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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Zygmunt Pejsak
The effect of a standard, single dose therapy with tulathromycin was investigated on the postvaccinal humoral and cellular immune response in pigs vaccinated against swine influenza. Forty-five pigs, divided into 3 groups, were used (control not vaccinated (C, n = 15), control vaccinated (CV, n = 15), and experimentally received tulathromycin (TUL, n = 15)). For vaccination of pigs, an inactivated, commercial vaccine was used. Pigs from TUL group received single dose of tulathromycin intramuscularly, at the recommended dose (2...
December 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Chris Bader, David E Starling, Douglas E Jones, Matthew T Brewer
Fish are common definitive and intermediate hosts for a variety of parasitic flatworms. In unstressed wild populations, parasitic infections often go unnoticed and are perceived to represent a lesser threat to fish health. In contrast, platyhelminth parasitism of captive fish often results in decreased weight gain and increased mortality which often necessitates chemotherapeutic treatment. The presence of platyhelminth parasites in fish tissues is not only unappealing but in some cases also represents a threat to human health...
December 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mariana Ballent, Maria Laura Maté, Paula Dominguez, Guillermo Virkel, Melanie Albérich, Anne Lespine, Carlos Lanusse, Adrian Luis Lifschitz
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetic of ivermectin (IVM) after the administration of a long-acting (LA) formulation to sheep and its impact on potential drug-drug interactions. The work included the evaluation of the comparative plasma profiles of IVM administered at a single therapeutic dose (200 μg/kg) and as LA formulation at 630 μg/kg. Additionally, IVM was measured in different gastrointestinal tissues at 15 days posttreatment with both IVM formulations. The impact of the long-lasting and enhanced IVM exposure on the disposition kinetics of abamectin (ABM) was also assessed...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Melinda Poole, Jessica M Quimby, Tianhua Hu, Daizie Labelle, William Buhles
Mirtazapine is classified as a weight gain drug in cats, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate its efficacy in cats experiencing unintended weight loss. This was a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical study in client-owned cats ≥1 year of age, weighing ≥2 kg, with a documented loss (≥5%) in body weight. Cats were treated once daily with either 2 mg/cat mirtazapine transdermal ointment (n = 83) or placebo (n = 94) (Per Protocol population) applied to the inner surface of the pinna for 14 ± 3 days...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Zhiqiang Chang, Zhao Chen, Haiyu Gao, Qianqian Zhai, Jian Li
The pharmacokinetic profiles of florfenicol in the spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) were investigated at 15 and 20°C water temperatures, respectively. Florfenicol content in plasma samples was analyzed using an HPLC method. Drug concentration versus time data were best fitted to a three-compartment model after a single intravenous administration (15 mg/kg BW), and fitted to a two-compartment model after an oral administration (30 mg/kg BW) at 15 and 20°C. The florfenicol concentration in the blood increased slowly during the 12 hr following an oral administration at 15°C, with a peak concentration (Cmax ) of 9...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Yanyan Feng, Qianqian Zhai, Jiajia Wang, Jitao Li, Jian Li
Florfenicol is a broad-spectrum antibacterial drug. Exopalaemon carinicauda is important in the prawn aquaculture industry in China. Florfenicol pharmacokinetics in E. carinicauda were studied at different temperatures and via different routes of administration to provide a scientific basis for the rational use of drugs for E. carinicauda production. At water temperatures of 22 ± 0.4°C and 28 ± 0.3°C, after intramuscular (IM) injection and oral (per ora (PO)) administration of florfenicol at 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 30 mg/kg BW, respectively, the florfenicol concentration in the plasma, hepatopancreas, gills, muscles, and carapace of E...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Orhan Corum, Duygu Durna Corum, Orkun Atik, Hatice Eser Faki, Feray Altan, Kamil Uney
The aim of the present study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and bioavailability of danofloxacin in chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) following intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), and oral (PO) administrations at a dose of 10 mg/kg. A total of eight clinically healthy chukar partridges weighing 480 ± 45 g were used for the investigation. The study was performed in a crossover design (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) with a 15-day washout period between two administrations in four periods...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Nima Shiry, Tahoora Shomali, Siyavash Soltanian, Mostafa Akhlaghi
This study evaluates changes in the pharmacokinetic behavior of a single oral dose of florfenicol in rainbow trouts experimentally infected with Lactococcus garvieae or Streptococcus iniae. One hundred and fifty fish were randomly divided into three equal groups: 1-healthy fish, 2-fish inoculated with S. iniae (2.87 × 107 CFU/ml, i.p.), and 3-fish inoculated with L. garvieae (6.8 × 105 CFU/ml, i.p.). Florfenicol was administered to all groups at 15 mg/kg by oral gavage. Blood sampling was performed at 0, 2, 3, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hr after drug administration to each group, and plasma concentration of florfenicol was assayed by HPLC method...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Wojciech Karlik, Magdalena Chłopecka, Magdalena Bamburowicz-Klimkowska, Marta Mendel
The study was aimed to estimate the effect of plant secondary metabolites present in ruminants diet and phytogenic feed additives on liver microsomal metabolism of albendazole and fenbendazole. The selected phytocompounds comprised of flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin) and saponins (hederagenin, medicagenic acid). The experiments were performed on liver microsomal fraction obtained from routinely slaughtered cows. The intensity of albendazole and fenbendazole metabolism in the presence of flavonoids and saponins was analyzed in equimolar concentration (100 μM)...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Taisuke Kitano, Takeshi Kobayashi, Soichiro Yamaguchi, Ken-Ichi Otsuguro
Xylazine, the classical α2 -adrenoceptor (α2 -AR) agonist, is still used as an analgesic and sedative in veterinary medicine, despite its low potency and affinity for α2 -ARs. Previous pharmacological studies suggested that the α2A -AR subtype plays a role in mediating the clinical effects of xylazine; however, these studies were hampered by the poor subtype-selectivity of the antagonists used and a lack of knowledge of their bioavailability in vivo. Here, we attempted to elucidate the role of the α2A -AR subtype in mediating the clinical effects of xylazine by comparing the analgesic and sedative effects of this drug in wild-type mice with those in α2A -AR functional knockout mice using the hot-plate and open field tests, respectively...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Longfei Zhang, Xun Wu, Zilong Huang, Zheng Kang, Yuqin Chen, Xiangguang Shen, Qinren Cai, Huanzhong Ding
To explore the in vivo antimicrobial activity of cefquinome against Pasteurella multocida in piglets, a piglet tissue cage infection model was used in this study. After the population of P. multocida reached 107  CFU/mL in a tissue cage, piglets received an intramuscular administration of cefquinome at 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg once daily for 3 days. To assess the tissue cage pharmacokinetics (PKTCF) of cefquinome, tissue cage fluid was collected for cefquinome analysis at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hr after each of the 3 daily drug administrations...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Hongzhi Xiao, Haoyuan Peng, Ting Zhao, Jingyuan Kong, Jiao Xue, Jianzhong Wang, Yalong Lin, Suxia Zhang, Xingyuan Cao
The pharmacokinetic parameters of moxidectin (MXD) after intravenous and pour-on (topical) administration were studied in sixteen pigs at a single dose of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg BW (body weight), respectively. Blood samples were collected at pretreatment time (0 hr) over 40 days. The plasma kinetics were analyzed by WinNonlin 6.3 software through a noncompartmental model. For intravenous administration (n = 8), the elimination half-life (λZ ), the apparent volume of distribution (Vz ), and clearance (Cl) were 10...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Anthony J Cerreta, Chris A Masterson, Gregory A Lewbart, Delta R Dise, Mark G Papich
Ketorolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that possesses potent analgesic activity comparable to morphine. The opioid shortage in the United States has led to an unreliable supply of opioids for use in rehabilitation facilities, thus underscoring the need for research on the safe and effective use of nonopioid alternatives. The goal of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of ketorolac after a single 0.25 mg/kg intramuscular injection administered to injured Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina)...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jarrod T Younkin, Elizabeth M Santschi, Butch Kukanich, Brian V Lubbers, Matthew Warner
Penicillin is administered intravenously (IV) or intramuscularly (IM) to horses for the prevention and treatment of infections, and both routes have disadvantages. To minimize these shortcomings, a 24-hr hybrid administration protocol (HPP) was developed. Our objective was to determine penicillin plasma concentrations in horses administered via HPP. Venous blood was collected from seven healthy horses administered IV potassium penicillin G at 0 and 6 hr and IM procaine penicillin G at 12 hr. Blood was collected at 2-hr intervals from 0 to 20 hr and at 24 hr...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Michael Klotsman, Gayatri Sathyan, Wayne H Anderson, Oliver A Garden, Padmaja Shivanand
Mycophenolic acid (MPA), a noncompetitive, selective and reversible inhibitor of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), is an immunosuppressive agent that has a long history in medicine. Mechanistically, the inhibition of IMPDH leads to the selective and eventual arrest of T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), the first MPA-based product to receive marketing approval over two decades ago, was originally indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in human transplant patients...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Nan-Xi Hu, Mei Chen, Yi-Song Liu, Qi Shi, Bo Yang, Huan-Cheng Zhang, Pi Cheng, Qi Tang, Zhao-Ying Liu, Jian-Guo Zeng
Sanguinarine (SA) and chelerythrine (CHE) are the main active components of the phytogenic livestock feed additive, Sangrovit®. However, little information is available on the pharmacokinetics of Sangrovit® in poultry. The goal of this work was to study the pharmacokinetics of SA, CHE, and their metabolites, dihydrosanguinarine (DHSA) and dihydrochelerythrine (DHCHE), in 10 healthy female broiler chickens following oral (p.o.) administration of Sangrovit® and intravenous (i.v.) administration of a mixture of SA and CHE...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Carla Olave, Pamela Alvarez, Benjamin Uberti, Natalia Morales, Claudio Henriquez, Hugo Folch, Jose Sarmiento, Gabriel Moran
Neutrophils play an important role in the exacerbation and maintenance of severe equine asthma; persistent neutrophil activity and delayed apoptosis can be harmful to surrounding tissues. Tamoxifen (TX) is a nonsteroidal estrogen receptor modulator with immunomodulatory effects and induces early apoptosis of blood and bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils from horses with acute lung inflammation. This study investigated if the in vitro effects of tamoxifen are produced by its action on nuclear (α and β) and membrane (GPR30) estrogen receptors in healthy equine neutrophils...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Xia Xiao, Weixuan Lan, Ying Wang, Lijie Jiang, Yongjia Jiang, Zhiqiang Wang
Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) infection causes substantial economic loss in the duck industry. Danofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone solely used in animals, shows good antibacterial activity against P. multocida. In this study, the in vitro pharmacodynamics of danofloxacin against P. multocida was studied. The serum and lung tissue pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin were studied in healthy and P. multocida infected ducks following oral administration of a single dose of 5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The MIC, MBC and MPC of danofloxacin against P...
December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tania E Perez Jimenez, Katrina L Mealey, Darren Schnider, Tamara L Grubb, Stephen A Greene, Michael H Court
We previously showed that (+)-tramadol is metabolized in dog liver to (+)-M1 exclusively by CYP2D15 and to (+)-M2 by multiple CYPs, but primarily CYP2B11. However, (+)-M1 and (+)-M2 are further metabolized in dogs to (+)-M5, which is the major metabolite found in dog plasma and urine. In this study, we identified canine CYPs involved in metabolizing (+)-M1 and (+)-M2 using recombinant enzymes, untreated dog liver microsomes (DLMs), inhibitor-treated DLMs, and DLMs from CYP inducer-treated dogs. A canine P-glycoprotein expressing cell line was also used to evaluate whether (+)-tramadol, (+)-M1, (+)-M2, or (+)-M5 are substrates of canine P-glycoprotein, thereby limiting their distribution into the central nervous system...
December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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