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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Z Ling, L Yonghong, S Changqing, L Junfeng, Z Li, J Chunyu, L Xianqiang
To effectively control bovine mastitis, tilmicosin (TIL)- and florfenicol (FF)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) were prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. In vitro antibacterial activity, properties, and pharmacokinetics of the TIL-FF-SLN were studied. The results demonstrated that TIL and FF had a synergistic or additive antibacterial activity against Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. The size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of nanoparticles were 289...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
S Giguère, A J Burton, L J Berghaus, A D Haspel
The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of minocycline in foals vs. adult horses. Minocycline was administered to six healthy 6- to 9-week-old foals and six adult horses at a dose of 4 mg/kg intragastrically (IG) and 2 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.) in a cross-over design. Five additional oral doses were administered at 12-h intervals in foals. A microbiologic assay was used to measure minocycline concentration in plasma, urine, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure minocycline concentrations in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and bronchoalveolar (BAL) cells...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Q Shan, J Wang
Increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is of clinical concern. The objective of our study was to examine the in vivo activity of cefquinome against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strain using a neutropenic mouse thigh infection model. Cefquinome kinetics and protein binding in infected neutropenic mice were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Dose-fractionation studies over a 24-h dose range of 2.5-320 mg/kg were administered every 3, 6, 12, or 24 h...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
B Zollers, M Huebner, G Armintrout, L C Rausch-Derra, L Rhodes
The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety of capromorelin, a ghrelin agonist that stimulates appetite and causes increased body weight and the release of growth hormone (GH). Beagle dogs (n = 32) received either oral placebo or 0.3, 7, or 40 mg/kg capromorelin once daily for 12 consecutive months. Safety was evaluated by physical examinations, including ECG and ophthalmic examinations, and comprehensive clinical pathology. Serum levels of capromorelin, GH, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured periodically...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Y-N Liu, M-D Pang, X Xie, K-Z Xie, L-L Cui, Q Gao, J-Y Liu, B Wang, Y-Y Zhang, R Wang, G-X Zhang, G-J Dai, J-Y Wang
The depletion of amoxicillin (AMO) and its major metabolites, amoxicilloic acid (AMA) and amoxicillin-diketopiperazine-2',5'-dione (DIKETO) in the albumen, yolk and whole egg was studied after the oral dose of AMO (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) to laying hens once per day for five consecutive days. Egg samples were prepared by a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure with acetonitrile and saturated methylene chloride and analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that AMO, AMA and DIKETO residues were mainly distributed in the yolk, where particularly high concentrations of AMO and DIKETO were found, whereas the albumen contained high concentrations of AMA...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
O A Chiesa, D N Heller, J W Karanian, W F Pritchard, S Smith, P J Kijak, J L Ward, J von Bredow, M J Myers
Twelve healthy swine were dosed with penicillin G intramuscularly. Fluids and tissues samples were collected at the end of two periods of general anesthesia, performed 24 h apart. Tissue samples were collected by minimally invasive laparoscopy under general anesthesia at 8 and 28 h postdose. Four nonanesthetized, penicillin-treated pigs were euthanized at 8 h postdose, and a second set of four similarly treated control pigs were sacrificed 28 h postdose. Liver penicillin tissue concentrations from animals that underwent anesthesia and laparoscopic tissue collection had tissue concentrations that were higher than nonanesthetized pigs at both time points...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K L Epstein, A Bergren, B Nie, R D Arnold, B M Brainard
A lower molecular weight and molar substitution formulation (130/0.4) of hydroxyethyl starch solution has been shown to have a more sustained effect on COP and similar hemodynamic effects as a higher molecular weight and molar substitution formulation (600/0.75) in healthy horses. In humans, these pharmacodynamic characteristics are coupled with more rapid clearance and decreased adverse coagulation effects and accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the pharmacokinetics of these two formulations in horses...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
R J Johnson, C L Kerr, S S Enouri, P Modi, B D X Lascelles, J R E Del Castillo
We investigated the effects of liposome encapsulation at prolonging the systemic exposure of buprenorphine following subcutaneous administration in cats. Seven healthy male cats were dosed intravenously with 0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine solution (STD-BUP), followed 14 days later by a subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mg/kg buprenorphine as a liposomal suspension (SUS-BUP) containing drug molecules both in liposomes and the suspending vehicle. Buprenorphine time plasma concentration data for both dosing routes were analyzed simultaneously with four compartmental models...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K Uney, F Altan, S Altan, H Erol, M Arican, M Elmas
The plasma and synovial fluid pharmacokinetics and safety of cefquinome, a 2-amino-5-thiazolyl cephalosporin, were determined after multiple intravenous administrations in sixteen healthy horses. Cefquinome was administered to each horse through a slow i.v. injection over 20 min at 1, 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg (n = 4 horses per dose) every 12 h for 7 days (a total of 13 injections). Serial blood and synovial fluid samples were collected during the 12 h after the administration of the first and last doses and were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography assay...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
P J Early, K I Crook, L M Williams, E G Davis, K R Muñana, M G Papich, K M Messenger
The objective of this study was to evaluate the plasma and serum concentrations of cytarabine (CA) administered via constant rate infusion (CRI) in dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology (MUE). Nineteen client-owned dogs received a CRI of CA at a dose of 25 mg/m(2) /h for 8 h as treatment for MUE. Dogs were divided into four groups, those receiving CA alone and those receiving CA in conjunction with other drugs. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 8, and 12 h after initiating the CRI. Plasma (n = 13) and serum (n = 11) cytarabine concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J Pollock, D Bedenice, S H Jennings, M G Papich
The study objective was to determine the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of an extended-release 5% eprinomectin formulation (Longrange(®) ) following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection in healthy (n = 6) and mange-infected (n = 4) adult alpacas. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze plasma samples obtained at regular intervals for 161 days following a single 5 mg/kg injection s.c. in healthy alpacas, and for 5 days following each dose (3 treatments, 2 months apart) in mange-affected animals...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Chevance, A-M Jacques, M Laurentie, P Sanders, J Henri
Harmonization of the method for calculating the withdrawal period for milk dates from the 1990s. European harmonization has led to guidance with three accepted methods for determining the withdrawal period for milk that are currently applicable. These three methods can be used by marketing authorization holders, but, in some cases, their diversity can lead to very different withdrawal periods. This is particularly the case when concentrations in milk are nonmonotonic and heterogeneous, meaning that concentrations strictly increase and then strictly decrease with significant interindividual variability in the time to reach the maximal concentration...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
L Letendre, J Harriman, M Drag, A Mullins, T Malinski, S Rehbein
The pharmacokinetics of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (A3 and A4 forms) in dogs were evaluated following the oral administration of NexGard Spectra(®) (Merial), a fixed combination chewable formulation of these two active pharmaceutical ingredients. Absorption of actives was rapid at levels that provide the minimum effective doses of 2.5 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, respectively. The time to maximum afoxolaner plasma concentrations (tmax ) was 2-4 h. The milbemycin tmax was 1-2 h...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
S Poapolathep, K Wongpanit, K Imsilp, P Tanhan, N Klangkaew, M Giorgi, A Poapolathep
The present study aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of oxytetracycline long-acting formulation (OTC-LA) in Thai swamp buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, following single intramuscular administration at two dosages of 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected at assigned times up to 504 h. The plasma concentrations of OTC were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentrations of OTC in the plasma were determined up to 264 h and 432 h after i.m. administration at doses of 20 and 30 mg/kg b...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Montesinos, M Ardiaca, J A Gilabert, C Bonvehí, J Oros, T Encinas
Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used in avian species. In this study, the pharmacokinetic parameters for meloxicam were determined following single intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral (p.o.) administrations of the drug (1 mg/kg·b.w.) in adult African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus; n = 6). Serial plasma samples were collected and meloxicam concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Nagahisa, T Okumura
Grapiprant is an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the piprant class that was approved in March 2016 by FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine for the control of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs. Grapiprant functions as a selective antagonist of the EP4 receptor, one of the four prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) receptor subtypes. The EP4 receptor mediates PGE2 -elicited nociception, and grapiprant has been shown to decrease pain in several rat inflammatory pain models. It was also effective in reducing pain associated with OA in humans, providing evidence for its mechanism of action in these species...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
B Zollers, L Rhodes, R G Smith
This study's objective was to determine the effects in dogs of oral capromorelin, a ghrelin agonist, at different doses for 7 days on food consumption, body weight and serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and cortisol. Adult Beagles (n = 6) were dosed with placebo BID, capromorelin at 3.0 mg/kg SID, 4.5 mg/kg SID, or 3.0 mg/kg BID. Food consumption, body weight, serum capromorelin, GH, IGF-1, and cortisol were measured at intervals on days 1, 4, 7, and 9. Capromorelin increased food consumption and body weight compared to placebo and caused increased serum GH, which returned to the baseline by 8 h postdose...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
S X Hu
The hepatic activities of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) of male Ross 708 broiler chickens at the age of 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days and male Camborough-29 pigs at the age of 1 day and 2, 5, 10, and 20 weeks were investigated. Glucuronidation and sulfation of 4-nitrophenol were used to evaluate the activities. Porcine hepatic UGT and SULT activities were low at birth, peaked at around 5-10 weeks, and then declined. Both hepatic UGT and SULT activities of chickens were high at hatch and declined...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
R S Pirie, B C McGorum, C Owen, O Carr, H Oakley, G McLachlan
Despite frequent use of metered dose inhalers (MDIs) and spacers in equine practice, limited information exists on the efficiency of aerosol delivery using such devices. We determined the particle size distribution within an MDI-generated salbutamol aerosol delivered via an equine spacer using 'best practice' delivery technique and assessed the effect of variations in MDI use technique (shaking prior to each actuation, rapid repetitive actuations, and MDI angulation) on aerosol delivery efficiency. Under optimal conditions, only 53(±18) μg salbutamol per 100 μg actuation was delivered beyond the spacer...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J B Pieper, L Dirikolu, K L Campbell, Z Li, M A Mitchell
The aim of the study was to describe the effect of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A in healthy dogs when investigated as a single dose and at steady-state. Five healthy adult dogs were used in the study in a crossover design receiving either 5 mg/kg of cyclosporin A (CsA) alone or 5 mg/kg of fluconazole with 2.5 mg/kg of cyclosporin A (CsA/Flu) for 35 days. Pharmacokinetic curves were performed on day 1 and day 35 in addition to sampling trough and suspected peak concentrations (C2) twice weekly with LC/MS/MS...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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