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Parasite Immunology

Loc Le, Evaristus Mbanefo, George Khludenev, Olivia Lamanna, Nirad Banskota, Michael H Hsieh
AIMS: Mouse bladder wall injection with Schistosoma haematobium eggs has been used to overcome limitations in animal models of urogenital schistosomiasis. However, the effect of the absence of cercarial infection on immune responses to eggs in this model is unknown. We hypothesized that cercarial infection would alter local bladder and systemic immune responses to eggs in this model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were infected or not infected with S. haematobium cercariae, and then their bladder walls injected with S...
November 11, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Bhawana Singh, Siddharth Sankar Singh, Shyam Sundar
AIM: Iron is key ingredient for immunosurveillance and host-pathogen interaction. Intracellular pathogen steals the iron from the host, but how parasite orchestrates iron acquisition and affects immune responses remains controversial. We aimed to study the iron homeostasis in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its influence on immune machinery. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was performed on purified monocytes and T-cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and splenic aspirates for transcriptional analyses of iron homeostasis (hepcidin, DMT-1, transferrin receptor, ferroportin) and immune modulations (IFN-ϒ, HLA-DR, IL-10, iNOS, IL-6)...
November 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Benjamin G Dewals, Laura E Layland, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, William G Horsnell
Helminth infections leave a long lasting immunological footprint on their hosts. Clinical studies have provided first evidence that maternal helminth infections can result in an altered immune profile in their offspring which can potentially shape how they respond to conditions throughout life. This can relate to changes in offspring induction of immune responses against other diseases. However, if these changes result in actual changes in offspring ability to control disease is unclear. Our understanding of which immune mechanisms are altered and how they are changed is limited...
October 29, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Majid Khanmohammadi, Reza Falak, Ahmad Reza Meamar, Elham Razmjou, Kobra Mokhtarian, Mehdi Arshadi, Nasrin Shayanfar, Lame Akhlaghi
Dirofilariasis is a zoonotic global vector-borne disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis. The present study focuses on the somatic and excretory/secretory (E/S) proteins released from adult D. immitis. We aimed to fractionate and identify adult D. immitis immunoreactive proteins. Somatic and E/S extracts were immunoblotted to identify the immunoreactive proteins. In the current study, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) to characterize the immunogenic proteins...
October 17, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Jesica R Jacobs, Scott P Greiner, Scott A Bowdridge
Reduced worm burden in St. Croix (STC) sheep during Haemonchus contortus (Hc) infection is predicated on rapid IL-4 signaling and T helper type 2 immune (Th2) response. The aim of these studies was to further elucidate differences in Th2 responses by STC and Suffolk (SUF) sheep. Ten days after challenge Hc infection, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected and cultured with larval (HcLA) and adult worm (HcWA) antigen. STC PBMC produced nearly twice as much IL-4 as SUF (823.57 pg/ml vs. 454...
October 16, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Junhua Wang, Fadi Jebbawi, Anne-Pauline Bellanger, Guido Beldi, Laurence Millon, Bruno Gottstein
The growth potential of the tumour-like Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode (causing alveolar echinococcosis, AE) is directly dependent upon the nature/function of the periparasitic adaptive host immune-mediated processes. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway (Programmed Cell Death 1), which inhibits lymphocytic proliferation in tumour development, is over-expressed at the chronic stage of AE. We tested the impact of a PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade on the outcome of both chronic AE (intraperitoneal metacestode inoculation, secondary AE, SAE) and acute AE (peroral egg infection, primary AE, PAE)...
October 13, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Luis Caraballo, Nathalie Acevedo, Josefina Zakzuk
Ascariasis is the most frequent soil transmitted helminthiasis and, as well as other helminth infections, is expected to influence the clinical presentation of allergic diseases such as asthma. Indeed, several clinical and experimental works have shown an important impact either increasing or suppressing symptoms, and the same effects have been detected on the underlying immune responses. In this review we analyze the work on this field performed in Colombia, a Latin American tropical country, including aspects such as the molecular genetics of the IgE response to Ascaris; the allergenic activity of Ascaris IgE-binding molecular components and the immunological and clinical influences of ascariasis on asthma...
October 8, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Dimpu Gogoi, Dipankar Biswas, Biswajyoti Borkakoty, Jagadish Mahanta
Gamma delta (γδ) T cells exhibit potent anti-Plasmodium activity but are also implicated in the immunopathology of malaria. It is currently poorly understood how γδ T cells are affected in human suffering from Plasmodium vivax infection or in symptomless individuals living in an endemic region. We examined both the percentages and expression of markers associated with immune exhaustion in γδ T cells in individuals living in a P. vivax endemic region by flow cytometry. The percentage of γδ T cells in the blood was significantly higher both in acute P...
October 1, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Micássio Fernandes de Andrade, Valéria Duarte de Almeida, Lara Michelly Soares de Souza, Dayane Carla Costa Paiva, Cléber de Mesquita Andrade, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes
Chagas disease (CD) is a public health problem in Latin America. The acute phase presents nonspecific symptoms and most patients recover from acute parasitemia and undergo a prolonged asymptomatic phase. Several years later, about 30% of infected individuals develop chronic cardiopathy with progressive cardiomegaly, arrhythmia, thromboembolic events and heart failure. These symptoms suggest a persistent association with the presence of inflammatory infiltrate and tissue, and cellular destruction in the heart muscle...
October 1, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Moses Egesa, Lawrence Lubyayi, Frances M Jones, Angela van Diepen, Iain W Chalmers, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Bernard S Bagaya, Cornelis H Hokke, Karl F Hoffmann, David W Dunne, Alison M Elliott, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Shona Wilson, Stephen Cose
While antigens from Schistosoma schistosomula have been suggested as potential vaccine candidates, the association between antibody responses with schistosomula antigens and infection intensity at reinfection is not well known. Schistosoma mansoni-infected individuals were recruited from a schistosomiasis endemic area in Uganda (n = 372), treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel (PZQ) and followed up at five weeks and at one year post-treatment. Pre-treatment and five weeks post-treatment immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgG1 and IgG4 levels against recombinant schistosomula antigens rSmKK7, rSmLy6A, rSmLy6B and rSmTSP7 were measured using ELISA...
September 21, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Moses Egesa, Lawrence Lubyayi, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Bernard S Bagaya, Iain W Chalmers, Shona Wilson, Cornelis H Hokke, Karl F Hoffmann, David W Dunne, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Lucja A Labuda, Stephen Cose
Larvae of Schistosoma (schistosomula) are highly susceptible to host immune responses and are attractive prophylactic vaccine targets, although cellular immune responses against schistosomula antigens in endemic human populations are not well characterized. We collected blood and stool from 54 Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandans, isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated them for 24 hours with schistosome adult worm and soluble egg antigens (AWA and SEA), along with schistosomula recombinant proteins rSmKK7, Lymphocyte Antigen 6 isoforms (rSmLy6A and rSmLy6B), tetraspanin isoforms (rSmTSP6 and rSmTSP7)...
September 21, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Martha E Chico, Maritza G Vaca, Alejandro Rodriguez, Philip J Cooper
There is considerable interest as to potential protective effects of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) against allergy and allergic diseases. Here we discuss findings of studies done of the effects of STH parasites on atopy and allergic diseases in Ecuador. While cross-sectional studies have consistently shown a reduced prevalence of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity among infected schoolchildren, the removal of these infections by repeated deworming did not affect SPT prevalence over the short-term (i...
September 19, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Harriet Mpairwe, Abena S Amoah
Population studies from the African continent have observed a marked increase in the prevalence of allergy-related diseases over the past few decades, but the cause of this rise is not fully understood. The most investigated potential risk factor has been the relationship between exposure to helminths and allergy-related outcomes. Immunologically, parallels exist between responses to helminths and to allergens as both are associated with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E, increased numbers of T helper 2 cells, and other immune cells...
September 14, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Candace Machado de Andrade, Valdirene Leão Carneiro, Jéssica Vieira Cerqueira, Hellen Freitas Fonseca, Gerson de Almeida Queiroz, Ryan do Santos Costa, Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves, Philip Cooper, Camila Alexandrina Figueiredo
Brazil is a middle-income country undergoing the epidemiological transition. Effects of changes in daily life habits, and access to clean water, sanitation and urban services on a growing urban population have contributed to a double burden of both infectious and non-communicable chronic diseases. Studies have indicated that parasite infections may modulate the human immune system and influence the development of allergic conditions such as asthma. However, there is no consensus in the published literature on the effects of parasitic infections on allergy, perhaps as a consequence of factors determining the epidemiology of these infections that vary between populations such as age of first infection, duration and chronicity of infections, parasite burden and species, and host genetic susceptibility...
September 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Ajay Kumar, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Sudha Verma, Kumar Abhishek, Ashish Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Pradeep Das
Mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) is a central regulator of growth and immunity of host cells. It's involvement in cancer and tuberculosis is well documented but least explored in Leishmania donovani invasion of host cells. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to investigate the role of mTOR in M2 macrophage polarization for Leishmania survival. We observed that Leishmania infection activated host m-TOR pathway characterized by phosphorylation of m-TOR, 70S6K and 4-EBP1. Inhibition of m-TOR resulted in decreased parasite load and percent infectivity...
September 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Sarah M Gunter, Leroy Versteeg, Kathryn M Jones, Brian P Keegan, Ulrich Strych, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Eric L Brown
Trypanosoma cruzi 24 (Tc24) is a recently described B-cell superantigen (BC-SAg) expressed by all developmental stages of T. cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. BC-SAgs are immunoevasins that interfere with the catalytic response available to a subset of natural antibodies comprising the preimmune (innate) repertoire. Electrophilic modifications of BC-SAgs facilitate the formation of highly energetic covalent reactions favouring B-cell differentiation instead of B-cell downregulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to convert the inhibitory signals delivered to B-cells with specificity for Tc24 into activating signals after conjugating electrophilic phosphonate groups to recombinant Tc24 (eTc24)...
August 22, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Bieke Van Dorst, Linda Batsa Debrah, Alex Debrah, Lieven J Stuyver
In our previous study, a proteome-wide screen was conducted to identify linear epitopes in this parasite's proteome, resulting in the discovery of three immunodominant motifs. Here, we investigated whether such antigenic peptides were found in proteins that were already known as vaccine candidates and excretome/secretome proteins for Onchocerca volvulus This approach led to the identification of 71 immunoreactive stretches in 46 proteins. A deep-dive into the immunoreactivity profiles of eight vaccine candidates that were chosen as most promising candidates for further development (Ov-CPI-2, Ov-ALT-1, Ov-RAL-2, Ov-ASP-1, Ov-103, Ov-RBP-1, Ov-CHI-1, and Ov-B20), resulted in the identification of a poly-glutamine stretch in Ov-RAL-2 that has properties for use as a serodiagnostic marker for O...
November 2018: Parasite Immunology
Claudia Abeijon, Julia Dilo, Jacqueline M Tremblay, Agostinho G Viana, Lilian L Bueno, Silvio F G Carvalho, Ricardo T Fujiwara, Charles B Shoemaker, Antonio Campos-Neto
We have recently developed a sensitive and specific urine-based antigen detection ELISA for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This assay used rabbit IgG and chicken IgY polyclonal antibodies specific for the Leishmania infantum proteins iron superoxide dismutase 1 (Li-isd1), tryparedoxin1 (Li-txn1) and nuclear transport factor 2 (Li-ntf2). However, polyclonal antibodies have limitations for upscaling and continuous supply. To circumvent these hurdles, we began to develop immortalized monoclonal antibodies...
November 2018: Parasite Immunology
Bahador Sarkari, Roya Alirezaei, Akram Layegh Gigloo, Zahra Rezaei, Fataneh Mikaeili, Mohammad Saleh Bahreini, Mohammad Fararouei
The current study was performed to find out the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in children living in a rural community in Fars province, southern Iran. Venous blood was taken from 617 children and evaluated for anti-Toxocara antibodies, using an ELISA system. Of the 617 studied children, 318 (51.5%) were boys and 299 (48.5%) were girls. Mean age of the participants was 9.2 (±10.7) years. Most cases of the recruited subjects (37.4%) were in the age group of 0-5 years. Anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in sera of 39 (6...
November 2018: Parasite Immunology
Shruti Yadav, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The Drosophila imaginal disc growth factors (IDGFs) induce the proliferation of imaginal disc cells and terminate cell proliferation at the end of larval development. However, the participation of Idgf-encoding genes in other physiological processes of Drosophila including the immune response to infection is not fully understood. Here, we show the contribution of Idgf2 and Idgf3 in the Drosophila response to infection with Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively)...
October 2018: Parasite Immunology
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