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Parasite Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315653/group-1-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#1
Ildiko Rita Dunay, Andreas Diefenbach
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that carry out important functions in immunity to infections and in organ homeostasis at epithelial barrier surfaces. ILCs are innate immune cells that provide an early source of cytokines to initiate immune responses against pathogens. Cytotoxic ILCs (i.e., conventional (c)NK cells) and several subsets of helper-like ILCs are the major brances of the ILC family. Conventional NK cells and group 1 ILCs share several functions such as surface receptors and the ability to produce IFN-γ upon activation but they differ in their developmental paths and in their dependence on specific transcription factors...
January 9, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314141/local-immune-response-to-larvae-of%C3%A2-rhipicephalus-microplus%C3%A2-in-santa-gertrudis-cattle-immune-response-against-rhipicephalus-microplus
#2
Constantin Constantinoiu, Ala Lew-Tabor, Louise Jackson, Wayne Jorgensen, Emily Piper, David Mayer, Linda Johnson, Bronwyn Venus, Nicholas Jonsson
AIMS: This study investigated the local immune response at larval attachment sites in Santa Gertrudis cattle with low and high levels of tick resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Skin samples with tick larvae attached were collected from Santa Gertrudis cattle at the end of a period of 25 weekly infestations, when the animals manifested highly divergent tick-resistant phenotypes. There was a tendency for more CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ , CD25+ , γδ T-cells and neutrophils to concentrate at larval tick attachment site in susceptible cattle than in resistant cattle but the differences were significant only for γδ T-cells and CD4+ cells...
January 4, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284177/preclinical-efficacy-and-immunogenicity-assessment-to-show-that-a-chimeric-plasmodium-falciparum-ub05-09-antigen-could-be-a-malaria-vaccine-candidate
#3
Jerome Nyhalah Dinga, Dobgima Stanley Gamua, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Vincent P K Titanji
AIM: Although it is generally agreed that an effective vaccine would greatly accelerate the control of malaria, the lone registered malaria vaccine Mosquirix™ has efficacy of 30-60% that wanes rapidly, indicating a need for improved second generation malaria vaccines. Previous studies suggested that immune responses to a chimeric P. falciparum antigen UB05-09 are associated with immune protection against malaria. Herein the preclinical efficacy and immunogenicity of UB05-09 is tested...
December 28, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278421/innate-lymphoid-cells-and-parasites-ancient-foes-with-shared-history
#4
Daniel R Neill, Padraic G Fallon
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), lacking antigen receptors but derived from the lymphoid lineage, are recently described new players in immunity that have fundamental roles in immune homeostasis, response to infection, allergy and autoimmunity. Recent years have seen global efforts to unravel the complexities of ILC evolution, lineage commitment and functionality and explore opportunities for manipulation of ILC biology for the treatment of infectious and autoimmune disease. This article is protected by copyright...
December 26, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272044/dihydrotestosterone-enhances-growth-and-infectivity-of-leishmania-mexicana
#5
L Sánchez-García, A Wilkins-Rodriguez, N Salaiza-Suazo, J Morales-Montor, I Becker
A strong sex-associated susceptibility towards Leishmania has been reported in males, yet little is known on the effect of hormones in Leishmania physiopathogenicity. Due to the enhanced susceptibility of males to L. mexicana infections, we were interested in analysing the effect exerted by the main androgen produced in males (DHT) on L. mexicana promastigotes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the regulation exerted by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on L. mexicana replication, infectivity, survival and development of tissue lesions...
December 22, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266481/human-filarial-proteins-attenuate-chronic-colitis-in-an-experimental-mouse-model
#6
Namdev Togre, Priyanka Bhoj, Kalyan Goswami, Aaditya Tarnekar, Mandakini Patil, Moreshwar Shende
Encouraged by our earlier results of promising therapeutic effect of filarial recombinant proteins BmALT2, BmCys and WbL2 individually in the mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis, in this study these proteins have been explored individually and in different combinations for their therapeutic potential in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced chronic colitis mice. These mice, treated with filarial proteins, showed reduced disease parameters including body weight loss, disease activity index, macroscopic and histopathological scores of colon and myeloperoxidase activity in colonic mucosa...
December 21, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266263/humoral-and-t-cell-mediated-immune-response-against-trichomoniasis
#7
REVIEW
Maryam Nemati, Nancy Malla, Manisha Yadav, Hossein Khorramdelazad, Abdollah Jafarzadeh
Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) infection leads to the synthesis of specific antibodies in the serum and local secretions. The profile of T. vaginalis-specific antibodies and T cell-mediated immune responses may influence the outcome of infection, towards parasite elimination, persistence or pathological reactions. Studies have indicated that Th1-, Th17- and Th22 cell-related cytokines may be protective or pathogenic, whereas Th2- and Treg cell-related cytokines can exert anti-inflammatory effects during T...
December 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253318/demodex-canis-targets-tlrs-to-evade-host-immunity-and-induce-canine-demodicosis
#8
Priyambada Kumari, Rajesh Nigam, Soumen Choudhury, Shanker K Singh, Brijesh Yadav, Devendra Kumar, Satish K Garg
Widespread incidence of Demodex mites throughout the mammalian class and occasional serious and fatal outcomes in dogs, warrant an insight into the host-parasite interface especially. Therefore, the present study was aimed to unravel the interplay between innate immune response and canine demodicosis. The dogs diagnosed to have natural clinical demodicosis were allocated into two groups; dogs with localized demodicosis (LD) and with generalized demodicosis (GD). The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 4 and 6 genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of these dogs was quantified by Real-time PCR...
December 18, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243267/naegleria-fowleri-immunization-modifies-lymphocytes-and-apc-of-nasal-mucosa
#9
M M Carrasco-Yepez, R Campos-Rodríguez, A A Reséndiz-Albor, C Peña-Juárez, A Contis-Montes de Oca, I M Arciniega-Martínez, P Bonilla-Lemus, S Rojas-Hernandez
We investigated if intranasal immunization with amoebic lysates plus cholera toxin modified the populations of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells by flow cytometry from nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), cervical lymph nodes (CN), nasal passages (NP) and spleen (SP). In all immunized groups, the percentage of CD4 was higher than CD8 cells. CD45 was increased in B cells from mice immunized. We observed IgA-antibody forming cell (IgA-AFC) response, mainly in NALT and NP. Macrophages from NP and CN expressed the highest levels of CD80 and CD86 either in N...
December 15, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205403/increased-th17-functions-are-accompanied-by-tregs-activities-in-lupoid-leishmaniasis
#10
Nafiseh Sadat Nabavi, Fakhrozzaman Pezeshkpoor, Narges Valizadeh, Sanaz Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Seyyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
The immunopathogenesis of lupoid leishmaniasis is challenging. Although, an appropriate immune response is critical for controlling these parasites, inappropriate inflammatory reactions can also promote increased pathology. The role of immune-modulatory effect of the main transcription factors and cytokines of Tregulatory and Th-17 cells in pathogenesis of leishmaniasis chronicity was investigated in the present study. The gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), interleukin-17(IL-17A), and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROrC) was assessed in PBMCs of eighty blood samples from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients with usual lesions (n = 31), lupoid lesions (n = 29), and healthy volunteers (n = 20)...
December 4, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171863/schistosoma-mansoni-specific-immune-responses-and-allergy-in-uganda
#11
Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Joyce Kabagenyi, Margaret Nampijja, Richard E Sanya, Bridgious Walusimbi, Jacent Nassuuna, Emily L Webb, Alison M Elliott
Low allergy-related disease (ARD) prevalence in low-income countries may be partly attributed to helminth infections. In the Schistosoma mansoni (Sm)-endemic Lake Victoria islands (Uganda), we recently observed positive helminth-allergy associations, despite low ARD prevalence. To understand how Sm-induced cytokine and antibody profiles might influence allergic response profiles in this population, we assessed Schistosoma worm (SWA)- and egg antigen (SEA)-specific Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-5, IL-13) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokine profiles (n=407), and total (n=471), SWA-, SEA- and allergen (house dust mite [HDM] and cockroach)-specific (as)IgE and IgG4 profiles (n=2117) by ELISA...
November 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161459/ageing-impairs-parasite-specific-antibody-responses-in-cystic-echinococcosis
#12
G Mourglia-Ettlin, S Miles, A Hernández, S Dematteis
Humoral immunity wanes during healthy ageing, increasing susceptibility to infections in the elderly. In this sense, information about parasite infections and human immunosenescence is scarce. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an infectious disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus, whose prevalence in humans shows an increase with host age. Susceptibility to human CE has been associated with humoral immunity to some extent, and, therefore, we have here analysed the influence of host age on the serological profile of young, middle-aged and aged patients...
November 21, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130475/immunological-interaction-between-giardia-cyst-extract-and-experimental-toxoplasmosis
#13
Dalia S Ashour, Abeer E Saad, Lamees M Dawood, Yomna Zamzam
Toxoplasmosis is mostly associated with other intestinal parasitic infections especially Giardia due to shared mode of peroral infection. Toxoplasma and Giardia induce a strong T-helper 1- immune response. Our aim is to induce a protective immune response that results in significant impact on intestinal and extra-intestinal phases of Toxoplasma infection. This study was conducted in experimental animals and assessment of Giardia cyst extract effect on Toxoplasma infection was investigated by histopathological examination of small intestine and brain, Toxoplasma cyst count and iNOS staining of the brain, measurement of IFN-γ and TGF-β in intestinal tissues...
November 12, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117626/unravelling-the-roles-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-cerebral-malaria-pathogenesis
#14
J Palomo, Vfj Quesniaux, D Togbe, F Reverchon, B Ryffel
Cerebral malaria (CM) is due to Plasmodium parasite infection leading to inflammatory immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS), accompanied by lung inflammation and anemia. Here, we focus on the role of the innate immune response in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) caused by blood-stage murine Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infection. While T cells are important for ECM pathogenesis, the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) is only emerging. The role of ILCs and non-lymphoid cells such as neutrophils and platelets contributing to the host immune response leading to ECM and human cerebral malaria (HCM) is reviewed...
November 8, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094355/th1-th2-immune-responses-and-oxidative-stress-in-caprine-flea-allergy-dermatitis
#15
Y Ajith, Umesh Dimri, A Gopalakrishnan, E Madhesh, Ricky Jhambh, Vivek Joshi, Devi Gopinath
Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is the common, often neglected skin disease of goats caused mainly by Ctenocephalides felis. The present study aimed to evaluate the immuno-oxidative pathobiology of FAD in goats. Twelve goats from the same herd were divided into two groups of six animals each. The group I (FAD) included animals with natural flea infestation and severe dermatitis lesions. The group II (Healthy control) animals were free from any parasitic infestation. To assess the pathological changes, the markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity), and immune status (Tumour necrosis factor alpha, Interleukin 10, Transforming growth factor beta 1 and Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio) were evaluated from the blood and the serum samples...
November 2, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072334/protective-efficacy-of-an-il-12-expressing-baculoviral-malaria-vaccine
#16
Mitsuhiro Iyori, Andrew M Blagborough, Katarzyna A Sala, Hidesato Nishiura, Kentaro Takagi, Shigeto Yoshida
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) plays an important role in antigen-specific adaptive immunity against Plasmodium sporozoites, and this requirement allows for a new approach to developing an effective malaria vaccine. In the present study, we examined whether IL-12 could enhance protective efficacy of a baculovirus-based malaria vaccine. For this aim, a baculoviral vector expressing murine IL-12 (mIL-12) under the control of CMV promoter (BES-mIL-12-Spider) and a baculoviral vector expressing Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) with post-transcriptional regulatory element of woodchuck hepatitis virus (BDES-sPfCSP2-WPRE-Spider) were generated...
October 26, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063624/the-intestinal-nematode-inhibits-t-cell-reactivity-by-targeting-p-gp-activity
#17
Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna Krawczak, Ewa Kozłowska, Maria Doligalska
Host immunosuppression occurs during chronic nematode infection, partly due to effector T-cell hyporesponsiveness. The role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of the ABC-transporter family, has been assessed in T-cell activity. The present study assesses the possible role of P-gp in T-cell activity during nematode infection. Our findings indicate that blockade of P-gp in vivo increased protection against Heligmosomoides polygyrus nematode infection, and was associated with enhanced T-cell activity. Three P-gp-inhibitors, Verapamil (VRP), Cyclosporine (CsA) and Tariquidar (XR9576), were used to determine the influence of nematode infection on the P-gp function of T-cells...
October 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271091/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171069/list-of-referees
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171068/a-t-cell-diagnostic-test-for-cystic-echinococcosis-based-on-antigen-b-peptides
#20
L Petrone, V Vanini, M Amicosante, A Corpolongo, M A Gomez Morales, A Ludovisi, G Ippolito, E Pozio, A Teggi, D Goletti
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) immunodiagnosis is still imperfect. We recently set-up a whole-blood test based on the interleukin (IL)-4 response to the native Antigen B (AgB) of Echinococcus granulosus. However, AgB is encoded by a multigene family coding for five putative subunits. Therefore, the aims of this study were to analyse the IL-4 response to peptides spanning the immunodominant regions of the five AgB subunits and to evaluate the accuracy of this assay for CE diagnosis. Peptides corresponding to each subunit were combined into five pools...
December 2017: Parasite Immunology
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