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Parasite Immunology

Juan F Quintana, Simon A Babayan, Amy H Buck
Parasitic nematodes have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to communicate with their hosts in order to survive and successfully establish an infection. The transfer of RNA within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has recently been described as a mechanism that could contribute to this communication in filarial nematodes. It has been shown that these EVs are loaded with several types of RNAs, including microRNAs, leading to the hypothesis that parasites could actively use these molecules to manipulate host gene expression and to the exciting prospect that these pathways could result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
October 17, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Peter Nejsum, Rikke Hagemann-Madsen, Andrew R Williams, Jørgen Agnholt, Jens F Dahlerup, Christian L Hvas
Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
José Luis Muñoz-Carrillo, José Jesús Muñoz-Escobedo, Claudia H Maldonado-Tapia, Francisca Chávez-Ruvalcaba, María Alejandra Moreno-García
During the course of infection with Trichinella spiralis, an inflammatory response is triggered at the intestinal level in the host, playing a crucial role in the expulsion and elimination of the parasite. However, several studies have demonstrated that this inflammatory response is harmful to the host; hence the importance of studying molecules with therapeutic potential like resiniferatoxin, which is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect both in-vitro and in-vivo. In this article, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of resiniferatoxin during the intestinal phase of T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Soad Nady, Mohamed Tarek M Shata, Mohammad A Mohey, Ayatollah El-Shorbagy
The role of T helper-17 (Th17) lymphocytes in the regulation of Schistosoma mansoni Soluble Egg Ags (SEA)-induced granuloma is unknown. The present study examined the effect of Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-22) on granulocytes recruitment and functions during SEA-induced granuloma formation in vitro in Schistosoma-infected and non-infected individuals. Granulocytes were isolated from 27 Schistosoma-infected patients and 13 controls and were used for granuloma induction using SEA-conjugated polyacrylamide beads in the presence of Th17 cytokines...
October 14, 2016: Parasite Immunology
J B Matthews, P Geldhof, T Tzelos, E Claerebout
The global increase in anthelmintic resistant nematodes of ruminants, together with consumer concerns about chemicals in food, necessitates the development of alternative methods of control for these pathogens. Sub-unit recombinant vaccines are ideally placed to fill this gap. Indeed, they are probably the only valid option for the long term control of ruminant parasitic nematodes given the increasing ubiquity of multi-drug resistance in a range of worm species across the world. The development of a sub-unit multicellular parasite vaccine to the point of practical application would be a ground-breaking step in the control of these important endemic infections of livestock...
October 11, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Sonakshi Bhattacharjee, Nils Kalbfuss, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa
Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in diseases that are ascribed to alter metabolism eventually resulting in conditions including obesity, type-2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Of the many factors to which this rise has been attributed, including diet, physical activity, and inflammation, several studies have correlated these disease states with alterations in gut microbiota. Simultaneously, studies have demonstrated the ability of parasites to alter microbial communities within their shared niche, leading to alterations in inflammatory processes...
October 7, 2016: Parasite Immunology
N Mortazavidehkordi, A Farjadfar, H Khanahmad, Z Ghayour Najafabadi, N Hashemi, A Fallah, A Najafi, V Kia, S H Hejazi
Hydrophilic acylated surface protein B (HASPB) is an immunogenic Leishmania protein against which antibodies are produced in the sera of cutaneous and visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Kinetoplastid membrane protein 11 (KMP11) is another protein antigen of Leishmania which is reported as a promising candidate for vaccination of VL. It is a highly conserved surface protein present in all members of kinetoplastid family and is expressed in both promastigotes and amastigotes. In this study, the coding sequence of KMP11 and HASPB was cloned into a pCDH-cGFP lentiviral vector as a fusion protein...
October 6, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Sandip Mukherjee, Samir Bhattacharya, Santi Prasad Sinha Babu
Lymphatic filariasis is a vector borne parasitic disease results morbidities, disabilities and socio-economic loss in each year globally. Inflammatory consequences associated with any form of filariasis have drawn special attention. However, the molecular insight behind inflammation of host macrophage (MФ) is considered as one of the shaded areas in filarial research. Herein major emphasis was given to study the signaling pathway of MФ inflammation induced by surface proteins (SPs) of filarial parasite through in vitro and in vivo approaches...
September 23, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Vishvanath Nene, W Ivan Morrison
Despite having different cell tropism, the pathogenesis and immunobiology of the diseases caused by Theileria parva and T. annulata are remarkably similar. Live vaccines have been available for both parasites for over 40 years, but although they provide strong protection, practical disadvantages have limited their widespread application. Efforts to develop alternative vaccines using defined parasite antigens have focused on the sporozoite and intracellular schizont stages of the parasites. Experimental vaccination studies using viral vectors expressing T...
September 20, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Samuel J Black, John M Mansfield
African trypanosomes cause human and animal African trypanosomiasis, which are chronic, debilitating and often fatal diseases of people and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. The extracellular protozoan parasites are exemplars of antigenic variation. They direct host protective B cell and T cell immune responses towards hypervariable components of their variable surface glycoprotein coat, and evade immune elimination by generating new surface coat antigenic variants at a rate that supersedes immune destruction...
September 16, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Xiao Lu, Taiping Liu, Feng Zhu, Lin Chen, Wenyue Xu
Although the attenuated sporozoite is the most efficient vaccine to prevent infection with the malaria parasite, the limitation of a source of sterile sporozoites greatly hampers its application. In this study, we found that the whole-killed, blood-stage lysate vaccine could confer protection against the blood stage as well as the liver stage. Although the protective immunity induced by the whole-organism vaccine against the blood stage is dependent on parasite-specific CD4(+) T cell responses and antibodies, in mice immunized with the whole-killed, blood-stage lysate vaccine, CD8(+) , but not CD4(+) effector T cell responses greatly contributed to protection against the liver stage...
September 16, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Vívian T Martins, Mariana C Duarte, Daniela P Lage, Lourena E Costa, Ana Maria R S Carvalho, Tiago A O Mendes, Bruno M Roatt, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Manuel Soto, Eduardo A F Coelho
In the present study, a recombinant chimeric protein (RCP), which was composed by specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell epitopes to murine and human haplotypes, was evaluated as an immunogen against Leishmania infantum infection in a murine model. BALB/c mice received saline, were immunized with saponin or with RCP with or without an adjuvant. The results showed that RCP/saponin-vaccinated mice presented significantly higher levels of antileishmanial IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF before and after challenge, which were associated with the reduction of IL-4 and IL-10 mediated responses...
September 4, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Melahat Bagirova, Adil M Allahverdiyev, Emrah Sefik Abamor, Ikram Ullah, Gizem Cosar, Mehmet Aydogdu, Hilal Senturk, Bengu Ergenoglu
Leishmaniasis is one of the most serious vector-borne diseases in the world and is distributed over 98 countries. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk for leishmaniasis. There are three different generation of vaccines that have been developed to provide immunity and protection against leishmaniasis. However, their use have been limited due to undesired side effects. These vaccines have also failed to provide effective and reliable protection, and as such, currently there is no safe and effective vaccine for leishmaniasis...
September 3, 2016: Parasite Immunology
C Kaewraemruaen, R W Sermswan, S Wongratanacheewin
Opisthorchis viverrini causes public health problems in South-East Asia. Recently, TGF-β and IL-10 have been reported to increase in O. viverrini-infected hamsters but the sources of these cytokines are still unknown. In this study, the CD4(+) T cells in infected hamsters were investigated. It was demonstrated that IL-4(+) CD4(+) T cells were significantly increased in hamster spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) during chronic infection. Interestingly, IL-10(+) CD4(+) T cells were also discovered at a significant level while Treg (T regulatory)-like TGF- β(+) CD4(+) T cells were in MLNs of infected hamsters...
August 23, 2016: Parasite Immunology
I H Han, J H Kim, S S Kim, M H Ahn, J S Ryu
Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) has been found in patient tissue of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and suggested to cause chronic prostatitis. IL-6 is known as one of the important factors of chronic inflammation in prostate cancer. Patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) had higher levels of IL-6 in seminal plasma. Furthermore, inflammatory conditions induced by pathogen infections have been shown to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we investigated the signals involved in IL-6 production by human prostate epithelial cells (PECs) stimulated with Tv and examined whether Tv induces EMT in PECs...
August 20, 2016: Parasite Immunology
F C Mansilla, M E Quintana, N P Cardoso, A V Capozzo
We demonstrated recently that immunization with recombinant Neospora caninum profilin (rNcPRO) induces limited protection and a regulatory T-cell response in mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response elicited by rNcPRO in cattle and assess a strategy to enhance its immunogenicity, combining the addition of T-cell epitopes and immune modulators. We developed a chimeric recombinant profilin fused to functional T-cell epitopes present in the N-terminal sequence of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein G (rNcPRO/G)...
August 11, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Gabriela Lovizutto Venturin, Vanessa Marim Chiku, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira Silva, Breno Fernando Martins de Almeida, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by the intracellular parasite Leishmania infantum. Increased levels of arginase, nitric oxide (NO2 ) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) can play a regulatory role regarding the immune response in CVL cases. This study aimed to evaluate the arginase activity in adherent macrophages cultured from the lymph nodes of healthy and naturally infected dogs and to examine the NO2 and PGE2 levels in the supernatant of these cultures. In addition, the regulatory effect of PGE2 on the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in supernatants from the total lymph node were observed in leukocyte cultures...
August 10, 2016: Parasite Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Parasite Immunology
Q Chen, W Liang, F Qian, B Qian, J Cao, D Zhang, Y Xu, L Tang
Many malaria antigens contain multiple disulphide bonds involved in the formation of inhibitory B-cell epitopes. Producing properly folded malaria antigens in sufficient quantities for vaccination is often a challenge. The 42-kDa fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP142 ) is such a kind of malaria antigen. In this study, we investigated the expression of MSP142 in a rice system (9522, a cultivar of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), which was used as a bioreactor for protein production...
October 2016: Parasite Immunology
J Tharmalingam, A T Prabhakar, P Gangadaran, P Dorny, J Vercruysse, P Geldhof, V Rajshekhar, M Alexander, A Oommen
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC...
October 2016: Parasite Immunology
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