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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

M Qian, L Wei, L Hao, S Tang
The aim of the study was to develop praziquantel (PZQ) oily suspensions with 30% PZQ high concentration for intramuscular injection and investigate their pharmacokinetics in cattle. Two optimized formulations containing 30% PZQ were developed in this study, and their quality met the technical standards set by the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China. After intramuscular administrations of the suspensions (30 mg/kg), no significant differences were observed between the two oily suspensions...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
B T Simon, P V Steagall
Opioids are the cornerstone for the treatment of acute pain in small animal patients. This is primarily because of their remarkable safety profile, high efficacy, and benefit of reversibility. There have been some significant advances in our knowledge on opioid pharmacology and clinical usage in companion animal medicine. This review discusses the progression of opioid use in small animal practice providing current misconceptions and controversies in light of routes of administration. Potential targets for research and drug development and novel therapies are discussed in addition to the concepts of glial cell modulators, individual variability, and opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
T Rairat, S C Ou, S K Chang, K P Li, T W Vickroy, C C Chou
The study was designed to characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue depletion profiles (including eggs) of cyromazine (CYR) in chickens following oral administration alone or in combination with melamine (MEL). In order to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of CYR, chickens were administered 1 or 10 mg/kg (single oral doses), whereas residue studies were conducted in chickens fed CYR alone (5 or 10 mg/kg) or CYR (5 mg/kg) and MEL (5 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days. Estimates for the apparent volume of distribution (1...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
V V Volkova, Z DeMars
We review historical availability and regulation, and recent indications of antimicrobial drugs for food animals in the USA. We summarize the timeline of introduction of individual antimicrobial drug classes from the 1930s to present, history of regulation of antimicrobial drugs from the 1930s to present and indications of antimicrobial drugs in 1996-2014 for food animals in the USA. The history of antimicrobial drug regulation demonstrates a historical precedent for harmonized regulations of antimicrobials 'for human and other animals' in the USA...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Drag, J Saik, J Harriman, L Letendre, S Yoon, D Larsen
The safety profile of afoxolaner (an isoxazoline molecule) when combined with milbemycin oxime (a macrocyclic lactone) was evaluated according to the regulatory requirements when administered six times orally in a soft chewable formulation at a dose of at least 1×, 3×, or 5× the maximum exposure dose in 8-week-old Beagle dogs. Thirty-two healthy puppies (16 males and 16 females) were enrolled and allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups. Three doses were administered at 28-day intervals (Days 0, 28, and 56), followed by three additional doses administered with 14-day intervals (Days 84, 98, and 112)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
C M Makau, P K Towett, K S P Abelson, T I Kanui
The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour (hindlimb withdrawal) that lasted for a mean time of 19.28 min (monophasic response). Intrathecal administration of clonidine (α2 -adrenergic receptor agonist) and yohimbine (α2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) at a dose of 40 μg/kg and 37...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
P Lees, J Illambas, T J Potter, L Pelligand, A Rycroft, P-L Toutain
The antimicrobial properties of tulathromycin were investigated for M. haemolytica and P. multocida. Three in vitro indices of antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves, were established for six isolates of each organism. Each index was measured in two growth media: Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. It was shown that MICs and MBCs were markedly lower in serum than in MHB. MHB:serum ratios for MIC were 47:1 (M. haemolytica) and 53:1 (P...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
T J Younkin, E G Davis, B Kukanich
The primary study objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of p.o. terbinafine alone to p.o. terbinafine administered with p.o. cimetidine in healthy adult horses. The second objective was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine when administered per rectum in two different suspensions at 30 mg/kg to adult horses. Six healthy adult horses were included in this crossover study. Plasma terbinafine concentrations were quantified with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J W Sparks, L A Karriker, D N Day, L W Wulf, J Zhang, M L Stock, J L Bates, R Gehring, J F Coetzee
The pharmacokinetics of intramuscularly administered ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) were determined in pigs that were clinically healthy (n = 8), vaccinated with a Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome modified live virus (PRRS MLV) (n = 10), challenged with wild-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) VR-2385 (n = 10), or vaccinated with PRRS MLV and later challenged with wild-type PRRSv VR-2385 (n = 10). Animals were given a single dose of CCFA intramuscularly at 5 mg/kg body weight...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Di Salvo, S Busechian, F Zappulla, M C Marchesi, C Pieramati, S Orvieto, M Boveri, P G Predieri, F Rueca, G Della Rocca
A new formulation of omeprazole in gastro-resistant granules was tested with regard to its pharmacokinetics and tolerability. Twenty-four horses were randomly divided into three groups (8 horses/group) and treated, according a parallel study design, as follows: Group A untreated (control group), Group B received 4 mg/kg of omeprazole, and Group C received 12 mg/kg of omeprazole, both of which were treated orally once a day for 90 days. Blood samples, taken from Group B subjects during the 1st and the 29th day of treatment at pre-established time points, were used to determine the concentration-time curves of omeprazole...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
H Hussein, J Dulin, L Smanik, W T Drost, D Russell, M Wellman, A Bertone
Our investigations evaluated the effect of VEL-0230, a highly specific irreversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK). The objectives of our study were to determine whether repeated dosing of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) produced a desired inhibition of the bone resorption biomarker (CTX-1), and document the effect of repeated dosing on bone homeostasis, structure, and dynamics of bone resorption and formation in horses. Twelve young exercising horses were randomized in a prospective, controlled clinical trial and received 4 weekly doses of a CatKI or vehicle...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Z Ling, L Yonghong, S Changqing, L Junfeng, Z Li, J Chunyu, L Xianqiang
To effectively control bovine mastitis, tilmicosin (TIL)- and florfenicol (FF)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) were prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. In vitro antibacterial activity, properties, and pharmacokinetics of the TIL-FF-SLN were studied. The results demonstrated that TIL and FF had a synergistic or additive antibacterial activity against Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. The size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of nanoparticles were 289...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
S Giguère, A J Burton, L J Berghaus, A D Haspel
The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of minocycline in foals vs. adult horses. Minocycline was administered to six healthy 6- to 9-week-old foals and six adult horses at a dose of 4 mg/kg intragastrically (IG) and 2 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.) in a cross-over design. Five additional oral doses were administered at 12-h intervals in foals. A microbiologic assay was used to measure minocycline concentration in plasma, urine, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure minocycline concentrations in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and bronchoalveolar (BAL) cells...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Q Shan, J Wang
Increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is of clinical concern. The objective of our study was to examine the in vivo activity of cefquinome against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strain using a neutropenic mouse thigh infection model. Cefquinome kinetics and protein binding in infected neutropenic mice were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Dose-fractionation studies over a 24-h dose range of 2.5-320 mg/kg were administered every 3, 6, 12, or 24 h...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
B Zollers, M Huebner, G Armintrout, L C Rausch-Derra, L Rhodes
The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety of capromorelin, a ghrelin agonist that stimulates appetite and causes increased body weight and the release of growth hormone (GH). Beagle dogs (n = 32) received either oral placebo or 0.3, 7, or 40 mg/kg capromorelin once daily for 12 consecutive months. Safety was evaluated by physical examinations, including ECG and ophthalmic examinations, and comprehensive clinical pathology. Serum levels of capromorelin, GH, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured periodically...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Y-N Liu, M-D Pang, X Xie, K-Z Xie, L-L Cui, Q Gao, J-Y Liu, B Wang, Y-Y Zhang, R Wang, G-X Zhang, G-J Dai, J-Y Wang
The depletion of amoxicillin (AMO) and its major metabolites, amoxicilloic acid (AMA) and amoxicillin-diketopiperazine-2',5'-dione (DIKETO) in the albumen, yolk and whole egg was studied after the oral dose of AMO (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) to laying hens once per day for five consecutive days. Egg samples were prepared by a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure with acetonitrile and saturated methylene chloride and analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that AMO, AMA and DIKETO residues were mainly distributed in the yolk, where particularly high concentrations of AMO and DIKETO were found, whereas the albumen contained high concentrations of AMA...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
O A Chiesa, D N Heller, J W Karanian, W F Pritchard, S Smith, P J Kijak, J L Ward, J von Bredow, M J Myers
Twelve healthy swine were dosed with penicillin G intramuscularly. Fluids and tissues samples were collected at the end of two periods of general anesthesia, performed 24 h apart. Tissue samples were collected by minimally invasive laparoscopy under general anesthesia at 8 and 28 h postdose. Four nonanesthetized, penicillin-treated pigs were euthanized at 8 h postdose, and a second set of four similarly treated control pigs were sacrificed 28 h postdose. Liver penicillin tissue concentrations from animals that underwent anesthesia and laparoscopic tissue collection had tissue concentrations that were higher than nonanesthetized pigs at both time points...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K L Epstein, A Bergren, B Nie, R D Arnold, B M Brainard
A lower molecular weight and molar substitution formulation (130/0.4) of hydroxyethyl starch solution has been shown to have a more sustained effect on COP and similar hemodynamic effects as a higher molecular weight and molar substitution formulation (600/0.75) in healthy horses. In humans, these pharmacodynamic characteristics are coupled with more rapid clearance and decreased adverse coagulation effects and accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the pharmacokinetics of these two formulations in horses...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
R J Johnson, C L Kerr, S S Enouri, P Modi, B D X Lascelles, J R E Del Castillo
We investigated the effects of liposome encapsulation at prolonging the systemic exposure of buprenorphine following subcutaneous administration in cats. Seven healthy male cats were dosed intravenously with 0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine solution (STD-BUP), followed 14 days later by a subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mg/kg buprenorphine as a liposomal suspension (SUS-BUP) containing drug molecules both in liposomes and the suspending vehicle. Buprenorphine time plasma concentration data for both dosing routes were analyzed simultaneously with four compartmental models...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K Uney, F Altan, S Altan, H Erol, M Arican, M Elmas
The plasma and synovial fluid pharmacokinetics and safety of cefquinome, a 2-amino-5-thiazolyl cephalosporin, were determined after multiple intravenous administrations in sixteen healthy horses. Cefquinome was administered to each horse through a slow i.v. injection over 20 min at 1, 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg (n = 4 horses per dose) every 12 h for 7 days (a total of 13 injections). Serial blood and synovial fluid samples were collected during the 12 h after the administration of the first and last doses and were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography assay...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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