Read by QxMD icon Read

Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition

Holly P Quach, Tamara Dzekic, Paola Bukuroshi, K Sandy Pang
Vitamin D3 and the synthetic vitamin D analogs, 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1α(OH)D3 ] and 1α-hydroxyvitamin D2 [1α(OH)D2 ], and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3 ] were appraised for their vitamin D receptor (VDR) associated-potencies as cholesterol lowering agents in mice in vivo. These precursors require activation in vivo: 1α(OH)D3 and 1α(OH)D2 are activated by liver Cyp2r1 and Cyp27a1 to active VDR ligands, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ] and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 [1,25(OH)2 D2 ], respectively...
February 27, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Boon Hooi Tan, Nafees Ahemad, Yan Pan, Uma Devi Palanisamy, Iekhsan Othman, Beow Chin Yiap, Chin Eng Ong
Many dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis (OA) including the three naturally derived compounds, glucosamine, chondroitin and diacerein. Despite their wide spread use, research on interaction of these antiarthritic compounds with human hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is limited. This study aimed to examine the modulatory effects of these compounds on CYP2C9, a major CYP isoform, using in vitro biochemical assay and in silico models. Utilizing valsartan hydroxylase assay as probe, all forms of glucosamine and chondroitin exhibited IC50 values beyond 1000 μM, indicating very weak potential in inhibiting CYP2C9...
February 27, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Takuya Ebihara, Mitsuhiro Nishihara, Junzo Takahashi, Fumihiro Jinno, Yoshihiko Tagawa
In the search for orally available drugs, the prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) is essential to successfully select compounds that will be clinically useful. This report describes the selection of TAK-272 (SCO-272), a novel orally active renin inhibitor, as a clinical candidate via the detailed investigation of nonclinical PK data and human PK prediction. The bioavailability (BA) of TAK-272 after oral administration to rats and monkeys was low, especially in fasted monkeys, and the systemic exposure of TAK-272 was highly variable in monkeys...
February 23, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Satoshi Koyama, Hiroshi Arakawa, Manabu Itoh, Norio Masuda, Kentaro Yano, Hajime Kojima, Takuo Ogihara
The NanoCulture Plate (NCP) is a novel microstructural plate designed as a base for the three-dimensional culture of cells/tissues. Here, we examined whether or not the metabolic capability of human primary hepatocytes is well maintained during culture on NCPs. The hepatocytes formed aggregates after seeding and their ATP content was well maintained during culture for 21 days. Expression of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 mRNAs was detected throughout the 21-day culture period. Addition of CYP substrate drugs (midazolam, diclofenac, lamotrigine and acetaminophen) resulted in the formation of multiple metabolites with a corresponding decrease in the amounts of the unchanged compounds...
February 22, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Jun Hosogi, Rui Ohashi, Hiroshi Maeda, Kazuhiro Fujita, Junko Ushiki, Takashi Kuwabara, Yorihiro Yamamoto, Toru Imamura
We previously reported that KW-2449, (E)-1-{4-[2-(1H-Indazol-3-yl)vinyl]benzoyl}piperazine, a novel multikinase inhibitor developed for the treatment of leukemia patients, was oxidized to an iminium ion intermediate by monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and then converted to its oxo-piperazine form (M1) by aldehyde oxidase (AO). However, we found that the significant decrease in the pharmacologically active metabolite M1 following repeated administration of KW-2449 in primates might hamper the effectiveness of the drug...
February 16, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Ken-Ichi Umehara, Felix Huth, Christina S Won, Tycho Heimbach, Handan He
Ritonavir is one of several ketoconazole alternatives used to evaluate strong CYP3A4 inhibition potential in clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. In this study, four physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of ritonavir as an in vivo time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4 were created and verified for the oral doses of 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg using fraction absorbed (Fa) and oral clearance (CLoral) values reported in the literature, as transporter and CYP enzyme reaction phenotyping data were not available...
February 16, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Alice Varghese, Prachi Saboo, Sarika Wairkar
Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) is an Indian medicinal plant belonging to the family combretaceae and possesses numerous therapeutic activities including its immense cardio protective activity. In the present work, methanolic bark extract of T. arjuna was evaluated for the CYP3A and CYP2D inhibition potential in rat liver microsomes (RLM). Further, the methanolic bark extract was fractionated successively using increasing polarity solvents starting with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol...
January 12, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Sara Algeelani, Dalal Alkhelb, David J Greenblatt
Canagliflozin, used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is commonly co-administered with sulfonylureas. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible inhibitory effect of sulfonylureas and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on canagliflozin metabolism in vitro. Three sulfonylurea derivatives were evaluated as inhibitors: chlorpropamide, glimepiride and gliclazide. Two other NSAIDs were used as positive control inhibitors: niflumic acid and diclofenac. The rate of formation of canagliflozin metabolites was determined by HPLC analysis of in vitro incubations of canagliflozin as a substrate with and without inhibitors, using human liver microsomes (HLMs)...
January 10, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Maria D Donovan, Khaled Abduljalil, John F Cryan, Geraldine B Boylan, Brendan T Griffin
Bumetanide is a loop diuretic that is proposed to possess a beneficial effect on disorders of the central nervous system, including neonatal seizures. Therefore, prediction of unbound bumetanide concentrations in brain is relevant from a pharmacological prospective. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for the prediction of bumetanide disposition in plasma and brain in adult and pediatric populations. A compound file was built for bumetanide integrating physicochemical data and in vitro data...
January 10, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Holly P Quach, Keumhan Noh, Stacie Y Hoi, Adrie Bruinsma, Geny M M Groothuis, Albert P Li, Edwin C Y Chow, K Sandy Pang
The vitamin D-deficient model, established in the C57BL/6 mouse after 8 weeks of feeding vitamin D-deficient diets in the absence or presence of added calcium, was found associated with elevated levels of plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and plasma and liver cholesterol, and a reduction in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol metabolism) and renal Oat3 mRNA/protein expression levels. However, there was no change in plasma calcium and phosphate levels. Appraisal of the liver revealed an up-regulation of mRNA expressions of the small heterodimer partner (Shp) and attenuation of Cyp7a1, which contributed to hypercholesterolemia in vitamin D-deficiency...
February 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Jin-Zi Ji, Bei-Bei Huang, Tong-Tong Gu, Ting Tai, Huan Zhou, Yu-Meng Jia, Qiong-Yu Mi, Meng-Ran Zhang, Hong-Guang Xie
Clopidogrel is predominantly hydrolyzed to clopidogrel carboxylic acid (CCA) by carboxylesterase 1, and subsequently CCA is glucuronidated to clopidogrel acyl glucuronide (CAG) by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs); however, the UGT isoenzymes glucuronidating CCA remain unidentified to date. In this study, the glucuronidation of CCA was screened with pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and 7 human recombinant UGT (rUGT) isoforms. Results indicated that rUGT2B7 exhibited the highest catalytical activity for the CCA glucuronidation as measured with a mean Vmax value of 120...
February 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Yuichi Uwai, Tatsuya Kawasaki, Tomohiro Nabekura
We previously reported the contribution of sodium-phosphate cotransporter to the tubular reabsorption of lithium in rats. In the present study, the dose dependency of the renal handling of lithium was examined in rats. When lithium chloride at 1.25 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg was intravenously injected as a bolus, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve of lithium until 60 minutes were calculated to be 6.23 mEq·min/l, 8.77 mEq·min/l and 64.6 mEq·min/l, respectively. The renal clearance of lithium and its fractional excretion increased with increments in the dose administered...
February 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Rong Shi, Yuanyuan Yang, Zhangyao Xu, Yan Dai, Min Zheng, Tianming Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Yueming Ma
Berberine, a well-known plant alkaloid derived from Rhizoma coptidis, has potential applications as a therapeutic drug for diabetic nephropathy. However, the transporter-mediated renal transport of berberine remains largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the renal transport mechanism of berberine using transfected cells, kidney slices and animal experiments. In Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stably expressing rat OCT2 (MDCK-rOCT2) and kidney slices, saturable and non-saturable uptake of berberine was observed, and corticosterone could inhibit the uptake of berberine, with IC50 values of 0...
January 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Shotaro Uehara, Yasuhiro Uno, Takashi Inoue, Erika Sasaki, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have been recognized as a useful small non-human primate model in preclinical testing for drug development. In this study, a cDNA of novel ATP-dependent efflux transporter ABCB1 was cloned from marmoset liver tissue. Marmoset ABCB1 cDNA encodes a protein of 1279 amino acid residues (MW = 141.4 kDa) containing characteristic regions of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, two hydrophobic transmembrane regions and two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding regions, similar to human ABCB1...
January 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Nao Watanabe, Hiroki Higashi, Saki Nakamura, Keiko Nomura, Yuichi Adachi, Masato Taguchi
The authors encountered the case of an 8-fold increase in the concentration/dose (C/D) ratio of tacrolimus (TAC) following the coadministration of voriconazole (VRCZ) in a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipient. The interaction observed was much greater than expected and the patient had also been treated with oral risperidone (RSP). It was hypothesized that cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A inhibition of the small intestine by voriconazole and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition of the small intestine by risperidone exerted a synergistic effect on the bioavailability of tacrolimus...
January 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Koichi Takahashi, Kunihiro Yoshisue, Masato Chiba, Takeo Nakanishi, Ikumi Tamai
Trifluridine (FTD) exhibits anticancer activities after its oral administration despite its hydrophilic nature. It was previously reported that concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) 1 mediates the apical uptake of FTD in human small intestinal epithelial cells (HIECs). In the present study, FTD was also identified as a substrate for equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 and ENT2 in transporter gene-transfected cells. An immunocytochemical analysis revealed that ENT1 was expressed at the basolateral and apical membranes of HIECs...
January 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Akihiko Goto, Yoshihiko Tagawa, Yuu Moriya, Sho Sato, Masami Yamamoto, Takeshi Wakabayashi, Tetsuya Tsukamoto, Joost DeJongh, Tamara J van Steeg, Toshiya Moriwaki, Satoru Asahi
A recent study suggested that the pharmacokinetics (PK) of highly fat distributed compounds can be affected by acute changes in the volume of adipose tissue. The present study investigates possible influences of body composition on the disposition of the highly lipophilic compound TAK-357 in two rat strains. Physiologically based PK (PBPK) modeling and simulation was applied on single and multiple dose PK data of TAK-357 in obese Wistar fatty rats and Wistar lean rats having approximately 45% and 13% body fat, respectively...
December 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Min Luo, Manyun Dai, Hante Lin, Minzhu Xie, Jiao Lin, Aiming Liu, Julin Yang
Gemfibrozil is a fibrate drug used widely for dyslipidemia associated with atherosclerosis. Clinically, both gemfibrozil and its phase II metabolite gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide (gem-glu) are involved in drug-drug interaction (DDI). But the DDI risk caused by gem-glu between human and mice has not been compared. In this study, six volunteers were recruited and took a therapeutic dose of gemfibrozil for 3 days for examination of the gemfibrozil and gem-glu level in human. Male mice were fed a gemfibrozil diet (0...
December 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Liping Li, Yayun Weng, Wei Wang, Mengru Bai, Hongmei Lei, Hui Zhou, Huidi Jiang
Sulpiride, a selective dopamine D2 receptor blocker, is used widely for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression and gastric/duodenal ulcers. Because the great majority of sulpiride is positively charged at physiological pH 7.4, and ~70% of the dose recovered in urine is in the unchanged form after human intravenous administration of sulpiride, it is believed that transporters play an important role in the renal excretion of sulpiride. The aim of the present study was to explore which transporters contribute to the renal disposition of sulpiride...
December 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Jong Cheol Shon, Nguyen Minh Phuc, Won Cheol Kim, Jae Kyung Heo, Zhexue Wu, Hyunyoung Lee, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
Acetylshikonin is a biologically active compound with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity, which is isolated from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizoma. An inhibitory effect of acetylshikonin against CYP2J2 activity was discovered recently. Based on this result, this study was expanded to evaluate the inhibitory effects of acetylshikonin against nine different cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms in human liver microsomes (HLMs) using substrate cocktails incubation assay. Acetylshikonin showed a strong inhibitory effect against all P450s tested with IC50 values of 1...
December 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"