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Parasite Immunology

Dalia S Ashour, Abeer E Saad, Lamees M Dawood, Yomna Zamzam
Toxoplasmosis is mostly associated with other intestinal parasitic infections especially Giardia due to shared mode of peroral infection. Toxoplasma and Giardia induce a strong T-helper 1- immune response. Our aim is to induce a protective immune response that results in significant impact on intestinal and extra-intestinal phases of Toxoplasma infection. This study was conducted in experimental animals and assessment of Giardia cyst extract effect on Toxoplasma infection was investigated by histopathological examination of small intestine and brain, Toxoplasma cyst count and iNOS staining of the brain, measurement of IFN-γ and TGF-β in intestinal tissues...
November 12, 2017: Parasite Immunology
J Palomo, Vfj Quesniaux, D Togbe, F Reverchon, B Ryffel
Cerebral malaria (CM) is due to Plasmodium parasite infection leading to inflammatory immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS), accompanied by lung inflammation and anemia. Here, we focus on the role of the innate immune response in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) caused by blood-stage murine Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infection. While T cells are important for ECM pathogenesis, the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) is only emerging. The role of ILCs and non-lymphoid cells such as neutrophils and platelets contributing to the host immune response leading to ECM and human cerebral malaria (HCM) is reviewed...
November 8, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Y Ajith, Umesh Dimri, A Gopalakrishnan, E Madhesh, Ricky Jhambh, Vivek Joshi, Devi Gopinath
Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is the common, often neglected skin disease of goats caused mainly by Ctenocephalides felis. The present study aimed to evaluate the immuno-oxidative pathobiology of FAD in goats. Twelve goats from the same herd were divided into two groups of six animals each. The group I (FAD) included animals with natural flea infestation and severe dermatitis lesions. The group II (Healthy control) animals were free from any parasitic infestation. To assess the pathological changes, the markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity), and immune status (Tumour necrosis factor alpha, Interleukin 10, Transforming growth factor beta 1 and Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio) were evaluated from the blood and the serum samples...
November 2, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Mitsuhiro Iyori, Andrew M Blagborough, Katarzyna A Sala, Hidesato Nishiura, Kentaro Takagi, Shigeto Yoshida
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) plays an important role in antigen-specific adaptive immunity against Plasmodium sporozoites, and this requirement allows for a new approach to developing an effective malaria vaccine. In the present study, we examined whether IL-12 could enhance protective efficacy of a baculovirus-based malaria vaccine. For this aim, a baculoviral vector expressing murine IL-12 (mIL-12) under the control of CMV promoter (BES-mIL-12-Spider) and a baculoviral vector expressing Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) with post-transcriptional regulatory element of woodchuck hepatitis virus (BDES-sPfCSP2-WPRE-Spider) were generated...
October 26, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna Krawczak, Ewa Kozłowska, Maria Doligalska
Host immunosuppression occurs during chronic nematode infection, partly due to effector T-cell hyporesponsiveness. The role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of the ABC-transporter family, has been assessed in T-cell activity. The present study assesses the possible role of P-gp in T-cell activity during nematode infection. Our findings indicate that blockade of P-gp in vivo increased protection against Heligmosomoides polygyrus nematode infection, and was associated with enhanced T-cell activity. Three P-gp-inhibitors, Verapamil (VRP), Cyclosporine (CsA) and Tariquidar (XR9576), were used to determine the influence of nematode infection on the P-gp function of T-cells...
October 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Bohumil Sak, Michaela Kotková, Lenka Hlásková, Martin Kváč
This study revises our understanding of the effectiveness of cell-mediated adaptive immunity and treatment against microsporidia using molecular detection and quantification of microsporidia in immunocompetent C57Bl/6 and immunodeficient CD4(-/-) and CD8(-/-) mice for the first time. We demonstrate an intense dissemination of microsporidia into most organs within the first weeks post infection in all strains of mice, followed by a chronic infection characterized by microsporidia persistence in CD4(-/-) and C57Bl/6 mice and a lethal outcome for CD8(-/-) mice...
October 15, 2017: Parasite Immunology
C M Lezama-Dávila, A P Isaac-Márquez
AIMS: Pentalinon andrieuxii-Muell-Arg is a Mexican-Central American plant anciently used by local people to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. We evaluated a hexane extract of the root we called PAE for its chemical content and for its immunochemical and in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani and healing of experimental Kala Azar. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chemical analysis using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid ethyl ester, octadecanoic acid ethyl ester, 9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester and diethyl phthalate as the main compounds present in PAE...
October 6, 2017: Parasite Immunology
B F M Almeida, K L O Silva, G L Venturin, V M Chiku, A A C Leal, A M Bosco, P C Ciarlini, V M F Lima
We aimed to induce and inhibit HO-1, ascertaining its effect on infection rate, parasite load and the levels of superoxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), TNF-alpha and IL-10 in cultured macrophages from healthy dogs infected by Leishmania infantum. Macrophages obtained from 15 healthy dogs were cultured alone or infected with L. infantum, with or without association of HO-1 inducer and inhibitor. The infection rate and the parasite load were determined by the number of infected macrophages and number of promastigotes per macrophage, respectively...
September 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
D C M Pereira-Fonseca, F M Oliveira-Rovai, L A C Rodas, C A C Beloti, R B P Torrecilha, P K R K Ito, S V Avanço, R S Cipriano, Y T Utsunomiya, R M Hiramoto, L Calvo-Bado, O Courtenay, G F Machado, V M F Lima, C M Nunes
Visceral leishmaniosis is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies. Dogs are the main peri-urban reservoir of the disease, and progression of canine leishmaniosis is dependent on the type of immune response elaborated against the parasite. Type 1 immunity is characterized by effective cellular response, with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In contrast, Type 2 immunity is predominantly humoral, associated with progression of the disease and mediated by anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10)...
November 2017: Parasite Immunology
H Naseri, F Eskandari, M R Jaafari, A Khamesipour, A Abbasi, A Badiee
Although there have been several attempts to develop a vaccine against leishmaniasis, no vaccine in human has been developed yet. Liposomes consisting of 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) encapsulating soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) enhance protective immunity of SLA against Leishmania major infection in mice. However, they immobilized at the injection site because of their positive charge. To overcome the problem, shielding the surface charge with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) was chosen in this study...
November 2017: Parasite Immunology
M V Sanchez, R J Eliçabe, M S Di Genaro, M J Germanó, S Gea, M F García Bustos, M C Salomón, E A Scodeller, D E Cargnelutti
Our proposal was to develop a vaccine based on total Leishmania antigens (TLA) adjuvanted with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] able to induce a Th1 response which can provide protection against Leishmania infection. Mice were vaccinated with two doses of TLA-Poly(I:C) administered by subcutaneous route at 3-week interval. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced by the immunization were measured. The protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by challenging mice with infective promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis into the footpad...
November 2017: Parasite Immunology
A Wang, T Arai, A Campbell, J L Reyes, F Lopes, D M McKay
Infection with parasitic helminths can ameliorate the severity of concomitant inflammatory disease. To use the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, and to extend this concept by assessing whether triggering a memory response against the worm inhibits dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis in Balb/c mice. Initial studies revealed that oral infection with 1, 3 or 5 H. diminuta cysticercoids 8 days before intrarectal administration of DNBS (3 mg) resulted in less severe inflammation and that infected mice displayed an increased propensity for T helper-2 immunity...
November 2017: Parasite Immunology
C Bonnart, G Feuillet, V Vasseur, N Cenac, N Vergnolle, N Blanchard
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread intracellular parasite, which naturally enters the organism via the oral route and crosses the intestinal barrier to disseminate. In addition to neuronal and ocular pathologies, this pathogen also causes gut inflammation in a number of animals. This infection-triggered inflammation has been extensively studied in the C57BL/6 mice, highlighting the importance of the immune cells and their mediators in the development of gut pathology. However, despite their importance in inflammation, the role of protease-activated receptors (PAR) was never reported in the context of T...
November 2017: Parasite Immunology
D G Marconato, M A do N Gusmão, J Melo, J M de A Castro, G C Macedo, E G Vasconcelos, P Faria-Pinto
NTPDases are enzymes that hydrolyse diphosphate and triphosphate nucleosides, regulating purinergic signalling in many organisms. The Schistosoma mansoni NTPDases, SmATPDases 1 and 2, are antigenic proteins and display a significant homology with the isoforms found in mammalian cells. In this work, we investigated whether anti-SmATPDase antibodies from S. mansoni-infected mice sera show cross-reactivity with the NTPDase 1 isoform from macrophages and how this event affects the cell proliferation. By Western blot, anti-SmATPDase antibodies present in serum from infected mice recognized 2 bands with approximately 53 and 58 kDa, corresponding to NTPDase 1...
November 2017: Parasite Immunology
M M Maia, C S Meira-Strejevitch, V L Pereira-Chioccola, D D C de Hippólito, V O Silva, C C Brandão de Mattos, F B Frederico, R C Siqueira, L C de Mattos
This study evaluated levels for mRNA expression of 7 cytokines in ocular toxoplasmosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT Group, n = 23) and chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR Group, n = 9) were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. Negative controls (NC) were constituted of 7 PBMC samples from individuals seronegative for toxoplasmosis. mRNA expression for cytokines was determined by qPCR. Results showed a significant increase in mRNA levels from antigen stimulated PBMCs derived from OT Group for expressing IL-6 (at P < ...
October 2017: Parasite Immunology
A Badirzadeh, T Taheri, F Abedi-Astaneh, Y Taslimi, Z Abdossamadi, H Montakhab-Yeganeh, M Aghashahi, M Niyyati, S Rafati
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important vector-borne parasitic diseases, highly endemic in Iran, and its prevalence is increasing all over the country. Arginase (ARG) activity in isolated Leishmania parasites from CL patients is yet to be explored. This study aimed to compare the ARG activity of isolated Leishmania promastigotes from CL patients with a standard strain of Leishmania major and its influences on the disease pathogenesis. We recruited 16 confirmed CL patients from Qom Province, in central Iran; after detection of Leishmania species using PCR-RFLP, we assessed the levels of ARG in the isolated promastigotes and determined the parasites' growth rate...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
T de O Titz, C A A de Araújo, C S Enobe, P O Rigato, T M Oshiro, M F de Macedo-Soares
Helminth infections have the ability to modulate host's immune response through mechanisms that allow the chronic persistence of the worms in the host. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved on the suppressive effect of Ascaris suum infection using a murine experimental model of LPS-induced inflammation. We found that infection with A. suum markedly inhibited leucocyte influx induced by LPS into air pouches, suppressed secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) and induced high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
D Bujarbaruah, M P Kalita, V Baruah, T K Basumatary, S Hazarika, R H Begum, S Medhi, S Bose
The study explored the role of differential RANTES concentrations, its receptor CCR5 expression and resulting immunomodulation in the pathogenesis and/or recovery from falciparum malaria. The study population included cases of uncomplicated malaria (UC-M, N=128, enrolled on follow-up basis), severe malaria (SM, N=25), and healthy controls (N=112). Serum RANTES and TNF-α levels were evaluated by ELISA. Monocyte levels and activation profile were studied by flow cytometry. Differential mRNA expression profile was studied by real-time PCR...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
M R Dikhit, A Amit, A K Singh, A Kumar, R Mansuri, S Sinha, R K Topno, R Mishra, V N R Das, K Pandey, G C Sahoo, V Ali, S Bimal, P Das
Although the precise host-defence mechanisms are not completely understood, T-cell-mediated immune responses are believed to play a pivotal role in controlling parasite infection. In this study, the potential HLA*A2 restricted peptides were predicted and the ability of peptides to bind HLA-A*02 was confirmed by a MHC stabilization assay. Two of the peptides tested stabilized HLA-A*02: (a) LLATTVSGL (P1) and (b) LMTNGPLEV (P3). The potential of the peptides to generate protective immune response was evaluated in patients with treated visceral leishmaniasis as well as in healthy control subjects...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
Y Huang, W Cao, K Shi, R Mi, K Lu, X Han, Z Chen
Until now, there are no completely effective parasite-specific pharmaceuticals or immunotherapies for treatment against the zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. Sushi domain (CpSushi) is an important functional domain in Cryptosporidium parvum putative rhoptry protein-1 (CpPRP1), which is the only reported C. parvum rhoptry protein and may play key role in the course of invasion. Here, a 708-bp fragment encoding the CpSushi domain was amplified and expressed in E. coli. Immunofluorescence detection showed that CpSushi was located on the surface of C...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
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