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Parasite Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208221/increased-fas-ligand-expression-of-peripheral-b-1-cells-correlated-with-cd4-t-cell-apoptosis-in-filarial-infected-patients
#1
Rashmi Mishra, Santosh K Panda, Prakash K Sahoo, Bal, A K Satapathy
Cellular hypo responsiveness observed during helminth infections are attributed to factors like Antigen presenting cells (APC) dysfunction, increased Interleukin-10(IL-10), regulatory T cells and induction of CD4(+) T (Th) cell apoptosis.. Increased Fas ligand (FasL) expression on the surface of B-1 cells and induction of apoptosis of Th cells by FasL expressing B-1 cells due to helminth infection was demonstrated in murine model of helminth infection where as profile of FasL expression, Th cell apoptosis and correlation between these two populations of cells in clinical filariasis remain unknown...
February 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207936/th17-cells-and-neutrophils-close-collaborators-in-chronic-leishmania-mexicana-infections-leading-to-disease-severity
#2
Claudia Patricia Pedraza-Zamora, José Delgado-Domínguez, Jaime Zamora-Chimal, Ingeborg Becker
Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana is associated with an important inflammatory response. We here analyzed the kinetics of Th17 cells and neutrophils in earlobe lesions caused by Leishmania mexicana throughout 90 days of disease progresion in susceptible BALB/c and semi-resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with 1x10(5) Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. Cells in the lesions were extracted and quantified by flow cytometry, whereas their distribution in the tissues in relation to the parasites was analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
February 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186325/evaluation-of-the-immune-response-in-balb-c-mice-induced-by-a-novel-dna-vaccine-expressing-gra14-against-toxoplasma-gondii
#3
Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi Soteh, Mehdi Sharif, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Reza Valadan, Mohsen Tehrani, Alireza Khalilian, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Ahmad Daryani
Toxoplasma gondii can cause severe and even fatal disease in human beings and animals. Effective vaccines may contribute to control toxoplasmosis. GRA14, a novel secreted dense granule protein of T. gondii, has been proposed as a vaccine candidate due to its intervacuolar transport and unique topology in the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. In this study, we constructed a DNA vaccine encoding GRA14 of T. gondii. BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2 week intervals and challenged with T...
February 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171701/micrornas-key-players-in-host-parasite-interactions
#4
C Britton
The discovery of the RNA interference (RNAi) gene-silencing pathway in 1998 revolutionized analysis of gene function (1). In a similar way, the identification of another class of small RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), has significantly impacted our understanding of how genes are regulated in response to developmental, metabolic and environmental changes. The first miRNA, lin-4, was identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in 1993 (2), but it was not until the discovery of the highly conserved let-7 miRNA in C...
February 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170109/modulation-of-host-immune-responses-to-toxoplasma-gondii-by-micrornas
#5
Yihong Cai, Jilong Shen
To survive successfully, Toxoplasma counteracts the strictly regulated host innate response to downregulate inflammation that could be deleterious for the parasite. MicroRNAs are vital regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, controlling the maintenance and development of immune progenitors as well as the differentiation and the functions of host mature immune cells. Thus the complexity of mechanisms underlying the connection between Toxoplasma and host immunity has led to investigations of miRNAs as additional key molecular players...
February 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160510/changes-in-microrna-expression-in-response-to-schistosoma-japonicum-infection
#6
Yang Hong, Zhiqiang Fu, Xiaodan Cao, Jiaojiao Lin
Schistosomiasis japonicum is one of the most serious zoonotic diseases in the world. There is increasing evidence to show that host miRNAs are modulated following Schistosoma japonicum infection, and some of these miRNAs may play important regulatory roles in response to schistosome infection. Several host miRNAs have been identified and shown to be potential diagnostic biomarkers or novel therapeutic targets for schistosomiasis. These studies have paved the way to a better understanding of the mechanisms of schistosome-host interaction and may facilitate the development of novel approaches to the control of the disease...
February 4, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130828/the-effect-of-echinococcus-granulosus-on-spleen-cells-and-tgf-%C3%AE-expression-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-balb-c-mice
#7
REVIEW
Shuanghong Yin, Xiaolin Chen, Junbo Zhang, Fangjie Xu, Hairui Fang, Jun Hou, Xuyong Zhang, Xiangwei Wu, Xueling Chen
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a zoonotic parasitic disease. The effective immune evasion mechanisms of E. granulosus allow it to parasitise its hosts. However, the status of the innate and adaptive immune cells and their contributions to E. granulosus progression remain poorly understood. In this study, We aimed to determine the impact of E. granulosus infection on T cells, NK cell responses and TGF-β expression during the early infection phase in BALB/c mice...
January 28, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112425/in-situ-immunopathological-changes-in-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-due-to-leishmania-donovani
#8
Nuwani H Manamperi, Steve Oghumu, Nishantha Pathirana, Vipula C de Silva, Wimaladharma Abeyewickreme, Abhay R Satoskar, Nadira D Karunaweera
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka is a newly established parasitic disease caused by the usually visceralizing Leishmania donovani. Skin lesions manifest as non-itchy, non-tender papules, nodules or ulcers. In situ cytokine expression provides clues for immunopathogenesis of this localized form of disease. METHODS: Skin biopsies from 58 patients were analyzed for histological appearance and in situ cytokine expression of T- helper 1 (Th1) and T- helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, namely interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12A, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4 and IL-10 by real-time RT- PCR...
January 23, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112415/relation-between-mast-cells-concentration-and-serotonin-expression-in-chagasic-megacolon-development
#9
Michelle Aparecida Ribeiro de Freitas, Nathália Segatto, Natália Tischler, Enio Chaves de Oliveira, Axel Brehmer, Alexandre Barcelos Morais da Silveira
Chagas' disease still reaching about 10 million people in the world. In South America, one of the most severe forms of this disease is the megacolon, characterized by severe constipation, dilated sigmoid colon and rectum and severe malnutrition. Previous data suggested that mast cells and serotonin (5-HT) expression could be involved in intestinal homeostasis control, avoiding the chagasic megacolon development. The aim at this study was to characterize the presence of mast cells and expression of serotonin in chagasic patients with and without megacolon and evaluate the relation between mast cells, serotonin and megacolon development...
January 23, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106258/t-cell-clones-in-human-trichinellosis-evidence-for-a-mixed-th1-th2-response
#10
C Della Bella, M Benagiano, M De Gennaro, M A Gomez-Morales, A Ludovisi, S D'Elios, S Luchi, E Pozio, M M D'Elios, F Bruschi
: In humans, studies on the cellular immune response against Trichinella are scarce. Aim of this study was to characterize the cytokine profile of T cells specific for Trichinella britovi in trichinellosis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from five patients involved in a trichinellosis outbreak caused by Trichinella britovi, which occurred in 2013 in Tuscany (Italy). All the patients resulted positive for Trichinella-specific IgG, IgE and presented eosinophilia...
January 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075502/antibody-and-cytokine-levels-in-humans-fed-on-by-the-common-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius-l
#11
Johnathan M Sheele, Gale E Ridge, Katirina Coppolino, Tracey Bonfield, Andrew B Young, Stephanie L Gaines, Thomas S McCormick
Little is known about cimicosis, the resultant dermal reaction from feeding activity by the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. We fed C. lectularius on human study subjects four times over four weeks, measured serum cytokine and antibody levels, and subjects recorded any cimicosis. The average time for subjects to develop cimicosis decreased with each feeding from 8.4, to 2.1, 1.5, and 1.3 days, respectively. There were no significant changes in total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, or IgE levels between the first and fourth bed bug feedings, but there was a significant decrease in total IgG3 levels (p < 0...
January 11, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066896/parasite-excretory-secretory-products-and-their-effects-on-metabolic-syndrome
#12
Jenny Crowe, Felicity E Lumb, Margaret M Harnett, William Harnett
Obesity, one of the main causes of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is an increasingly common health and economic problem worldwide, and one of the major risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is associated with MetS and obesity. A dominant type 2/anti-inflammatory response is required for metabolic homeostasis within adipose tissue: during obesity, this response is replaced by infiltrating, inflammatory macrophages and T cells. Helminths and certain protozoan parasites are able to manipulate the host immune response towards a TH2 immune phenotype that is beneficial for their survival and there is emerging data that there is an inverse correlation between the incidence of MetS and helminth infections, suggesting that, as with autoimmune and allergic diseases, helminths may play a protective role against MetS disease...
January 9, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063162/serum-mediated-haemonchus-contortus-larval-aggregation-differs-by-larval-stage-and-is-enhanced-by-complement
#13
Javier J Garza, Scott P Greiner, Scott A Bowdridge
The objectives of this study were to measure Haemonchus contortus larval aggregation by complement/antibody complexes, determine effect of breed resistance and infection status, and determine the effect of larval maturation on larval aggregation in vitro. Larval binding assays were performed on H. contortus L3, exsheathed L3 and L4 incubated with serum from either parasite naïve or H. contortus primed St. Croix (resistant) and Suffolk (susceptible) lambs. No differences in L3 aggregation were observed between serum from either breed or infection status...
January 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977858/regulation-of-host-epithelial-responses-to-cryptosporidium-infection-by-micrornas
#14
Zhenping Ming, Rui Zhou, Xian-Ming Chen
Cryptosporidium species infect the gastrointestinal epithelium and other mucosal surfaces of vertebrate hosts. Epithelial cells provide the first line of defense against Cryptosporidium infection and play a critical role in the initiation, regulation, and resolution of both innate and adaptive immune reactions. Host miRNAs in mammalian cells have been shown to play crucial roles in cellular responses to infection by diverse pathogens, including viruses, parasites, and bacteria. Given the absence of RNAi machinery in Cryptosporidium, lack of miRNA expression in the parasite, and minimal invasion nature of infection, Cryptosporidium infection provides an ideal model for exploring miRNA-mediated epithelial cell defense, relevant to infection of mucosal epithelial cells by pathogens in general...
December 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977856/nematodes-and-human-therapeutic-trials-for-inflammatory-disease
#15
David E Elliott, Joel V Weinstock
Helminth infections likely provide a protective influence against some immune-mediated and metabolic diseases since helminth infection dramatically decreased in developed countries shortly before the explosive rise in the prevalence of these diseases. The capacity of helminths to activate immune-regulatory circuits in their hosts and to modulate the composition of intestinal flora appears to be the mechanisms of protective action. Animal models of disease show that various helminth species prevent and/or block inflammation in various organs in a diverse range of diseases...
December 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977850/microrna-mediated-regulation-of-immune-responses-to-intestinal-helminth-infections
#16
Lewis J Entwistle, Mark S Wilson
Intestinal helminth infections are highly prevalent in the developing world, often resulting in chronic infection and inflicting high host morbidity. With the emergence of drug-resistant parasites, a limited number of chemotherapeutic drugs available and stalling vaccine efforts, an increased understanding of anti-helminth immunity is essential to provide new avenues to therapeutic intervention. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-protein coding RNAs which negatively regulate mRNA translation, thus providing finite control over gene expression in a plethora of biological settings...
December 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925245/helminths-hygiene-hypothesis-and-type-2-diabetes
#17
Karin de Ruiter, Dicky L Tahapary, Erliyani Sartono, Pradana Soewondo, Taniawati Supali, Johannes W A Smit, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Worldwide, there is little overlap between the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Helminth-induced type 2 immune responses and immune regulatory network might modulate the obesity-induced activation of inflammatory pathways that are associated with the development of insulin resistance, a strong predictor of the development of T2D. However, other factors such as helminth-associated changes in adiposity and gut microbiome might also contribute to improved metabolic outcomes. In this review we summarize epidemiological evidence for the link between helminths and T2D and discuss the potential mechanisms, based on findings from experimental studies as well as the limited number of studies in humans...
December 7, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886396/5-ala-mediated-photodynamic-therapy-reduces-the-parasite-load-in-mice-infected-with-leishmania-braziliensis
#18
Danila Malheiros Souza, Polyanna Miranda Alves, Mona Lisa Fabiana Silva, Tony Paiva Paulino, Henrique Ovidio Coraspe, Mônica Miguel Sawan Mendonça, Betânia Maria Ribeiro, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Virmondes Rodrigues Júnior, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has proven to be an effective alternative for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Skin lesions consist of ulcers with well-defined raised edges, and granular floor. Th1 immune response is the protective profile in patients infected with Leishmania. In the present study, the photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid, the parasitic load, and the modulation of the immune response were evaluated in mice infected with Leishmania braziliensis...
November 25, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002886/list-of-referees
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801988/development-of-vaccines-for-parasitic-diseases-of-animals-challenges-and-opportunities
#20
EDITORIAL
W Ivan Morrison, Fiona Tomley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Parasite Immunology
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