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Psychiatry Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918970/-not-just-right-experiences-and-incompleteness-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#1
Berta J Summers, Natalie L Matheny, Jesse R Cougle
The current studies examined the role of 'not just right' experiences (NJREs) and incompleteness (INC) in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). In Study 1, a clinical BDD sample endorsed more severe NJREs than healthy controls, when controlling co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety. In Study 2, INC predicted reactivity to an in vivo task designed to evoke BDD-related concerns in an unselected sample. Study 3 demonstrated a positive relationship between INC and BDD symptom severity in a community sample...
November 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918969/isolating-effects-of-moral-injury-and-low-post-deployment-support-within-the-u-s-military
#2
Claire Houtsma, Lauren R Khazem, Bradley A Green, Michael D Anestis
Suicide rates within U.S. military components, particularly the National Guard, are significantly higher than the general population suicide rate. To better understand and prevent suicide within this population, we must identify mechanisms of risk contributing to these discrepancies. One risk factor relevant to military service is moral injury, a term for experiences that violate one's moral beliefs. Using a series of hierarchical multiple regressions, the current study examined the moderating role of post-deployment social support on the association between moral injury (self-transgressions, other-transgressions, and betrayal) and thwarted belongingness among military personnel...
November 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918971/bidirectional-longitudinal-relationship-between-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-psychotropic-medication-usage-a-register-linked-follow-up-study
#3
Brendon Stubbs, Davy Vancampfort, Minna Mänty, Anna Svärd, Ossi Rahkonen, Jouni Lahti
This study aimed to examine the bidirectional relationship between psychotropic medication use and changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among a population cohort study. Phase 1 data were collected by mail surveys in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, and phase 2 follow up survey was conducted in 2007. Based on self-report, the respondents were classified as inactive and active (≥14.75 MET-hours/week) at the phases 1 and 2. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for subsequent (2007-10) psychotropic medication purchasing according to changes in physical activity (phases 1-2)...
November 27, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918968/treatment-dropout-in-web-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-patients-with-eating-disorders
#4
Elke D Ter Huurne, Marloes G Postel, Hein A de Haan, Job van der Palen, Cor A J DeJong
Treatment dropout is an important concern in eating disorder treatments as it has negative implications for patients' outcome, clinicians' motivation, and research studies. Our main objective was to conduct an exploratory study on treatment dropout in a two-part web-based cognitive behavioral therapy with asynchronous therapeutic support. The analysis included 205 female patients with eating disorders. Reasons for dropout, treatment experiences, and predictors of dropout were analyzed. Overall treatment dropout was 37...
November 27, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918972/a-typical-antipsychotics-normalize-low-gamma-evoked-oscillations-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#5
Manuel Alegre, Patricio Molero, Miguel Valencia, Guillermo Mayner, Felipe Ortuño, Julio Artieda
The symptoms of schizophrenia might be mediated by a cortical network disconnection which may disrupt the cortical oscillatory activity. Steady-state responses are an easy and consistent way to explore cortical oscillatory activity. A chirp-modulated tone (increasing the frequency of the modulation in a linear manner) allows a fast measure of the steady-state response to different modulation rates. With this approach, we studied the auditory steady-state responses in two groups of patients with schizophrenia (drug-naive and treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs), in order to assess the differences in their responses with respect to healthy subjects, and study any potential effect of medication...
November 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918911/cortical-amygdala-volumetric-ratios-predict-onset-of-symptoms-of-psychosis-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#6
David Berhanu, Leah M Mattiaccio, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Frank A Middleton, Wendy R Kates
Dysfunction of cortical circuitry involving prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and mesial temporal lobe has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that comports a 25-fold increased risk of developing psychosis. Morphological changes in the neuroanatomy of this syndrome may represent a biological risk factor for the development of psychosis. The present study explored ratios between cortical volumes and the amygdala. We also explored relationships between these ratios and the eventual development of psychosis in youth with 22q11DS...
November 25, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915167/examining-fkbp5-mrna-expression-in-human-ipsc-derived-neural-cells
#7
Richard Lieberman, Henry R Kranzler, Eric S Levine, Jonathan Covault
In peripheral blood leukocytes, FKBP5 mRNA expression is upregulated following glucocorticoid receptor activation. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 in FKBP5 is associated with psychiatric illness and has functional molecular effects. However, examination of FKBP5 regulation has largely been limited to peripheral cells, which may not reflect regulation in neural cells. We used 27 human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (iPSCs) derived from 20 subjects to examine FKBP5 mRNA expression following GR activation...
November 24, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893996/frequency-and-pattern-of-internet-use-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorders-seeking-medical-information
#8
Hugo Baup, Hélène Verdoux
The aim was to explore how patients with bipolar (N=59) or psychotic disorder (N=41) seek medical information on Internet (e-patient). Two-thirds (64%) of inpatients interviewed using a standardized semi-structured questionnaire were e-patients. Compared to non e-patients, they were younger and had a higher educational level. The proportion of e-patients was comparable among persons with schizophrenia (61%) and with bipolar disorder (66%). Very few patients were familiar with quality codes for Internet medical information...
November 23, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918913/reduced-cortical-thickness-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#9
Sally A Grace, Ben G Buchanan, Jerome J Maller, Wei Lin Toh, David J Castle, Susan L Rossell
Recent neuroimaging studies in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have implicated abnormal structure and function of occipito-temporal and fronto-limbic regions in the potential pathophysiology of the disorder. To date, morphometric investigations have yielded inconsistent results, and have suggested that clinical symptoms may mediate structural brain abnormalities in BDD. We measured Grey Matter (GM) cortical thickness in 20 participants with BDD and 20 healthy control participants matched on age, gender, estimated IQ and handedness...
November 22, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918912/predicting-cyp2d6-phenotype-from-resting-brain-perfusion-images-by-gradient-boosting
#10
Giulio Napolitano, Julia C Stingl, Matthias Schmid, Roberto Viviani
The cytochrome P450 enzyme 2D6 is involved in the metabolism of 20% of all commonly used drugs, including many psychotropic drugs and CNS-active substances. CYP2D6 is among the CYP enzymes with the highest expression levels in the brain, suggesting a role in the local brain metabolism of psychotropic drugs and the existence of endogenous substrates. The genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6, which causes individual differences in activity levels of the enzyme, has also been characterized functionally in human brain imaging studies...
November 22, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907825/seeing-light-at-the-end-of-the-tunnel-positive-prospective-mental-imagery-and-optimism-in-depression
#11
Julie L Ji, Emily A Holmes, Simon E Blackwell
Optimism is associated with positive outcomes across many health domains, from cardiovascular disease to depression. However, we know little about cognitive processes underlying optimism in psychopathology. The present study tested whether the ability to vividly imagine positive events in one's future was associated with dispositional optimism in a sample of depressed adults. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted, using baseline (all participants, N=150) and follow-up data (participants in the control condition only, N=63) from a clinical trial (Blackwell et al...
November 21, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889604/suicidal-ideation-plans-and-attempts-among-medical-college-students-in-china-the-effect-of-their-parental-characteristics
#12
Long Sun, Chengchao Zhou, Lingzhong Xu, Shixue Li, Fanlei Kong, Jie Chu
Medical college students are a high-risk population of suicidal ideation, plan and attempt. However, few studies discuss the effect of parental characteristics on suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among medical college students in China. A total of 2198 respondents answered the questionnaires referring social-demographic characteristics, psychological conditions, parental characteristics, suicidal ideation, plan and attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and attempt among the subjects were 17...
November 18, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918910/altered-dynamics-of-brain-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder-at-rest-and-during-task-performance
#13
Fabio Sambataro, Eleonora Visintin, Nadja Doerig, Janis Brakowski, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Erich Seifritz, Simona Spinelli
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with alterations in several functional brain networks. Previous studies investigating brain networks in MDD during the performance of a task have yielded inconsistent results with the function of the brain at rest. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest and during a goal-directed task to investigate dynamics of functional connectivity in 19 unmedicated patients with MDD and 19 healthy controls across both experimental paradigms...
November 17, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888682/affective-temperaments-as-measured-by-temps-a-among-self-poisoning-nonlethal-suicide-attempters
#14
Amir Rezaei Ardani, Farhad Farid Hosseini, Zahra Asadpour, Amir Masoud Hashemian, Bita Dadpour, Mahsa Nahidi
Suicidal behaviors are serious public health problems. The prominent association of mood disorders with suicide, along with the renaissance of the spectrum concept of psychiatric disorders in the recent decades, prioritizes the investigation of temperament variants in suicidal individuals. This study aimed to explore the relationship between affective temperaments and nonviolent suicide attempts. We administered Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A) to 141 (27 males and 114 females) consecutive self-poisoning non-lethal suicide attempters at a Medical Toxicology Center and a sex and age matched group of healthy individuals (28 males, 112 females)...
November 17, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915166/-i-can-t-accept-that-feeling-relationships-between-interoceptive-awareness-mindfulness-and-eating-disorder-symptoms-in-females-with-and-at-risk-of-an-eating-disorder
#15
Paul Lattimore, Bethan R Mead, Leanne Irwin, Lorna Grice, Ruth Carson, Peter Malinowski
Mindfulness based therapies (MBTs) for eating disorders show potential benefit for outcomes yet evidence is scarce regarding the mechanisms by which they influence remission from symptoms. One way that mindfulness approaches create positive outcomes is through enhancement of emotion regulation skills. Maladaptive emotion regulation is a key psychological feature of all eating disorders. The aim of the current study was to identify facets of emotion regulation involved in the relationship between mindfulness and maladaptive eating behaviours...
November 16, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886578/kynurenic-acid-and-psychotic-symptoms-and-personality-traits-in-twins-with-psychiatric-morbidity
#16
Magdalena E Kegel, Viktoria Johansson, Lennart Wetterberg, Maria Bhat, Lilly Schwieler, Tyrone D Cannon, Ina Schuppe-Koistinen, Göran Engberg, Mikael Landén, Christina M Hultman, Sophie Erhardt
Increased cytokines and kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytokines and kynurenines in the CSF of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to study these CSF markers in relation to psychotic symptoms and personality traits. CSF levels of tryptophan (TRP), KYNA, quinolinic acid (QUIN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed in 23 twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in their not affected co-twins...
November 16, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871032/level-of-serum-thioredoxin-and-correlation-with-neurocognitive-functions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-using-clozapine-and-other-atypical-antipsychotics
#17
Alper Bas, Gozde Gultekin, Said Incir, Tuba Ocek Bas, Murat Emul, Alaatin Duran
Thioredoxin is a serum antioxidant that has been investigated in the etiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study is investigating the relationship between serum thioredoxin levels and cognitive functions in acute psychotic episode and remission state patients with schizophrenia; and examining whether there were differences between patients using clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics; including risperidone, olanzapine and amisulpride. This research was performed in schizophrenia patients hospitalized with acute psychotic episode (n=57), reevaluated patients after the initiation of treatment (mean 16 weeks) (n=46), and healthy controls (n=41)...
November 15, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871031/prominent-increased-calcineurin-immunoreactivity-in-the-superior-temporal-gyrus-in-schizophrenia-a-postmortem-study
#18
Akira Wada, Yasuto Kunii, Jyunya Matsumoto, Mizuki Hino, Qiaohui Yang, Shin-Ichi Niwa, Hirooki Yabe
Many neuroimaging studies have demonstrated structural changes in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in patients with schizophrenia. Several postmortem studies have reported on the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but few reports have investigated alterations in molecules in the STG. In addition, several studies have suggested that calcineurin (CaN) inadequacy may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, but no reports about CaN expression in the STG in schizophrenia have been published. We compared the density of CaN-immunoreactive (CaN-IR) neurons in the STG from 11 patients with schizophrenia with that of 11 sex- and age-matched controls...
November 15, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899214/association-study-of-nos1-gene-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-schizophrenia-in-chinese-han-origin
#19
LETTER
Fei Xu, Tao Yu, Weibo Niu, Zhenming Guo, Yan Bi, Rui Zhang, Decheng Ren, Jiaxin Hu, Xiaoye Huang, Xi Wu, Yanfei Cao, Fengping Yang, Lu Wang, Weidong Li, Xingwang Li, Yifeng Xu, Lin He, Lei Cai, Guang He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871030/the-impact-of-gender-on-treatment-effectiveness-of-body-psychotherapy-for-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-ness-trial-data
#20
Mark Savill, Stavros Orfanos, Richard Bentall, Ulrich Reininghaus, Til Wykes, Stefan Priebe
Despite promising findings from small-scale studies suggesting that body psychotherapy may be an effective treatment for negative symptoms, these results were not replicated in a recent multisite trial. In this trial a far smaller proportion of women were recruited relative to earlier studies, which may be an issue given the gender mix of the sample evaluated has been found to affect trial outcomes in schizophrenia. Using data from our multisite trial, the interaction between gender and treatment allocation as a predictor of outcomes was examined in 275 participants (72 women and 203 men) randomised to either a body psychotherapy or Pilates group...
November 14, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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