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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101884/lung-microdialysis-study-of-florfenicol-in-pigs-after-single-intramuscular-administration
#1
B Yang, J D Gao, X Y Cao, Q Y Wang, G Z Sun, J J Yang
For most bacterial lung infections, the concentration of unbound antimicrobial agent in lung interstitial fluid has been considered as the gold standard for estimating the antibacterial efficacy. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF) in porcine lung interstitial fluid was investigated after single intramuscular administration at two different doses (20 and 50 mg/kg). Twelve pigs underwent thoracotomy under general anesthesia. Then, the CMA/30 probe was implanted into the lung and perfused at 1 μL/min...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101885/what-is-the-true-in%C3%A2-vitro-potency-of-oxytetracycline-for-the-pig-pneumonia-pathogens-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-and-pasteurella-multocida
#2
L Dorey, S Hobson, P Lees
The pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was determined for pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Indices of potency were determined for the following: (i) two matrices, broth and pig serum; (ii) five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions; and (iii) a high strength starting culture. For A. pleuropneumoniae, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar for the two matrices, but for P. multocida, differences were marked and significantly different. MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) serum: broth ratios for A...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097668/detection-and-pharmacokinetics-of-salmeterol-in-thoroughbred-horses-following-inhaled-administration
#3
S J Fenwick, P R Hincks, J P Scarth, M E Wieder, L L Hillyer, S W Paine
Salmeterol is a man-made beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist used to relieve bronchospasm associated with inflammatory airway disease in horses. Whilst judicious use is appropriate in horses in training, they cannot race with clinically effective concentrations of medications under the British Horseracing Authority's Rules of Racing. Salmeterol must therefore be withdrawn prior to race day and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies used to establish formal detection time advice. Salmeterol xinafoate (Serevent Evohaler(®) ) was administered (0...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097665/pharmacokinetics-and-selected-pharmacodynamics-of-romifidine-following-low-dose-intravenous-administration-in-combination-with-exercise-to-quarter-horses
#4
H K Knych, S D Stanley, D S McKemie, S J Steinmetz
Romifidine is an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used for sedation and analgesia in horses. As it is a prohibited substance, its purported use at low doses in performance horses necessitates further study. The primary goal of the study reported here was to describe the serum concentrations and pharmacokinetics of romifidine following low-dose administration immediately prior to exercise, utilizing a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay that is currently employed in many drug testing laboratories...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093774/comparative-pharmacokinetics-of-diaveridine-in-pigs-and-chickens-following-single-intravenous-and-oral-administration
#5
Y-F Li, H-Y Guo, F Yang, L-G Zhou, X-H Huang, H-Z Ding, Z-L Zeng
Comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of diaveridine following single intravenous and oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight in healthy pigs and chickens were investigated, respectively. Concentrations of diaveridine in plasma samples were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method. The concentration-time data were subjected to noncompartmental kinetic analysis by WinNonlin program. The corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters in pigs or chickens after single intravenous administration were as follows, respectively: t1/2β (elimination half-life) 0...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093773/establishment-of-a-cell-line-for-assessing-drugs-as-canine-p-glycoprotein-substrates-proof-of-principle
#6
K L Mealey, S Dassanayake, N S Burke
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene, dramatically impacts drug disposition. P-gp is expressed in the intestines, biliary canaliculi, renal tubules, and brain capillaries where it functions to efflux substrate drugs. In this capacity, P-gp restricts oral absorption, enhances biliary and renal excretion, and inhibits central nervous system entry of substrate drugs. Many drugs commonly used in veterinary medicine are known substrates for canine P-gp (vincristine, loperamide, ivermectin, others)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092108/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-the-injectable-formulation-of-methadone-hydrochloride-and-methadone-in-lipid-nanocarriers-administered-orally-to-horses
#7
N Crosignani, S P Luna, T Dalla Costa, E L Pimenta, C B Detoni, S S Guterres, J N Puoli Filho, J C Pantoja, M C Pigatto
We investigated the thermal, electrical and mechanical antinociceptive and physiological effects (heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, head height and abdominal auscultation score), and pharmacokinetics, of 0.5 mg/kg of the injectable formulation (ORAL) or nanoparticulated methadone (NANO) given orally, in six adult mares, using a crossover, blind and prospective design. Repeated-measure models were used to compare parametric data between and within treatments, followed by Tukey's test. Nonparametric data were analysed with Wilcoxon signed-rank, adjusted by Bonferroni tests...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092103/species-differences-in-hepatic-biotransformation-of-the-anthelmintic-drug-flubendazole
#8
M L Maté, T Geary, C Mackenzie, C Lanusse, G Virkel
Flubendazole (FLBZ) is a broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic used in pigs, poultry, and humans. It has been proposed as a candidate for development for use in elimination programmes for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in humans. Moreover, FLBZ has shown promise in cancer chemotherapy, particularly for neuroblastoma. This work investigated the hepatic carbonyl-reducing pathway of FLBZ in different species, including humans. Microsomal and cytosolic fractions were obtained from sheep, cattle, pig, hen, rat, and human liver...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090673/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-integration-and-modelling-of-oxytetracycline-for-the-porcine-pneumonia-pathogens-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-and-pasteurella-multocida
#9
L Dorey, L Pelligand, Z Cheng, P Lees
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules of oxytetracycline for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were determined in broth and porcine serum. PK/PD integration established ratios of average concentration over 48 h (Cav0-48 h )/MIC of 5.87 and 0.27 μg/mL (P. multocida) and 0.70 and 0.85 μg/mL (A. pleuropneumoniae) for broth and serum MICs, respectively...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943298/a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-chickens-exposed-to-feed-supplemented-with-monensin-during-their-lifetime
#10
J Henri, R Carrez, B Méda, M Laurentie, P Sanders
We developed a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for residues of monensin in chickens and evaluated its predictive ability by comparing it with an external data set describing concentration decays after the end of treatment. One advantage of this model is that the values for most parameters (34 of 38) were taken directly from the literature or from field data (for growth and feed intake). Our model included growth (changes in body weight) to describe exposure throughout the life of the chicken...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943295/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-characterization-of-ceftiofur-crystalline-free-acid-following-subcutaneous-administration-in-domestic-goats
#11
G S Waraich, P K Sidhu, P S Daundkar, G Kaur, S K Sharma
Pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) integration of crystalline ceftiofur-free acid (CCFA) was established in six healthy female goats administered subcutaneously (s.c.) on the left side of the neck at a dosage of 6.6 mg/kg body weight. Serum concentrations of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur (DFC) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Mutant prevention concentration (MPC), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ceftiofur were determined for Pasteurella (P...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925222/sulfadimethoxine-in-giant-freshwater-prawns-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-an-attempt-to-estimate-the-withdrawal-time-by-a-population-pharmacokinetic-approach
#12
A Poapolathep, M Giorgi, P L Toutain, S Poapolathep, K Imsilp, C Sakulthaew, N Wannapat, N Klangkaew
The fates of sulfadimethoxine (SDM) for different routes of administration were investigated in muscle tissue of giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, following either intramuscular (i.m.) or gavage administration at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The depletion patterns of SDM were also examined after medicated feed treatment at the feeding concentration of 10 g/kg of feed twice a day at a rate of 1% of total b.w. for five consecutive days. The concentration of SDM in prawn muscle tissue was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet detector...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925221/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-grapiprant-in-a-carrageenan-induced-inflammatory-pain-model-in-the-rabbit
#13
V De Vito, M Salvadori, A Poapolathep, H Owen, R Rychshanova, M Giorgi
Grapiprant is the novel selective EP4 receptor inhibitor recently issued on the veterinary market for dogs affected by osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was twofold: to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of grapiprant in the induced inflammatory pain model in the rabbit after a single IV injection of 2 mg/kg; to compare the thermal antinociception effect after 2 mg/kg IV grapiprant, with that generated by 0.5 mg/kg meloxicam SC injected. Rabbits (n = 12) were randomly assigned to two crossover studies (single-dose, two-period crossover)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905117/pharmacokinetics-of-new-high-concentration-and-long-acting-praziquantel-oily-suspensions-after-intramuscular-administration-in-cattle
#14
M Qian, L Wei, L Hao, S Tang
The aim of the study was to develop praziquantel (PZQ) oily suspensions with 30% PZQ high concentration for intramuscular injection and investigate their pharmacokinetics in cattle. Two optimized formulations containing 30% PZQ were developed in this study, and their quality met the technical standards set by the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China. After intramuscular administrations of the suspensions (30 mg/kg), no significant differences were observed between the two oily suspensions...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900781/the-present-and-future-of-opioid-analgesics-in-small-animal-practice
#15
REVIEW
B T Simon, P V Steagall
Opioids are the cornerstone for the treatment of acute pain in small animal patients. This is primarily because of their remarkable safety profile, high efficacy, and benefit of reversibility. There have been some significant advances in our knowledge on opioid pharmacology and clinical usage in companion animal medicine. This review discusses the progression of opioid use in small animal practice providing current misconceptions and controversies in light of routes of administration. Potential targets for research and drug development and novel therapies are discussed in addition to the concepts of glial cell modulators, individual variability, and opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900792/plasma-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-depletion-of-cyromazine-and-its-metabolite-melamine-following-oral-administration-in-laying-chickens
#16
T Rairat, S C Ou, S K Chang, K P Li, T W Vickroy, C C Chou
The study was designed to characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue depletion profiles (including eggs) of cyromazine (CYR) in chickens following oral administration alone or in combination with melamine (MEL). In order to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of CYR, chickens were administered 1 or 10 mg/kg (single oral doses), whereas residue studies were conducted in chickens fed CYR alone (5 or 10 mg/kg) or CYR (5 mg/kg) and MEL (5 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days. Estimates for the apparent volume of distribution (1...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900786/short-history-of-regulations-and-approved-indications-of-antimicrobial-drugs-for-food-animals-in-the-usa
#17
REVIEW
V V Volkova, Z DeMars
We review historical availability and regulation, and recent indications of antimicrobial drugs for food animals in the USA. We summarize the timeline of introduction of individual antimicrobial drug classes from the 1930s to present, history of regulation of antimicrobial drugs from the 1930s to present and indications of antimicrobial drugs in 1996-2014 for food animals in the USA. The history of antimicrobial drug regulation demonstrates a historical precedent for harmonized regulations of antimicrobials 'for human and other animals' in the USA...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891622/safety-evaluation-of-orally-administered-afoxolaner-and-milbemycin-oxime-in-eight-week-old-dogs
#18
M Drag, J Saik, J Harriman, L Letendre, S Yoon, D Larsen
The safety profile of afoxolaner (an isoxazoline molecule) when combined with milbemycin oxime (a macrocyclic lactone) was evaluated according to the regulatory requirements when administered six times orally in a soft chewable formulation at a dose of at least 1×, 3×, or 5× the maximum exposure dose in 8-week-old Beagle dogs. Thirty-two healthy puppies (16 males and 16 females) were enrolled and allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups. Three doses were administered at 28-day intervals (Days 0, 28, and 56), followed by three additional doses administered with 14-day intervals (Days 84, 98, and 112)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891620/modulation-of-formalin-induced-pain-related-behaviour-by-clonidine-and-yohimbine-in-the-speke-s-hinged-tortoise-kiniskys-spekii
#19
C M Makau, P K Towett, K S P Abelson, T I Kanui
The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour (hindlimb withdrawal) that lasted for a mean time of 19.28 min (monophasic response). Intrathecal administration of clonidine (α2 -adrenergic receptor agonist) and yohimbine (α2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) at a dose of 40 μg/kg and 37...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891615/a-large-potentiation-effect-of-serum-on-the-in%C3%A2-vitro-potency-of-tulathromycin-against-mannheimia-haemolytica-and-pasteurella-multocida
#20
P Lees, J Illambas, T J Potter, L Pelligand, A Rycroft, P-L Toutain
The antimicrobial properties of tulathromycin were investigated for M. haemolytica and P. multocida. Three in vitro indices of antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves, were established for six isolates of each organism. Each index was measured in two growth media: Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. It was shown that MICs and MBCs were markedly lower in serum than in MHB. MHB:serum ratios for MIC were 47:1 (M. haemolytica) and 53:1 (P...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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