been identified to underlie FFM traits. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a pleiotropic gene implicated in stress resilience that contains two well-studied functional SNPs: (1) rs16147, which lies in the NPY promoter and affects expression levels, and (2) rs16139, which lies in the coding sequence of NPY's precursor peptide, pre-pro NPY, and affects precursor processing. In the present study we examined whether these two polymorphisms are associated with FFM traits, using a Swedish cohort (rs16147, N = 2113; and rs16139, N = 1971), and found a significant association with rs16139...
February 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Jaśmina Arabska, Anna Łucka, Radosław Magierski, Tomasz Sobów, Adam Wysokiński
Association between inflammation and depression, especially in elderly patients, leads to conclusions about their shared influence on risk of cardiovascular disease and death. It might be found useful to predict those issues by monitoring inflammatory parameters, such as neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The aim of this study was to determine the NLR in elderly patients with unipolar depression compared with non-depressed elderly patients. NLR was measured in 684 Caucasian subjects (depressed: n = 465, non-depressed: n = 219), aged ≥ 60 (depressed: mean age 74...
February 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Sayaka Aikawa, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Takahiro Nemoto, Satoshi Matsuo, Yo Wada, Noriyuki Mamiya, Taiju Yamaguchi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Naohisa Tsujino, Masafumi Mizuno
Social anxiety is commonly reported as a comorbid condition among people with schizophrenia. The aims of this study were to elucidate the associations between demographic/clinical features and social anxiety. A total of 207 outpatients with schizophrenia underwent assessments for social anxiety, psychiatric symptoms, social cognition, cognitive function, social functioning, and quality of life (QOL). To confirm the prediction model for social anxiety, we conducted multiple linear regressions using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) score as an outcome variable and demographic/clinical variables as predictors...
February 20, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Adrien Rigal, Romain Colle, Khalil El Asmar, Céline Elie-Lefebvre, Bruno Falissard, Laurent Becquemont, Céline Verstuyft, Emmanuelle Corruble
Patients with mental disorders have a higher coronary morbidity and mortality as compared to the general population. However, it remains unclear whether their coronary risk scores are higher than those of the general population. We reviewed studies and meta-analyze case-control studies about coronary risk scores in individuals with symptoms or diagnoses of mental disorders. Search was performed in Pubmed and clinical trial registration databases. Four case-control studies were identified, comprising 963 individuals with symptoms or diagnoses of mental disorders and 1681 controls...
February 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
F Briend, C Nathou, F Kauffmann, N Delcroix, L Lecardeur, O Etard, S Dollfus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Luca Pauselli, Brooke Halpern, Sean D Cleary, Benson Ku, Michael A Covington, Michael T Compton
Although rating scales to assess formal thought disorder exist, there are no objective, high-reliability instruments that can quantify and track it. This proof-of-concept study shows that CoVec, a new automated tool, is able to differentiate between controls and patients with schizophrenia with derailment and tangentiality. According to ratings from the derailment and tangentiality items of the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, we divided the sample into three groups: controls, patients without formal thought disorder, and patients with derailment/tangentiality...
February 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Josefin Hjärpe, Erik Söderman, Dimitrios Andreou, Göran C Sedvall, Ingrid Agartz, Erik G Jönsson
Metabolism of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, is altered in the central nervous system of people with schizophrenia, and their major metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), respectively, have been intensively studied as indirect measures of these neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Regular tobacco smoking has been shown to alter neurotransmitter metabolism in the brain and studies have found CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations to be substantially lower in smokers...
February 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Maximilian Hansbauer, Thomas Wobrock, Birgit Kunze, Berthold Langguth, Michael Landgrebe, Peter Eichhammer, Elmar Frank, Joachim Cordes, Wolfgang Wölwer, Georg Winterer, Wolfgang Gaebel, Göran Hajak, Christian Ohmann, Pablo E Verde, Marcella Rietschel, Raees Ahmed, William G Honer, Berend Malchow, Wolfgang Strube, Thomas Schneider-Axmann, Peter Falkai, Alkomiet Hasan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left frontal lobe is discussed to be a promising add-on treatment for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) has been used as outcome parameter in several previous rTMS trials, but studies focusing on PANSS factor analyses are lacking. For this purpose, we used the available PANSS data of the 'rTMS for the Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia' (RESIS) trial to calculate different literature-based PANSS factors and to re-evaluate the impact of rTMS on negative symptoms in this trial...
February 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Jacob J Crouse, Rico S C Lee, Django White, Ahmed A Moustafa, Ian B Hickie, Daniel F Hermens
Misuse of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) drugs may disrupt key neurodevelopmental processes in young people and confer protracted neurocognitive and psychopathological harm. ATS users with a co-occurring psychiatric illness are typically excluded from research, reducing generalisability of findings. Accordingly, we conducted a cross-sectional examination of key clinical, sleep, socio-occupational and neurocognitive measures in current, past and never users of ATS drugs who were accessing a youth mental health service (headspace) for affective- or psychotic-spectrum illnesses...
February 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Sharon C Sung, Jackie Ma, Arul Earnest, A John Rush, Leslie E C Lim, Marcus E H Ong
The present study examined 1) the accuracy of two self-report measures for detecting panic-related anxiety in emergency department (ED) patients with cardiopulmonary complaints; and 2) whether modified scoring resulted in improved performance. English-speaking adults presenting to the ED of a large public hospital with palpitations, chest pain, dizziness, or difficulty breathing were evaluated for the presence of panic-related anxiety with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) over a one-year period...
February 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Amie R Newins, Laura C Wilson, Susan W White
Unacknowledged rape, defined as when an individual experiences an event that meets a legal or empirical definition of rape but the individual does not label it as such, is prevalent. Research examining predictors of rape acknowledgment is needed. Sexual assertiveness may be an important variable to consider, as an individual's typical behavior during sexual situations may influence rape acknowledgment. To assess the indirect effect of rape myth acceptance on rape acknowledgment through sexual refusal assertiveness, an online survey of 181 female rape survivors was conducted...
February 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Lijuan Man, Xiaoli Lv, Xiang-Dong Du, Guangzhong Yin, Xiaomin Zhu, Yingyang Zhang, Jair C Soares, Xu-Na Yang, Xingshi Chen, Xiang Yang Zhang
Evidence shows that BDNF may regulate activity-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. Previous studies reported low BDNF levels and cognitive impairment in the early stage of schizophrenia. Our current study aimed to explore the association between serum BDNF and cognitive functions in first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) patients with schizophrenia, which has been under-investigated. We recruited 80 FEDN patients and 80 healthy controls and examined the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and serum BDNF in both groups...
February 15, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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