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Psychiatry Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156426/theory-of-mind-and-schizophrenia-in-young-and-middle-aged-patients-influence-of-executive-functions
#1
Marta Croca, Aurèlie Lagodka, Remi Gadel, Marie Chantal Bourdel, Narjes Bendjemaa, Raphael Gaillard, Jean Pierre Olié, M Champagne-Lavau, Marie Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado
Theory of Mind (ToM) is compromised in schizophrenia, and responsible for social disability. We aim to study the correlation between ToM deficits and Executive Functions (EF), using the Faux Pas Test (FPT) for ToM evaluation, Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for EF assessment. Two groups of patients with schizophrenia were included: 22 young (18-35 years-old) and 18 middle-aged (>50 years-old) Patients, compared to age-matched Controls. We found worst FPT performances in both groups of patients, but with a more generalized pattern of dysfunction in the middle-aged patient group...
November 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156295/components-of-schizophrenia-liability-are-not-uniformly-associated-with-stress-sensitivity-resilience-and-coping
#2
Christian Ruzibiza, Rebecca E Grattan, Rebekah Eder, Richard J Linscott
Stress sensitization is a candidate final common pathway for the development of schizophrenia. In other psychopathologies, resilience attenuates the stressor-outcome relationships. Therefore, we sought to determine whether resilience moderates the association between stress sensitivity and schizophrenia liability. Undergraduates (n = 230) self-reported cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganisation attributes of schizophrenia liability as well as ratings of sensitivity to stress, resilience, and dispositional coping behaviour...
November 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156425/perceived-provider-stigma-as-a-predictor-of-mental-health-service-users-internalized-stigma-and-disempowerment
#3
Katie Wang, Bruce G Link, Patrick W Corrigan, Larry Davidson, Elizabeth Flanagan
Despite increasing awareness of stigma from mental health service providers as a barrier to recovery, little research has directly examined how it might influence the service users' self-perceptions and treatment experience. The present study examined the association of service users' perceived provider stigma with their experience of internalized stigma and disempowerment, two psychosocial constructs known to hinder recovery. Mental health service users (N = 350) completed questionnaires assessing perceived stigma from mental health service providers, including perceptions of negative affective reactions towards individual users and desired social distance towards people with mental illnesses across various life domains, internalized stigma, and disempowerment (i...
November 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150136/associations-between-cortical-thickness-structural-connectivity-and-severity-of-dimensional-bulimia-nervosa-symptomatology
#4
Margaret L Westwater, Jakob Seidlitz, Kelly M J Diederen, Sarah Fischer, James C Thompson
Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a psychiatric illness defined by preoccupation with body image (cognitive 'symptoms'), binge eating and compensatory behaviors. Although diagnosed BN has been related to grey matter alterations, characterization of brain structure in women with a range of BN symptoms has not been made. This study examined whether cortical thickness (CT) values scaled with severity of BN cognitions in 33 women with variable BN pathology. We then assessed global structural connectivity (SC) of CT to determine if individual differences in global SC relate to BN symptom severity...
November 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149716/longitudinal-associations-between-resilience-and-quality-of-life-in-eating-disorders
#5
Esther Calvete, Carlota Las Hayas, Andrés Gómez Del Barrio
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the longitudinal reciprocal associations between resilience factors, quality of life (QoL) domains, and symptoms of eating disorders (EDs). Hypotheses included predictive paths from resilience factors of "acceptance of self and life" and "personal competence" to increased QoL and predictive paths from previous levels of QoL to resilience. METHOD: A total of 184 patients with EDs (mean age = 29.55, SD = 9.17, 94.8% women) completed measures of resilience, QoL, and EDs symptoms over three waves spaced six month apart...
November 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156424/blink-reflex-under-external-emotional-stimuli-in-bipolar-i-and-ii-disorders
#6
Qisha Zhu, Jiawei Wang, Hongying Fan, Guorong Ma, Bingren Zhang, Chanchan Shen, Wei Wang
Bipolar disorder types I (BD I) and II (BD II) might present different cortico-brainstem circuit dysfunctions under external emotions, which might be reflected by the blink reflex. We therefore invited 32 BD I and 23 BD II patients, and 46 healthy volunteers to answer the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Hypomania Checklist-32, and the Plutchik - van Praag Depression inventory, and to undergo the blink reflex test under external emotions (emotional pictures plus sounds) of Disgust, Erotica, Fear, Happiness, and Sadness...
November 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154170/adverse-life-events-and-the-onset-of-anxiety-disorders
#7
Beyon Miloyan, O Joseph Bienvenu, Ben Brilot, William W Eaton
This study tested the hypothesis that adverse events are associated with increased risk of onset of anxiety disorders. Data from Waves 1 (N = 43,093; 2001-2002) and 2 (N = 34,653; 2004-2005) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to assess whether adverse events at baseline are associated with increased risk of anxiety disorder onset over three years of follow up. Sixty-six percent (SE: 1.0) of respondents with an anxiety disorder in the intervening period between Waves 1 and 2 had experienced an adverse life event in the year prior to the Wave 1 interview...
November 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156427/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-effects-of-neuroticism-and-extraversion-on-subjective-well-being-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Floor A van Dijk, Frederike Schirmbeck, Lieuwe de Haan
One in five patients with a psychotic disorder has persistent low subjective well-being (SWB), which is associated with a poorer prognosis. In schizophrenia patients, personality traits are associated with SWB. The present study aims to evaluate whether neuroticism and extraversion influence SWB in patients with a psychotic disorder and healthy controls over the course of time. In 186 patients and 126 healthy control subjects, SWB was measured with the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics-20 (SWN) scale at baseline, three years and six years...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156296/associations-between-severity-of-anxiety-and-clinical-and-biological-features-of-major-affective-disorders
#9
Fernanda Liboni Cavicchioli, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, George Anderson, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Patients with major affective disorders (MAFD) with comorbid anxiety show a greater functional impairment than those without anxiety. The aim of this study is to delineate the associations between severity of anxiety in MAFD, namely bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), and MAFD characteristics and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Recruited were 82 participants with anxiety disoders and 83 without anxiety disoders, including 101 MAFD patients and 51 healthy controls. We used the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) to measure severity of anxiety and made the diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and phobias...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154172/association-between-b-vitamins-and-schizophrenia-a-population-based-case-control-study
#10
Bing Cao, Xiao-Yu Sun, Chuan-Bo Zhang, Jing-Jing Yan, Qian-Qian Zhao, Si-Yu Yang, Lai-Lai Yan, Ning-Hua Huang, Jing Zeng, Jie-Ying Liao, Jing-Yu Wang
To explore the association between schizophrenia and six types of B vitamins, including choline, biotin, riboflavin, pyridoxamine, pyridoxine and nicotinamide, based on the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC) Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) platform. We conducted the case-control study between November 2015 and September 2016 in Weifang, Shandong Province, China. Blood samples from 128 cases of schizophrenia and 101 controls were collected, and B vitamin were measured by LC-MS coupled with HILIC...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154171/early-maladaptive-schemas-as-mediators-between-childhood-maltreatment-and-later-psychological-distress-among-chinese-college-students
#11
Jingbo Gong, Raymond C K Chan
The aim of the current study was to examine whether early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) mediate the association between different kinds of childhood maltreatment and later psychopathology and the effect of different kinds of childhood maltreatment on psychological distress in later life. A total of 1102 college students from two local universities participated in the study; their average age was 20.46 ± 1.13 years. The participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Early Maladaptive Schemas Scale (EMSs), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153958/major-and-minor-life-events-personality-and-psychopathology-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome
#12
Netta Horesh, Sharona Shmuel-Baruch, Dan Farbstein, Daphna Ruhrman, Noa Ben Aroya Milshtein, Silvana Fennig, Alan Apter, Tamar Steinberg
Environmental, psychological, and biological interactions underlie many psychopathologies. Tourette's Syndrome (TS) has an obvious biological substrate but environmental factors and personality play substantial roles in its expression. We aimed to study the interrelationships between stressful life events, personality traits, tics, and comorbid disorders in children with TS. To this end, 132 children with TS and 49 healthy controls were recruited for the study. Major life events in the 12-months prior to testing and minor life events in the month prior to testing were retrospectively assessed using the Life Experiences Survey (LES) and the Brief Adolescent Life Events Scale (BALES), respectively...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136600/effects-of-venlafaxine-versus-lithium-monotherapy-on-quality-of-life-in-bipolar-ii-major-depressive-disorder-findings-from-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Lorenzo Lorenzo-Luaces, Jay D Amsterdam
Bipolar disorder is associated with decreased quality of life, especially during depressive episodes. There are few studies that have examined whether quality of life improves following pharmacological treatments of bipolar depression. In this exploratory study, we examined the effects of antidepressant versus mood stabilizer monotherapy on quality of life ratings in bipolar II subjects during acute (12 week) treatment. Data were derived from a randomized double-blind comparison of venlafaxine (n = 65) versus lithium (n = 64) monotherapy...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128142/longitudinal-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-on-the-neural-correlates-of-emotion-regulation
#14
Harry Rubin-Falcone, Jochen Weber, Ronit Kishon, Kevin Ochsner, Lauren Delaparte, Bruce Doré, Francesca Zanderigo, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Jeffrey M Miller
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for a substantial minority of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), but its mechanism of action at the neural level is not known. As core techniques of CBT seek to enhance emotion regulation, we scanned 31 MDD participants prior to 14 sessions of CBT using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a task in which participants engaged in a voluntary emotion regulation strategy while recalling negative autobiographical memories. Eighteen healthy controls were also scanned...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120850/aggression-as-an-independent-entity-even-in-psychosis-the-role-of-cortisol
#15
Sourav Das, Soumik Sengupta, Kangkan Pathak, Divyashree Sah, Sumit Mehta, Priya Ranjan Avinash, Aparajeeta Baruah, Sailendra Kumar Deuri, Anil Sarmah, Vijay Gogoi, Kamal Narayan Kalita, Jyoti Hazarika
Aggression is a common entity in psychiatric disorders, particularly psychotic disorders. Glucocorticoid hypofunction has been linked to abnormal forms of aggressive behavior in various studies in a 'possibly causal' role. We hypothesise that aggression, even among those having psychosis is associated with glucocorticoid alterations similar to those who are aggressive but not psychotic. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to look at the cortisol functioning in relation to both aggression and psychosis...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120849/genetic-analysis-of-impulsive-personality-traits-examination-of-a-priori-candidates-and-genome-wide-variation
#16
Joshua C Gray, James MacKillop, Jessica Weafer, Kyle M Hernandez, Jianjun Gao, Abraham A Palmer, Harriet de Wit
Impulsive personality traits are heritable risk factors and putative endophenotypes for addiction and other psychiatric disorders involving disinhibition. This study examined the genetic basis of impulsive personality traits, defined as scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P). In 983 healthy young adults of European ancestry, the study examined genetic variation in relation to a combined phenotype of seven subscales based on high phenotypic intercorrelations...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154204/facebook-intrusion-fear-of-missing-out-narcissism-and-life-satisfaction-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Agata Błachnio, Aneta Przepiórka
Facebook is one of the most popular social networking sites. The present paper examines the relations between fear of missing out, narcissism, Facebook intrusion, and life satisfaction. We hypothesized that the fear of missing out and narcissism would play a significant role in Facebook intrusion. The participants in the study were 360 Polish users of Facebook. We administered the Facebook Intrusion Scale, the Fear of Missing Out Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149717/usefulness-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca-to-monitor-cognitive-impairments-in-depressed-patients-receiving-electroconvulsive-therapy
#18
Rémi Moirand, Filipe Galvao, Maxime Lecompte, Emmanuel Poulet, Frédéric Haesebaert, Jerome Brunelin
There is a lack of consensual tools for evaluating the cognitive side-effects in patients with depression who are treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to monitor cognitive changes in patients with depression receiving ECT. Cognitive functioning was assessed prospectively in 48 patients with unipolar or bipolar depression before and after an ECT course...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131992/cross-validation-of-the-personality-assessment-inventory-chronic-suicide-risk-index-s_chron-in-a-large-sample-of-offenders
#19
John F Edens, Kevin S Douglas
Recently, Sinclair et al. (2016) reported on the development of a new Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) index designed to identify individuals with histories of multiple suicide attempts (Chronic Suicide Risk Index: S_Chron). We evaluated this new index in a sample of over 1000 criminal offenders who had been administered the PAI as part of a more extensive research project. The S_Chron meaningfully discriminated between those with multiple prior suicide attempts and those with 0-1 attempts, similar to what Sinclair et al...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128620/patients-with-schizophrenia-have-a-higher-risk-of-psoriasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Patompong Ungprasert, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
Recent studies have suggested an increased risk of psoriasis among patients with schizophrenia although the results are still inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies that compared the risk psoriasis among patients with schizophrenia versus subjects without schizophrenia was conducted to better characterize the risk. Pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals from the included studies were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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