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Parasite Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524239/oral-contraceptive-pills-risky-or-protective-in-case-of-trichinella-spiralis-infection
#1
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Dina A Radi, Eiman A Hasby
AIM: to investigate how Trichinella spiralis infection can be affected by contraceptive pills invivo. METHODS: included six groups of female Wistar rats; healthy, Trichinella infected, receiving combined contraceptive pills (COCPs), receiving progestin only pills (POPs), infected receiving COCPs and infected receiving POPs. Parasite burden was measured (two gender worm counts, gravidity, larvae/muscle and RCI). Histopathological examination, immunohistochemical detection of C-kit mast cells & Foxp3+ T-reg...
May 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518475/lipid-bodies-accumulation-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-c57bl-6-macrophages
#2
Nilda E Rodríguez, Ryan D Lockard, Elizabeth A Turcotte, Théo Araujo-Santos, Patrícia T Bozza, Valéria M Borges, Mary E Wilson
Lipid bodies (LBs) are intracellular accumulations of neutral lipids surrounded by a single membrane. These organelles are involved in the production of eicosanoids, which modulate immunity by either promoting or dampening inflammatory responses. Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, is an intracellular parasite that causes disease by suppressing macrophage microbicidal responses. C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with L. infantum strain LcJ had higher numbers of LB+ cells (P<0...
May 18, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504838/human-innate-lymphoid-cells-ilcs-in-filarial-infections
#3
Sandra Bonne-Année, Thomas B Nutman
Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in non-mucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged...
May 15, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475238/antecedent-nippostrongylus-infection-alters-the-lung-immune-response-to-plasmodium-berghei
#4
J M Craig, A L Scott
In endemic regions, it is not uncommon for patients to be co-infected with soil-transmitted helminthes and malaria. Although both malaria and many helminth species use the lungs as a site of development, little attention has been paid to the impact that pulmonary immunity induced by one parasite has on the lung response to the other. To model the consequences of a prior hookworm exposure on the development of immunity to malaria in the lungs, mice were infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and two weeks later challenged with Plasmodium berghei...
May 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475216/ige-sensitization-to-anisakis-pegreffii-in-italy-comparison-of-two-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-allergic-anisakiasis
#5
S Mattiucci, A Colantoni, B Crisafi, F Mori-Ubaldini, L Caponi, P Fazii, G Nascetti, F Bruschi
IgE sensitization to Anisakis pegreffii in Italian subjects suffering from gastro-allergic anisakiasis (GAA) (N= 5), or showing chronic urticaria (CU+) after fish consumption (N= 100), was investigated. A control group (N= 5) was also included. IgE response was analyzed by immunoblotting (WB) assay, using both excretory/secretory products (ESPs) and crude extract (CE) of A. pegreffii larvae. The results were compared with those achieved by the conventional immunological method for Anisakis allergy (i.e. immunoCAP)...
May 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467600/recent-advancements-and-new-perspectives-in-animal-models-for-neurocysticercosis-immunopathogenesis
#6
REVIEW
N Arora, S Tripathi, P Kumar, P Mondal, A Mishra, A Prasad
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system, is caused by Taenia solium. This parasite involves two hosts, intermediate hosts (pig and human) and a definitive host (human), and has various stages in its complex life cycle (eggs, oncosphere, cysticerci and adult tapeworm). Hence, developing an animal model for T. solium that mimics its natural course of infection is quite challenging. We have reviewed here the animal models frequently used to study immunopathogenesis of cysticercosis and also discussed their usefulness for NCC studies...
May 3, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453871/elevated-cerebrospinal-fluid-tumor-necrosis-factor-is-associated-with-acute-and-long-term-neurocognitive-impairment-in-cerebral-malaria
#7
Estela Shabani, Benson J Ouma, Richard Idro, Paul Bangirana, Robert O Opoka, Gregory S Park, Andrea L Conroy, Chandy C John
Systemic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) by promoting endothelial activation and parasite sequestration. However less is known about the role of central nervous system (CNS) TNF-α in CM. We assessed plasma (n=249) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n=167) TNF-α levels in Ugandan children with CM, plasma TNF-α in Ugandan community control children (n=198), and CSF TNF-α in North American control children who had recovered from leukemia (n=13). Plasma and CSF TNF-α were measured by magnetic bead assay...
April 28, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445612/influence-of-adjuvant-formulation-on-inducing-immune-response-in-mice-immunized-with-a-recombinant-serpin-from-trichinella-spiralis
#8
Jing Xu, Xue Bai, Libo Wang, Hai Ning Shi, Joke W B van der Giessen, Pascal Boireau, Ming Yuan Liu, Xiao Lei Liu
Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens on the world and they can still cause major public health problems in many parts of the world. Vaccination against the helminth nematode Trichinella could be a good strategy to reduce the risk of human and animal infection. It was our aim to evaluate three adjuvants, which could be used as an efficient vaccine for animals in combination with rTs-Serpin antigen. In this study, BALB/c mice were vaccinated by an intramuscular route with rTs-Serpin antigen from the parasite Trichinella spiralis in combination with three different adjuvant formulations: Montanide ISA201, Montanide IMS 1313 N PR VG and Freund's complete adjuvant / Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FCA/FIA)...
April 26, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423191/origins-and-evolution-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-wardens-of-barrier-immunity
#9
Daniel R Neill, Robin J Flynn
The identification, in the late 2000's, of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as a new class of non-B, non-T lymphocytes has led to global efforts to understand their functions, plasticity, and evolutionary origins and to define their place within the leukocyte family. Although this work has uncovered striking similarities in the developmental cues, lineage-specific transcription factors and functional capacities of innate and adaptive lymphocytes, it has become clear that ILCs play a unique and defining role as stewards of barrier defence and that this sets them apart from their adaptive cousins...
April 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397969/aim2-inflammasome-is-associated-to-disease-severity-in-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-caused-by-leishmania-v-braziliensis
#10
Regina Barbosa Moreira, Claude Pirmez, Manoel Paes De Oliveira-Neto, Luana De Souza Aguiar, Antonio José Da Silva Gonçalves, Luiza Oliveira Ramos Pereira, Lais Abreu, Márcia Pereira De Oliveira
The inflammasome is a multiprotein signaling platform involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases. Herein, we investigated gene and protein expression of the inflammasome molecules AIM2 and NLRP3 in active lesions from patients with L. (V.) braziliensis-associated tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and correlated these findings with the clinical presentations and responses to therapy. Real-time PCR assays showed a significantly higher AIM2 gene expression in mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) compared with that in cutanoeus leishmaniasis (CL)...
April 11, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380252/neutrophil-alterations-in-pregnancy-associated-malaria-and-induction-of-neutrophil-chemotaxis-by-plasmodium-falciparum
#11
Stéphanie Boström, Christentze Schmiegelow, Ulrike Abu Abed, Daniel Tr Minja, John Lusingu, Volker Brinkmann, Yabo J Honkpehedji, Marguerite M Loembe, Ayôla A Adegnika, Benjamin Mordmüller, Marita Troye-Blomberg, Borko Amulic
Pregnancy associated malaria (PAM) is a severe form of the disease caused by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in the developing placenta. Pathogenesis of PAM is partially based on immunopathology, with frequent monocyte infiltration into the placenta. Neutrophils are abundant blood cells that are essential for immune defence but may also cause inflammatory pathology. Their role in PAM remains unclear. We analysed neutrophil alterations in the context of PAM to better understand their contribution to disease development...
April 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380250/evidence-of-cross-stage-cd8-t-cell-epitopes-in-malaria-pre-erythrocytic-and-blood-stage-infections
#12
Katja Müller, Matthew Paul Gibbins, Kai Matuschewski, Julius Clemence Hafalla
Malaria parasites have a complex, multi-stage life cycle, and there is a widely held view that each stage displays a distinct set of antigens presented to the immune system. Yet, molecular analysis of malaria parasites suggests that many putative antigenic targets are shared amongst the different stages. The specificities of these cross-stage antigens and the functions of the immune responses they elicit are poorly characterised. It is well known that CD8+ T cells play opposing immune functions following Plasmodium berghei (Pb) infection of C57BL/6 mice...
April 5, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370210/the-effect-of-three-monthly-albendazole-treatment-on-th2-responses-differential-effects-on-ige-and-il-5
#13
Karin de Ruiter, Dicky L Tahapary, Linda Wammes, Aprilianto E Wiria, Firdaus Hamid, Lisette van Lieshout, Johannes W A Smit, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Erliyani Sartono, Taniawati Supali, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Helminth parasites induce a strong Th2 response, characterized by high levels of IgE and elevated signature cytokines such as IL-5. As many global deworming programs are underway, there is concern that this might lead to emergence of Th1-mediated pathologies when the counterbalancing helminth-induced Th2 response is absent. Therefore, we assessed the effect of deworming on Th2 mediated responses in a household-clustered randomised controlled trial in Indonesia. Total plasma IgE and whole-blood IL-5 responses to mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were measured in 1494 and 682 subjects respectively, at baseline, 9 and 21 months after three-monthly single dose treatment with albendazole or placebo...
March 31, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370104/recent-advances-in-gut-immunology
#14
Nick Powell, Thomas T MacDonald
In recent years there have been significant advances in our understanding of the mucosal immune system. In addition to unravelling some of the complexities of this system, including the discovery of completely new cells types, further insights into the three way interactions between mucosal immune cells, the intestinal epithelium and the microbial communities colonizing the GI tract, promises to redefine our understanding of how intestinal homeostasis is maintained, but also how dysregulation of these highly integrated interactions conspires to cause disease...
March 31, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370072/expression-profiling-of-sudanese-visceral-leishmaniasis-patients-pre-and-post-treatment-with-sodium-stibogluconate
#15
M A M Salih, M Fakiola, P A Lyons, B M Younis, A M Musa, A M Elhassan, D Anderson, G Syn, M E Ibrahim, J M Blackwell, H S Mohamed
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan caused by Leishmania donovani is fatal in susceptible individuals if untreated. Treatment with sodium stibogluconate (SSG) leads to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in 58% of patients. Here, Affymetrix microarrays were used to identify genes differentially expressed in lymph nodes (N=9 paired samples) pre- and post-treatment with SSG. Using the Bioconductor package limma, 438 genes from 28 869 post-quality-control probe sets were differentially expressed (Pnominal ≤...
March 31, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369954/the-role-of-ilc2-in-hookworm-infection
#16
Kara Filbey, Tiffany Bouchery, Graham Le Gros
Hookworm is a major public health concern, with around 500 million people affected worldwide (1). Still, relatively little is known about the immunological responses involved in human infection. Animal studies are mainly confined to using the natural rodent helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, as this has been proposed as the most accurate model of hookworm infection in the mouse, with both its lifecycle, and the immune responses it invokes having been extremely well characterized. In this review, the roles of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) in the control of and host tolerance to hookworm infection, particularly N...
March 31, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345265/cytokine-and-antioxidant-gene-profiles-from-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-pelibuey-lambs-after-haemonchus-contortus-infection
#17
Zaira Estrada-Reyes, Ma Eugenia López-Arellano, Felipe Torres-Acosta, Alberto López-Reyes, Alfredo Lagunas-Martínez, Pedro Mendoza-de-Gives, Roberto González-Garduño, Sara Olazarán-Jenkins, David Reyes-Guerrero, Gabriel Ramírez-Vargas
The expression profiles of cytokines and anti-oxidant genes were determined from an experimental infection with H. contortus in Pelibuey lambs. The infection was followed for 34 days (d) to determine the number of eggs per gram (epg) and the packed cell volume (PCV). Differential white cell counts and expression profile estimations of IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, FCεR1A, GPX and SOD1 were determined at 0 h, 4 h, 2 d and 14 d post-infection (PI) in infected and control groups. Comparison of the fold-change between 0 and 4 h, 4 h and 2 d, and 2 and 14 d periods was performed...
March 27, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345149/trichomonas-vaginalis-exosome-like-vesicles-modify-the-cytokine-profile-and-reduce-inflammation-in-parasite-infected-mice
#18
L M Olmos-Ortiz, M A Barajas-Mendiola, M Barrios-Rodiles, L E Castellano, S Arias-Negrete, E E Avila, P Cuéllar-Mata
Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is a flagellated parasite commonly spread through sexual transmission. This protozoan initiates a severe inflammatory process, inducing nitric oxide, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-22 production by host immune cells. The parasites elicit these responses by releasing surface lipophosphoglycan, small extracellular vesicles (exosomes) and other factors. Tv exosomes are similar to mammalian exosomes and have been implicated in the modulation of IL-8 secretion by epithelial cells...
March 27, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235148/parasites-nutrition-immune-responses-and-biology-of-metabolic-tissues
#19
REVIEW
T Shea-Donohue, B Qin, A Smith
Nutritional immunology, immunometabolism and identification of novel immunotherapeutic targets are areas of active investigation in parasitology. There is a well-documented crosstalk among immune cells and cells in metabolically active tissues that is important for homeostasis. The numbers and function of these cells are altered by obesity leading to inflammation. A variety of helminths spend some part of their life cycle in the gastrointestinal tract and even entirely enteral nematode infections exert beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism...
February 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376254/editorial-parasites-and-metabolic-diseases
#20
EDITORIAL
B Guigas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Parasite Immunology
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