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Parasite Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626924/group-2-ilcs-a-way-of-enhancing-immune-protection-against-human-helminths
#1
Norman Nausch, Francisca Mutapi
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play crucial roles in type 2 immune responses associated with allergic and autoimmune diseases, viral and helminth infections and tissue homeostasis. Experimental models show that in helminth infections ILC2s provide an early source of type 2 cytokines and therefore are essential for the induction of potentially protective type 2 responses. Much of our knowledge of ILC2s in helminth infections has come from experimental mouse models with very few studies analysing ILC2s in natural human infections...
June 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599077/protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-cryptosporidium-parvum-cpprp1-sushi-domain-against-c-tyzzeri-infection-in-mice
#2
Y Huang, W Cao, K Shi, R Mi, K Lu, X Han, Z Chen
Until now there are no completely effective parasite-specific pharmaceuticals or immunotherapies for treatment against the zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. Sushi domain (CpSushi) is an important functional domain in Cryptosporidium parvum putative rhoptry protein-1 (CpPRP1) which is the only reported C. parvum rhoptry protein and may play key role in the course of invasion. Here, a 708 bp fragment encoding the CpSushi domain was amplified and expressed in E. coli. Immunofluorescence detection showed that CpSushi was located on the surface of C...
June 9, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580764/resiniferatoxin-modulates-the-th1-immune-response-and-protects-the-host-during-intestinal-nematode-infection
#3
J L Muñoz-Carrillo, J F Contreras-Cordero, J L Muñoz-López, C H Maldonado-Tapia, J J Muñoz-Escobedo, M A Moreno-García
In the early stage of the intestinal phase of Trichinella spiralis infection, the host triggers a Th1 type immune response with the aim of eliminating the parasite. However, this response damages the host which favors the survival of the parasite. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, a recent study showed that resiniferatoxin had anti-inflammatory activity contributed to the host in T. spiralis infection. In this study, we evaluated if RTX modulates the host immune response through the inhibition of Th1 cytokines in the intestinal phase...
June 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543101/immunoglobulin-m-antibodies-are-not-specific-for-serodiagnosis-of-human-toxocariasis
#4
William Henry Roldán, Guita Rubinsky Elefant, Antonio Walter Ferreira
Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is established by detecting serum anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, but there is little knowledge regarding the reactivity of human IgM antibodies against the Toxocara antigens. In this study, we have evaluated the reactivity of IgM antibodies in sera from patients with toxocariasis, patients with other helminth infections, and healthy individuals, against Toxocara larval excretory-secretory (TES) antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western-blot (WB). Anti-Toxocara IgM were detected in 91...
May 25, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543553/enhanced-acquired-antibodies-to-a-chimeric-plasmodium-falciparum-antigen-ub05-09-is-associated-with-protective-immunity-against-malaria
#5
Dinga Jerome Nyhalah, Gamua Stanley Dobgima, Vincent PrydeKehdingha Titanji
It has been shown that covalently linking two antigens could enhance the immunogenicity of the chimeric construct. To prioritise such a chimera for malaria vaccine development it is necessary to demonstrate that naturally acquired antibodies against the chimera are associated with protection from malaria. Here we probe the ability of a chimeric construct of UB05 and UB09 antigens (UB05-09) to better differentiate between acquired immune protection and susceptibility to malaria. In a cross-sectional study, recombinant UB05-09 chimera and the constituent antigens were used to probe for specific antibodies in the plasma from children and adults resident in a malaria endemic zone, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
May 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543409/synergic-and-antagonistic-relationship-between-mmp-2-and-mmp-9-with-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-chagas-cardiomyopathy
#6
REVIEW
Nayara I Medeiros, Juliana A S Gomes, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira
Cardiomyopathy is the most important clinical manifestation in the chronic phase of Chagas disease because of its frequency, severity and impact on morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix degradation during cardiac remodeling in Trypanosoma cruzi infection is driven by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), primarily the MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases. MMPs also regulate some molecules related to inflammation, such as growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. The involvement of MMP-2 and MMP-9 is not yet fully understood in Chagas disease...
May 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524239/oral-contraceptive-pills-risky-or-protective-in-case-of-trichinella-spiralis-infection
#7
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Dina A Radi, Eiman A Hasby
AIM: to investigate how Trichinella spiralis infection can be affected by contraceptive pills invivo. METHODS: included six groups of female Wistar rats; healthy, Trichinella infected, receiving combined contraceptive pills (COCPs), receiving progestin only pills (POPs), infected receiving COCPs and infected receiving POPs. Parasite burden was measured (two gender worm counts, gravidity, larvae/muscle and RCI). Histopathological examination, immunohistochemical detection of C-kit mast cells & Foxp3+ T-reg...
May 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518475/lipid-bodies-accumulation-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-c57bl-6-macrophages
#8
Nilda E Rodríguez, Ryan D Lockard, Elizabeth A Turcotte, Théo Araujo-Santos, Patrícia T Bozza, Valéria M Borges, Mary E Wilson
Lipid bodies (LBs) are intracellular accumulations of neutral lipids surrounded by a single membrane. These organelles are involved in the production of eicosanoids, which modulate immunity by either promoting or dampening inflammatory responses. Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, is an intracellular parasite that causes disease by suppressing macrophage microbicidal responses. C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with L. infantum strain LcJ had higher numbers of LB+ cells (P<0...
May 18, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504838/human-innate-lymphoid-cells-ilcs-in-filarial-infections
#9
Sandra Bonne-Année, Thomas B Nutman
Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in non-mucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged...
May 15, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475238/antecedent-nippostrongylus-infection-alters-the-lung-immune-response-to-plasmodium-berghei
#10
J M Craig, A L Scott
In endemic regions, it is not uncommon for patients to be co-infected with soil-transmitted helminthes and malaria. Although both malaria and many helminth species use the lungs as a site of development, little attention has been paid to the impact that pulmonary immunity induced by one parasite has on the lung response to the other. To model the consequences of a prior hookworm exposure on the development of immunity to malaria in the lungs, mice were infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and two weeks later challenged with Plasmodium berghei...
May 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475216/ige-sensitization-to-anisakis-pegreffii-in-italy-comparison-of-two-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-allergic-anisakiasis
#11
S Mattiucci, A Colantoni, B Crisafi, F Mori-Ubaldini, L Caponi, P Fazii, G Nascetti, F Bruschi
IgE sensitization to Anisakis pegreffii in Italian subjects suffering from gastro-allergic anisakiasis (GAA) (N= 5), or showing chronic urticaria (CU+) after fish consumption (N= 100), was investigated. A control group (N= 5) was also included. IgE response was analyzed by immunoblotting (WB) assay, using both excretory/secretory products (ESPs) and crude extract (CE) of A. pegreffii larvae. The results were compared with those achieved by the conventional immunological method for Anisakis allergy (i.e. immunoCAP)...
May 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467600/recent-advancements-and-new-perspectives-in-animal-models-for-neurocysticercosis-immunopathogenesis
#12
REVIEW
N Arora, S Tripathi, P Kumar, P Mondal, A Mishra, A Prasad
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system, is caused by Taenia solium. This parasite involves two hosts, intermediate hosts (pig and human) and a definitive host (human), and has various stages in its complex life cycle (eggs, oncosphere, cysticerci and adult tapeworm). Hence, developing an animal model for T. solium that mimics its natural course of infection is quite challenging. We have reviewed here the animal models frequently used to study immunopathogenesis of cysticercosis and also discussed their usefulness for NCC studies...
May 3, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453871/elevated-cerebrospinal-fluid-tumour-necrosis-factor-is-associated-with-acute-and-long-term-neurocognitive-impairment-in-cerebral-malaria
#13
E Shabani, B J Ouma, R Idro, P Bangirana, R O Opoka, G S Park, A L Conroy, C C John
Systemic tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) by promoting endothelial activation and parasite sequestration. However, less is known about the role of central nervous system (CNS) TNF-α in CM. We assessed plasma (n=249) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n=167) TNF-α levels in Ugandan children with CM, plasma TNF-α in Ugandan community control children (n=198) and CSF TNF-α in North American control children who had recovered from leukaemia (n=13). Plasma and CSF TNF-α were measured by magnetic bead assay...
April 28, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445612/influence-of-adjuvant-formulation-on-inducing-immune-response-in-mice-immunized-with-a-recombinant-serpin-from-trichinella-spiralis
#14
J Xu, X Bai, L B Wang, H N Shi, J W B van der Giessen, P Boireau, M Y Liu, X L Liu
Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens on the world, and they can still cause major public health problems in many parts of the world. Vaccination against the helminth nematode Trichinella could be a good strategy to reduce the risk of human and animal infection. It was our aim to evaluate three adjuvants, which could be used as an efficient vaccine for animals in combination with rTs-Serpin antigen. In this study, BALB/c mice were vaccinated by an intramuscular route with rTs-Serpin antigen from the parasite Trichinella spiralis in combination with three different adjuvant formulations: Montanide ISA201, Montanide IMS 1313 N PR VG and Freund's complete adjuvant/Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FCA/FIA)...
April 26, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423191/origins-and-evolution-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-wardens-of-barrier-immunity
#15
REVIEW
D R Neill, R J Flynn
The identification, in the late 2000s, of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as a new class of non-B, non-T lymphocytes has led to global efforts to understand their functions, plasticity and evolutionary origins and to define their place within the leucocyte family. Although this work has uncovered striking similarities in the developmental cues, lineage-specific transcription factors and functional capacities of innate and adaptive lymphocytes, it has become clear that ILCs play a unique and defining role as stewards of barrier defence and that this sets them apart from their adaptive cousins...
April 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397969/aim2-inflammasome-is-associated-with-disease-severity-in-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-caused-by-leishmania-v-braziliensis
#16
R B Moreira, C Pirmez, M P de Oliveira-Neto, L S Aguiar, A J S Gonçalves, L O R Pereira, L Abreu, M P De Oliveira
The inflammasome is a multiprotein signalling platform involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases. Herein, we investigated gene and protein expression of the inflammasome molecules AIM2 and NLRP3 in active lesions from patients with L. (V.) braziliensis-associated tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and correlated these findings with the clinical presentations and responses to therapy. Real-time PCR assays showed a significantly higher AIM2 gene expression in mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) compared with that in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)...
April 11, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380252/neutrophil-alterations-in-pregnancy-associated-malaria-and-induction-of-neutrophil-chemotaxis-by-plasmodium-falciparum
#17
Stéphanie Boström, Christentze Schmiegelow, Ulrike Abu Abed, Daniel Tr Minja, John Lusingu, Volker Brinkmann, Yabo J Honkpehedji, Marguerite M Loembe, Ayôla A Adegnika, Benjamin Mordmüller, Marita Troye-Blomberg, Borko Amulic
Pregnancy associated malaria (PAM) is a severe form of the disease caused by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in the developing placenta. Pathogenesis of PAM is partially based on immunopathology, with frequent monocyte infiltration into the placenta. Neutrophils are abundant blood cells that are essential for immune defence but may also cause inflammatory pathology. Their role in PAM remains unclear. We analysed neutrophil alterations in the context of PAM to better understand their contribution to disease development...
April 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380250/evidence-of-cross-stage-cd8-t-cell-epitopes-in-malaria-pre-erythrocytic-and-blood-stage-infections
#18
Katja Müller, Matthew Paul Gibbins, Kai Matuschewski, Julius Clemence Hafalla
Malaria parasites have a complex, multi-stage life cycle, and there is a widely held view that each stage displays a distinct set of antigens presented to the immune system. Yet, molecular analysis of malaria parasites suggests that many putative antigenic targets are shared amongst the different stages. The specificities of these cross-stage antigens and the functions of the immune responses they elicit are poorly characterised. It is well known that CD8+ T cells play opposing immune functions following Plasmodium berghei (Pb) infection of C57BL/6 mice...
April 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370210/the-effect-of-three-monthly-albendazole-treatment-on-th2-responses-differential-effects-on-ige-and-il-5
#19
Karin de Ruiter, Dicky L Tahapary, Linda Wammes, Aprilianto E Wiria, Firdaus Hamid, Lisette van Lieshout, Johannes W A Smit, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Erliyani Sartono, Taniawati Supali, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Helminth parasites induce a strong Th2 response, characterized by high levels of IgE and elevated signature cytokines such as IL-5. As many global deworming programs are underway, there is concern that this might lead to emergence of Th1-mediated pathologies when the counterbalancing helminth-induced Th2 response is absent. Therefore, we assessed the effect of deworming on Th2 mediated responses in a household-clustered randomised controlled trial in Indonesia. Total plasma IgE and whole-blood IL-5 responses to mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were measured in 1494 and 682 subjects respectively, at baseline, 9 and 21 months after three-monthly single dose treatment with albendazole or placebo...
March 31, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370104/recent-advances-in-gut-immunology
#20
Nick Powell, Thomas T MacDonald
In recent years there have been significant advances in our understanding of the mucosal immune system. In addition to unravelling some of the complexities of this system, including the discovery of completely new cells types, further insights into the three way interactions between mucosal immune cells, the intestinal epithelium and the microbial communities colonizing the GI tract, promises to redefine our understanding of how intestinal homeostasis is maintained, but also how dysregulation of these highly integrated interactions conspires to cause disease...
March 31, 2017: Parasite Immunology
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