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Parasite Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802050/distinct-dc-subsets-regulate-adaptive-th1-and-2-responses-during-trichuris-muris-infection
#1
Mimoza Demiri, Katarzyna Müller-Luda, William W Agace, Marcus Svensson-Frej
Low and high-dose infections with the murine large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris are associated with induction of adaptive Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively, in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Classical dendritic cells (cDC) accumulate in the large-intestinal mucosa and MLN upon T. muris infection, yet their role in driving adaptive responses to infection remains largely unknown. We performed low and high-dose T. muris infections of mice deficient in defined cDC subsets to investigate their role in induction of adaptive immune responses...
August 12, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796897/hookworm-excretory-secretory-products-modulate-immune-responses-to-heterologous-and-species-specific-antigens
#2
Nicholas Diliani, Blaise Dondji
Approximately one billion people are currently infected with hookworm. Despite its high prevalence and the concomitant immune suppression seen in infected individuals, little research has been done on the mechanism of immunosuppression by hookworm. Our study focused on characterizing mechanisms utilized by hookworm to suppress the host immune response. Splenocytes and draining lymph node cells from mice injected with hookworm excretory/secretory (ES) proteins showed decreased proliferation in response to both heterologous and species-specific antigens while also having increased nitric oxide secretion...
August 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779539/effect-of-es-products-from-anisakis-nematoda-anisakidae-on-experimentally-induced-colitis-in-adult-zebrafish
#3
Simon Haarder, Per W Kania, Thomas Lindebo Holm, Louise von Gersdorff Jørgensen, Kurt Buchmann
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in developed countries is linked with elevated hygienic standards. One of several factors involved in this question may be reduced exposure to the immunomodulatory effects of parasitic helminths. Several investigations on treatment of mice and humans with helminth-derived substances have supported this notion, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study therefore dissects to what extent a series of immune-related genes are modulated in zebrafish with experimentally induced colitis following exposure to excretory-secretory (ES) products isolated from larval Anisakis, a widely distributed fish nematode...
August 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748530/il-6-promotes-cd4-t-cell-and-b-cell-activation-during-plasmodium-infection
#4
Ismail Sebina, Lily G Fogg, Kylie R James, Megan S F Soon, Jasmin Akter, Bryce S Thomas, Geoffrey R Hill, Christian R Engwerda, Ashraful Haque
AIMS: Humoral immunity develops in the spleen during blood-stage Plasmodium infection. This elicits parasite-specific IgM and IgG, which control parasites and protect against malaria. Studies in mice have elucidated cells and molecules driving humoral immunity to Plasmodium, including CD4(+) T-cells, B-cells, interleukin (IL)-21 and ICOS. IL-6, a cytokine readily detected in Plasmodium-infected mice and humans, is recognized in other systems as a driver of humoral immunity. Here, we examined the effect of infection-induced IL-6 on humoral immunity to Plasmodium...
July 27, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731592/arginase-activity-of-leishmania-isolated-from-patients-with-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#5
Alireza Badirzadeh, Tahereh Taheri, Fatemeh Abedi-Astaneh, Yasaman Taslimi, Zahra Abdossamadi, Hossein Montakhab-Yeganeh, Maryam Aghashahi, Maryam Niyyati, Sima Rafati
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important vector-borne parasitic diseases, highly endemic in Iran, and its prevalence is increasing all over the country. Arginase (ARG) activity in isolated Leishmania parasites from CL patients is yet to be explored. This study aimed to compare the ARG activity of isolated Leishmania promastigotes from CL patients with a standard strain of L. major and its influences on the disease pathogenesis. We recruited 16 confirmed CL patients from Qom province, in central Iran; after detection of Leishmania species using PCR-RFLP, we assessed the levels of ARG in the isolated promastigotes and determined the parasites' growth rate...
July 21, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703913/a-suum-infection-modulates-inflammation-implication-of-cd4-cd25-hi-foxp3-t-cells-and-il-10
#6
Tiago de Oliveira Titz, Claudia Andréa Alves de Araújo, Cristina Satomi Enobe, Paula Ordonhez Rigato, Telma Miyuki Oshiro, Maria Fernanda de Macedo-Soares
Helminth infections have the ability to modulate host's immune response through mechanisms that allow the chronic persistence of the worms in the host. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved on the suppressive effect of Ascaris suum infection using a murine experimental model of LPS-induced inflammation. We found that infection with A. suum markedly inhibited leukocyte influx induced by LPS into air pouches, suppressed secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) and induced high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β...
July 13, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686299/rantes-levels-as-a-determinant-of-falciparum-malaria-severity-or-recovery
#7
D Bujarbaruah, M P Kalita, V Baruah, T K Basumatary, S Hazarika, R H Begum, S Medhi, S Bose
The study explored the role of differential RANTES concentrations, its receptor CCR5 expression and resulting immunomodulation in the pathogenesis and/or recovery from falciparum malaria. The study population included cases of uncomplicated malaria (UC-M, N=128, enrolled on follow-up basis), severe malaria (SM, N=25), and healthy controls (N=112). Serum RANTES and TNF-α levels were evaluated by ELISA. Monocyte levels and activation profile were studied by flow cytometry. Differential mRNA expression profile was studied by real-time PCR...
July 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665520/vaccine-potential-of-hla-a2-epitopes-from-leishmania-cysteine-protease-type-iii-cpc
#8
Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ajay Amit, Ashish Kumar Singh, Akhilesh Kumar, Rani Mansuri, Sahil Sinha, Roshan Kamal Topno, Ritesh Mishra, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Krishna Pandey, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das
Although the precise host-defence mechanisms are not completely understood, T-cell-mediated immune responses are believed to play a pivotal role in controlling parasite infection. In this study, the potential HLA*A2 restricted peptides were predicted and the ability of peptides to bind HLA-A*02 was confirmed by a MHC stabilization assay. Two of the peptides tested stabilized HLA-A*02: (a)LLATTVSGL(P1) and(b)LMTNGPLEV(P3). The potential of the peptides to generate protective immune response was evaluated in treated visceral leishmaniasis patients as well as in healthy control subjects...
June 30, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626924/group-2-ilcs-a-way-of-enhancing-immune-protection-against-human-helminths
#9
Norman Nausch, Francisca Mutapi
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play crucial roles in type 2 immune responses associated with allergic and autoimmune diseases, viral and helminth infections and tissue homeostasis. Experimental models show that in helminth infections ILC2s provide an early source of type 2 cytokines and therefore are essential for the induction of potentially protective type 2 responses. Much of our knowledge of ILC2s in helminth infections has come from experimental mouse models with very few studies analysing ILC2s in natural human infections...
June 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599077/protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-cryptosporidium-parvum-cpprp1-sushi-domain-against-c-tyzzeri-infection-in-mice
#10
Y Huang, W Cao, K Shi, R Mi, K Lu, X Han, Z Chen
Until now there are no completely effective parasite-specific pharmaceuticals or immunotherapies for treatment against the zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. Sushi domain (CpSushi) is an important functional domain in Cryptosporidium parvum putative rhoptry protein-1 (CpPRP1) which is the only reported C. parvum rhoptry protein and may play key role in the course of invasion. Here, a 708 bp fragment encoding the CpSushi domain was amplified and expressed in E. coli. Immunofluorescence detection showed that CpSushi was located on the surface of C...
June 9, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580764/resiniferatoxin-modulates-the-th1-immune-response-and-protects-the-host-during-intestinal-nematode-infection
#11
J L Muñoz-Carrillo, J F Contreras-Cordero, J L Muñoz-López, C H Maldonado-Tapia, J J Muñoz-Escobedo, M A Moreno-García
In the early stage of the intestinal phase of Trichinella spiralis infection, the host triggers a Th1 type immune response with the aim of eliminating the parasite. However, this response damages the host which favors the survival of the parasite. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, a recent study showed that resiniferatoxin had anti-inflammatory activity contributed to the host in T. spiralis infection. In this study, we evaluated if RTX modulates the host immune response through the inhibition of Th1 cytokines in the intestinal phase...
June 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543101/immunoglobulin-m-antibodies-are-not-specific-for-serodiagnosis-of-human-toxocariasis
#12
W H Roldán, G R Elefant, A W Ferreira
Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is established by detecting serum anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, but there is little knowledge regarding the reactivity of human IgM antibodies against the Toxocara antigens. In this study, we have evaluated the reactivity of IgM antibodies in sera from patients with toxocariasis, patients with other helminth infections, and healthy individuals, against Toxocara larval excretory-secretory (TES) antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB). Anti-Toxocara IgM were detected in 91...
May 25, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543553/enhanced-acquired-antibodies-to-a-chimeric-plasmodium-falciparum-antigen-ub05-09-is-associated-with-protective-immunity-against-malaria
#13
J N Dinga, S D Gamua, V P K Titanji
It has been shown that covalently linking two antigens could enhance the immunogenicity of the chimeric construct. To prioritize such a chimera for malaria vaccine development, it is necessary to demonstrate that naturally acquired antibodies against the chimera are associated with protection from malaria. Here, we probe the ability of a chimeric construct of UB05 and UB09 antigens (UB05-09) to better differentiate between acquired immune protection and susceptibility to malaria. In a cross-sectional study, recombinant UB05-09 chimera and the constituent antigens were used to probe for specific antibodies in the plasma from children and adults resident in a malaria-endemic zone, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
May 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543409/synergic-and-antagonistic-relationship-between-mmp-2-and-mmp-9-with-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-chagas-cardiomyopathy
#14
REVIEW
N I Medeiros, J A S Gomes, R Correa-Oliveira
Cardiomyopathy is the most important clinical manifestation in the chronic phase of Chagas' disease because of its frequency, severity and impact on morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix degradation during cardiac remodeling in Trypanosoma cruzi infection is driven by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), primarily the MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases. MMPs also regulate some molecules related to inflammation, such as growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. The involvement of MMP-2 and MMP-9 is not yet fully understood in Chagas' disease...
August 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518475/lipid-bodies-accumulation-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-c57bl-6-macrophages
#15
N E Rodríguez, R D Lockard, E A Turcotte, T Araújo-Santos, P T Bozza, V M Borges, M E Wilson
Lipid bodies (LBs) are intracellular accumulations of neutral lipids surrounded by a single membrane. These organelles are involved in the production of eicosanoids, which modulate immunity by either promoting or dampening inflammatory responses. Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, is an intracellular parasite that causes disease by suppressing macrophage microbicidal responses. C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with L. infantum strain LcJ had higher numbers of LB+ cells (P<...
August 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475238/antecedent-nippostrongylus-infection-alters-the-lung-immune-response-to-plasmodium-berghei
#16
J M Craig, A L Scott
In endemic regions, it is not uncommon for patients to be co-infected with soil-transmitted helminths and malaria. Although both malaria and many helminth species use the lungs as a site of development, little attention has been paid to the impact that pulmonary immunity induced by one parasite has on the lung response to the other. To model the consequences of a prior hookworm exposure on the development of immunity to malaria in the lungs, mice were infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and 2 weeks later challenged with Plasmodium berghei...
August 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453871/elevated-cerebrospinal-fluid-tumour-necrosis-factor-is-associated-with-acute-and-long-term-neurocognitive-impairment-in-cerebral-malaria
#17
E Shabani, B J Ouma, R Idro, P Bangirana, R O Opoka, G S Park, A L Conroy, C C John
Systemic tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) by promoting endothelial activation and parasite sequestration. However, less is known about the role of central nervous system (CNS) TNF-α in CM. We assessed plasma (n=249) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n=167) TNF-α levels in Ugandan children with CM, plasma TNF-α in Ugandan community control children (n=198) and CSF TNF-α in North American control children who had recovered from leukaemia (n=13). Plasma and CSF TNF-α were measured by magnetic bead assay...
July 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524239/oral-contraceptive-pills-risky-or-protective-in-case-of-trichinella-spiralis-infection
#18
M A Hasby Saad, D A Radi, E A Hasby
The aim of this study was to investigate how Trichinella spiralis infection can be affected by contraceptive pills in vivo. Methods included six groups of female Wistar rats; healthy, Trichinella infected, receiving combined contraceptive pills (COCPs), receiving progestin only pills (POPs), infected receiving COCPs and infected receiving POPs. Parasite burden was measured; adult worm counts, gravidity, larvae and reproductive capacity index). Histopathological examination, immunohistochemical detection of C-kit+ mast cells and Foxp3+ T-reg...
May 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504838/human-innate-lymphoid-cells-ilcs-in-filarial-infections
#19
Sandra Bonne-Année, Thomas B Nutman
Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in non-mucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged...
May 15, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475216/ige-sensitization-to-anisakis-pegreffii-in-italy-comparison-of-two-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-allergic-anisakiasis
#20
S Mattiucci, A Colantoni, B Crisafi, F Mori-Ubaldini, L Caponi, P Fazii, G Nascetti, F Bruschi
IgE sensitization to Anisakis pegreffii in Italian subjects suffering from gastro-allergic anisakiasis (GAA) (N= 5), or showing chronic urticaria (CU+) after fish consumption (N= 100), was investigated. A control group (N= 5) was also included. IgE response was analyzed by immunoblotting (WB) assay, using both excretory/secretory products (ESPs) and crude extract (CE) of A. pegreffii larvae. The results were compared with those achieved by the conventional immunological method for Anisakis allergy (i.e. immunoCAP)...
May 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
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