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Parasite Immunology

Moses Egesa, Lawrence Lubyayi, Frances M Jones, Angela van Diepen, Iain W Chalmers, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Bernard S Bagaya, Cornelis H Hokke, Karl F Hoffmann, David W Dunne, Alison M Elliott, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Shona Wilson, Stephen Cose
While antigens from Schistosoma schistosomula have been suggested as potential vaccine candidates, the association between antibody responses to schistosomula antigens and infection intensity at reinfection is not well-known. Schistosoma mansoni infected individuals were recruited from a schistosomiasis endemic area in Uganda (n=372), treated with 40mg/kg praziquantel (PZQ) and followed up at five weeks and at one-year post-treatment. Pre-treatment and five-week post-treatment immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgG1 and IgG4 levels against recombinant schistosomula antigens rSmKK7, rSmLy6A, rSmLy6B and rSmTSP7 were measured using ELISA...
September 21, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Moses Egesa, Lawrence Lubyayi, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Bernard S Bagaya, Iain W Chalmers, Shona Wilson, Cornelis H Hokke, Karl F Hoffmann, David W Dunne, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Lucja A Labuda, Stephen Cose
Larvae of Schistosoma (schistosomula) are highly susceptible to host immune responses and are attractive prophylactic vaccine targets, although cellular immune responses against schistosomula antigens in endemic human populations are not well characterized. We collected blood and stool from 54 Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandans, isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated them for 24 hours with schistosome adult worm and soluble egg antigens (AWA and SEA), along with schistosomula recombinant proteins rSmKK7, Lymphocyte Antigen 6 isoforms (rSmLy6A and rSmLy6B), tetraspanin isoforms (rSmTSP6 and rSmTSP7)...
September 21, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Martha E Chico, Maritza G Vaca, Alejandro Rodriguez, Philip J Cooper
There is considerable interest as to potential protective effects of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) against allergy and allergic diseases. Here we discuss findings of studies done of the effects of STH parasites on atopy and allergic diseases in Ecuador. While cross-sectional studies have consistently shown a reduced prevalence of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity among infected schoolchildren, the removal of these infections by repeated deworming did not affect SPT prevalence over the short-term (i...
September 19, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Harriet Mpairwe, Abena S Amoah
Population studies from the African continent have observed a marked increase in the prevalence of allergy-related diseases over the past few decades, but the cause of this rise is not fully understood. The most investigated potential risk factor has been the relationship between exposure to helminths and allergy-related outcomes. Immunologically, parallels exist between responses to helminths and to allergens as both are associated with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E, increased numbers of T helper 2 cells, and other immune cells...
September 14, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Bieke Van Dorst, Linda Batsa Debrah, Alex Debrah, Lieven J Stuyver
In our previous study, a proteome-wide screen was conducted to identify linear epitopes in this parasite's proteome, resulting in the discovery of three immunodominant motifs. Here we investigated whether such antigenic peptides were found in proteins that were already known as vaccine candidates and excretome/secretome proteins for O. volvulus. This approach led to the identification of 71 immunoreactive stretches in 46 proteins. A deep-dive into the immunoreactivity profiles of eight vaccine candidates that were chosen as most promising candidates for further development (Ov-CPI-2, Ov-ALT-1, Ov-RAL-2, Ov-ASP-1, Ov-103, Ov-RBP-1, Ov-CHI-1, and Ov-B20), resulted in the identification of a poly-glutamine stretch in Ov-RAL-2 that has properties for use as a serodiagnostic marker for O...
September 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Candace Machado de Andrade, Valdirene Leão Carneiro, Jéssica Vieira Cerqueira, Hellen Freitas Fonseca, Gerson de Almeida Queiroz, Ryan do Santos Costa, Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves, Philip Cooper, Camila Alexandrina Figueiredo
Brazil is a middle-income country undergoing the epidemiological transition. Effects of changes in daily life habits, and access to clean water, sanitation and urban services on a growing urban population have contributed to a double burden of both infectious and non-communicable chronic diseases. Studies have indicated that parasite infections may modulate the human immune system and influence the development of allergic conditions such as asthma. However, there is no consensus in the published literature on the effects of parasitic infections on allergy, perhaps as a consequence of factors determining the epidemiology of these infections that vary between populations such as age of first infection, duration and chronicity of infections, parasite burden and species, and host genetic susceptibility...
September 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Ajay Kumar, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Sudha Verma, Kumar Abhishek, Ashish Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Pradeep Das
Mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) is a central regulator of growth and immunity of host cells. It's involvement in cancer and tuberculosis is well documented but least explored in Leishmania donovani invasion of host cells. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to investigate the role of mTOR in M2 macrophage polarization for Leishmania survival. We observed that Leishmania infection activated host m-TOR pathway characterized by phosphorylation of m-TOR, 70S6K and 4-EBP1. Inhibition of m-TOR resulted in decreased parasite load and percent infectivity...
September 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Sarah M Gunter, Leroy Versteeg, Kathryn M Jones, Keegan P Brian, Ulrich Strych, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Eric L Brown
Trypanosoma cruzi 24 (Tc24) is a recently described B-cell superantigen (BC-SAg) expressed by all developmental stages of T. cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. BC-SAgs are immunoevasins that interfere with the catalytic response available to a subset of natural antibodies comprising the pre-immune (innate) repertoire. Electrophilic modifications of BC-SAgs facilitate the formation of highly energetic covalent reactions favoring B-cell differentiation instead of B-cell downregulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to convert the inhibitory signals delivered to B-cells with specificity for Tc24 into activating signals after conjugating electrophilic phosphonate groups to recombinant Tc24 (eTc24)...
August 22, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Claudia Abeijon, Julia Dilo, Jacqueline M Tremblay, Agostinho G Viana, Lilian L Bueno, Silvio F G Carvalho, Ricardo T Fujiwara, Charles B Shoemaker, Antonio Campos-Neto
We have recently developed a sensitive and specific urine-based antigen detection ELISA for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This assay used rabbit IgG and chicken IgY polyclonal antibodies specific for the Leishmania infantum proteins iron superoxide dismutase 1 (Li-isd1), tryparedoxin1 (Li-txn1) and nuclear transport factor 2 (Li-ntf2). However, polyclonal antibodies have limitations for upscaling and continuous supply. To circumvent these hurdles, we began to develop immortalized monoclonal antibodies...
August 18, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Mona Watany, Mohamed Tomoum, Dalia El-Mehy, May R Elsheikh, Ragia Sharshar
AIM: The aim of this study is investigating the presence of intestinal parasitic infections in inflammatory respiratory diseases patients during the disease attack, and measuring the expression of acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) gene before and after infection eradication. METHODOLOGY: This case/control study included 123 inflammatory respiratory diseases patients and 120 apparently healthy individuals. Repeated stool examination was done, while total and specific IgE were measured...
August 17, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Bahador Sarkari, Roya Alirezaei, Akram Layegh Gigloo, Zahra Rezaei, Fataneh Mikaeili, Mohammad Saleh Bahreini, Mohammad Fararouei
The current study was performed to find out the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in children living in a rural community in Fars province, southern Iran. Venous blood was taken from 617 children and evaluated for anti-Toxocara antibodies, using an ELISA system. Of the 617 studied children, 318 (51.5%) were boys and 299 (48.5%) were girls. Mean age of the participants was 9.2 (±10.7) years. Most cases of the recruited subjects (37.4%) were in the age group of 0-5 years. Anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in sera of 39 (6...
August 16, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Gang Lu, Jian Zhou, Ying Hui Zhao, Lin Wang
AIMS: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that causes a global epidemic parasitic disease. Studies using DNA vaccines for the control of toxoplasmosis have made considerable progress. ROP proteins were proven to be excellent candidates for T. gondii DNA vaccine development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, a ROP29 DNA vaccine was successfully produced and injected into mice in combination with R848 to evaluate its ability to provide protection against T. gondii challenge...
August 9, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Henry J McSorley, Mathilde A M Chayé, Hermelijn H Smits
Type 2 immune responses are most commonly associated with allergy and helminth parasite infections. Since the discovery of Th1 and Th2 immune responses more than 30 years ago, models of both allergic disease and helminth infections have been useful in characterizing the development, effector mechanisms and pathological consequences of type 2 immune responses. The observation that some helminth infections negatively correlate with allergic and inflammatory disease led to a large field of research into parasite immunomodulation...
July 25, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Rosângela Maria Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves, Neide Maria Silva, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros Cardoso, Natália Rodrigues Araújo, Loyane Bertagnolli Coutinho, Ronaldo Alves, Marlene Tiduko Ueta, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
Infection with Strongyloides sp. induces a host immune response, predominantly the Th2 type, that is able to eliminate the parasite. However, little is known about the role of the nitric oxide (NO) mediator, induced by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), in strongyloidiasis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the immune response of mice genetically deficient in the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS-/- ), infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and iNOS-/- mice were individually inoculated by subcutaneous injection of 3000 S...
July 23, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Whitney E Harrington, Abel Kakuru, Prasanna Jagannathan
Malaria, particularly Plasmodium falciparum, continues to disproportionately affect pregnant women. In addition to the profoundly deleterious impact of maternal malaria on the health of the mother and foetus, malaria infection in pregnancy has been shown to affect the development of the foetal and infant immune system and may alter the risk of malaria and nonmalarial outcomes during infancy. This review summarizes our current understanding of how malaria infection in pregnancy shapes the protective components of the maternal immune system transferred to the foetus and how foetal exposure to parasite antigens impacts the development of foetal and infant immunity...
July 17, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Shruti Yadav, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The Drosophila imaginal disc growth factors (IDGFs) induce the proliferation of imaginal disc cells and terminate cell proliferation at the end of larval development. However, the participation of Idgf-encoding genes in other physiological processes of Drosophila including the immune response to infection is not fully understood. Here, we show the contribution of Idgf2 and Idgf3 in the Drosophila response to infection with Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively)...
October 2018: Parasite Immunology
Katja Obieglo, Martijn J Schuijs, Arifa Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Frank Otto, Yolanda van Wijck, Louis Boon, Bart N Lambrecht, Christian Taube, Hermelijn H Smits
Chronic helminth infection with Schistosoma (S.) mansoni protects against allergic airway inflammation (AAI) in mice and is associated with reduced Th2 responses to inhaled allergens in humans, despite the presence of schistosome-specific Th2 immunity. Schistosome eggs strongly induce type 2 immunity and allow to study the dynamics of Th2 versus regulatory responses in the absence of worms. Treatment with isolated S. mansoni eggs by i.p. injection prior to induction of AAI to ovalbumin (OVA)/alum led to significantly reduced AAI as assessed by less BAL and lung eosinophilia, less cellular influx into lung tissue, less OVA-specific Th2 cytokines in lungs and lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes and less circulating allergen-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies...
October 2018: Parasite Immunology
Mandar Patgaonkar, Fabien Herbert, Krushali Powale, Prajakta Gandhe, Nithya Gogtay, Urmila Thatte, Sylviane Pied, Shobhona Sharma, Sulabha Pathak
B cell-mediated humoral responses are essential for controlling malarial infection. Studies have addressed the effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on peripheral B-cell subsets but not much is known for P. vivax infection. Furthermore, majority of the studies investigate changes during acute infection, but not after parasite clearance. In this prospective study, we analysed peripheral B-cell profiles and antibody responses during acute P. vivax infection and upon recovery (30 days post-treatment) in a low-transmission area in India...
October 2018: Parasite Immunology
Xiang Wang, Qiong Fu, Rui Song, Bowen Duan, Robert Bergquist, Jing Xu, Shizhu Li, Dongming Zhou, Zhiqiang Qin
Schistosomiasis poses a serious threat to public health, and the infection will develop into chronic and advanced late-stage disease if not treated. Apart from the clinical signs due to immune reactions to schistosome eggs trapped in host tissues, it also increases the risk for the development of autoimmunity reflected by dysfunctional, auto-reactive antibodies. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have been reported in schistosomiasis due to S. mansoni and S. haematobium. We demonstrate ANA in schistosomiasis japonica and explore the relationship between this infection and autoimmune disease by measuring ANA and interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 and IL-17 responses in the sera of 125 Chinese patients with different stages of schistosomiasis japonica...
October 2018: Parasite Immunology
Valeria Silva-Álvarez, Ana Lía Ramos, Ana Maite Folle, Sofía Lagos, Valerie M Dee, Ana M Ferreira
Antigen B (EgAgB) is a phosphatidylcholine (PC)-rich lipoprotein of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. larva, potentially capable of modulating the activation of various myeloid cells, including macrophages. As C-reactive protein (CRP) can act as an innate receptor with ability to bind the phosphocholine moiety of PC in lipoproteins, we investigated whether EgAgB and CRP could interact during cystic echinococcosis infection (CE), and how CRP binding could affect the modulation activities exerted by EgAgB on macrophages...
September 2018: Parasite Immunology
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