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Parasite Immunology

Sandra Coronado, Luis Barrios, Josefina Zakzuk, Ronald Regino, Velky Ahumada, Luis Franco, Yanet Ocampo, Luis Caraballo
Helminthiasis may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Information about immunomodulators from Ascaris lumbricoides is scarce, but could be important considering the co-evolutionary relationships between helminths and humans. We evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant cystatin from A. lumbricoides on an acute model of Dextran Sodium Sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. From an A. lumbricoides cDNA library we obtained a recombinant cystatin (rAl-CPI)...
March 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Aparecida Helena Souza Gomes, Roosecelis Brasil Martines, Cristina Takami Kanamura, Maria Lourdes Peris Barbo, Silvia D'Andretta Iglezias, José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola
TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, CD68, and CD57 were evaluated in biopsies of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis living in Sorocaba, Brazil. The analyses were performed considering the time of lesions from 23 patients with recent lesions (Group I) and 19 patients with late lesions (Group II). All patients were infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Immunostaining cells for CD68, CD57, TNF- α, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17 were performed by immunohistochemistry. Except for CD68 and IL-17, the distribution of in situ for CD57, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ showed that patients with recent lesions expressed higher levels than those with late lesions...
February 26, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Elizabeth A Shepherd, Javier J Garza, Scott P Greiner, Scott A Bowdridge
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), derived from parasite-resistant St. Croix (STC) hair sheep and parasite-susceptible Suffolk (SUF) sheep, on Haemonchus contortus L3 stage larval death in vitro, with or without autologous serum. Larval morbidity was quantified by measuring larval ATP concentration following incubation with PBMC. Larvae exposed to either STC- or SUF-derived PBMC had lower ATP than live larvae (0.12 μM ATP and 0.16 μM ATP versus 0...
February 26, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Terez Shea-Donohue, Bolin Qin, Allen Smith
Nutritional immunology, immunometabolism, and identification of novel immunotherapeutic targets, are areas of active investigation in parasitology. There is a well-documented crosstalk among immune cells and cells in metabolically active tissues that is important for homeostasis. The numbers and function of these cells are altered by obesity leading to inflammation. A variety of helminths spend some part of their life cycle in the gastrointestinal tract and even entirely enteral nematode infections exert beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism...
February 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Rashmi Mishra, Santosh K Panda, Prakash K Sahoo, Bal, A K Satapathy
Cellular hypo responsiveness observed during helminth infections are attributed to factors like Antigen presenting cells (APC) dysfunction, increased Interleukin-10(IL-10), regulatory T cells and induction of CD4(+) T (Th) cell apoptosis.. Increased Fas ligand (FasL) expression on the surface of B-1 cells and induction of apoptosis of Th cells by FasL expressing B-1 cells due to helminth infection was demonstrated in murine model of helminth infection where as profile of FasL expression, Th cell apoptosis and correlation between these two populations of cells in clinical filariasis remain unknown...
February 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Claudia Patricia Pedraza-Zamora, José Delgado-Domínguez, Jaime Zamora-Chimal, Ingeborg Becker
Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana is associated with an important inflammatory response. We here analyzed the kinetics of Th17 cells and neutrophils in earlobe lesions caused by Leishmania mexicana throughout 90 days of disease progresion in susceptible BALB/c and semi-resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with 1x10(5) Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. Cells in the lesions were extracted and quantified by flow cytometry, whereas their distribution in the tissues in relation to the parasites was analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
February 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi Soteh, Mehdi Sharif, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Reza Valadan, Mohsen Tehrani, Alireza Khalilian, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Ahmad Daryani
Toxoplasma gondii can cause severe and even fatal disease in human beings and animals. Effective vaccines may contribute to control toxoplasmosis. GRA14, a novel secreted dense granule protein of T. gondii, has been proposed as a vaccine candidate due to its intervacuolar transport and unique topology in the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. In this study, we constructed a DNA vaccine encoding GRA14 of T. gondii. BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2 week intervals and challenged with T...
February 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
C Britton
The discovery of the RNA interference (RNAi) gene-silencing pathway in 1998 revolutionized analysis of gene function (1). In a similar way, the identification of another class of small RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), has significantly impacted our understanding of how genes are regulated in response to developmental, metabolic and environmental changes. The first miRNA, lin-4, was identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in 1993 (2), but it was not until the discovery of the highly conserved let-7 miRNA in C...
February 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Yihong Cai, Jilong Shen
To survive successfully, Toxoplasma counteracts the strictly regulated host innate response to downregulate inflammation that could be deleterious for the parasite. MicroRNAs are vital regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, controlling the maintenance and development of immune progenitors as well as the differentiation and the functions of host mature immune cells. Thus the complexity of mechanisms underlying the connection between Toxoplasma and host immunity has led to investigations of miRNAs as additional key molecular players...
February 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Yang Hong, Zhiqiang Fu, Xiaodan Cao, Jiaojiao Lin
Schistosomiasis japonicum is one of the most serious zoonotic diseases in the world. There is increasing evidence to show that host miRNAs are modulated following Schistosoma japonicum infection, and some of these miRNAs may play important regulatory roles in response to schistosome infection. Several host miRNAs have been identified and shown to be potential diagnostic biomarkers or novel therapeutic targets for schistosomiasis. These studies have paved the way to a better understanding of the mechanisms of schistosome-host interaction and may facilitate the development of novel approaches to the control of the disease...
February 4, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Shuanghong Yin, Xiaolin Chen, Junbo Zhang, Fangjie Xu, Hairui Fang, Jun Hou, Xuyong Zhang, Xiangwei Wu, Xueling Chen
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a zoonotic parasitic disease. The effective immune evasion mechanisms of E. granulosus allow it to parasitise its hosts. However, the status of the innate and adaptive immune cells and their contributions to E. granulosus progression remain poorly understood. In this study, We aimed to determine the impact of E. granulosus infection on T cells, NK cell responses and TGF-β expression during the early infection phase in BALB/c mice...
January 28, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Michelle Aparecida Ribeiro de Freitas, Nathália Segatto, Natália Tischler, Enio Chaves de Oliveira, Axel Brehmer, Alexandre Barcelos Morais da Silveira
Chagas' disease still reaching about 10 million people in the world. In South America, one of the most severe forms of this disease is the megacolon, characterized by severe constipation, dilated sigmoid colon and rectum and severe malnutrition. Previous data suggested that mast cells and serotonin (5-HT) expression could be involved in intestinal homeostasis control, avoiding the chagasic megacolon development. The aim at this study was to characterize the presence of mast cells and expression of serotonin in chagasic patients with and without megacolon and evaluate the relation between mast cells, serotonin and megacolon development...
January 23, 2017: Parasite Immunology
C Della Bella, M Benagiano, M De Gennaro, M A Gomez-Morales, A Ludovisi, S D'Elios, S Luchi, E Pozio, M M D'Elios, F Bruschi
In humans, studies on the cellular immune response against Trichinella are scarce. Aim of this study was to characterize the cytokine profile of T cells specific for Trichinella britovi in trichinellosis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from five patients involved in a trichinellosis outbreak caused by Trichinella britovi, which occurred in 2013 in Tuscany (Italy). All the patients resulted positive for Trichinella-specific IgG, IgE and presented eosinophilia...
January 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Johnathan M Sheele, Gale E Ridge, Katirina Coppolino, Tracey Bonfield, Andrew B Young, Stephanie L Gaines, Thomas S McCormick
Little is known about cimicosis, the resultant dermal reaction from feeding activity by the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. We fed C. lectularius on human study subjects four times over four weeks, measured serum cytokine and antibody levels, and subjects recorded any cimicosis. The average time for subjects to develop cimicosis decreased with each feeding from 8.4, to 2.1, 1.5, and 1.3 days, respectively. There were no significant changes in total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, or IgE levels between the first and fourth bed bug feedings, but there was a significant decrease in total IgG3 levels (p < 0...
January 11, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Jenny Crowe, Felicity E Lumb, Margaret M Harnett, William Harnett
Obesity, one of the main causes of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is an increasingly common health and economic problem worldwide, and one of the major risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is associated with MetS and obesity. A dominant type 2/anti-inflammatory response is required for metabolic homeostasis within adipose tissue: during obesity, this response is replaced by infiltrating, inflammatory macrophages and T cells. Helminths and certain protozoan parasites are able to manipulate the host immune response towards a TH2 immune phenotype that is beneficial for their survival and there is emerging data that there is an inverse correlation between the incidence of MetS and helminth infections, suggesting that, as with autoimmune and allergic diseases, helminths may play a protective role against MetS disease...
January 9, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Javier J Garza, Scott P Greiner, Scott A Bowdridge
The objectives of this study were to measure Haemonchus contortus larval aggregation by complement/antibody complexes, determine effect of breed resistance and infection status, and determine the effect of larval maturation on larval aggregation in vitro. Larval binding assays were performed on H. contortus L3, exsheathed L3 and L4 incubated with serum from either parasite naïve or H. contortus primed St. Croix (resistant) and Suffolk (susceptible) lambs. No differences in L3 aggregation were observed between serum from either breed or infection status...
January 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
N H Manamperi, S Oghumu, N Pathirana, M V C de Silva, W Abeyewickreme, A R Satoskar, N D Karunaweera
Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka is a newly established parasitic disease caused by the usually visceralizing Leishmania donovani. Skin lesions manifest as non-itchy, non-tender papules, nodules or ulcers. In situ cytokine expression provides clues for immunopathogenesis of this localized form of disease. Skin biopsies from 58 patients were analyzed for histological appearance and in situ cytokine expression of T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, namely interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12A, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4 and IL-10 by real-time RT-PCR...
March 2017: Parasite Immunology
L Pirdel, A Zavaran Hosseini
Development of a protective antileishmanial vaccine is an urgent priority for successful control of different forms of leishmaniasis. The potential of a recombinant lipophosphoglycan 3 (rLPG3) expressed by Leishmania tarentolae was evaluated in combination with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) as a Th1-promoting adjuvant against Leishmania infantum infection in BALB/c mice. First, mice were immunized subcutaneously with rLPG3 either alone or in combination with CpG-ODN. Next, the immunogenic and protective efficacies of this vaccine were analysed in immunized mice...
March 2017: Parasite Immunology
L Lampe, E A Levashina
In the last years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been established as important post-transcriptional regulators of critical physiological processes in animals and plants. Here, we summarize what is known about miRNA biosynthesis, expression and function in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae with a particular emphasis on the mosquito-parasite interactions. We discuss the important gaps in the current knowledge, including the potential of miRNA manipulation for future vector control strategies.
February 2017: Parasite Immunology
Z Ming, R Zhou, X-M Chen
Cryptosporidium species infect the gastrointestinal epithelium and other mucosal surfaces of vertebrate hosts. Epithelial cells provide the first line of defence against Cryptosporidium infection and play a critical role in the initiation, regulation and resolution of both innate and adaptive immune reactions. Host miRNAs in mammalian cells have been shown to play crucial roles in cellular responses to infection by diverse pathogens, including viruses, parasites and bacteria. Given the absence of RNAi machinery in Cryptosporidium, lack of miRNA expression in the parasite and minimal invasion nature of infection, Cryptosporidium infection provides an ideal model for exploring miRNA-mediated epithelial cell defence, relevant to infection of mucosal epithelial cells by pathogens in general...
February 2017: Parasite Immunology
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