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Parasite Immunology

Kárita Cláudia Freitas Lidani, Thaisa Lucas Sandri, Fabiana Antunes Andrade, Lorena Bavia, Renato Nisihara, Iara J Messias Reason
AIMS: We aimed to investigate the association between plasma levels of complement Factor H (FH) with cardiac involvement, inflammatory and cardiometabolic parameters in patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD). METHODS: FH plasmatic levels were determined in 80 chronic CD patients. Glycemic index, lipidogram (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C, triglycerides and total cholesterol), and Ultrasensitive C-Reactive Protein (uCRP) values were obtained from medical records...
May 19, 2018: Parasite Immunology
R K Shears, A J Bancroft, G W Hughes, R K Grencis, D J Thornton
Gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), are a major source of morbidity in humans and their livestock. There is a paucity of commercially available vaccines against these parasites, and vaccine development for T. trichiura has been impeded by a lack of known host protective antigens. Experimental vaccinations with T. muris (murine whipworm) soluble Excretory/Secretory (ES) material have demonstrated that it is possible to induce protective immunity in mice, however the potential for extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a source of antigenic material has remained relatively unexplored...
May 10, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Susmita Roy, Debanjan Mukhopadhyay, Shibabrata Mukherjee, Srija Moulik, Soumyadip Chatterji, Nayan Brahme, Netai Pramanik, Rama P Goswami, Bibhuti Saha, Mitali Chatterjee
BACKGROUND: Leishmania donovani, the causative parasite of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) deviously manipulates host monocytes/macrophages to ensure its survival. Although monocytes/macrophages from patients with VL have demonstrated an impaired oxidative burst and antigen presentation, an unanswered yet pertinent question remains as to whether they are deactivated or alternatively activated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The significantly raised plasma levels of IL-4/IL-13 and IL-10 in VL patients suggested a microenvironment conducive for alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages...
May 10, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Z M Estrada-Reyes, Y Tsukahara, A L Goetsch, T A Gipson, T Sahlu, R Puchala, Z Wang, S P Hart, R G Mateescu
The effect of Ovar-DRA and Ovar-DRB1 genotypes on fecal egg count (FEC) was determined in sheep and goats infected with Haemonchus contortus. One hundred and forty three sheep from 3 different breeds (St. Croix, Katahdin and Dorper) and 150 goats from three different breeds (Spanish, Boer and Kiko) were used. Parasitological (FEC), hematological (packed cell volume) and immunological (IgA, IgG and IgM) parameters were measured. Sheep populations showed a higher FEC and humoral response than goat breeds. Genotypes were determined by High Resolution Melting Assays and by conventional PCR...
May 2, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Ahmed A Mohammed, J Allen, M T Rogan
AIMS: Cystic Echinococcosis is characterised by fluid filled hydatid cysts in the liver and lungs. The cysts are surrounded by a host fibrous layer (the pericyst) which acts to isolate the parasite from surrounding tissues. Previous studies in liver cysts have indicated that the parasite may be stimulating fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hydatid Cyst Fluid (HCF) could influence the potential for fibrosis to occur in lung tissue by stimulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a human lung epithelial cell line...
May 2, 2018: Parasite Immunology
J-H Kim, I-H Han, Y-S Kim, C-S Noh, J-S Ryu
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by the proliferation of stromal and epithelial cell types in the prostate, and interactions between the two types of cells. We demonstrated previously that proliferation of prostate stromal cells was induced by BPH epithelial cells in response to Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) infection via crosstalk with mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether IL-6 released by the proliferating stromal cells in turn induce the BPH epithelial cells to multiply. When culture supernatants of the proliferating prostate stromal cells were added to BPH epithelial cells, the latter multiplied, and expression of cyclin D1, FGF2 and Bcl-2 increased...
April 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Nubia Silva-Gutierrez, Rima Bahsas Zaky, Morella Bouchard, Guillermo Teran Angel, Airam Amoroso, Darrell L Peterson, Siham Salmen
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded species and induce a chronic infection in human hosts. The aim of this work was to investigate Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg polarization, induced by four important T. gondii antigens (SAG1, ROP1, GRA8, MAG1) in acutely and chronically infected patients. For this purpose, SAG1, ROP1, GRA8 and MAG1 were expressed as recombinant proteins, purified, and used to evaluate the proinflammatory and regulatory immune response profiles in seropositive and seronegative individuals...
April 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Eric M Ndombi, Bernard Abudho, Nupur Kittur, Jennifer M Carter, Harrison Korir, Diana K Riner, Horace Ochanda, Yeuk-Mui Lee, W Evan Secor, Diana M Karanja, Daniel G Colley
AIM: This study evaluated potential changes in anti-schistosome immune responses in children from schools that received four rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel (PZQ). METHODS: In a repeated cross-sectional study design, 210 schistosome egg-positive children were recruited at baseline from schools in western Kenya (baseline group). Another 251 children of the same age range were recruited from the same schools and diagnosed for schistosome infection by microscopy (post-MDA group)...
March 31, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Marwa Hasby Saad, Noha El-Anwar, Shereef Lotfy, Mohammed Fouda, Eiman Hasby
AIM: to explore PPAR-γ & SOX-2 transcription factors expression in placenta according to maternal anti-Toxoplasma gondii serological profile during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. METHODS: The study included 240 placentas, grouped according to IgM & IgG sero-status, and then sub-grouped according to pregnancy outcome that varied between miscarriages, premature labor, still birth and giving birth to CNS anomaly or apparently healthy neonates. Samples were H&E stained, and histopathologically scored blindly...
March 26, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Lu Xu, Bing Xue, Liang Zhou, Zhenning Qiu, Xiao Zhang, Ning Xu, Qi Tang, Jin Zhu, Xiaohong Guan, Zhenqing Feng
The murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, NP30, is a potential vaccine candidate against Schistosoma japonicum. Previous studies have revealed that NP30 has an immunoregulatory effect, but the underlying mechanism for this effect remains unknown. This study shows that NP30 induces dendritic cell (DC) maturation and increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The expression of CD86 and MHC II was up-regulated in DCs following stimulation with NP30 in vitro. Moreover, NP30 induced Th17 polarization by increasing the production ofIL-6 and TGF-β...
March 25, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Anneka Summan, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams
Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal protozoan parasite known to modulate host immune responses, including dendritic cell (DC) function. Co-infections of intestinal pathogens are common, and thus DCs may be concurrently exposed to antigens from multiple parasites. Here, we investigated the effects of G. duodenalis products on human monocyte-derived DC function independently and in combination with helminth antigens (Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis). All antigens individually induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype in DCs, reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12p70 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion...
March 25, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Chiara Napoletano, Simonetta Mattiucci, Alessandra Colantoni, Federico Battisti, Ilaria Grazia Zizzari, Hassan Rahimi, Marianna Nuti, Aurelia Rughetti
Human dendritic cells (DCs) show remarkably phenotypic changes when matured in presence of helminth-derived products. These modifications frequently elicited a polarization towards Th2 cells and regulatory T cells thus contributing to immunological tolerance against these pathogens. In this study, the interaction between DCs and larvae of the zoonotic anisakid nematode Anisakis pegreffii was investigated. A. pegreffii larvae were collected from fish hosts and monocyte derived DCs were co-cultured in the presence of the live larvae (L) or its crude extracts (CE)...
March 23, 2018: Parasite Immunology
I Cañedo-Solares, F Gómez-Chávez, H Luna-Pastén, L B Ortiz-Alegría, Y Flores-García, R Figueroa-Damián, C A Macedo-Romero, D Correa
Diagnostic tests for toxoplasmosis are based on serological techniques due to their high sensitivity. Some IgG subclasses are related to clinical outcome in the congenital form. In this work, we determined the levels of IgG, IgA, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in paired saliva and serum samples from 91 women by indirect ELISA using a crude extract of the RH strain. The levels of IgA, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 antibodies and, to a lesser extent, IgG1 did not correlate between saliva and serum, that is, most cases that were positive for one Ig class in a sample were negative or very low in the other, and vice versa...
May 2018: Parasite Immunology
N A Filatova, N A Knyazev, S O Skarlato, O V Anatskaya, A E Vinogradov
Cryptosporidiosis causes persistent diarrhoea in infants, immunocompromised patients and elderly persons. Long-term consequences of the disease include increased risk of malignancy, cardiomyopathy and gastrointestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate prolonged effects of cryptosporidiosis on innate immunity and growth in neonatal C3HA mice. The disease was challenged by Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inoculation into 7-day-old animals. The mice whose intestine smears contained 3-5 or 6 and more oocysts per microscopic field at the day 5 after infection were considered as mildly or severely infected, correspondingly...
May 2018: Parasite Immunology
Á Díaz, C Sagasti, C Casaravilla
Granulomas are responses to persistent nonliving bodies or pathogens, centrally featuring specialized macrophage forms called epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells. The larval stages of the cestode parasites of the Taeniidae family (Taenia, Echinococcus) develop for years in fixed tissue sites in mammals. In consequence, they are targets of granulomatous responses. The information on tissue responses to larval taeniids is fragmented among host and parasite species and scattered over many decades. We attempt to draw an integrated picture of these responses in solid tissues...
May 2018: Parasite Immunology
R E Polando, B C Jones, C Ricardo, J Whitcomb, W Ballhorn, M A McDowell
Leishmania enter macrophages through receptor-mediated phagocytosis and survive the harsh environment of a phagolysosome. Here, we investigated the interaction between mannose receptor (MR), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and Leishmania, and the subsequent impact on phagosome maturation. Leishmania parasites are able to delay phagosome maturation, not reaching full maturation until 5 hours post-engulfment. Here, maturation of Leishmania major- and Leishmania donovani-containing phagosomes proceeded as expected in the WT macrophages becoming LAMP1 positive by 6 hours...
April 2018: Parasite Immunology
L Petit-Jentreau, C Glover, J L Coombes
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite capable of invading immune cells and co-opting their migratory pathways to disseminate through the host. Natural Killer (NK) cells can be directly invaded by the parasite and this invasion alters NK cell migration, producing a hypermotile phenotype. However, the consequences of this hypermotile phenotype for the dissemination of T. gondii to the brain remain unknown. To address this, C57BL6/J mice were infected with freshly egressed tachyzoites (type IIPrugniaud strain) or with parasitized NK cells...
April 2018: Parasite Immunology
F Kheirandish, N Mosaffa, M J Tarahi, Sh Fallahi
This study aimed to identify the effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on IFNγ, TNFα, TGFβ and nitric oxide (NO) resulted from macrophages infected with Leishmania major (L. major) amastigotes in the culture medium. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyse the level of Oleuropein in plant extract. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of OLE, the isolated BALB/c mice peritoneal macrophages were infected with L. major promastigotes and treated with 6.25, 12.5 and 25 μg/mL concentrations of OLE...
April 2018: Parasite Immunology
S S Costa, M C Fornazim, A E Nowill, S Giorgio
Manipulation of costimulatory and surface molecules that shape the extent of immune responses by Leishmania is suggested as one of the mechanisms of evading the host's defences. The experiments reported here were designed to evaluate the expressions of CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD18, CD54, CD80, CD86, CD206, MHC class II and TLR-2 (Toll-like receptor 2) in human macrophages infected with L. amazonensis. Phenotypic evaluation revealed a negative modulation in CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD18, CD54 and MHC class II molecules, depending on the level of infection...
April 2018: Parasite Immunology
G A Zavala, O P García, M Camacho, D Ronquillo, M Campos-Ponce, C Doak, K Polman, J L Rosado
The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. Plasma concentrations of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and count of stool leukocytes as marker of intestinal inflammation in 291 children (6-10 years). Intestinal parasitic infection was measured by stool examination. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the odds of having high inflammatory markers for each parasite or group of parasites as compared to parasite-free children while adjusting for sex, age, mother's educational level and percentage of body fat...
April 2018: Parasite Immunology
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