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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

M Mendel, M Chłopecka, N Dziekan, W Karlik
Continued ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by ruminants can provoke pharmacological interactions with pharmaceutical agents used in animals. As some drugs and phytocompounds affect smooth muscle activity, the aim of this study was to verify the possible interaction between selected pharmaceutical agents and plant secondary metabolites towards bovine gastrointestinal motility. The interactions between phytocompounds-apigenin, quercetin, hederagenin, medicagenic acid-and medicines-erythromycin, flunixin meglumine and levamisole-were evaluated on bovine isolated abomasal and duodenal specimens obtained from routinely slaughtered cows...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J Wang, T Zhao, X Sun, Y Liu, J Zhu, S Zhang, X Cao
The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of tildipirosin (TD) in 24 beagle dogs following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration, respectively, at 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg. Plasma samples at certain time points (0-14 days) were collected, and the concentrations of drug were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS. Plasma concentration-time data and relevant parameters were described by noncompartmental through WinNonlin 6.4 software. After single i.m. injection at 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg body weight, mean maximum concentration (Cmax ) was 412...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K Kongara
Genetic variation causes interindividual variability in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. These pharmacokinetic processes will influence the observed efficacy and toxicity of a drug. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the metabolizing enzymes, transport proteins and receptors have been linked to the inconsistency in responses to opioid treatment in humans and laboratory animals. Pharmacogenetics is relatively less developed field in veterinary medicine compared to significant advances in knowledge on genetic basis of variation in drug responses and clinical applications in human medicine...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K Washburn, V R Fajt, P Plummer, E Papastavros, J F Coetzee, L W Wulf, S Washburn
The purpose of this study was to determine if concentrations of chlortetracycline could be detected in fetal plasma or tissues after administering an oral dose of chlortetracycline (CTC; 500 mg/head/day) reported to be effective in controlling Campylobacter spp. abortions. Five pregnant ewes were administered 250 mg/head twice a day (total dose 500 mg/hd/d) for 7 days. On the beginning of day 7, intravenous catheters were surgically implanted or inserted into the fetus and dam. Plasma samples were collected from the ewe and fetus at various time points before and up to 36 hr after the last dose of CTC...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
D Venkatachalam, V K Dumka, B Ranjan
The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome following single intramuscular (IM) administration in six healthy male buffalo calves. Cefquinome was administered intramuscularly (2 mg/kg bodyweight) and blood samples were collected prior to drug administration and up to 24 hr after injection. No adverse effects or changes were observed after the IM injection of cefquinome. Plasma concentrations of cefquinome were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The disposition of plasma cefquinome is characterized by a mono-compartmental open model...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K O Echeverria, K M Lascola, S Giguère, J H Foreman
Minocycline is commonly used to treat bacterial and rickettsial infections in adult horses but limited information exists regarding the impact of feeding on its oral bioavailability. This study's objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of minocycline after administration of a single oral dose in horses with feed withheld and with feed provided at the time of drug administration. Six healthy adult horses were administered intravenous (2.2 mg/kg) and oral minocycline (4 mg/kg) with access to hay at the time of oral drug administration (fed) and with access to hay delayed for 2 hr after oral drug administration (fasted), with a 7-day washout between treatments...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K Uney, F Altan, G Cetin, M Aboubakr, B Dik, Z Sayın, A Er, M Elmas
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (CFQ) following single intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injections of 2 mg/kg body weight in red-eared slider turtles. Plasma concentrations of CFQ were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed using noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic parameters following IV injection were as follows: elimination half-life (t1/2λz ) 21.73 ± 4.95 hr, volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss ) 0.37 ± 0...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Jasiecka-Mikołajczyk, H Ziółkowski, J J Jaroszewski
The aim of this research had been to determine the pharmacokinetics of tigecycline (TIG) in turkey after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.), subcutaneous (s.c.), and oral (p.o.) administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg. TIG concentrations in plasma were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Mean concentrations of TIG in turkey plasma in the i.v. group were significantly higher than concentrations of this drug obtained after using the other administration routes...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K Ito, R Miyamoto, H Tani, S Kurita, M Kobayashi, K Tamura, M Bonkobara
Canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive and highly metastatic tumor. Previously, the kinase inhibitor dasatinib was shown to have potent growth inhibitory activity against HS cells in vitro, possibly via targeting the EPHA2 receptor. Here, the in vivo effect of dasatinib in HS cells was investigated using a xenograft mouse model. Moreover, the expression status of EPHA2 was examined in six HS cell lines, ranging from insensitive to highly sensitive to dasatinib. In the HS xenograft mouse model, dasatinib significantly suppressed tumor growth, as illustrated by a decrease in mitotic and Ki67 indices and an increase in apoptotic index in tumor tissues...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M L Stock, S T Elazab, W H Hsu
Triazines are relatively new antiprotozoal drugs that have successfully controlled coccidiosis and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. These drugs have favorably treated other protozoal diseases such as neosporosis and toxoplasmosis. In this article, we discuss the pharmacological characteristics of five triazines, toltrazuril, ponazuril, clazuril, diclazuril, and nitromezuril which are used in veterinary medicine to control protozoal diseases which include coccidiosis, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, neosporosis, and toxoplasmosis...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
B Bingöl, T Bakirel
This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of conventional (Fungizone(®) ) and liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome(®) ) formulations in order to predict their therapeutic properties, and evaluate their potential differences in veterinary treatment. For this purpose, twelve healthy mixed breed dogs received both drugs at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg by intravenous infusion over a 4-min period in a total volume of 40 ml. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr after dosing, and concentrations of drug in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J R Bauquier, B S Tennent-Brown, E Tudor, S R Bailey
Polymyxin-B is used to treat equine systemic inflammation. Bacterial toxins other than lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contribute to systemic inflammation but the effects of polymyxin-B on these are poorly defined. Whole blood aliquots from six healthy horses diluted 1:1 with RPMI were incubated for 21 hr with 1 μg/ml of LPS, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) or peptidoglycan (PGN) in the presence of increasing concentrations of polymyxin-B (10-3000 μg/ml). A murine L929 fibroblast bioassay was used to measure TNF-α activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
D N Q Cunha, C L Del Rio, B L Youngblood, E L Ferris, G E Geist, Y Ueyama, L C Franz, S Mathur, R L Hamlin
The goal of this study was to confirm the vasopressor and cardiac effects of POTENAY(®) INJETÁVEL (POT), a mephentermine-based product, given to cattle with induced vascular/cardiac depression. Ten healthy Holstein cattle (206 ± 13 kg) followed a randomized-complete-block design (RCBD) utilizing crossover study design. Each animal randomly received (1 ml/25 kg, IM) of either POT (n = 10) or volume-matched placebo control (0.9%NaCl, CP, n = 10). A subset of animals (n = 5) received POT first (day 0) while the remaining (n = 5) received CP; after a six-day washout period, cattle received the opposite compound...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Y Uno, N Osada, S Sakurai, N Shimozawa, T Iwata, K Ikeo, H Yamazaki
In cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), widely used in drug metabolism studies, CYP2C9, CYP2C76, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5, important drug-metabolizing enzymes, are abundantly expressed in liver and metabolize cytochrome P450 substrates. CYP2C9 (c.334A>C), CYP2C76 (c.449TG>A), CYP2D6 (c.891A>G), CYP3A4 (IVS3 + 1G>del), and CYP3A5 (c.625A>T) substantially influence metabolic activity of enzymes, and thus are important variants in drug metabolism studies. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for genotyping these variants...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Viveros, R Lopez-Ordaz, L Gutiérrez, J E Miranda-Calderón, H Sumano
A recrystallized form of enrofloxacin as dehydrate-HCl (enro-C) was assessed for bacteriological and clinical cure efficacies in Holstein-Friesian cows affected of nonsevere clinical mastitis. Treatments were enro-Csusp (n = 81), treated with a pharmaceutical suspension of enro-C/quarter; group enro-Cpd (n = 80) treated as above, but using enro-C powder suspended in water; group CF (n = 65), treated with ceftiofur HCl/quarter; and group enroR (n = 66), treated with standard enrofloxacin solution (5 mg/kg, intramuscular)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A I Escudero, P Marín, C M Cárceles, E Escudero
The pharmacokinetic of deflazacort after intravenous and oral administration and the effect of erythromycin on the disposition of deflazacort in rabbits were investigated. A parallel study was carried out in twelve rabbits. The plasma concentration-time profiles of deflazacort were determined after intravenous and oral administration of single dosages of 5 mg/kg in the presence and absence (baseline) of multiple dose erythromycin regimens. Plasma concentrations of 21-desacetyldeflazacort were determined by HPLC...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
P Lees, T Potter, L Pelligand, P-L Toutain
A calf tissue cage model was used to study the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxytetracycline in serum, inflamed (exudate) and noninflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids. After intramuscular administration, the PK was characterized by a long mean residence time of 28.3 hr. Based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for six isolates each of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, measured in serum, integration of in vivo PK and in vitro PD data established area under serum concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ )/MIC ratios of 30...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
P J Gorden, M D Kleinhenz, L W Wulf, S J Rajewski, C Wang, R Gehring, J F Coetzee
Ceftiofur (CEF) and flunixin meglumine (FLU) are two drugs approved for use in beef and dairy cattle that are frequently used in combination for many diseases. These two drugs are the most commonly used drugs in dairy cattle in their respective drug classes. Two research groups have recently published manuscripts demonstrating altered pharmacokinetics of FLU and CEF in cows affected with naturally occurring mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine administered intravenously or intramuscularly administered ceftiofur hydrochloride would be altered when co-administered versus individual administration to healthy dairy cattle...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Qiu, Z Hao, R Zhang, L Cui, C Wang, S Qu, S Yuan, Y Bai
Quinocetone (QCT), an antimicrobial growth promoter, is widely used in food-producing animals. However, information about pharmacokinetics (PK) of QCT in ducks still remains unavailable up to now. In this study, QCT and its major metabolites (1-desoxyquinocetone, di-desoxyquinocetone and 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic) in ducks were studied using a simple and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS assay. Twenty ducks were divided into two groups. (n = 10/group). One group received QCT by oral administration at dose of 40 mg/kg while another group received QCT intravenously at 10 mg/kg...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
C Zizzadoro, M Caruso, S Punzi, G Crescenzo, F Zongoli, C Belloli
Hemodynamic perturbations, partly resulting from abnormal vasoconstriction of digital vessels, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bovine and equine laminitis. This study compared the responsiveness of isolated bovine (BDA) and equine (EDA) digital arteries to pharmacological agents that stimulate receptor systems involved in the regulation of normal vessel tone. The role of the endothelium and the short- and longer-term effects of an experimentally induced endothelial damage were also evaluated. Species-related differences were found in the vessel reactivity to all of the receptor agonists tested...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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