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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Taisuke Kitano, Takeshi Kobayashi, Soichiro Yamaguchi, Ken-Ichi Otsuguro
Xylazine, the classical α2 -adrenoceptor (α2 -AR) agonist, is still used as an analgesic and sedative in veterinary medicine, despite its low potency and affinity for α2 -ARs. Previous pharmacological studies suggested that the α2A -AR subtype plays a role in mediating the clinical effects of xylazine; however, these studies were hampered by the poor subtype-selectivity of the antagonists used and a lack of knowledge of their bioavailability in vivo. Here, we attempted to elucidate the role of the α2A -AR subtype in mediating the clinical effects of xylazine by comparing the analgesic and sedative effects of this drug in wild-type mice with those in α2A -AR functional knockout mice using the hot-plate and open field tests, respectively...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Longfei Zhang, Xun Wu, Zilong Huang, Zheng Kang, Yuqin Chen, Xiangguang Shen, Qinren Cai, Huanzhong Ding
To explore the in vivo antimicrobial activity of cefquinome against Pasteurella multocida in piglets, a piglet tissue cage infection model was used in this study. After the population of P. multocida reached 107  CFU/mL in a tissue cage, piglets received an intramuscular administration of cefquinome at 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg once daily for 3 days. To assess the tissue cage pharmacokinetics (PKTCF) of cefquinome, tissue cage fluid was collected for cefquinome analysis at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hr after each of the 3 daily drug administrations...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Hongzhi Xiao, Haoyuan Peng, Ting Zhao, Jingyuan Kong, Jiao Xue, Jianzhong Wang, Yalong Lin, Suxia Zhang, Xingyuan Cao
The pharmacokinetic parameters of moxidectin (MXD) after intravenous and pour-on (topical) administration were studied in sixteen pigs at a single dose of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg BW (body weight), respectively. Blood samples were collected at pretreatment time (0 hr) over 40 days. The plasma kinetics were analyzed by WinNonlin 6.3 software through a noncompartmental model. For intravenous administration (n = 8), the elimination half-life (λZ ), the apparent volume of distribution (Vz ), and clearance (Cl) were 10...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Anthony J Cerreta, Chris A Masterson, Gregory A Lewbart, Delta R Dise, Mark G Papich
Ketorolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that possesses potent analgesic activity comparable to morphine. The opioid shortage in the United States has led to an unreliable supply of opioids for use in rehabilitation facilities, thus underscoring the need for research on the safe and effective use of nonopioid alternatives. The goal of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of ketorolac after a single 0.25 mg/kg intramuscular injection administered to injured Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina)...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jarrod T Younkin, Elizabeth M Santschi, Butch Kukanich, Brian V Lubbers, Matthew Warner
Penicillin is administered intravenously (IV) or intramuscularly (IM) to horses for the prevention and treatment of infections, and both routes have disadvantages. To minimize these shortcomings, a 24-hr hybrid administration protocol (HPP) was developed. Our objective was to determine penicillin plasma concentrations in horses administered via HPP. Venous blood was collected from seven healthy horses administered IV potassium penicillin G at 0 and 6 hr and IM procaine penicillin G at 12 hr. Blood was collected at 2-hr intervals from 0 to 20 hr and at 24 hr...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Michael Klotsman, Gayatri Sathyan, Wayne H Anderson, Oliver A Garden, Padmaja Shivanand
Mycophenolic acid (MPA), a noncompetitive, selective and reversible inhibitor of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), is an immunosuppressive agent that has a long history in medicine. Mechanistically, the inhibition of IMPDH leads to the selective and eventual arrest of T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), the first MPA-based product to receive marketing approval over two decades ago, was originally indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in human transplant patients...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Nan-Xi Hu, Mei Chen, Yi-Song Liu, Qi Shi, Bo Yang, Huan-Cheng Zhang, Pi Cheng, Qi Tang, Zhao-Ying Liu, Jian-Guo Zeng
Sanguinarine (SA) and chelerythrine (CHE) are the main active components of the phytogenic livestock feed additive, Sangrovit®. However, little information is available on the pharmacokinetics of Sangrovit® in poultry. The goal of this work was to study the pharmacokinetics of SA, CHE, and their metabolites, dihydrosanguinarine (DHSA) and dihydrochelerythrine (DHCHE), in 10 healthy female broiler chickens following oral (p.o.) administration of Sangrovit® and intravenous (i.v.) administration of a mixture of SA and CHE...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Carla Olave, Pamela Alvarez, Benjamin Uberti, Natalia Morales, Claudio Henriquez, Hugo Folch, Jose Sarmiento, Gabriel Moran
Neutrophils play an important role in the exacerbation and maintenance of severe equine asthma; persistent neutrophil activity and delayed apoptosis can be harmful to surrounding tissues. Tamoxifen (TX) is a nonsteroidal estrogen receptor modulator with immunomodulatory effects and induces early apoptosis of blood and bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils from horses with acute lung inflammation. This study investigated if the in vitro effects of tamoxifen are produced by its action on nuclear (α and β) and membrane (GPR30) estrogen receptors in healthy equine neutrophils...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Roipim Mapongpeng, Weerapong Laovechprasit, Amnart Poapolathep, Mario Giorgi, Chalatip Junchompoo, Chainarong Sakulthaew, Usuma Jermnak, Wanida Passadurak, Saranya Poapolathep
Green sea turtles are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters. Adult green sea turtles face many threats, primarily from humans, including injuries from boat propellers, being caught in fishing nets, pollution, poaching, and infectious diseases. To the best of our knowledge, limited pharmacokinetic information to establish suitable therapeutic plans is available for green sea turtles. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetic characteristics of ceftriaxone (CEF) in green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, following single intravenous and intramuscular administrations at two dosages of 10 and 25 mg/kg body weight (b...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Maria Fabiana Landoni, Gabriela Alejandra Albarellos
The pharmacokinetic properties of the fluoroquinolone levofloxacin (LFX) were investigated in six dogs after single intravenous, oral and subcutaneous administration at a dose of 2.5, 5 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. After intravenous administration, distribution was rapid (T½dist 0.127 ± 0.055 hr) and wide as reflected by the volume of distribution of 1.20 ± 0.13 L/kg. Drug elimination was relatively slow with a total body clearance of 0.11 ± 0.03 L kg-1  hr-1 and a T½ for this process of 7.85 ± 2...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Carlos R Sánchez, Selina Zalesak, Ashley A Pich, Mark G Papich
Aspergillosis is an infectious, non-contagious fungal disease of clinical importance in flamingo collections. Itraconazole is an antifungal drug commonly used in the treatment and prophylaxis of avian aspergillosis. Studies have shown that dosage regimes in birds vary based on different itraconazole presentation and administration methods. This investigation used a population pharmacokinetic approach to study itraconazole in lesser flamingos. Itraconazole was administered orally at 10 mg/kg to 17 flamingos...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jillian M Haines, Pamela M Lee, Rachel M Hegedus, Julianne K Hwang, Michael H Court
Antiplatelet effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) may be poor in some individuals. Additionally, no method exists for predicting poor ASA response (resistance) in individual dogs. This study's main objective was to determine whether poor ASA response results from pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic causes. ASA concentrations causing 50% inhibition of platelet aggregation (in vitro IC50) were determined using whole blood collected from 21 drug-free healthy dogs to evaluate intrinsic sensitivity of platelets to ASA...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Andrew Mead, Peter Lees, John Mitchell, Andrew Rycroft, Joseph F Standing, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Ludovic Pelligand
For clinical isolates of bovine Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, this study reports minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) differences for tetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline between cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB), foetal bovine serum (FBS) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium. MICs were determined according to CLSI standards and additionally using five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions. Matrix effect: (a) free drug MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for all drugs were significantly higher in FBS than in CAMHB for both pathogens (p < 0...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Pamela M Lee, Michele C L Faus, Michael H Court
Clopidogrel response variability has been identified in cats. In humans, evidence suggests that variable clopidogrel active metabolite (CAM) generation is the primary explanation for clopidogrel response variability with differences in body weight, sex, and variable metabolism of clopidogrel primarily due to polymorphisms of the gene encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 as some proposed mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether variation in CAM concentrations exists in healthy cats and what the cause of such variation might be...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sonja Axmann, Karin Hummel, Katharina Nöbauer, Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli, Karin Zitterl-Eglseer
Devil's claw is used for the treatment of inflammatory symptoms and degenerative disorders in horses since many years, but without the substantive pharmacokinetic data. The pharmacokinetic parameters of harpagoside, the main active constituent of Harpagophytum procumbens DC ex Meisn., were evaluated in equine plasma after administration of Harpagophytum extract FB 8858 in an open, single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, randomized cross-over design. Six horses received a single dose of Harpagophytum extract, corresponding to 5 mg/kg BM harpagoside, and after 7 days washout period, 10 mg/kg BM harpagoside via nasogastric tube...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tamara L Grubb, Danielle Kurkowski, Deborah C Sellon, Kathy K Seino, Todd Coffey, Jennifer L Davis
Buprenorphine is absorbed following sublingual administration, which would be a low-stress delivery route in foals. However, the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics are not described in foals. Six healthy foals <21 days of age participated in a blinded, randomized, 3-period, 5-sequence, 3-treatment crossover prospective study. Foals received 0.01-0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine administered SL or IV with an equivalent volume of saline administered by the opposite route. Blood was collected from the cephalic vein for pharmacokinetic analysis...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Marta Tikhomirov, Błażej Poźniak, Andrzej Smutkiewicz, Marcin Świtała
The pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF) and thiamphenicol (TP) after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration was investigated in Mulard ducks. Both antibiotics were administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight, and their concentrations in plasma samples were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental method. After IV administration, significant differences were found for the mean residence time (2...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Zeynep Ozdemir, Bunyamin Tras, Kamil Uney, Hatice Eser Faki, Tugba Melike Besoluk
This study was conducted to determine the passage ratio of amoxicillin into milk and its pharmacokinetics in milk and plasma after intramuscular administration. Five healthy dairy cows (Holstein, weighing 450-500 kg, aged 2-4 years) were used in this study. They received single intramuscular amoxicillin at a dose of 14 mg/kg body weight. Blood and milk samples were collected prior to drug administration (0); after 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min; and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hr after administration. The plasma and milk concentrations of amoxicillin were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Agnieszka Szuster-Ciesielska, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Andrzej Wernicki, Laurent Mascaron, Marek Wasak, Eric Bousquet
Escherichia coli is one of the major pathogens in humans and animals causing localized and systemic infections, which often lead to acute inflammation, watery diarrhea, and hemorrhagic colitis. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Shiga exotoxins (Stx) are mostly responsible for such clinical signs. Therefore, highly effective treatment of E. coli infections should include both eradication of bacteria and neutralization of their toxins. Here, for the first time, we compared the in vitro ability of common antibiotics to decrease LPS- and Stx-mediated cytotoxicity: colistin, amoxicillin (used separately or combined), enrofloxacin, and its metabolite ciprofloxacin...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ruth A Parsley, Adrian G Mutlow, Jacqueline Hansted, Femke J Taverne, Lisa A Tell, Ronette Gehring
Aspergillosis is a condition causing serious morbidity and mortality in captive penguins and other bird species. It can be treated with antifungal drugs, such as voriconazole. However, the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole are variable between different animal and bird species. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole were investigated in this study in Magellanic penguins. Pharmacokinetic models were constructed and applied to predict the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole during long-term treatment in Magellanic penguins, since the voriconazole treatment duration in chronic aspergillosis cases can last up to several months...
September 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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