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Parasite Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929503/induction-of-heme-oxygenase-1-increases-infection-of-dog-macrophages-by-l-infantum
#1
Breno Fernando Martins de Almeida, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira Silva, Gabriela Lovizutto Venturin, Vanessa Marim Chiku, Aline Aparecida Correa Leal, Anelise Maria Bosco, Paulo Cesar Ciarlini, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
AIMS: We aimed to induce and inhibit HO-1, ascertaining its effect on infection rate, parasite load and the levels of superoxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), TNF-alpha and IL-10 in cultured macrophages from healthy dogs infected by Leishmania infantum. METHODS AND RESULTS: Macrophages obtained from 15 healthy dogs were cultured alone or infected with L. infantum, with or without association of HO-1 inducer and inhibitor. The infection rate and the parasite load were determined by the number of infected macrophages and number of promastigotes per macrophage, respectively...
September 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929498/dog-skin-parasite-load-tlr-2-il-10-and-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-and-infectiousness
#2
Dandara Camila Morais Pereira-Fonseca, Fernanda Muller de Oliveira-Rovai, Lílian Aparecida Colebrusco Rodas, Carolina Aparecida Carlin Beloti, Rafaela Beatriz Pintor Torrecilha, Píer Kenji Rauschkolb Katsuda Ito, Saulo Vinícius Avanço, Rafael Silva Cipriano, Yuri Tani Utsunomiya, Roberto Mitsuyoshi Hiramoto, Leontides Calvo-Bado, Orin Courtenay, Gisele Fabrino Machado, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima, Cáris Maroni Nunes
Visceral leishmaniosis is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies. Dogs are the main peri-urban reservoir of the disease, and progression of canine leishmaniosis is dependent on the type of immune response elaborated against the parasite. Type 1 immunity is characterized by effective cellular response, with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In contrast, Type 2 immunity is predominantly humoral, associated with progression of the disease, and mediated by anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10)...
September 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921566/pegylation-of-cationic-liposomes-encapsulating-soluble-leishmania-antigens-sla-reduces-the-adjuvant-efficacy-of-liposomes-in-murine-model
#3
Hadi Naseri, Faezeh Eskandari, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Ali Khamesipour, Azam Abbasi, Ali Badiee
Although there have been several attempts to develop a vaccine against leishmaniasis; no vaccine in human has been developed yet. Liposomes consisting of 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) encapsulating soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) enhance protective immunity of SLA against L. major infection in mice. However, they immobilized at the injection site because of their positive charge. To overcome the problem, shielding the surface charge with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) was chosen in this study...
September 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901553/total-leishmania-antigens-with-poly-i-c-induce-th1-protective-response
#4
Maria Victoria Sanchez, Ricardo Javier Eliçabe, María Silvia Di Genaro, María José Germanó, Susana Gea, María Fernanda García Bustos, María Cristina Salomón, Eduardo Alberto Scodeller, Diego Esteban Cargnelutti
AIMS: Our proposal was to develop a vaccine based on total Leishmania antigens (TLA) adjuvanted with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] able to induce a Th1 response which can provide protection against Leishmania infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were vaccinated with two doses of TLA-Poly(I:C) administered by subcutaneous route at three week interval. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced by the immunization were measured. The protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by challenging mice with infective promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis into the footpad...
September 13, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892562/triggering-immunological-memory-against-the-tapeworm-hymenolepis-diminuta-to-protect-against-colitis
#5
Arthur Wang, Toshio Arai, Alec Campbell, Jose Luis Reyes, Fernando Lopes, Derek M McKay
Infection with parasitic helminths can ameliorate the severity of concomitant inflammatory disease. AIM: To use the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, to extend this concept by assessing if triggering a memory response against the worm inhibits dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis in Balb/c mice. METHODS & RESULTS: Initial studies revealed that oral infection with 1, 3 or 5 H. diminuta cysticercoids 8 days before intra-rectal administration of DNBS (3 mg) resulted in less severe inflammation and that infected mice displayed an increased propensity for T helper-2 immunity...
September 11, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881035/protease-activated-receptor-2-contributes-to-toxoplasma-gondii-mediated-gut-inflammation
#6
Chrystelle Bonnart, Guylène Feuillet, Virginie Vasseur, Nicolas Cenac, Nathalie Vergnolle, Nicolas Blanchard
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread intracellular parasite, which naturally enters the organism via the oral route and cross the intestinal barrier to disseminate. In addition to neuronal and ocular pathologies, this pathogen also causes gut inflammation in a number of animals. This infection-triggered inflammation has been extensively studied in the C57BL/6 mice, highlighting the importance of the immune cells and their mediators in the development of gut pathology. However, despite their importance in inflammation, the role of Protease-Activated Receptors (PAR) was never reported in the context of T...
September 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857186/anti-schistosome-antibodies-change-ntpdase-1-activity-from-macrophages
#7
Danielle Gomes Marconato, Michélia Antônia do Nascimento Gusmão, Juliana Melo, Juciane Maria de Andrade Castro, Gilson Costa Macedo, Eveline Gomes Vasconcelos, Priscila de Faria-Pinto
NTPDases are enzymes that hydrolyze di- and tri-phosphate nucleosides, regulating purinergic signaling in many organisms. The Schistosoma mansoni NTPDases, SmATPDases 1 and 2 are antigenic proteins and display a significant homology with the isoforms found in mammalian cells. In this work, we investigated whether anti-SmATPDase antibodies from S. mansoni-infected mice sera show cross-reactivity with the NTPDase 1 isoform from macrophages and how this event affect the cell proliferation. By Western blot, anti-SmATPDase antibodies present in serum from infected mice recognized two bands with approximately 53 and 58 kDa, corresponding to NTPDase 1...
August 30, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836673/evaluation-of-gene-expression-levels-for-cytokines-in-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#8
Marta Marques Maia, Cristina Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Daise Damaris Carnietto de Hippólito, Valéria Oliveira Silva, Cinara Cássia Brandão de Mattos, Fábio Batista Frederico, Rubens Camargo Siqueira, Luiz Carlos de Mattos
This study evaluated levels for mRNA expression of 7 cytokines in ocular toxoplasmosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of ocular toxoplasmosis patients (OT Group, n= 23) and chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR Group, n= 9) were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. Negative controls (NC) were constituted of 7 PBMC samples from individuals seronegative for toxoplasmosis. mRNA expression for cytokines was determined by qPCR. Results showed a significant increase of mRNA levels from antigen stimulated PBMCs derived from OT Group for expressing IL-6 (at p<0...
August 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833211/leishmania-tarentolae-expressing-cxcl-10-as-an-efficient-immunotherapy-approach-against-l-major-infected-balb-c-mice
#9
Hossein Montakhab-Yeganeh, Zahra Abdossamadi, Farnaz Zahedifard, Yasaman Taslimi, Alireza Badirzadeh, Noushin Saljoughian, Tahereh Taheri, Mohammad Taghikhani, Sima Rafati
Recent findings have demonstrated the suitability of Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or CXCL-10 as an immunotherapy tool in treatment of leishmaniasis. This chemokine can overcome Leishmania (L.) infection through inducing nitric oxide production for parasite elimination. The current study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effects of recombinant L. tarentolae expressing CXCL-10 and an expression vector encoding CXCL-10 (pcDNA-CXCL-10-EGFP) in a model of BALB/c mice susceptible to infection by L...
August 18, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815724/secreted-products-of-fasciola-hepatica-inhibit-the-induction-of-t-cell-responses-that-mediate-allergy
#10
C M Finlay, A M Stefanska, M M Coleman, H Jahns, J P Cassidy, R M McLoughlin, K H G Mills
There is evidence from epidemiology studies of a negative association between infection with helminth parasites and the development of allergy and asthma. Here, we demonstrate that the excretory/secretory products of the helminth Fasciola hepatica (FHES) protected mice against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma when administered at time of allergen sensitization. FHES reduced the accumulation of mucus, eosinophils and lymphocytes into the airways of allergen-challenged mice. Furthermore, FHES treatment suppressed Th2 responses in the airways...
August 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802050/distinct-dc-subsets-regulate-adaptive-th1-and-2-responses-during-trichuris-muris-infection
#11
M Demiri, K Müller-Luda, W W Agace, M Svensson-Frej
Low- and high-dose infections with the murine large intestinal nematode Trichuris muris are associated with induction of adaptive Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively, in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Classical dendritic cells (cDC) accumulate in the large intestinal mucosa and MLN upon T. muris infection, yet their role in driving adaptive responses to infection remains largely unknown. We performed low- and high-dose T. muris infections of mice deficient in defined cDC subsets to investigate their role in induction of adaptive immune responses...
August 12, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796897/hookworm-excretory-secretory-products-modulate-immune-responses-to-heterologous-and-species-specific-antigens
#12
Nicholas Diliani, Blaise Dondji
Approximately one billion people are currently infected with hookworm. Despite its high prevalence and the concomitant immune suppression seen in infected individuals, little research has been done on the mechanism of immunosuppression by hookworm. Our study focused on characterizing mechanisms utilized by hookworm to suppress the host immune response. Splenocytes and draining lymph node cells from mice injected with hookworm excretory/secretory (ES) proteins showed decreased proliferation in response to both heterologous and species-specific antigens while also having increased nitric oxide secretion...
August 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779539/effect-of-es-products-from-anisakis-nematoda-anisakidae-on-experimentally-induced-colitis-in-adult-zebrafish
#13
S Haarder, P W Kania, T L Holm, L von Gersdorff Jørgensen, K Buchmann
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in developed countries is linked with elevated hygienic standards. One of the several factors involved in this question may be reduced exposure to the immunomodulatory effects of parasitic helminths. Several investigations on treatment of mice and humans with helminth-derived substances have supported this notion, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study therefore dissects to what extent a series of immune-related genes are modulated in zebrafish with experimentally induced colitis following exposure to excretory-secretory (ES) products isolated from larval Anisakis, a widely distributed fish nematode...
August 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748530/il-6-promotes-cd4-t-cell-and-b-cell-activation-during-plasmodium-infection
#14
I Sebina, L G Fogg, K R James, M S F Soon, J Akter, B S Thomas, G R Hill, C R Engwerda, A Haque
Humoral immunity develops in the spleen during blood-stage Plasmodium infection. This elicits parasite-specific IgM and IgG, which control parasites and protect against malaria. Studies in mice have elucidated cells and molecules driving humoral immunity to Plasmodium, including CD4(+) T cells, B cells, interleukin (IL)-21 and ICOS. IL-6, a cytokine readily detected in Plasmodium-infected mice and humans, is recognized in other systems as a driver of humoral immunity. Here, we examined the effect of infection-induced IL-6 on humoral immunity to Plasmodium...
July 27, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731592/arginase-activity-of-leishmania-isolated-from-patients-with-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#15
A Badirzadeh, T Taheri, F Abedi-Astaneh, Y Taslimi, Z Abdossamadi, H Montakhab-Yeganeh, M Aghashahi, M Niyyati, S Rafati
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important vector-borne parasitic diseases, highly endemic in Iran, and its prevalence is increasing all over the country. Arginase (ARG) activity in isolated Leishmania parasites from CL patients is yet to be explored. This study aimed to compare the ARG activity of isolated Leishmania promastigotes from CL patients with a standard strain of Leishmania major and its influences on the disease pathogenesis. We recruited 16 confirmed CL patients from Qom Province, in central Iran; after detection of Leishmania species using PCR-RFLP, we assessed the levels of ARG in the isolated promastigotes and determined the parasites' growth rate...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703913/ascaris-suum-infection-modulates-inflammation-implication-of-cd4-cd25-high-foxp3-t-cells-and-il-10
#16
T de O Titz, C A A de Araújo, C S Enobe, P O Rigato, T M Oshiro, M F de Macedo-Soares
Helminth infections have the ability to modulate host's immune response through mechanisms that allow the chronic persistence of the worms in the host. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved on the suppressive effect of Ascaris suum infection using a murine experimental model of LPS-induced inflammation. We found that infection with A. suum markedly inhibited leucocyte influx induced by LPS into air pouches, suppressed secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) and induced high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686299/rantes-levels-as-a-determinant-of-falciparum-malaria-severity-or-recovery
#17
D Bujarbaruah, M P Kalita, V Baruah, T K Basumatary, S Hazarika, R H Begum, S Medhi, S Bose
The study explored the role of differential RANTES concentrations, its receptor CCR5 expression and resulting immunomodulation in the pathogenesis and/or recovery from falciparum malaria. The study population included cases of uncomplicated malaria (UC-M, N=128, enrolled on follow-up basis), severe malaria (SM, N=25), and healthy controls (N=112). Serum RANTES and TNF-α levels were evaluated by ELISA. Monocyte levels and activation profile were studied by flow cytometry. Differential mRNA expression profile was studied by real-time PCR...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665520/vaccine-potential-of-hla-a2-epitopes-from-leishmania-cysteine-protease-type-iii-cpc
#18
M R Dikhit, A Amit, A K Singh, A Kumar, R Mansuri, S Sinha, R K Topno, R Mishra, V N R Das, K Pandey, G C Sahoo, V Ali, S Bimal, P Das
Although the precise host-defence mechanisms are not completely understood, T-cell-mediated immune responses are believed to play a pivotal role in controlling parasite infection. In this study, the potential HLA*A2 restricted peptides were predicted and the ability of peptides to bind HLA-A*02 was confirmed by a MHC stabilization assay. Two of the peptides tested stabilized HLA-A*02: (a) LLATTVSGL (P1) and (b) LMTNGPLEV (P3). The potential of the peptides to generate protective immune response was evaluated in patients with treated visceral leishmaniasis as well as in healthy control subjects...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599077/protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-cryptosporidium-parvum-cpprp1-sushi-domain-against-c-tyzzeri-infection-in-mice
#19
Y Huang, W Cao, K Shi, R Mi, K Lu, X Han, Z Chen
Until now, there are no completely effective parasite-specific pharmaceuticals or immunotherapies for treatment against the zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. Sushi domain (CpSushi) is an important functional domain in Cryptosporidium parvum putative rhoptry protein-1 (CpPRP1), which is the only reported C. parvum rhoptry protein and may play key role in the course of invasion. Here, a 708-bp fragment encoding the CpSushi domain was amplified and expressed in E. coli. Immunofluorescence detection showed that CpSushi was located on the surface of C...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580764/resiniferatoxin-modulates-the-th1-immune-response-and-protects-the-host-during-intestinal-nematode-infection
#20
J L Muñoz-Carrillo, J F Contreras-Cordero, J L Muñoz-López, C H Maldonado-Tapia, J J Muñoz-Escobedo, M A Moreno-García
In the early stage of the intestinal phase of Trichinella spiralis infection, the host triggers a Th1-type immune response with the aim of eliminating the parasite. However, this response damages the host which favours the survival of the parasite. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, a recent study showed that resiniferatoxin had anti-inflammatory activity contributed to the host in T. spiralis infection...
September 2017: Parasite Immunology
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