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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761906/the-pharmacokinetics-of-cytarabine-administered-subcutaneously-combined-with-prednisone-in-dogs-with-meningoencephalomyelitis-of-unknown-etiology
#1
B Pastina, P J Early, R L Bergman, J Nettifee, A Maller, K Y Bray, R J Waldron, A M Castel, K R Munana, M G Papich, K M Messenger
The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cytarabine (CA) after subcutaneous (SC) administration to dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology (MUE). Twelve dogs received a single SC dose of CA at 50 mg/m2 as part of treatment of MUE. A sparse sampling technique was used to collect four blood samples from each dog from 0 to 360 min after administration. All dogs were concurrently receiving prednisone (0.5-2 mg kg-1 day-1 ). Plasma CA concentrations were measured by HPLC, and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NLME)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761517/pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-gentamicin-in-healthy-young-adult-compared-to-aged-alpacas
#2
A Gestrich, D Bedenice, M Ceresia, I Zaghloul
The study objective was to evaluate the effects of age on aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics in eight young-adult (<4 years) and eight aged (≥14 years) healthy alpacas, receiving a single 6.6 mg/kg intravenous gentamicin injection. Heparinized plasma samples were obtained at designated time points following drug administration and frozen at -80°C until assayed by a validated immunoassay (QMS® ). Compartmental and noncompartmental analyses of gentamicin plasma concentrations versus time were performed using WinNonlin (v6...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756216/bioavailability-of-suppository-acetaminophen-in-healthy-and-hospitalized-ill-dogs
#3
E R Sikina, J F Bach, Z Lin, R Gehring, B KuKanich
To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of suppository acetaminophen (APAP) in healthy dogs and clinically ill dogs. This prospective study used six healthy client-owned and 20 clinically ill hospitalized dogs. The healthy dogs were randomized by coin flip to receive APAP orally or as a suppository in crossover study design. Blood samples were collected up to 10 hr after APAP dosing. The hospitalized dogs were administered APAP as a suppository, and blood collected at 2 and 6 hr after dosing. Plasma samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696661/integration-of-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-for-dose-optimization-of-doxycycline-against-haemophilus-parasuis-in-pigs
#4
L Zhang, Y Li, Y Wang, A Sajid, S Ahmed, X Li
The aims of this study were to establish optimal doses of doxycycline (dox) against Haemophilus parasuis on the basis of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) integration modeling. The infected model was established by intranasal inoculation of organism in pigs and confirmed by clinical signs, blood biochemistry, and microscopic examinations. The recommended dose (20 mg/kg b.w.) was administered in pigs through intramuscular routes for PK studies. The area under the concentration 0- to 24-hr curve (AUC0-24 ), elimination half-life (T½ke ), and mean residence time (MRT) of dox in healthy and H...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691872/a-study-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-thromboxane-inhibitory-activity-of-a-single-intramuscular-dose-of-carprofen-as-a-means-to-establish-its-potential-use-as-an-analgesic-drug-in-white-rhinoceros
#5
M Leiberich, R Krebber, M Hewetson, J Marais, V Naidoo
The alleviation of pain and prevention of suffering are key aspects of animal welfare. Unfortunately, analgesic drugs are not available for all species. White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), representing one of such species, which survive poaching attempts inflicted with severe facial injuries and gunshot wounds, nonetheless require analgesic support. To improve treatment conditions, this study explored the use of carprofen for the treatment of pain and inflammation in white rhinoceros. The pharmacokinetics of 1 mg/kg intramuscular carprofen was evaluated in six healthy white rhinoceros...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687456/ex-vivo-binding-of-the-immunosuppressant-mycophenolic-acid-to-dog-and-cat-plasma-proteins-and-the-effect-of-co-incubated-dexamethasone-and-prednisolone
#6
A Morassi, S M Rivera-Vélez, J E Slovak, M H Court, N F Villarino
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been shown to be promising for the treatment of autoimmune diseases in dogs and cats. In humans, MPA is highly bound to plasma proteins (~97%). It has been recommended to monitor free drug plasma concentrations because the free MPA correlates with its immunosuppressive effect. However, it is unknown if MPA is highly bound to plasma proteins in dogs and cats. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of plasma protein binding of MPA and evaluate the effect of prednisolone and dexamethasone on the extent of protein binding of MPA in dogs and cats...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682749/stable-gastric-pentadecapeptide-bpc-157-in-honeybee-apis-mellifera-therapy-to-control-nosema-ceranae-invasions-in-apiary-conditions
#7
I Tlak Gajger, J Ribarić, M Smodiš Škerl, J Vlainić, P Sikirić
Nosema ceranae can cause major problems, such as immune suppression, gut epithelial cell degeneration, reduced honeybee lifespan, or suddenly colony collapse. As a novel approach in therapy, we hypothesize the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in honeybee therapy, to control N. ceranae invasions in apiary conditions: BPC 157 treated sugar syrup (0.25 L sugar syrup supplemented with 0.1 μg/ml BPC 157), as well as the pure sugar syrup (0.25 L sugar syrup; control), was administered to honeybee colonies in feeders situated under the roof of the hives, during 21 consecutive days, at the end of beekeeping season...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654626/effects-of-enrofloxacin-on-antioxidant-system-microsomal-enzymatic-activity-and-proteomics-in-porcine-liver
#8
Y Li, Y Mou, M Thunders, Y Wu, X Ai, X Zhou, J Qiu
Enrofloxacin (EF) is a widely used fluoroquinolone, usually regarded as a safe and effective treatment for bacterial infections. Adverse effects of EF have previously been demonstrated in some species, but so far there have been no studies looking specifically at the impact of EF on pigs. In this study, three different doses of EF (5, 25 and 125 mg kg bw-1 ) were administrated to Bama pigs. The results showed that lipid peroxidation of pig liver tissue occurred with all EF doses. The 125 mg kg dose of EF induced catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and increased CYP450 content in pig liver microsomes...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654606/pharmacokinetics-of-cefquinome-in-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-after-oral-intramuscular-intraperitoneal-and-bath-administration
#9
Q Shan, J Wang, F Yang, L Ma, Y Yin, S Liu, L Li, G Zheng
The pharmacokinetics (PK) of cefquinome (CEQ) was studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after single oral, intramuscular (i.m.), and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight and following incubation in a 5 mg/L bath for 5 hr at 25°C. The plasma concentration of CEQ was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). PK parameters were calculated based on mean CEQ concentration using WinNonlin 6.1 software. The disposition of CEQ following oral, i...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604071/novel-amoxicillin-nanoparticles-formulated-as-sustained-release-delivery-system-for-poultry-use
#10
E Güncüm, T Bakırel, C Anlaş, H Ekici, N Işıklan
Amoxicillin is used in the treatment and prevention of a wide range of diseases in poultry breeding. However, its short half-life and low bioavailability restrict its clinical application in these species. Entrapment of drugs into polymeric nanoparticles (nps) presents a means to improve gastrointestinal absorption and oral bioavailability of drugs. This study was aimed to overcome limitation of amoxicillin use in poultry breeding. Amoxicillin was loaded into sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (NaAlg-PVA) blend nps, and characterization of the prepared nps was performed...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603262/pharmacokinetics-of-fentanyl-citrate-and-norfentanyl-in-holstein-calves-and-effect-of-analytical-performances-on-fentanyl-parameter-estimation
#11
J S Smith, J F Coetzee, I W G Fisher, D J Borts, J P Mochel
This study describes the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered (i.v.) fentanyl citrate, and its primary metabolite norfentanyl in Holstein calves. Eight calves (58.6 ± 2.2 kg), aged 3-4 weeks, were administered fentanyl citrate at a single dose of 5.0 μg/kg i.v. Blood samples were collected from 0 to 24 hr. Plasma (nor)fentanyl concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.03 ng/ml. To explore the effect of analytical performance on fentanyl parameter estimation, the noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was then repeated with a hypothetical LLOQ value of 0...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582435/combining-long-acting-bronchodilators-with-different-mechanisms-of-action-a-pharmacological-approach-to-optimize-bronchodilation-of-equine-airways
#12
L Calzetta, P Rogliani, E Pistocchini, M Mattei, G Cito, P Alfonsi, C Page, M G Matera
The ultra long-acting β2 -adrenoceptor agonist olodaterol plus the ultra long-acting muscarinic antagonist tiotropium bromide are known to relax equine airways. In human bronchi combining these drugs elicits a positive interaction, thus we aimed to characterize this information further in equine isolated airways stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and using the Concentration-Reduction Index (CRI) and Combination Index (CI) equations. The drugs were administered alone and together by reproducing ex vivo the concentration-ratio delivered by the currently available fixed-dose combination (1:1)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572923/variation-in-water-disappearance-daily-dose-and-synovial-fluid-concentrations-of-tylvalosin-and-3-o-acetyltylosin-in-commerical-pigs-during-five-day-water-medication-with-tylvalosin-under-field-conditions
#13
P Canning, J Bates, K Skoland, J Coetzee, L Wulf, S Rajewski, C Wang, P Gauger, A Ramirez, L Karriker
Tylvalosin (TVN) is a water soluble macrolide used in swine production to treat enteric, respiratory, and arthritic pathogens. There is limited data on its distribution to synovial fluid beyond gavage studies, which do not represent field conditions. This study measured water disappearance, TVN concentration in the medicated water, daily dose, and concentrations of TVN and 3-O-acetyltylosin (3AT) in the synovial fluid and plasma of treated pigs over the administration period. The study emphasized understanding variation in tissue TVN concentrations within the context of a field setting...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566261/effects-of-trimethoprim-sulfadiazine-and-detomidine-on-the-function-of-equine-k-v-11-1-channels-in-a-two-electrode-voltage-clamp-tevc-oocyte-model
#14
D S Trachsel, M A Tejada, V Groesfjeld Christensen, P J Pedersen, J K Kanters, R Buhl, K Calloe, D A Klaerke
The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a channelopathy that can lead to severe arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Pharmacologically induced LQTS is caused by interaction between drugs and potassium channels, especially the Kv 11.1 channel. Due to such interactions, numerous drugs have been withdrawn from the market or are administered with precautions in human medicine. However, some compounds, such as trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations are still widely used in veterinarian medicine. Therefore, we investigate the effect of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), trimethoprim, sulfadiazine, and detomidine on equine-specific Kv 11...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521421/the-pharmacokinetics-and-analgesic-effects-of-extended-release-buprenorphine-administered-subcutaneously-in-healthy-dogs
#15
M Barletta, S M Ostenkamp, A C Taylor, J Quandt, B D X Lascelles, K M Messenger
Buprenorphine is a partial μ agonist opioid used for analgesia in dogs. An extended-release formulation (ER-buprenorphine) has been shown to provide effective analgesia for 72 hr in rats and mice. Six healthy mongrel dogs were enrolled in a randomized, blinded crossover design to describe and compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ER-buprenorphine administered subcutaneous at 0.2 mg/kg (ER-B) and commercially available buprenorphine for injection intravenously at 0.02 mg/kg (IV-B). After drug administration, serial blood samples were collected to measure plasma buprenorphine concentrations using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry detection...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517112/population-pharmacokinetics-of-ceftazidime-after-a-single-intramuscular-injection-in-wild-turtles
#16
A J Cerreta, G A Lewbart, D R Dise, M G Papich
Ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin, is important for treating opportunistic bacterial infections in turtles. Antibacterial dosage regimens are not well established for wild turtles and are often extrapolated from other reptiles or mammals. This investigation used a population pharmacokinetic approach to study ceftazidime in wild turtles presented for rehabilitation. Ceftazidime was administered to 24 wild turtles presented to the Turtle Rescue Team at North Carolina State University. A sparse blood sampling protocol was used to collect samples from 0 to 120 hr with three samples per individual after injection...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500829/preparation-characterization-and-pharmacokinetics-in-swine-of-a-florfenicol-enteric-formulation-prepared-using-hot-melt-extrusion-technology
#17
Y Xu, X Wen, X Feng, Z Liang, X Ye, H Nie, X Liao, J Li, Y Zeng, S Tang, J He
The objective of this work was to manufacture an enteric formulation of florfenicol (FF) using hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology and to evaluate its in vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacokinetics. For the HME process, hypromellose acetate succinate LG (HPMCAS-LG) was the enteric polymer mixed with FF, and the two components were extruded with a standard screw configuration at a speed of 50 rpm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were performed to characterize the HME extrudate...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717495/editorial
#18
EDITORIAL
J E Riviere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468684/re-evaluation-of-the-regulation-of-omeprazole-in-racehorses-an-evidence-based-approach
#19
M Viljanto, L Hillyer, P Hincks, C Pearce, S W Paine
Medication control and doping control have been established in horse racing to ensure the integrity of the sport and the welfare of the horses. This ensures that horses do not compete under the influence of any drugs, including omeprazole, a therapeutic medication used to treat equine gastric ulcer syndrome. In this study, pharmacokinetic data were produced in equine plasma and urine following an oral administration of 4 mg/kg of generic buffered formulation of omeprazole to six Thoroughbred horses in five daily doses to determine an appropriate screening limit and detection time in equine plasma and to assess whether the current detection time of 72 hr in equine urine would be applicable when an alternative omeprazole product is administered...
June 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465161/assessment-of-the-pharmacological-interactions-between-the-nematodicidal-fenbendazole-and-the-flukicidal-triclabendazole-in-vitro-studies-with-bovine-liver-microsomes-and-slices
#20
P Viviani, A L Lifschitz, M L Maté, J P García, C E Lanusse, G L Virkel
Parasitic diseases have a significant impact on livestock production. Nematodicidal drugs, such as fenbendazole (FBZ) or its oxidized metabolite oxfendazole (OFZ), can be used along with the trematodicidal triclabendazole (TCBZ), to broaden the spectrum of anthelmintic activity. However, co-exposure to these compounds could lead to drug-drug (D-D) interactions and eventually alter the clinical profile of each active principle. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of such interactions by means of two in vitro models, namely bovine liver microsomal fractions and bovine precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs)...
June 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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