Read by QxMD icon Read

Parasite Immunology

Whitney E Harrington, Abel Kakuru, Prasanna Jagannathan
Malaria in pregnancy remains one of the most important causes of adverse birth outcomes. In addition to the profoundly deleterious impact of maternal malaria on the health of the mother and fetus, malaria infection in pregnancy has been shown to affect the development of the fetal and infant immune system and may alter the risk of malaria and non-malarial outcomes during infancy. This review summarizes our current understanding of how malaria infection in pregnancy shapes the protective components of the maternal immune system transferred to the fetus and how fetal exposure to parasite antigens impacts the development of fetal and infant immunity...
July 17, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Javier J Garza, Scott P Greiner, Scott A Bowdridge
This study aimed to characterize neutrophil response to Haemonchus contortus (Hc) in vitro using cells from parasite-resistant St. Croix (STC), and parasite-susceptible Suffolk (SUF) sheep. Neutrophils from Hc-primed and naive STC and SUF sheep were incubated with Hc larval antigen (HcLA), Hc worm antigen (HcWA) or complete media (CM). After HcLA exposure, neutrophils from STC and SUF formed extracellular traps composed of DNA. Stimulation with HcLA induced a 35-fold increase in extracellular DNA compared to CM controls...
July 11, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Valeria Oliveira Silva, Marta Marques Maia, Ana Claudia Torrecilhas, Noemi Nosomi Taniwaki, Gislene Mitsue Namiyama, Katia Cristina Oliveira, Kleber Silva Ribeiro, Maytê Dos Santos Toledo, Patricia Xander, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola
This study established a protocol to purify T. gondii tachyzoite microvesicles and exosomes, called as extracellular vesicles (EVs). In addition, the investigations were conducted to determine. the kinetic of EV release by tachyzoites and whether EV proteins are able to modulate the host immune response. The particle size and concentration released by tachyzoites in culture medium, at different incubation-period were characterized by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis. Tachyzoites (1 x 106 ) released around 4.37±0...
July 5, 2018: Parasite Immunology
L X Piao, J H Cheng, F Aosai, X D Zhao, K Norose, X J Jin
Congenital toxoplasmosis is caused by the vertical transmission of infection from mother to foetus through the placenta when a pregnant woman is infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Congenital infection can have serious consequences such as intrauterine abortion, foetal death and severe neurological, ocular or other organ damage in the foetus. In this review, we focus on recent publications investigating vertical transmission of T. gondii infection, cellular immunopathogenesis and protective immunity in primary toxoplasmosis during pregnancy...
July 3, 2018: Parasite Immunology
José Manuel Molina, Yeray Isidoro Hernández, Sergio Martín, Otilia Ferrer, Francisco Rodríguez, Antonio Ruiz
The experimental protocol of immunization tested here confirms its protective effect against Haemonchus contortus in goats. This protection translated into a 65.5% mean reduction of adult worm burden after a homologous challenge, and a significant decrease (73.2%) in cumulative faecal egg counts (FEC). These parasitological findings were consistent with the levels of some biopathological parameters. Thus, the reduction of adult worms and FEC observed in immunized animals were associated with increased levels of packed cell volume (PCV) as well as plasma proteins (PP)...
June 29, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Lucas Moreira Dos Santos, Micaele Quintana de Moura, Morgana Lüdtke Azevedo, Giuli Argou Marques, Luciana Farias da Costa Avila, Carlos James Scaini, Maria Elisabeth Berne, Ângela Nunes Moreira, Fabricio Rochedo Conceição
AIM: While the use of recombinant antigens is being widely investigated in the diagnosis of human toxocariasis, relatively little attention has been given to animal diagnostic models. For this reason, this study aims to investigate the diagnosis potential of T. canis TES-30 and TES-120 recombinant antigens in mice, the animal model for toxocariasis studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum samples obtained from mice infected with Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati were tested by indirect ELISA using T...
June 25, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Barry M Bradford, David S Donaldson, Ruth Forman, Kathryn J Else, Neil A Mabbott
Trichuris muris is a natural mouse helminth pathogen which establishes infection specifically in the caecum and proximal colon. The rapid expulsion of T. muris in resistant mouse strains is associated with the induction of a protective T helper cell type 2 (Th2)-polarised immune response. Susceptible mouse strains, in contrast, mount an inappropriate Th1 response to T. muris infection. Expression of the chemokine CXCL13 by stromal follicular dendritic cells attracts CXCR5-expressing cells towards the B cell follicles...
June 19, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Sidnei Ferro Costa, Gabriel Franco Trivellato, Gabriela Torres Rebech, Marilene Oliveira Dos Santos Maciel, Larissa Martins Melo, Maria Cecília Rui Luvizotto, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
Eosinophils are traditionally associated with the immune response against helminth parasites. However, several studies have demonstrated that these cells have a role regarding protective immunity in leishmaniasis. Here, we examined the relationship between presence of eosinophils and parasite load in biopsy samples from dogs, obtained through fine needle puncture and aspiration of lymph nodes. Histological slides containing biopsy material from lymph nodes of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis and healthy dogs were used to obtain baseline eosinophil counts...
June 19, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Marina L Rodrigues-Alves, Otoni A O Melo-Júnior, Jordana G Coelho-Dos-Reis, Marcelo A Pascoal-Xavier, Heloisa Alves-Costa, Clovis A Reis, Walderez O Dutra, Rosiana E Silva, Maria C R Senna, Andreia C Faria, Nayara I Medeiros, Juliana A S Gomes, Denise Silveira-Lemos, Olindo A Martins-Filho, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Matheus F Costa-Silva, Rodolfo C Giunchetti, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) treatment is based on therapy with Glucantime® , yet there are few laboratory methods to monitor its success. In this study, ex vivo and in vitro evaluations of peripheral blood monocytes were performed in a longitudinal study to characterize the impact of Glucantime® on overall phenotypic/functional features of these cells from CL patients to identify predictive biomarkers for post-therapeutic monitoring by flow cytometry. The ex vivo evaluation from CL patients demonstrated a modulatory profile before treatment, with a decrease in TLR-2, FcγRII, HLA-DR, CD86, IFN-γR, TNF, IL-12, NO, and an increase in FcγRIII and IL-10R...
June 16, 2018: Parasite Immunology
N Galindo-Sevilla, J Mancilla-Ramírez
Congenital transmission of leishmaniasis is recognized in cases detected by passive surveillance. Most cases are from low-resource countries, limiting the study of several important aspects of this route of infection, including the offspring's immune response. Studies on natural and experimentally infected animals suggest that parasites might be transmitted to the embryo or foetus at any time during pregnancy. As immune system undergoes sequential stages of development, an infection before the time of self-recognition could lead to central tolerance, making an individual specifically tolerant and susceptible to infection...
June 11, 2018: Parasite Immunology
R K Shears, A J Bancroft, G W Hughes, R K Grencis, D J Thornton
Gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), are a major source of morbidity in humans and their livestock. There is a paucity of commercially available vaccines against these parasites, and vaccine development for T. trichiura has been impeded by a lack of known host protective antigens. Experimental vaccinations with T. muris (murine whipworm) soluble Excretory/Secretory (ES) material have demonstrated that it is possible to induce protective immunity in mice; however, the potential for extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a source of antigenic material has remained relatively unexplored...
May 10, 2018: Parasite Immunology
S Roy, D Mukhopadhyay, S Mukherjee, S Moulik, S Chatterji, N Brahme, N Pramanik, R P Goswami, B Saha, M Chatterjee
Leishmania donovani, the causative parasite of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), deviously manipulates host monocytes/macrophages to ensure its survival. Although monocytes/macrophages from patients with VL have demonstrated an impaired oxidative burst and antigen presentation, an unanswered yet pertinent question remains as to whether they are deactivated or alternatively activated. The significantly raised plasma levels of IL-4/IL-13 and IL-10 in VL patients suggested a microenvironment conducive for alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages...
May 10, 2018: Parasite Immunology
A Kavallari, T Küster, E Papadopoulos, L S Hondema, Ø Øines, J Skov, O Sparagano, E Tiligada
The avian mite Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite, PRM) is of major economic and veterinary importance for the poultry and egg industry worldwide. The accumulating reports on the opportunistic nonavian feeding of D. gallinae raise concerns on PRM host expansion. However, the consequent threats to human health remain largely unclear. PRM infestation in humans is usually manifested as a local or generalized noncharacteristic skin reaction referred to as gamasoidosis. This report presents the current state of the art and the new developments on PRM-associated dermatitis, sharing neither the authors' personal experience nor focusing on differential diagnosis...
August 2018: Parasite Immunology
A A Mehrizi, M Ameri Torzani, S Zakeri, A Jafary Zadeh, L Babaeekhou
Sporozoite-based malaria vaccines have provided a gold standard for malaria vaccine development, and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) serves as the main vaccine candidate antigen on sporozoites. As recombinant malaria vaccine candidate antigens are poorly immunogenic, additional appropriate immunostimulants, such as an efficient adjuvant, are highly essential to modulate Th1-cell predominance and also to induce a protective and long-lived immune response. In this study, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], the ligand of TLR3, was considered as the potential adjuvant for vaccines targeting stronger Th1-based immune responses...
July 2018: Parasite Immunology
K C F Lidani, T L Sandri, F A Andrade, L Bavia, R Nisihara, I J Messias-Reason
We aimed to investigate the association between plasma levels of complement Factor H (FH) with cardiac involvement, inflammatory and cardiometabolic parameters in patients with chronic Chagas' disease (CD). FH plasmatic levels were determined in 80 chronic CD patients. Glycaemic index, lipidogram (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C, triglycerides and total cholesterol) and Ultrasensitive C-Reactive Protein (uCRP) values were obtained from medical records. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI) blood pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were obtained from echocardiography examinations...
July 2018: Parasite Immunology
Z M Estrada-Reyes, Y Tsukahara, A L Goetsch, T A Gipson, T Sahlu, R Puchala, Z Wang, S P Hart, R G Mateescu
The effect of Ovar-DRA and Ovar-DRB1 genotypes on faecal egg count (FEC) was determined in sheep and goats infected with Haemonchus contortus. One hundred and forty-three sheep from 3 different breeds (St. Croix, Katahdin and Dorper) and 150 goats from three different breeds (Spanish, Boer and Kiko) were used. Parasitological (FEC), haematological (packed cell volume) and immunological (IgA, IgG and IgM) parameters were measured. Sheep populations showed a higher FEC and humoural response than goat breeds. Genotypes were determined by high-resolution melting assays and by conventional PCR...
June 2018: Parasite Immunology
A A Mohammed, J T Allen, M T Rogan
Cystic echinococcosis is characterized by fluid-filled hydatid cysts in the liver and lungs. The cysts are surrounded by a host fibrous layer (the pericyst) which acts to isolate the parasite from surrounding tissues. Previous studies in liver cysts have indicated that the parasite may be a stimulating fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) could influence the potential for fibrosis to occur in lung tissue by stimulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a human lung epithelial cell line...
June 2018: Parasite Immunology
E M Ndombi, B Abudho, N Kittur, J M Carter, H Korir, D K Riner, H Ochanda, Y-M Lee, W E Secor, D M Karanja, D G Colley
This study evaluated potential changes in antischistosome immune responses in children from schools that received 4 rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel (PZQ). In a repeated cross-sectional study design, 210 schistosome egg-positive children were recruited at baseline from schools in western Kenya (baseline group). Another 251 children of the same age range were recruited from the same schools and diagnosed with schistosome infection by microscopy (post-MDA group). In-vitro schistosome-specific cytokines and plasma antibody levels were measured by ELISA and compared between the 2 groups of children...
June 2018: Parasite Immunology
M Hasby Saad, N El-Anwar, S Lotfy, M Fouda, E Hasby
To explore PPAR-γ and SOX-2 transcription factors expression in placenta according to maternal anti-Toxoplasma gondii serological profile during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. The study included 240 placentas, grouped according to IgM and IgG serostatus and then subgrouped according to pregnancy outcome that varied between miscarriages, premature labour, stillbirth and giving birth to CNS anomaly or apparently healthy neonates. Samples were H&E stained and histopathologically scored blindly. PPAR-γ expression was measured by ELISA, while SOX-2-positive nuclei were stained immunohistochemically to be calculated by ImageJ...
June 2018: Parasite Immunology
L Xu, B Xue, L Zhou, Z Qiu, X Zhang, N Xu, Q Tang, J Zhu, X Guan, Z Feng
The murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, NP30, is a potential vaccine candidate against Schistosoma japonicum. Previous studies have revealed that NP30 has an immunoregulatory effect, but the underlying mechanism for this effect remains unknown. This study shows that NP30 induces dendritic cell (DC) maturation and increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The expression of CD86 and MHC II was upregulated in DCs following stimulation with NP30 in vitro. Moreover, NP30 induced Th17 polarization by increasing the production of IL-6 and TGF-β...
May 2018: Parasite Immunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"