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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542866/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-marbofloxacin-as-a-single-injection-for-pasteurellaceae-respiratory-infections-in-cattle-using-population-pharmacokinetics-and-monte-carlo-simulations
#1
A Paulin, M Schneider, F Dron, F Woehrle
Population pharmacokinetic of marbofloxacin was investigated with 52 plasma concentration-time profiles obtained after intramuscular administration of Forcyl® in cattle. Animal's status, pre-ruminant, ruminant, or dairy cow, was retained as a relevant covariate for clearance. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a stratification by status, and 1000 virtual disposition curves were generated in each bovine subpopulation for the recommended dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg as a single injection. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and prevention of resistance was determined in each simulated subpopulation...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503770/disposition-of-levetiracetam-in-healthy-adult-horses
#2
F B Cesar, A J Stewart, D M Boothe, W R Ravis, S H Duran, A A Wooldridge
Nine horses received 20 mg/kg of intravenous (LEVIV ); 30 mg/kg of intragastric, crushed immediate release (LEVCIR ); and 30 mg/kg of intragastric, crushed extended release (LEVCER ) levetiracetam, in a three-way randomized crossover design. Crushed tablets were dissolved in water and administered by nasogastric tube. Serum samples were collected over 48 hr, and levetiracetam concentrations were determined by immunoassay. Mean ± SD peak concentrations for LEVCIR and LEVCER were 50.72 ± 10.60 and 53...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503730/cardiopulmonary-and-sedative-effects-of-intravenous-or-epidural-methadone-in-conscious-dogs
#3
B H B Vieira, L T Nishimura, L L Carvalho, A Auckburally, E Mattos-Junior
Cardiopulmonary and sedative effects of intravenous or epidural methadone were compared. Six beagles were randomly assigned to group MIV (methadone 0.5 mg/kg IV + NaCl 0.9% epidurally) or MEP (methadone 0.5 mg/kg epidurally + NaCl 0.9% IV). Cardiopulmonary, blood gas and sedation were assessed at time (T) 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 min after drug administration. Compared to T0, heart rate decreased at T15-T120 in MIV (p < .001) and T15-T240 in MEP (p < .05); mean arterial pressure was reduced at T15-T60 in MEP (p < ...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470723/pharmacokinetics-milk-penetration-and-pk-pd-analysis-by-monte-carlo-simulation-of-marbofloxacin-after-intravenous-and-intramuscular-administration-to-lactating-goats
#4
A M Lorenzutti, N J Litterio, M A Himelfarb, M D P Zarazaga, M I San Andrés, J J De Lucas
The main objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the serum pharmacokinetic behaviour and milk penetration of marbofloxacin (MFX; 5 mg/kg), after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration in lactating goats and simulate a multidose regimen on steady-state conditions, (ii) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from caprine mastitis in Córdoba, Argentina and (iii) to make a PK/PD analysis by Monte Carlo simulation from steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters of MFX by IV and IM routes to evaluate the efficacy and risk of the emergence of resistance...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464333/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-integration-and-modeling-of-acetylkitasamycin-in-swine-for-clostridium-perfringens
#5
J Nan, H Hao, S Xie, Y Pan, C Xi, F Mao, Z Liu, L Huang, Z Yuan
The aim of this study was to establish an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling approach of acetylkitasamycin for designing dosage regimens and decreasing the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. After oral administration of acetylkitasamycin to healthy and infected pigs at the dose of 50 mg/kg body weights (bw), a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determining the concentration change of the major components of acetylkitasamycin and its possible metabolite kitasamycin in the intestinal samples taken from the T-shape ileal cannula...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459136/pharmacokinetics-of-grapiprant-a-selective-ep4-prostaglandin-pge2-receptor-antagonist-after-2-mg-kg-oral-and-i-v-administrations-in-cats
#6
B Lebkowska-Wieruszewska, V De Vito, H Owen, A Poapholatep, M Giorgi
Drugs that provide effective analgesia in cats are limited. The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of grapiprant after 2 mg/kg administration via p.o. and i.v. routes in cats. Six healthy adult cats were used according to an open, single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, randomized cross-over design. Cats were assigned to two treatment groups and administered with 2 mg/kg of grapiprant (pure powder) through p.o. and i.v. administration. Blood samples were collected at preassigned times and analysed by a validated HPLC method...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457010/evaluation-of-cardiovascular-effects-of-intravenous-robenacoxib-in-dogs
#7
C Desevaux, A-A Marotte-Weyn, P Champeroux, J N King
The objective of the study was to assess the cardiovascular effects of intravenous (IV) dosing with robenacoxib (Onsior(®) ) in conscious adult healthy beagle dogs. The study employed a randomized, open, placebo-controlled, four-phase Latin square design. A total of eight dogs received a single dose of 2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg IV robenacoxib (test groups), 2 mg/kg subcutaneous (SC) robenacoxib (reference dose and route), and IV isotonic saline (control). There were no significant differences between groups for clinical observations, buccal mucosal bleeding time or blood hematology, coagulation, and clinical chemistry variables in all eight dogs...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457009/comparison-of-direct-sampling-and-brochoalveolar-lavage-for-determining-active-drug-concentrations-in-the-pulmonary-epithelial-lining-fluid-of-calves-injected-with-enrofloxacin-or-tilmicosin
#8
D M Foster, H J Sylvester, M G Papich
Antibiotic distribution to interstitial fluid (ISF) and pulmonary epithelial fluid (PELF) was measured and compared to plasma drug concentrations in eight healthy calves. Enrofloxacin (Baytril(®) 100) was administered at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg subcutaneously (SC), and tilmicosin (Micotil(®) 300) was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg SC. PELF, sampled by two different methods-bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and direct sampling (DS)-plasma, and ISF were collected from each calf and measured for tilmicosin, enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin by HPLC...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456999/correlation-between-oral-fluid-and-plasma-oxytetracycline-concentrations-after-intramuscular-administration-in-pigs
#9
A Gajda, A Jablonski, M Gbylik-Sikorska, A Posyniak
The penetration of oxytetracycline (OTC) into the oral fluid and plasma of pigs and correlation between oral fluid and plasma were evaluated after a single intramuscular (i.m.) dose of 20 mg/kg body weight of long-acting formulation. The OTC was detectable both in oral fluid and plasma from 1 hr up to 21 day after drug administration. The maximum concentrations (Cmax ) of drug with values of 4021 ± 836 ng/ml in oral fluid and 4447 ± 735 ng/ml in plasma were reached (Tmax ) at 2 and 1 hr after drug administration respectively...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456000/pharmacokinetics-of-firocoxib-after-intravenous-administration-of-multiple-consecutive-doses-in-neonatal-foals
#10
K E Wilson, J L Davis, M V Crisman, V Kvaternick, C Zarabadipour, H Cheramie, D R Hodgson
The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenous firocoxib in neonatal foals. Six healthy foals were administered 0.09 mg/kg firocoxib intravenously once a day for 7 days. Blood was collected for plasma firocoxib analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection at times 0 (day 1 of study only) and 0.08, 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 hr on dose numbers 1, 5 and 7. Blood was also collected immediately prior to doses 3, 4, 5 and 7. Final samples were collected at 36, 48, 72 and 96 hr following the final dose...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455999/pharmacokinetics-of-posaconazole-in-koalas-phascolarctos-cinereus-after-intravenous-and-oral-administration
#11
S Gharibi, B Kimble, L Vogelnest, J Barnes, C K Stadler, M Govendir
The pharmacokinetic profile of posaconazole in clinically normal koalas (n = 8) was investigated. Single doses of posaconazole were administered intravenously (i.v.; 3 mg/kg; n = 2) or orally (p.o.; 6 mg/kg; n = 6) with serial plasma samples collected over 24 and 36 hr, respectively. Plasma concentrations of posaconazole were quantified by validated high-performance liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of data was performed. Following i.v. administration, estimates of the median (range) of plasma clearance (CL) and steady-state volume of distribution (Vss ) were 0...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449183/noninferiority-trial-investigating-the-efficacy-of-a-nonantibiotic-intramammary-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-mild-to-moderate-clinical-mastitis-in-dairy-cows-with-longer-lasting-udder-diseases
#12
M Ziesch, N Wente, Y Zhang, W Zaremba, S Engl, V Krömker
A nonblinded, positively controlled, noninferiority trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative, nonantibiotic therapy with Masti Veyxym(®) to reduce ineffective antibiotic usage in the treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis (CM) in cows with longer lasting udder diseases. The solely intramammary treatment with Masti Veyxym(®) (three applications, 12 hr apart) and the combined treatment with Masti Veyxym(®) and antibiotics as usual on the farm according to label of the respective product were compared with the reference treatment of solely antibiotic therapy...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401566/plasma-pharmacokinetics-and-muscle-residue-dynamics-of-mebendazole-in-carassius-auratus
#13
X Xiao, Y Zhao, Y Zhou, Z Wang
Mebendazole is approved for use in aquatic animals and is widely used in Chinese aquaculture. We developed a pharmacokinetic and residue analysis for mebendazole levels in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Plasma and muscle samples of C. auratus were taken after oral administration of 10 mg/kg mebendazole. The maximal drug plasma concentration of 0.55 mg/L was achieved at 48 hr and then declined with the elimination half-life (T1/2β ) of 7.99 hr. Administration of 10 mg/kg by oral gavage for 5 successive days resulted in a peak mebendazole concentration of 0...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390056/suspected-aspirin-resistance-in-individual-healthy-adult-warmblood-horses
#14
K A Roscher, K Failing, I Schenk, A Moritz
The reasons for this prospective experimental study were to determine a dosing scheme with loading and maintenance dose of aspirin inducing inhibition of platelet function measured by whole blood impedance aggregometry. Ten horses received aspirin orally in the morning with one loading dose of 4.7-5 mg/kg and maintenance doses of 1-1.3 mg/kg daily the following 4 days. Aggregometries (COLtest, ASPItest, ADPtest) and serum salicylic acid were measured. ASPItest showed significant difference in inhibition at 24 and 48 hr (p < ...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387027/establishment-of-reference-ranges-and-evaluation-of-in-vitro-concentration-dependent-platelet-inhibition-by-acetylsalicylic-acid-for-multiple-electrode-impedance-aggregometry-in-healthy%C3%A2-dogs
#15
J M Haines, P M Lee, R M Hegedus, J K Hwang, M H Court
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) is an antiplatelet medication used for prevention of thromboembolism. Effects of ASA appear to vary widely between dogs, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. The Multiplate analyzer is a newer form of whole-blood impedance aggregometry recently validated for use in healthy dogs. A method utilizing this instrument to measure ASA effects on platelet function has not been established. The goals of this study were to establish reference ranges for the Multiplate in healthy dogs and secondly, to develop a technique to determine the in vitro concentration of ASA needed to cause 50% inhibition of platelet aggregation (IC50)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382637/pharmacokinetics-of-nebulized-and-subcutaneously-implanted-terbinafine-in-cottonmouths-agkistrodon-piscivorus
#16
L P Kane, M C Allender, G Archer, K Leister, M Rzadkowska, K Boers, M Souza, S Cox
Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of snake fungal disease, is proposed as a serious threat to the conservation of several snake populations. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of terbinafine administered through nebulization and a sustained subcutaneous implant as potential treatments of Ophidiomyces in reptiles. Seven adult cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) were used in single-dose trials. Each snake was nebulized with terbinafine (2 mg/ml) for 30 min and had blood collected before nebulization and up to 12 hr after nebulization...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317153/pharmacokinetics-and-pulmonary-distribution-of-gamithromycin-after-intravenous-administration-in-foals
#17
S Berlin, T Randow, E Scheuch, M Grube, M Venner, W Siegmund
The long-acting azalide antibiotic gamithromycin is marketed for intramuscular treatment of bovine and swine infections. Off-label use in foals leads to severe local lesions likely caused by hyperosmolality of the injected solution. We provide evidence from a pharmacokinetic study in 10 warm-blooded healthy foals for intravenous bolus injection of gamithromycin diluted in distilled water to be a safe and well tolerated alternative. By intravenous dosing, markedly higher plasma exposure and better penetration into bronchoalveolar lavage cells but lower distribution into epithelial lining fluid are achieved as after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317140/comparison-of-the-effects-of-cefazolin-and-ceftriaxone-on-canine-chondrocyte-culture
#18
P Siengdee, W Pradit, T Euppayo, S Chomdej, K Nganvongpanit
Cephalosporins (CEFs) are antibiotics frequently used to treat bone infections and septic arthritis. The effects of CEFs on chondrocytes have not been studied until now. Cefazolin (cef1) and ceftriaxone (cef3), first-and third-generation CEFs, were selected to investigate their direct effects on normal and osteoarthritic (OA) primary canine chondrocytes, which were either nonstimulated or stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In our results, treatment with CEFs increased the negative effects on both conditioned normal and OA chondrocytes, especially when applied to IL-1β-stimulated cells (inflammatory stimulus)...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317134/use-of-rna-seq-to-determine-variation-in-canine-cytochrome-p450-mrna-expression-between-blood-liver-lung-kidney-and-duodenum-in-healthy-beagles
#19
M Visser, K Weber, G Rincon, D Merritt
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful tool for the evaluation and quantification of transcriptomes and expression patterns in animals, tissues, or pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiologic expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA transcripts in whole blood, kidney, duodenum, liver, and lung in healthy, adult male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) beagles via RNA-seq. mRNA expression was above background (transcripts per million) for 45 canine CYPs, with liver, duodenum, and lung expressing a high number of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs, while prominent endogenous metabolizing CYP expression was present in blood and kidney...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317126/pharmacokinetics-of-ceftiofur-sodium-in-equine-pregnancy
#20
M L Macpherson, S Giguère, M A Pozor, E Runcan, T W Vickroy, S A Benson, M H T Troedsson, J N Hatzel, J Larson, E Vanden Berg, A A Kelleman, L C Sanchez, M M LeBlanc
Eleven pregnant pony mares (D270-326) were administered ceftiofur sodium intramuscularly at 2.2 mg/kg (n = 6) or 4.4 mg/kg (n = 5), once daily. Plasma was obtained prior to ceftiofur administration and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hr after administration. Eight pony mares were re-enrolled in the study at least 3 days from expected foaling to ensure steady-state concentrations of drug at the time of foaling. Mares were administered ceftiofur sodium (4.4 mg/kg, IM) daily until foaling. Parturition was induced using oxytocin 1 hr after ceftiofur sodium administration...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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