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Parasite Immunology

N A Filatova, N A Knyazev, S O Skarlato, O V Anatskaya, A E Vinogradov
Cryptosporidiosis causes persistent diarrhea in infants, immunocompromised patients and elderly persons. Long-term consequences of the disease include increased risk of malignancy, cardiomyopathy and gastrointestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate prolonged effects of cryptosporidiosis on innate immunity and growth in neonatal C3HA mice. The disease was challenged by Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inoculation into 7-days old animals. The mice whose intestine smears contained 3-5 or 6 and more oocysts per microscopic field at the day 5 after infection were considered as mildly or severely infected, correspondingly...
March 14, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Álvaro Díaz, Camila Sagasti, Cecilia Casaravilla
Granulomas are responses to persistent nonliving bodies or pathogens, centrally featuring specialized macrophage forms called epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells. The larval stages of the cestode parasites of the taeniidae family (Taenia, Echinococcus) develop for years in fixed tissue sites in mammals. In consequence, they are targets of granulomatous responses. The information on tissue responses to larval taeniids is fragmented among host and parasite species, and scattered over many decades. We attempt to draw an integrated picture of these responses in solid tissues...
March 8, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Rachel E Polando, Blake C Jones, Cristina Ricardo, James Whitcomb, Wibke Ballhorn, Mary Ann McDowell
AIMS: Leishmania enter macrophages through receptor mediated phagocytosis and survive the harsh environment of a phagolysosome. Here, we investigated the interaction between MR, TLR2, and Leishmania, and the subsequent impact on phagosome maturation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Leishmania parasites are able to delay phagosome maturation, not reaching full maturation until five hours post engulfment. Here, maturation of Leishmania major and L. donovani containing phagosomes proceeded as expected in the WT macrophages becoming LAMP1 positive by 6 hours...
March 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Laetitia Petit-Jentreau, Catherine Glover, Janine L Coombes
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite capable of invading immune cells and co-opting their migratory pathways to disseminate through the host. Natural Killer (NK) cells can be directly invaded by the parasite and this invasion alters NK cell migration, producing a hypermotile phenotype. However, the consequences of this hypermotile phenotype for the dissemination of T. gondii to the brain remain unknown. To address this, C57BL6/J mice were infected with freshly egressed tachyzoites (type II Prugniaud strain) or with parasitized NK cells...
February 25, 2018: Parasite Immunology
F Keirandish, N Mosaffa, M J Tarahi, Sh Fallahi
This study aimed to identify the effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on IFNγ, TNFα, TGFβ, and nitric oxide (NO) resulted from macrophages infected with Leishmania major (L. major) amastigotes in the culture medium. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the level of Oleuropein in plant extract. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of OLE, the isolated BALB/c mice peritoneal macrophages were infected with L. major promastigotes and treated with 6.25, 12.5, and 25μg/mL concentrations of OLE...
February 16, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Solange Dos Santos Costa, Márcia Cristina Fornazim, Alexandre Eduardo Nowill, Selma Giorgio
Manipulation of costimulatory and surface molecules that shape the extent of immune responses by Leishmania is suggested as one of the mechanisms of evading the host's defenses. The experiments reported here were designed to evaluate the expression of CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD18, CD54, CD80, CD86, CD206, MHC class II and TLR-2 (Toll-like receptor 2) in human macrophages infected with L. amazonensis. Phenotypic evaluation revealed a negative modulation in CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD18, CD54 and MHC class II molecules, depending on the level of infection...
January 30, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Gerardo A Zavala, Olga P García, Mariela Camacho, Dolores Ronquillo, Maiza Campos-Ponce, Colleen Doak, Katja Polman, Jorge L Rosado
AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and count of stool leukocytes as marker of intestinal inflammation in 291 children (6-10y). Intestinal parasitic infection was measured by stool examination. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the odds of having high inflammatory markers for each parasite or group of parasites as compared to parasite-free children while adjusting for sex, age, mother educational level and % of body fat...
January 24, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Catherine Sharpe, David J Thornton, Richard K Grencis
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are a group of successful multi-cellular parasites that have evolved to co-exist within the intestinal niche of multiple species. It is estimated that over 10% of the world's population are chronically infected by GI nematodes, making this group of parasitic nematodes a major burden to global health. Despite the large number of affected individuals there are few effective treatments to eradicate these infections. Research into GI nematode infections has primarily focused on defining the immunological and pathological consequences on host protection...
January 22, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Constantin Constantinoiu, Ala Lew-Tabor, Louise Jackson, Wayne Jorgensen, Emily Piper, David Mayer, Linda Johnson, Bronwyn Venus, Nicholas Jonsson
AIMS: This study investigated the local immune response at larval attachment sites in Santa Gertrudis cattle with low and high levels of tick resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Skin samples with tick larvae attached were collected from Santa Gertrudis cattle at the end of a period of 25 weekly infestations, when the animals manifested highly divergent tick-resistant phenotypes. There was a tendency for more CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ , CD25+ , γδ T-cells and neutrophils to concentrate at larval tick attachment site in susceptible cattle than in resistant cattle but the differences were significant only for γδ T-cells and CD4+ cells...
January 4, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Jerome Nyhalah Dinga, Dobgima Stanley Gamua, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Vincent P K Titanji
AIM: Although it is generally agreed that an effective vaccine would greatly accelerate the control of malaria, the lone registered malaria vaccine Mosquirix™ has efficacy of 30-60% that wanes rapidly, indicating a need for improved second generation malaria vaccines. Previous studies suggested that immune responses to a chimeric P. falciparum antigen UB05-09 are associated with immune protection against malaria. Herein the preclinical efficacy and immunogenicity of UB05-09 is tested...
December 28, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Daniel R Neill, Padraic G Fallon
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), lacking antigen receptors but derived from the lymphoid lineage, are recently described new players in immunity that have fundamental roles in immune homeostasis, response to infection, allergy and autoimmunity. Recent years have seen global efforts to unravel the complexities of ILC evolution, lineage commitment and functionality and explore opportunities for manipulation of ILC biology for the treatment of infectious and autoimmune disease. This article is protected by copyright...
December 26, 2017: Parasite Immunology
L Sánchez-García, A Wilkins-Rodriguez, N Salaiza-Suazo, J Morales-Montor, I Becker
A strong sex-associated susceptibility towards Leishmania has been reported in males, yet little is known on the effect of hormones in Leishmania physiopathogenicity. Due to the enhanced susceptibility of males to L. mexicana infections, we were interested in analysing the effect exerted by the main androgen produced in males (DHT) on L. mexicana promastigotes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the regulation exerted by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on L. mexicana replication, infectivity, survival and development of tissue lesions...
December 22, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Namdev Togre, Priyanka Bhoj, Kalyan Goswami, Aaditya Tarnekar, Mandakini Patil, Moreshwar Shende
Encouraged by our earlier results of promising therapeutic effect of filarial recombinant proteins BmALT2, BmCys and WbL2 individually in the mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis, in this study these proteins have been explored individually and in different combinations for their therapeutic potential in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced chronic colitis mice. These mice, treated with filarial proteins, showed reduced disease parameters including body weight loss, disease activity index, macroscopic and histopathological scores of colon and myeloperoxidase activity in colonic mucosa...
December 21, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Maryam Nemati, Nancy Malla, Manisha Yadav, Hossein Khorramdelazad, Abdollah Jafarzadeh
Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) infection leads to the synthesis of specific antibodies in the serum and local secretions. The profile of T. vaginalis-specific antibodies and T cell-mediated immune responses may influence the outcome of infection, towards parasite elimination, persistence or pathological reactions. Studies have indicated that Th1-, Th17- and Th22 cell-related cytokines may be protective or pathogenic, whereas Th2- and Treg cell-related cytokines can exert anti-inflammatory effects during T...
December 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
I R Dunay, A Diefenbach
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that carry out important functions in immunity to infections and in organ homeostasis at epithelial barrier surfaces. ILCs are innate immune cells that provide an early source of cytokines to initiate immune responses against pathogens. Cytotoxic ILCs (i.e. conventional (c)NK cells) and several subsets of helper-like ILCs are the major branches of the ILC family. Conventional NK cells and group 1 ILCs share several characteristics such as surface receptors and the ability to produce IFN-γ upon activation, but they differ in their developmental paths and in their dependence on specific transcription factors...
February 2018: Parasite Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Parasite Immunology
N S Nabavi, F Pezeshkpoor, N Valizadeh, S Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, S A Rezaee
The immunopathogenesis of lupoid leishmaniasis is challenging. Although an appropriate immune response is critical for controlling these parasites, inappropriate inflammatory reactions can also promote increased pathology. The role of immune modulatory effect of the main transcription factors and cytokines of T regulatory and Th17 cells in pathogenesis of leishmaniasis chronicity was investigated in this study. The gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), interleukin-17(IL-17A) and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROrC) was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eighty blood samples from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients with usual lesions (n = 31), lupoid lesions (n = 29) and healthy volunteers (n = 20)...
January 2018: Parasite Immunology
G Nkurunungi, J Kabagenyi, M Nampijja, R E Sanya, B Walusimbi, J Nassuuna, E L Webb, A M Elliott
Low allergy-related disease (ARD) prevalence in low-income countries may be partly attributed to helminth infections. In the Schistosoma mansoni (Sm)-endemic Lake Victoria islands (Uganda), we recently observed positive helminth-allergy associations, despite low ARD prevalence. To understand how Sm-induced cytokine and antibody profiles might influence allergic response profiles in this population, we assessed Schistosoma worm (SWA)- and egg antigen (SEA)-specific Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-5, IL-13) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokine profiles (n = 407), and total (n = 471), SWA-, SEA- and allergen (house dust mite [HDM] and cockroach)-specific (as)IgE and IgG4 profiles (n = 2117) by ELISA...
January 2018: Parasite Immunology
G Mourglia-Ettlin, S Miles, A Hernández, S Dematteis
Humoral immunity wanes during healthy ageing, increasing susceptibility to infections in the elderly. In this sense, information about parasite infections and human immunosenescence is scarce. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an infectious disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus, whose prevalence in humans shows an increase with host age. Susceptibility to human CE has been associated with humoral immunity to some extent, and, therefore, we have here analysed the influence of host age on the serological profile of young, middle-aged and aged patients...
January 2018: Parasite Immunology
D S Ashour, A E Saad, L M Dawood, Y Zamzam
Toxoplasmosis is mostly associated with other intestinal parasitic infections especially Giardia due to shared mode of peroral infection. Toxoplasma and Giardia induce a strong T-helper 1- immune response. Our aim was to induce a protective immune response that results in significant impact on intestinal and extra-intestinal phases of Toxoplasma infection. This study was conducted in experimental animals and assessment of Giardia cyst extract effect on Toxoplasma infection was investigated by histopathological examination of small intestine and brain, Toxoplasma cyst count and iNOS staining of the brain, measurement of IFN-γ and TGF-β in intestinal tissues...
January 2018: Parasite Immunology
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