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Parasite Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925245/helminths-hygiene-hypothesis-and-type-2-diabetes
#1
Karin de Ruiter, Dicky L Tahapary, Erliyani Sartono, Pradana Soewondo, Taniawati Supali, Johannes W A Smit, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Worldwide, there is little overlap between the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Helminth-induced type 2 immune responses and immune regulatory network might modulate the obesity-induced activation of inflammatory pathways that are associated with the development of insulin resistance, a strong predictor of the development of T2D. However, other factors such as helminth-associated changes in adiposity and gut microbiome might also contribute to improved metabolic outcomes. In this review we summarize epidemiological evidence for the link between helminths and T2D and discuss the potential mechanisms, based on findings from experimental studies as well as the limited number of studies in humans...
December 7, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886396/5-ala-mediated-photodynamic-therapy-reduces-the-parasite-load-in-mice-infected-with-leishmania-braziliensis
#2
Danila Malheiros Souza, Polyanna Miranda Alves, Mona Lisa Fabiana Silva, Tony Paiva Paulino, Henrique Ovidio Coraspe, Mônica Miguel Sawan Mendonça, Betânia Maria Ribeiro, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Virmondes Rodrigues Júnior, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has proven to be an effective alternative for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Skin lesions consist of ulcers with well-defined raised edges, and granular floor. Th1 immune response is the protective profile in patients infected with Leishmania. In the present study, the photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid, the parasitic load, and the modulation of the immune response were evaluated in mice infected with Leishmania braziliensis...
November 25, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862028/peripheral-cellular-and-humoral-responses-to-infestation-with-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus-in-santa-gertrudis-cattle
#3
Emily K Piper, Nicholas N Jonsson, Cedric Gondro, Megan E Vance, Alicja Lew-Tabor, Louise A Jackson
Resistance to cattle tick infestation in single-host ticks is primarily manifested against the larval stage and results in the immature tick failing to attach successfully and obtain a meal. The present study was conducted to identify immune responses that characterise the tick-resistant phenotype in cattle. Thirty-five tick-naïve Santa-Gertrudis heifers were used in this study, thirty of which were artificially infested for thirteen weeks with tick larvae while five animals remained at a tick-free quarantine property to serve as a control group...
November 12, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862000/immunomodulation-by-helminths-similar-impact-on-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#4
Jayagopi Surendar, Karunakaran Indulekha, Achim Hoerauf, Marc P Hübner
The incidence of both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is drastically increasing and it is predicted that the global prevalence of diabetes will reach almost 600 million cases by 2035. Even though the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes is distinct, the immune system is actively involved in both forms of the disease. Genetic and environmental factors determine the risk to develop T1D. On the other hand, sedentary life style, surplus of food intake and other lifestyle changes contribute to the increase of T2D incidence...
November 10, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809350/clinical-usefulness-of-western-blotting-and-elisa-avidity-for-the-diagnosis-of-human-toxocariasis
#5
Monika Rudzińska, Beata Kowalewska, Katarzyna Sikorska
The serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is difficult. Specific IgGs detected routinely with ELISA based on Toxocara excretory-secretory (TES) antigens often persist for years at an elevated level, which does not allow either the differentiation between an active and persistent infection or monitoring the effect of treatment. Additionally, false positive results may occur in co-infections with other helminths due to cross-reactions. We evaluated the usefulness of an IgG avidity index (AI) and a Western blotting (WB) IgG in the diagnosis of patients suspected of Toxocara infection...
November 3, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809346/on-the-presence-and-immunoregulatory-functions-of-extracellular-micrornas-in-the-trematode-fasciola-hepatica
#6
Bastian Fromm, Vladimir Ovchinnikov, Eirik Høye, Dolores Bernal, Michael Hackenberg, Antonio Marcilla
Liver flukes represent a paraphyletic group of endoparasitic flatworms that significantly affect man either indirectly due to economic damage on livestock or directly as pathogens. A range of studies have focussed on how these macroscopic organisms can evade the immune-system and live inside a hostile environment such as the mammalian liver and bile-ducts. Recently, microRNAs, a class of short non-coding gene-regulators, have been proposed as likely candidates to play roles in this scenario. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key players in development and pathogenicity and are highly conserved between metazoans: identical miRNAs can be found in flatworms and mammalians...
November 3, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801988/development-of-vaccines-for-parasitic-diseases-of-animals-challenges-and-opportunities
#7
W I Morrison, Fiona Tomley
Parasitic diseases are a major constraint to efficient livestock production throughout many parts of the world. For the last 50-60 years controlling these diseases has relied, to a large extent, on the use of anti-parasitic agents. However, for some diseases there are no effective anti-parasitic drugs whilst, for others, the relatively late onset of clinical symptoms and diagnosis following infection means that chemotherapy is only partially effective. Conversely, parasites that replicate, re-cycle and transmit rapidly through host populations, such as ticks, mites, enteric nematodes and avian coccidia, require more-or-less continuous mass administration of drugs via food, water or spraying...
November 1, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801984/expression-of-immune-genes-in-skin-of-channel-catfish-immunized-with-live-theronts-of-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis
#8
Gabriel S A Moreira, Craig A Shoemaker, Dunhua Zhang, De-Hai Xu
The objective of this study was to evaluate differential expression of innate and adaptive immune genes, including immunoglobulin, immune cell receptor, cytokine, inflammatory protein, toll-like receptors (TLR) and recombination-activating gene (RAG) in skin from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus after immunization with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) by intraperitoneal injection. The immunized catfish showed significantly higher survival rate (95%) than those of mock immunized control fish (0% survival) after the theront challenge...
November 1, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748953/small-rnas-and-extracellular-vesicles-in-filarial-nematodes-from-nematode-development-to-diagnostics
#9
Juan F Quintana, Simon A Babayan, Amy H Buck
Parasitic nematodes have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to communicate with their hosts in order to survive and successfully establish an infection. The transfer of RNA within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has recently been described as a mechanism that could contribute to this communication in filarial nematodes. It has been shown that these EVs are loaded with several types of RNAs, including microRNAs, leading to the hypothesis that parasites could actively use these molecules to manipulate host gene expression and to the exciting prospect that these pathways could result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
October 17, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743501/mucosal-and-systemic-immune-modulation-by-trichuris-trichiura-in-a-self-infected-individual
#10
Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Peter Nejsum, Rikke Hagemann-Madsen, Andrew R Williams, Jørgen Agnholt, Jens F Dahlerup, Christian L Hvas
Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743486/resiniferatoxin-lowers-tnf-%C3%AE-no-and-pge2-in-the-intestinal-phase-and-the-parasite-burden-in-the-muscular-phase-of-t-spiralis-infection
#11
José Luis Muñoz-Carrillo, José Jesús Muñoz-Escobedo, Claudia H Maldonado-Tapia, Francisca Chávez-Ruvalcaba, María Alejandra Moreno-García
During the course of infection with Trichinella spiralis, an inflammatory response is triggered at the intestinal level in the host, playing a crucial role in the expulsion and elimination of the parasite. However, several studies have demonstrated that this inflammatory response is harmful to the host; hence the importance of studying molecules with therapeutic potential like resiniferatoxin, which is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect both in-vitro and in-vivo. In this article, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of resiniferatoxin during the intestinal phase of T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741351/protective-role-of-il-22-against-schistosoma-mansoni-soluble-egg-antigen-induced-granuloma-in-vitro
#12
Soad Nady, Mohamed Tarek M Shata, Mohammad A Mohey, Ayatollah El-Shorbagy
The role of T helper-17 (Th17) lymphocytes in the regulation of Schistosoma mansoni Soluble Egg Ags (SEA)-induced granuloma is unknown. The present study examined the effect of Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-22) on granulocytes recruitment and functions during SEA-induced granuloma formation in vitro in Schistosoma-infected and non-infected individuals. Granulocytes were isolated from 27 Schistosoma-infected patients and 13 controls and were used for granuloma induction using SEA-conjugated polyacrylamide beads in the presence of Th17 cytokines...
October 14, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726158/progress-in-the-development-of-subunit-vaccines-for-gastrointestinal-nematodes-of-ruminants
#13
J B Matthews, P Geldhof, T Tzelos, E Claerebout
The global increase in anthelmintic resistant nematodes of ruminants, together with consumer concerns about chemicals in food, necessitates the development of alternative methods of control for these pathogens. Sub-unit recombinant vaccines are ideally placed to fill this gap. Indeed, they are probably the only valid option for the long term control of ruminant parasitic nematodes given the increasing ubiquity of multi-drug resistance in a range of worm species across the world. The development of a sub-unit multicellular parasite vaccine to the point of practical application would be a ground-breaking step in the control of these important endemic infections of livestock...
October 11, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716947/parasites-microbiota-and-metabolic-disease
#14
Sonakshi Bhattacharjee, Nils Kalbfuss, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa
Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in diseases that are ascribed to alter metabolism eventually resulting in conditions including obesity, type-2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Of the many factors to which this rise has been attributed, including diet, physical activity, and inflammation, several studies have correlated these disease states with alterations in gut microbiota. Simultaneously, studies have demonstrated the ability of parasites to alter microbial communities within their shared niche, leading to alterations in inflammatory processes...
October 7, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540714/evaluation-of-a-novel-lentiviral-vaccine-expressing-kmp11-haspb-fusion-protein-against-leishmania-infantum-in-balb-c-mice
#15
N Mortazavidehkordi, A Farjadfar, H Khanahmad, Z Ghayour Najafabadi, N Hashemi, A Fallah, A Najafi, V Kia, S H Hejazi
Hydrophilic acylated surface protein B (HASPB) is an immunogenic Leishmania protein against which antibodies are produced in the sera of cutaneous and visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Kinetoplastid membrane protein 11 (KMP11) is another protein antigen of Leishmania which is reported as a promising candidate for vaccination of VL. It is a highly conserved surface protein present in all members of kinetoplastid family and is expressed in both promastigotes and amastigotes. In this study, the coding sequence of KMP11 and HASPB was cloned into a pCDH-cGFP lentiviral vector as a fusion protein...
October 6, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659561/surface-proteins-of-setaria-cervi-induces-inflammation-in-macrophage-through-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-mediated-signaling-pathway
#16
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Sandip Mukherjee, Samir Bhattacharya, Santi Prasad Sinha Babu
Lymphatic filariasis is a vector borne parasitic disease results morbidities, disabilities and socio-economic loss in each year globally. Inflammatory consequences associated with any form of filariasis have drawn special attention. However, the molecular insight behind inflammation of host macrophage (MФ) is considered as one of the shaded areas in filarial research. Herein major emphasis was given to study the signaling pathway of MФ inflammation induced by surface proteins (SPs) of filarial parasite through in vitro and in vivo approaches...
September 23, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647496/approaches-to-vaccination-against-theileria-parva-and-theileria-annulata
#17
Vishvanath Nene, W Ivan Morrison
Despite having different cell tropism, the pathogenesis and immunobiology of the diseases caused by Theileria parva and T. annulata are remarkably similar. Live vaccines have been available for both parasites for over 40 years, but although they provide strong protection, practical disadvantages have limited their widespread application. Efforts to develop alternative vaccines using defined parasite antigens have focused on the sporozoite and intracellular schizont stages of the parasites. Experimental vaccination studies using viral vectors expressing T...
September 20, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636100/prospects-for-vaccination-against-pathogenic-african-trypanosomes
#18
Samuel J Black, John M Mansfield
African trypanosomes cause human and animal African trypanosomiasis, which are chronic, debilitating and often fatal diseases of people and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. The extracellular protozoan parasites are exemplars of antigenic variation. They direct host protective B cell and T cell immune responses towards hypervariable components of their variable surface glycoprotein coat, and evade immune elimination by generating new surface coat antigenic variants at a rate that supersedes immune destruction...
September 16, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635936/a-whole-killed-blood-stage-lysate-vaccine-protects-against-the-malaria-liver-stage
#19
Xiao Lu, Taiping Liu, Feng Zhu, Lin Chen, Wenyue Xu
Although the attenuated sporozoite is the most efficient vaccine to prevent infection with the malaria parasite, the limitation of a source of sterile sporozoites greatly hampers its application. In this study, we found that the whole-killed, blood-stage lysate vaccine could confer protection against the blood stage as well as the liver stage. Although the protective immunity induced by the whole-organism vaccine against the blood stage is dependent on parasite-specific CD4(+) T cell responses and antibodies, in mice immunized with the whole-killed, blood-stage lysate vaccine, CD8(+) , but not CD4(+) effector T cell responses greatly contributed to protection against the liver stage...
September 16, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682475/corrigendum
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Parasite Immunology
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