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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

M Barletta, S M Ostenkamp, A C Taylor, J Quandt, B D X Lascelles, K M Messenger
Buprenorphine is a partial μ agonist opioid used for analgesia in dogs. An extended-release formulation (ER-buprenorphine) has been shown to provide effective analgesia for 72 hr in rats and mice. Six healthy mongrel dogs were enrolled in a randomized, blinded crossover design to describe and compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ER-buprenorphine administered subcutaneous at 0.2 mg/kg (ER-B) and commercially available buprenorphine for injection intravenously at 0.02 mg/kg (IV-B). After drug administration, serial blood samples were collected to measure plasma buprenorphine concentrations using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry detection...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A J Cerreta, G A Lewbart, D R Dise, M G Papich
Ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin, is important for treating opportunistic bacterial infections in turtles. Antibacterial dosage regimens are not well established for wild turtles and are often extrapolated from other reptiles or mammals. This investigation used a population pharmacokinetic approach to study ceftazidime in wild turtles presented for rehabilitation. Ceftazidime was administered to 24 wild turtles presented to the Turtle Rescue Team at North Carolina State University. A sparse blood sampling protocol was used to collect samples from 0 to 120 hr with three samples per individual after injection...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Y Xu, X Wen, X Feng, Z Liang, X Ye, H Nie, X Liao, J Li, Y Zeng, S Tang, J He
The objective of this work was to manufacture an enteric formulation of florfenicol (FF) using hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology and to evaluate its in vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacokinetics. For the HME process, hypromellose acetate succinate LG (HPMCAS-LG) was the enteric polymer mixed with FF, and the two components were extruded with a standard screw configuration at a speed of 50 rpm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were performed to characterize the HME extrudate...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Viljanto, L Hillyer, P Hincks, C Pearce, S W Paine
Medication control and doping control have been established in horse racing to ensure the integrity of the sport and the welfare of the horses. This ensures that horses do not compete under the influence of any drugs, including omeprazole, a therapeutic medication used to treat equine gastric ulcer syndrome. In this study, pharmacokinetic data were produced in equine plasma and urine following an oral administration of 4 mg/kg of generic buffered formulation of omeprazole to six Thoroughbred horses in five daily doses to determine an appropriate screening limit and detection time in equine plasma and to assess whether the current detection time of 72 hr in equine urine would be applicable when an alternative omeprazole product is administered...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
P Viviani, A L Lifschitz, M L Maté, J P García, C E Lanusse, G L Virkel
Parasitic diseases have a significant impact on livestock production. Nematodicidal drugs, such as fenbendazole (FBZ) or its oxidized metabolite oxfendazole (OFZ), can be used along with the trematodicidal triclabendazole (TCBZ), to broaden the spectrum of anthelmintic activity. However, co-exposure to these compounds could lead to drug-drug (D-D) interactions and eventually alter the clinical profile of each active principle. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of such interactions by means of two in vitro models, namely bovine liver microsomal fractions and bovine precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
F Yang, F Yang, G Wang, W Shi, T Kong, P Yang, D Bai, B Zhou
The pharmacokinetics of orbifloxacin was studied after a single dose (7.5 mg/kg) of intravenous or intramuscular administration to crucian carp (Carassius auratus) reared in freshwater at 25°C. Plasma samples were collected from six fish per sampling point. Orbifloxacin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a 0.02 μg/ml limit of detection, then were subjected to noncompartmental analysis. After intravenous injection, initial concentration of 5.83 μg/ml, apparent elimination rate constant (λz ) of 0...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M D Kleinhenz, P J Gorden, J S Smith, J A Schleining, K E Kleinhenz, L L Wulf, P K Sidhu, D Rea, J F Coetzee
A transdermal formulation of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, flunixin meglumine, has been approved in the United States and Canada for single-dose administration. Transdermal flunixin meglumine was administered to 10 adult Holstein cows in their second or third lactation at the label dose of 3.33 mg/kg every 24 hr for three total treatments. Plasma flunixin concentrations were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS). Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed on each individual animal with noncompartmental methods using computer software...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
H K Knych, K Seminoff, D S McKemie, P H Kass
Acepromazine is a tranquilizer used commonly in equine medicine. This study describes serum and urine concentrations and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of acepromazine following intravenous, oral, and sublingual (SL) administration. Fifteen exercised adult Thoroughbred horses received a single intravenous, oral, and SL dose of 0.09 mg/kg of acepromazine. Blood and urine samples were collected at time 0 and at various times for up to 72 hr and analyzed for acepromazine and its two major metabolites (2-(1-hydroxyethyl) promazine and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl) promazine sulfoxide) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
F Yang, F Yang, W Shi, H Si, T Kong, G Wang, J Zhang
To predict the orbifloxacin concentrations in rabbits after multiple routes of administration, a flow-limited multiroute physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed. Three routes of administration (IV, IM, and PO) were incorporated into this model. Physiological parameters including tissue weights and blood flows through different tissues were obtained from the literature. The tissue/plasma partition coefficients (PX s) for noneliminating tissues were calculated according to the area method, while the PX s for kidney and the rest of the body compartment, together with other parameters for absorption and elimination, were optimized based on the published concentrations...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
P J Gorden, M Burchard, J A Ydstie, M D Kleinhenz, L W Wulf, S J Rajewski, C Wang, R Gehring, J P Mochel, J F Coetzee
The objective of this study reported here was determine whether differences occurred in meloxicam pharmacokinetics between postpartum cows and mid-lactation cows. Preliminary data from a separate study (P. J. Gorden, unpublished data) in postpartum cows demonstrated elevated plasma and milk concentration profiles compared to previously published data (Malreddy, Coetzee, KuKanich, & Gehring, ). Two different groups were enrolled, each with 10 cows. The treatment group (TRT) was postpartum cows treated with meloxicam, and the positive control (PC) group was cows in mid-lactation treated with meloxicam...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Á Jerzsele, Z Karancsi, E Pászti-Gere, Á Sterczer, A Bersényi, K Fodor, D Szabó, P Vajdovich
Xylitol is commonly used as sugar substitute in households. While it has numerous beneficial effects on human health, it is highly toxic to dogs. The goal of this study was to examine whether xylitol has similar deleterious effects, such as hypoglycaemia and acute hepatic failure, on cats. Our research included six healthy middle-aged cats. Xylitol was dissolved in deionized water and administered p.o. at three doses (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight). These dosages have been considered toxic and can cause liver failure or even death in dogs...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J N King, C Christinaz, G Strehlau, J Hornfeld
To support their combined use, the objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of benazepril and pimobendan on serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in dogs. A total of 48 healthy beagle dogs were randomized into four groups (n = 12 per group) in a parallel-group design study: A (control, placebo twice daily (BID)); B (0.5-1.0 mg/kg benazepril once daily (SID) in the morning, placebo in the evening); C (0.25-0.5 mg/kg benazepril BID); D (0.25-0.5 mg/kg benazepril and 0.125-0.25 mg/kg pimobendan, both BID)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
S T Elazab, D E Schrunk, R W Griffith, S M Ensley, G Dell'Anna, K Mullin, M G Elsayed, M S Amer, S M El-Nabtity, W H Hsu
The pharmacokinetics of cefquinome were studied in healthy and Pasteurella multocida-infected rabbits after a single intramuscular (IM) injection at 2 mg/kg of its sulfate salt. Twelve female New Zealand white rabbits (2.0-2.5 kg) were used; six of them served as controls, and the other six had been infected with P. multocida; the experiments were conducted 1-2 days after nasal inoculation of P. multocida when rabbits showed the signs of respiratory infection. Plasma concentrations of cefquinome were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Giorgi, B Łebkowska-Wieruszewska, A Lisowski, H Owen, A Poapolathep, T W Kim, V De Vito
Metamizole (MT), an analgesic and antipyretic drug, is rapidly hydrolyzed to the active primary metabolite 4-methylaminoantipyrine (MAA) and relatively active secondary metabolite 4-aminoantipyrine (AA). The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic profiles of MAA and AA after dose of 25 mg/kg MT by intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.), oral (p.o.), and rectal (RC) routes in dogs. Six dogs were randomly allocated to an open, single-dose, four-treatment, four-phase, unpaired, crossover study design...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
R Akabane, T Sato, A Sakatani, Y Miyagawa, H Tazaki, N Takemura
Basic information related to the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in dogs is scarce. This study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetic properties of oral sildenafil and determine the effect of feeding and dose proportionality. The effect of feeding on pharmacokinetics of sildenafil (1 mg/kg) was investigated using a crossover study with six dogs. In addition, the dose proportionality of sildenafil ranging 1-4 mg/kg was evaluated using five dogs in the fasted states. The plasma concentrations of sildenafil were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental analysis...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Adam, M R Raekallio, T Keskitalo, J M Honkavaara, M Scheinin, M Kajula, S Mölsä, O M Vainio
The effect of MK-467, a peripheral α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist, on plasma drug concentrations, sedation and cardiopulmonary changes induced by intramuscular (IM) medetomidine was investigated in eight sheep. Additionally, the interactions with atipamezole (ATI) used for reversal were also evaluated. Each animal was treated four times in a randomized prospective crossover design with 2-week washout periods. Medetomidine (MED) 30 μg/kg alone or combined in the same syringe with MK-467 300 μg/kg (MMK) was injected intramuscular, followed by ATI 150 μg/kg (MED + ATI and MMK + ATI) or saline intramuscular 30 min later...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K Pasloske, M G Ranasinghe, S Sauer, J Hare
To demonstrate the bioequivalence of alfaxalone in cyclodextrin (Reference Product) to a formulation of alfaxalone in cyclodextrin also containing the preservatives ethanol, chlorocresol, and benzethonium chloride (Test Product) when administered for the purpose of inducing anesthesia in the cat. Blinded, single-dose, randomized, two-period, two-sequence, cross-over bioequivalence study with a 7-day washout period between treatments. Twenty-four (12 neutered males and 12 intact females), healthy, adult cats weighing 4...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J M Reinhart, J Ekena, A C Cioffi, L A Trepanier
Canine sulfonamide hypersensitivity (HS) has been associated with a variant in the cytochrome b5 reductase gene (CYB5R3 729A>G), which encodes a drug-detoxifying enzyme. Study objectives were to determine variant allele frequency in Doberman Pinschers (DOBE), a breed which may be predisposed to sulfonamide HS, and to characterize the effects of CYB5R3 729G on gene expression and function. CYB5R3 729A>G allele frequencies were compared between DOBE (n = 24) vs. non-Doberman (non-DOBE; n = 60) dogs...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
L R Soma, M A Robinson, Y You, R C Boston, J Rudy
Compartmental models were used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravenous (i.v.), oral (p.o.), and topical (TOP) administration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The plasma concentration-time curve following a 15-min i.v. infusion of DMSO was described by a two-compartment model. Median and range of alpha (t1/2α ) and beta (t1/2β ) half-lives were 0.029 (0.026-0.093) and 14.1 (6.6-16.4) hr, respectively. Plasma concentration-time curves of DMSO following p.o. and TOP administration were best described by one-compartment absorption and elimination models...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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