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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

P Lees, T Potter, L Pelligand, P-L Toutain
A calf tissue cage model was used to study the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxytetracycline in serum, inflamed (exudate) and noninflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids. After intramuscular administration, the PK was characterized by a long mean residence time of 28.3 hr. Based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for six isolates each of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, measured in serum, integration of in vivo PK and in vitro PD data established area under serum concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ )/MIC ratios of 30...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
P J Gorden, M D Kleinhenz, L W Wulf, S J Rajewski, C Wang, R Gehring, J F Coetzee
Ceftiofur (CEF) and flunixin meglumine (FLU) are two drugs approved for use in beef and dairy cattle that are frequently used in combination for many diseases. These two drugs are the most commonly used drugs in dairy cattle in their respective drug classes. Two research groups have recently published manuscripts demonstrating altered pharmacokinetics of FLU and CEF in cows affected with naturally occurring mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine administered intravenously or intramuscularly administered ceftiofur hydrochloride would be altered when co-administered versus individual administration to healthy dairy cattle...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Qiu, Z Hao, R Zhang, L Cui, C Wang, S Qu, S Yuan, Y Bai
Quinocetone (QCT), an antimicrobial growth promoter, is widely used in food-producing animals. However, information about pharmacokinetics (PK) of QCT in ducks still remains unavailable up to now. In this study, QCT and its major metabolites (1-desoxyquinocetone, di-desoxyquinocetone and 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic) in ducks were studied using a simple and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS assay. Twenty ducks were divided into two groups. (n = 10/group). One group received QCT by oral administration at dose of 40 mg/kg while another group received QCT intravenously at 10 mg/kg...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
C Zizzadoro, M Caruso, S Punzi, G Crescenzo, F Zongoli, C Belloli
Hemodynamic perturbations, partly resulting from abnormal vasoconstriction of digital vessels, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bovine and equine laminitis. This study compared the responsiveness of isolated bovine (BDA) and equine (EDA) digital arteries to pharmacological agents that stimulate receptor systems involved in the regulation of normal vessel tone. The role of the endothelium and the short- and longer-term effects of an experimentally induced endothelial damage were also evaluated. Species-related differences were found in the vessel reactivity to all of the receptor agonists tested...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
C Canton, L Ceballos, M P Domínguez, L Moreno, C Fiel, G Bernat, C Farías, C Lanusse, L Alvarez
The goals of the current study were to evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions and the clinical efficacy occurring after the subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of ricobendazole (RBZ) and levamisole (LEV) given both separately and co-administered to calves naturally infected with susceptible gastrointestinal nematodes. The clinical efficacy was shown in two seasons, winter and spring, with predominance of different nematode populations. Groups of 15 calves were treated with RBZ alone, LEV alone and RBZ + LEV combination, and an untreated group was kept as a Control...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
X Fang, J Zhou, X Liu
The pharmacokinetic properties and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin (EF) were investigated after single intramuscular (i.m.) dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) in Pacific white shrimp at 22 to 25°C. EF and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CF) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After i.m. administration, EF was absorbed quickly, and the peak of EF concentration (Cmax ) reached at first time point in hemolymph. The volume of distribution Vd(area) of EF was 3.84 L/kg, indicating that the distribution of EF was good...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Gbylik-Sikorska, A Gajda, A Posyniak
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of enrofloxacin (ENR) traces on doxycycline (DC) pharmacokinetic depletion phase parameters in plasma and lungs of healthy and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG)-infected chicken broilers. The multiple-dose oral administration of DC to chickens which were permanently exposed on ENR traces significantly increased concentration of DC in plasma and lung. It also prolonged the DC elimination time in both healthy and infected animals after final dose. The obtained result indicated that simultaneous administration of DC and ENR in chicken broilers therapy should be avoided...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
N McLewee, T Archer, R Wills, A Mackin, J Thomason
Established "low" aspirin dosages inconsistently inhibit platelet function in dogs. Higher aspirin dosages consistently inhibit platelet function, but are associated with adverse effects. The objectives of this study were to use an escalation in dosage to determine the lowest aspirin dosage that consistently inhibited platelet function without inhibiting prostacyclin synthesis. Eight dogs were treated with five aspirin dosages: 0.5 mg/kg q24h, 1 mg/kg q24h, 2 mg/kg q24h, 4 mg/kg q24h and 10 mg/kg q12h for 7 days...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
B Poźniak, K Motykiewicz-Pers, T Grabowski, M Świtała
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of growth on the pharmacokinetics of sodium salicylate (SS) in male turkeys. SS was administered intravenously at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Plasma drug concentrations were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis. As the age increased from 6 to 13 weeks (body weight increase from 2.35 to 9.43 kg), median body clearance decreased from 1.34 to 0.87 ml/min/kg. This caused a significant increase in the median mean residence time from 3...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
S Zhang, W Dai, Z Lu, Z Lei, B Yang, B He, H Zhou, J Cao
Cefquinome (CEF) is widely used for veterinary clinical applications because of its broad spectrum and high efficiency. However, frequent administrations are required due to its short elimination half-life. In this study, cefquinome sulfate gelatin microspheres (CEF-GMS) were prepared as a sustained-release formulation using emulsion chemical cross-linking technique. Physical properties, stability, sustained-release property in vitro, and pharmacokinetics in pigs were assessed. The morphology of CEF-GMS showed a good sphericity with porous structure on the surface, and the mean diameter was 8...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
E A Kuntz, G Strehlau, J M Giraudel, J N King
The objective of the study was to investigate the safety of a combination tablet of benazepril and pimobendan, Fortekor PLUS(®) , in a randomized, blinded, parallel-group design study in healthy adult beagle dogs. The test article, Fortekor PLUS(®) tablets, was administered orally twice daily for 6 months at one, two, and four times the highest recommended dosage of 0.5 mg/kg benazepril hydrochloride/0.25 mg/kg pimobendan (four males and four females per group). An additional control group was sham-dosed...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Grobman, D M Boothe, H Rindt, B G Williamson, M L Katz, J R Coates, C R Reinero
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is recommended as an alternative/complementary immunosuppressant. Pharmacokinetic and dynamic effects of MMF are unknown in young-aged dogs. We investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single oral dose MMF metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), in healthy juvenile dogs purpose-bred for the tripeptidyl peptidase 1 gene (TPP1) mutation. The dogs were heterozygous for the mutation (nonaffected carriers). Six dogs received 13 mg/kg oral MMF and two placebo. Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from plasma MPA were evaluated...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
B KuKanich, K KuKanich, J Black
Tramadol is administered to dogs for analgesia but has variability in its extent of absorption, which may hinder its efficacy. Additionally, the active opioid metabolite (M1) occurs in low concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of oral tramadol with suspected metabolism inhibitors (ketoconazole, cimetidine) would lead to improved bioavailability of tramadol and M1. Six healthy Greyhounds were included. They were administered tramadol orally and intravenously, M1 intravenously, oral tramadol with oral ketoconazole and oral tramadol with oral cimetidine...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Q Shan, J Fan, J Wang, X Zhu, Y Yin, G Zheng
The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) was studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after single administration by intramuscular (IM) injection and oral gavage (PO) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight and by 5 mg/L bath for 5 hr at 25°C. The plasma concentrations of ENR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean ENR or CIP concentrations using WinNonlin 6.1 software. After IM, PO and bath administration, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of 2...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
P Marín, F García-Martínez, V Hernándis, E Escudero
The disposition kinetics of norfloxacin, after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration was determined in rabbits at a single dose of 10 mg/kg. Six New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes were treated with aqueous solution of norfloxacin (2%). A cross-over design was used in three phases (2 × 2 × 2), with two washout periods of 15 days. Plasma samples were collected up to 72 hr after treatment, snap-frozen at -45°C and analysed for norfloxacin concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A W Bianco, G E Moore, B R Cooper, S D Taylor
Flunixin meglumine (FM) is a commonly used Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in horses, but clinical efficacy is often unsatisfactory. Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) demonstrates superior efficacy compared to other NSAIDs in humans, but its anti-inflammatory effects have not been investigated in the horse. Safety of repeated dosing of KT has not been evaluated. The first objective was to conduct a dose determination study to verify that a previously described dosage of KT would inhibit Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced eicosanoid production in vitro, and to compare KT effects of this inhibition to those of FM...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Mohammadsadegh
Three hundred subclinically infected quarters of 259 Holstein cows infected with gram-positive bacteria were selected via quota sampling based on the California Mastitis Test (CMT) result and were divided randomly and equally into treatment and test groups. Quarters of test group (n = 150 in 128 cows) were treated with an intramammary infusion of tilmicosin, and quarters of the control group (n = 150 in 131 cows) were treated with cloxacillin as a traditional intramammary infusion of dry cow (DC) ointment...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M R Qian, Q Y Wang, H Yang, G Z Sun, X B Ke, L L Huang, J D Gao, J J Yang, B Yang
For most bacterial lung infections, the concentration of unbound antimicrobial agent in lung interstitial fluid has been thought to be responsible for antimicrobial efficacy. In this study, a diffusion-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the pulmonary pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF) in pigs. The model included separate compartments corresponding to blood, diffusion-limited lung, flow-limited muscle, liver, and kidney and an extra compartment representing the remaining carcass...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M K Watson, M G Papich, S K Chinnadurai
This study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of clindamycin, a lincosamide antibiotic, in Bennett's wallabies. The pharmacokinetic properties of a single intravenous (IV) dose of clindamycin were determined in six wallabies. A single 20-min IV infusion of 20 mg/kg of clindamycin was administered, followed by blood collection prior to, and up to 12 hr after clindamycin administration. Plasma clindamycin concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Paulin, M Schneider, F Dron, F Woehrle
Population pharmacokinetic of marbofloxacin was investigated with 52 plasma concentration-time profiles obtained after intramuscular administration of Forcyl® in cattle. Animal's status, pre-ruminant, ruminant, or dairy cow, was retained as a relevant covariate for clearance. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a stratification by status, and 1000 virtual disposition curves were generated in each bovine subpopulation for the recommended dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg as a single injection. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and prevention of resistance was determined in each simulated subpopulation...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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