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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401566/plasma-pharmacokinetics-and-muscle-residue-dynamics-of-mebendazole-in-carassius-auratus
#1
X Xiao, Y Zhao, Y Zhou, Z Wang
Mebendazole is approved for use in aquatic animals and is widely used in Chinese aquaculture. We developed a pharmacokinetic and residue analysis for mebendazole levels in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Plasma and muscle samples of C. auratus were taken after oral administration of 10 mg/kg mebendazole. The maximal drug plasma concentration of 0.55 mg/L was achieved at 48 hr and then declined with the elimination half-life (T1/2β ) of 7.99 hr. Administration of 10 mg/kg by oral gavage for 5 successive days resulted in a peak mebendazole concentration of 0...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390056/suspected-aspirin-resistance-in-individual-healthy-adult-warmblood-horses
#2
K A Roscher, K Failing, I Schenk, A Moritz
The reasons for this prospective experimental study were to determine a dosing scheme with loading and maintenance dose of aspirin inducing inhibition of platelet function measured by whole blood impedance aggregometry. Ten horses received aspirin orally in the morning with one loading dose of 4.7-5 mg/kg and maintenance doses of 1-1.3 mg/kg daily the following 4 days. Aggregometries (COLtest, ASPItest, ADPtest) and serum salicylic acid were measured. ASPItest showed significant difference in inhibition at 24 and 48 hr (p < ...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387027/establishment-of-reference-ranges-and-evaluation-of-in-vitro-concentration-dependent-platelet-inhibition-by-acetylsalicylic-acid-for-multiple-electrode-impedance-aggregometry-in-healthy%C3%A2-dogs
#3
J M Haines, P M Lee, R M Hegedus, J K Hwang, M H Court
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) is an antiplatelet medication used for prevention of thromboembolism. Effects of ASA appear to vary widely between dogs, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. The Multiplate analyzer is a newer form of whole-blood impedance aggregometry recently validated for use in healthy dogs. A method utilizing this instrument to measure ASA effects on platelet function has not been established. The goals of this study were to establish reference ranges for the Multiplate in healthy dogs and secondly, to develop a technique to determine the in vitro concentration of ASA needed to cause 50% inhibition of platelet aggregation (IC50)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382637/pharmacokinetics-of-nebulized-and-subcutaneously-implanted-terbinafine-in-cottonmouths-agkistrodon-piscivorus
#4
L P Kane, M C Allender, G Archer, K Leister, M Rzadkowska, K Boers, M Souza, S Cox
Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of snake fungal disease, is proposed as a serious threat to the conservation of several snake populations. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of terbinafine administered through nebulization and a sustained subcutaneous implant as potential treatments of Ophidiomyces in reptiles. Seven adult cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) were used in single-dose trials. Each snake was nebulized with terbinafine (2 mg/ml) for 30 min and had blood collected before nebulization and up to 12 hr after nebulization...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317153/pharmacokinetics-and-pulmonary-distribution-of-gamithromycin-after-intravenous-administration-in-foals
#5
S Berlin, T Randow, E Scheuch, M Grube, M Venner, W Siegmund
The long-acting azalide antibiotic gamithromycin is marketed for intramuscular treatment of bovine and swine infections. Off-label use in foals leads to severe local lesions likely caused by hyperosmolality of the injected solution. We provide evidence from a pharmacokinetic study in 10 warm-blooded healthy foals for intravenous bolus injection of gamithromycin diluted in distilled water to be a safe and well tolerated alternative. By intravenous dosing, markedly higher plasma exposure and better penetration into bronchoalveolar lavage cells but lower distribution into epithelial lining fluid are achieved as after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317140/comparison-of-the-effects-of-cefazolin-and-ceftriaxone-on-canine-chondrocyte-culture
#6
P Siengdee, W Pradit, T Euppayo, S Chomdej, K Nganvongpanit
Cephalosporins (CEFs) are antibiotics frequently used to treat bone infections and septic arthritis. The effects of CEFs on chondrocytes have not been studied until now. Cefazolin (cef1) and ceftriaxone (cef3), first-and third-generation CEFs, were selected to investigate their direct effects on normal and osteoarthritic (OA) primary canine chondrocytes, which were either nonstimulated or stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In our results, treatment with CEFs increased the negative effects on both conditioned normal and OA chondrocytes, especially when applied to IL-1β-stimulated cells (inflammatory stimulus)...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317134/use-of-rna-seq-to-determine-variation-in-canine-cytochrome-p450-mrna-expression-between-blood-liver-lung-kidney-and-duodenum-in-healthy-beagles
#7
M Visser, K Weber, G Rincon, D Merritt
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful tool for the evaluation and quantification of transcriptomes and expression patterns in animals, tissues, or pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiologic expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA transcripts in whole blood, kidney, duodenum, liver, and lung in healthy, adult male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) beagles via RNA-seq. mRNA expression was above background (transcripts per million) for 45 canine CYPs, with liver, duodenum, and lung expressing a high number of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs, while prominent endogenous metabolizing CYP expression was present in blood and kidney...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317126/pharmacokinetics-of-ceftiofur-sodium-in-equine-pregnancy
#8
M L Macpherson, S Giguère, M A Pozor, E Runcan, T W Vickroy, S A Benson, M H T Troedsson, J N Hatzel, J Larson, E Vanden Berg, A A Kelleman, L C Sanchez, M M LeBlanc
Eleven pregnant pony mares (D270-326) were administered ceftiofur sodium intramuscularly at 2.2 mg/kg (n = 6) or 4.4 mg/kg (n = 5), once daily. Plasma was obtained prior to ceftiofur administration and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hr after administration. Eight pony mares were re-enrolled in the study at least 3 days from expected foaling to ensure steady-state concentrations of drug at the time of foaling. Mares were administered ceftiofur sodium (4.4 mg/kg, IM) daily until foaling. Parturition was induced using oxytocin 1 hr after ceftiofur sodium administration...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317124/pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-and-transdermal-fentanyl-in-alpacas
#9
M Lovasz, T K Aarnes, J A E Hubbell, R M Bednarski, P Lerche, J Lakritz
The purpose of the study was to determine pharmacokinetics of fentanyl after intravenous (i.v.) and transdermal (t.d.) administration to six adult alpacas. Fentanyl was administered i.v. (2 μg/kg) or t.d. (nominal dose: 2 μg kg(-1)  hr(-1) ). Plasma concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Heart rate and respiratory rate were assessed. Extrapolated, zero-time plasma fentanyl concentrations were 6.0 ng/ml (1.7-14.6 ng/ml) after i.v. administration, total plasma clearance was 1...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205288/hematological-adverse-effects-and-pharmacokinetics-of-ribavirin-in-pigs-following-intramuscular-administration
#10
D-U Lee, S H Je, S J Yoo, T Kwon, J Y Shin, J J Byun, J-H Park, K-W Jeong, J-M Ku, Y S Lyoo
Ribavirin (RBV) is a synthetic guanosine analog that is used as a drug against various viral diseases in humans. The in vitro antiviral effects of ribavirin against porcine viruses were demonstrated in several studies. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the adverse effects and pharmacokinetics of ribavirin following its intramuscular (IM) injection in pigs. Ribavirin was formulated as a double-oil emulsion (RBV-DOE) and gel (RBV-Gel), which were injected into the pigs as single-dose IM injections...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205246/pharmacokinetics-of-valnemulin-after-intravenous-intramuscular-and-oral-administration-in-layer-chickens
#11
F Sun, R Fan, J Wang, L Xiong, J Shen, S Zhang, X Cao
The pharmacokinetic characteristics of valnemulin in layer chickens were studied after single intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. Plasma samples at certain time points were collected and the drug concentrations in them by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). The concentration-time data for each individual were plotted by noncompartmental analysis for the whole three routes. Following intravenous administration, the plasma concentration showed tiny fluctuation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205238/comparative-pharmacokinetics-of-enrofloxacin-in-healthy-and-aeromonas-hydrophila-infected-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio
#12
J Fan, Q Shan, J Wang, S Liu, L Li, G Zheng
The comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP) were investigated in healthy and Aeromonas hydrophila-infected crucian carp after a single oral (p.o.) administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg at 25 °C. The plasma concentrations of ENR and of CIP were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean ENR concentrations by noncompartmental modeling. In healthy fish, the elimination half-life (T1/2λz ), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time to peak (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 64...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198032/comparative-efficacy-of-metoclopramide-ondansetron-and-maropitant-in-preventing-parvoviral-enteritis-induced-emesis-in-dogs
#13
E Yalcin, G O Keser
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiencies of selected anti-emetic drugs (metoclopramide, ondansetron and maropitant) in preventing vomiting in the treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis. We designed a randomized, prospective clinical study. PVE quick ELISA test-positive dogs between 4 and 12 months of age were included in the study. Each of metoclopramide, ondansetron, maropitant and control group had 8 dogs. Metoclopramide and ondansetron were administered as 0.5 mg/kg doses three times a day via intravenous route, and maropitant was administered as 1 mg/kg doses once a day subcutaneously...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198024/interaction-of-mammary-bovine-abcg2-with-afb1-and-its-metabolites-and-regulation-by-pcb-126-in-a-mdckii-in-vitro-model
#14
L Manzini, S Halwachs, F Girolami, P Badino, W Honscha, C Nebbia
The ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 plays a key role in the mammary excretion of drugs and toxins in humans and animals. Aflatoxins (AF) are worldwide contaminants of food and feed commodities, while PCB 126 is a dioxin-like PCB which may contaminate milk and dairy products. Both compounds are known human carcinogens. The interactions between AF and bovine ABCG2 (bABCG2) as well as the effects of PCB 126 on its efflux activity have been investigated by means of the Hoechst H33342 transport assay in MDCKII cells stably expressing mammary bABCG2...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133845/determination-of-cloxacillin-residues-in-dairy-cows-after-intramammary-administration
#15
A Burmańczuk, T Grabowski, M Osypiuk, B Polska, C Kowalski
The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the characteristics of cloxacillin (CLO) (MRL of withdrawal in bovine milk is 30 ng/g) after a single intramammary (IMM) dose in the dry period (DP) and lactation (LP), and to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method for CLO detection in milk. The research was conducted on a group of 10 cows in DP and 10 in LP. A single dose of 600 mg of CLO was administrated by the IMM route for a single quarter in DP and 500 mg for a single quarter in LP...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133761/study-on-the-abuse-of-amantadine-in-tissues-of-broiler-chickens-by-hplc-ms-ms
#16
X You, S Yang, J Zhao, Y Zhang, L Zhao, Y Cheng, C Hou, Z Xu
To evaluate the residual target tissues for better monitoring of amantadine abuse in broiler chickens, 22-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broiler chickens were, respectively, fed with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of amantadine for five consecutive days. Plasma, breast, and liver tissue samples from the chickens were collected 0, 4, 16, 24, 48, 96, 144, and 312 h after amantadine withdrawal. The high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to detect the concentrations of amantadine...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301298/comparative-metabolism-of-mycophenolic-acid-by-glucuronic-acid-and-glucose-conjugation-in-human-dog-and-cat-liver-microsomes
#17
J E Slovak, K Mealey, M H Court
Use of the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid (MPA) in cats is limited because MPA elimination depends on glucuronidation, which is deficient in cats. We evaluated formation of major (phenol glucuronide) and minor (acyl glucuronide, phenol glucoside, and acyl glucoside) MPA metabolites using liver microsomes from 16 cats, 26 dogs, and 48 humans. All MPA metabolites were formed by human liver microsomes, while dog and cat liver microsomes formed both MPA glucuronides, but only one MPA glucoside (phenol glucoside)...
April 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101884/lung-microdialysis-study-of-florfenicol-in-pigs-after-single-intramuscular-administration
#18
B Yang, J D Gao, X Y Cao, Q Y Wang, G Z Sun, J J Yang
For most bacterial lung infections, the concentration of unbound antimicrobial agent in lung interstitial fluid has been considered as the gold standard for estimating the antibacterial efficacy. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF) in porcine lung interstitial fluid was investigated after single intramuscular administration at two different doses (20 and 50 mg/kg). Twelve pigs underwent thoracotomy under general anesthesia. Then, the CMA/30 probe was implanted into the lung and perfused at 1 μL/min...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101885/what-is-the-true-in%C3%A2-vitro-potency-of-oxytetracycline-for-the-pig-pneumonia-pathogens-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-and-pasteurella-multocida
#19
L Dorey, S Hobson, P Lees
The pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was determined for pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Indices of potency were determined for the following: (i) two matrices, broth and pig serum; (ii) five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions; and (iii) a high strength starting culture. For A. pleuropneumoniae, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar for the two matrices, but for P. multocida, differences were marked and significantly different. MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) serum: broth ratios for A...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097668/detection-and-pharmacokinetics-of-salmeterol-in-thoroughbred-horses-following-inhaled-administration
#20
S J Fenwick, P R Hincks, J P Scarth, M E Wieder, L L Hillyer, S W Paine
Salmeterol is a man-made beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist used to relieve bronchospasm associated with inflammatory airway disease in horses. Whilst judicious use is appropriate in horses in training, they cannot race with clinically effective concentrations of medications under the British Horseracing Authority's Rules of Racing. Salmeterol must therefore be withdrawn prior to race day and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies used to establish formal detection time advice. Salmeterol xinafoate (Serevent Evohaler(®) ) was administered (0...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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