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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

B KuKanich, K KuKanich, J Black
Tramadol is administered to dogs for analgesia but has variability in its extent of absorption, which may hinder its efficacy. Additionally, the active opioid metabolite (M1) occurs in low concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of oral tramadol with suspected metabolism inhibitors (ketoconazole, cimetidine) would lead to improved bioavailability of tramadol and M1. Six healthy Greyhounds were included. They were administered tramadol orally and intravenously, M1 intravenously, oral tramadol with oral ketoconazole and oral tramadol with oral cimetidine...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Q Shan, J Fan, J Wang, X Zhu, Y Yin, G Zheng
The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) was studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after single administration by intramuscular (IM) injection and oral gavage (PO) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight and by 5 mg/L bath for 5 hr at 25°C. The plasma concentrations of ENR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean ENR or CIP concentrations using WinNonlin 6.1 software. After IM, PO and bath administration, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of 2...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
P Marín, F García-Martínez, V Hernándis, E Escudero
The disposition kinetics of norfloxacin, after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration was determined in rabbits at a single dose of 10 mg/kg. Six New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes were treated with aqueous solution of norfloxacin (2%). A cross-over design was used in three phases (2 × 2 × 2), with two washout periods of 15 days. Plasma samples were collected up to 72 hr after treatment, snap-frozen at -45°C and analysed for norfloxacin concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A W Bianco, G E Moore, B R Cooper, S D Taylor
Flunixin meglumine (FM) is a commonly used Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in horses, but clinical efficacy is often unsatisfactory. Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) demonstrates superior efficacy compared to other NSAIDs in humans, but its anti-inflammatory effects have not been investigated in the horse. Safety of repeated dosing of KT has not been evaluated. The first objective was to conduct a dose determination study to verify that a previously described dosage of KT would inhibit Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced eicosanoid production in vitro, and to compare KT effects of this inhibition to those of FM...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Mohammadsadegh
Three hundred subclinically infected quarters of 259 Holstein cows infected with gram-positive bacteria were selected via quota sampling based on the California Mastitis Test (CMT) result and were divided randomly and equally into treatment and test groups. Quarters of test group (n = 150 in 128 cows) were treated with an intramammary infusion of tilmicosin, and quarters of the control group (n = 150 in 131 cows) were treated with cloxacillin as a traditional intramammary infusion of dry cow (DC) ointment...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M R Qian, Q Y Wang, H Yang, G Z Sun, X B Ke, L L Huang, J D Gao, J J Yang, B Yang
For most bacterial lung infections, the concentration of unbound antimicrobial agent in lung interstitial fluid has been thought to be responsible for antimicrobial efficacy. In this study, a diffusion-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the pulmonary pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF) in pigs. The model included separate compartments corresponding to blood, diffusion-limited lung, flow-limited muscle, liver, and kidney and an extra compartment representing the remaining carcass...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M K Watson, M G Papich, S K Chinnadurai
This study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of clindamycin, a lincosamide antibiotic, in Bennett's wallabies. The pharmacokinetic properties of a single intravenous (IV) dose of clindamycin were determined in six wallabies. A single 20-min IV infusion of 20 mg/kg of clindamycin was administered, followed by blood collection prior to, and up to 12 hr after clindamycin administration. Plasma clindamycin concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Paulin, M Schneider, F Dron, F Woehrle
Population pharmacokinetic of marbofloxacin was investigated with 52 plasma concentration-time profiles obtained after intramuscular administration of Forcyl® in cattle. Animal's status, pre-ruminant, ruminant, or dairy cow, was retained as a relevant covariate for clearance. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a stratification by status, and 1000 virtual disposition curves were generated in each bovine subpopulation for the recommended dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg as a single injection. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and prevention of resistance was determined in each simulated subpopulation...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
F B Cesar, A J Stewart, D M Boothe, W R Ravis, S H Duran, A A Wooldridge
Nine horses received 20 mg/kg of intravenous (LEVIV ); 30 mg/kg of intragastric, crushed immediate release (LEVCIR ); and 30 mg/kg of intragastric, crushed extended release (LEVCER ) levetiracetam, in a three-way randomized crossover design. Crushed tablets were dissolved in water and administered by nasogastric tube. Serum samples were collected over 48 hr, and levetiracetam concentrations were determined by immunoassay. Mean ± SD peak concentrations for LEVCIR and LEVCER were 50.72 ± 10.60 and 53...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
B H B Vieira, L T Nishimura, L L Carvalho, A Auckburally, E Mattos-Junior
Cardiopulmonary and sedative effects of intravenous or epidural methadone were compared. Six beagles were randomly assigned to group MIV (methadone 0.5 mg/kg IV + NaCl 0.9% epidurally) or MEP (methadone 0.5 mg/kg epidurally + NaCl 0.9% IV). Cardiopulmonary, blood gas and sedation were assessed at time (T) 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 min after drug administration. Compared to T0, heart rate decreased at T15-T120 in MIV (p < .001) and T15-T240 in MEP (p < .05); mean arterial pressure was reduced at T15-T60 in MEP (p < ...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A M Lorenzutti, N J Litterio, M A Himelfarb, M D P Zarazaga, M I San Andrés, J J De Lucas
The main objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the serum pharmacokinetic behaviour and milk penetration of marbofloxacin (MFX; 5 mg/kg), after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration in lactating goats and simulate a multidose regimen on steady-state conditions, (ii) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from caprine mastitis in Córdoba, Argentina and (iii) to make a PK/PD analysis by Monte Carlo simulation from steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters of MFX by IV and IM routes to evaluate the efficacy and risk of the emergence of resistance...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J Nan, H Hao, S Xie, Y Pan, C Xi, F Mao, Z Liu, L Huang, Z Yuan
The aim of this study was to establish an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling approach of acetylkitasamycin for designing dosage regimens and decreasing the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. After oral administration of acetylkitasamycin to healthy and infected pigs at the dose of 50 mg/kg body weights (bw), a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determining the concentration change of the major components of acetylkitasamycin and its possible metabolite kitasamycin in the intestinal samples taken from the T-shape ileal cannula...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
B Lebkowska-Wieruszewska, V De Vito, H Owen, A Poapholatep, M Giorgi
Drugs that provide effective analgesia in cats are limited. The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of grapiprant after 2 mg/kg administration via p.o. and i.v. routes in cats. Six healthy adult cats were used according to an open, single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, randomized cross-over design. Cats were assigned to two treatment groups and administered with 2 mg/kg of grapiprant (pure powder) through p.o. and i.v. administration. Blood samples were collected at preassigned times and analysed by a validated HPLC method...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
C Desevaux, A-A Marotte-Weyn, P Champeroux, J N King
The objective of the study was to assess the cardiovascular effects of intravenous (IV) dosing with robenacoxib (Onsior(®) ) in conscious adult healthy beagle dogs. The study employed a randomized, open, placebo-controlled, four-phase Latin square design. A total of eight dogs received a single dose of 2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg IV robenacoxib (test groups), 2 mg/kg subcutaneous (SC) robenacoxib (reference dose and route), and IV isotonic saline (control). There were no significant differences between groups for clinical observations, buccal mucosal bleeding time or blood hematology, coagulation, and clinical chemistry variables in all eight dogs...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
D M Foster, H J Sylvester, M G Papich
Antibiotic distribution to interstitial fluid (ISF) and pulmonary epithelial fluid (PELF) was measured and compared to plasma drug concentrations in eight healthy calves. Enrofloxacin (Baytril(®) 100) was administered at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg subcutaneously (SC), and tilmicosin (Micotil(®) 300) was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg SC. PELF, sampled by two different methods-bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and direct sampling (DS)-plasma, and ISF were collected from each calf and measured for tilmicosin, enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin by HPLC...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Gajda, A Jablonski, M Gbylik-Sikorska, A Posyniak
The penetration of oxytetracycline (OTC) into the oral fluid and plasma of pigs and correlation between oral fluid and plasma were evaluated after a single intramuscular (i.m.) dose of 20 mg/kg body weight of long-acting formulation. The OTC was detectable both in oral fluid and plasma from 1 hr up to 21 day after drug administration. The maximum concentrations (Cmax ) of drug with values of 4021 ± 836 ng/ml in oral fluid and 4447 ± 735 ng/ml in plasma were reached (Tmax ) at 2 and 1 hr after drug administration respectively...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K E Wilson, J L Davis, M V Crisman, V Kvaternick, C Zarabadipour, H Cheramie, D R Hodgson
The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenous firocoxib in neonatal foals. Six healthy foals were administered 0.09 mg/kg firocoxib intravenously once a day for 7 days. Blood was collected for plasma firocoxib analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection at times 0 (day 1 of study only) and 0.08, 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 hr on dose numbers 1, 5 and 7. Blood was also collected immediately prior to doses 3, 4, 5 and 7. Final samples were collected at 36, 48, 72 and 96 hr following the final dose...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
S Gharibi, B Kimble, L Vogelnest, J Barnes, C K Stadler, M Govendir
The pharmacokinetic profile of posaconazole in clinically normal koalas (n = 8) was investigated. Single doses of posaconazole were administered intravenously (i.v.; 3 mg/kg; n = 2) or orally (p.o.; 6 mg/kg; n = 6) with serial plasma samples collected over 24 and 36 hr, respectively. Plasma concentrations of posaconazole were quantified by validated high-performance liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of data was performed. Following i.v. administration, estimates of the median (range) of plasma clearance (CL) and steady-state volume of distribution (Vss ) were 0...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Ziesch, N Wente, Y Zhang, W Zaremba, S Engl, V Krömker
A nonblinded, positively controlled, noninferiority trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative, nonantibiotic therapy with Masti Veyxym(®) to reduce ineffective antibiotic usage in the treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis (CM) in cows with longer lasting udder diseases. The solely intramammary treatment with Masti Veyxym(®) (three applications, 12 hr apart) and the combined treatment with Masti Veyxym(®) and antibiotics as usual on the farm according to label of the respective product were compared with the reference treatment of solely antibiotic therapy...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
X Xiao, Y Zhao, Y Zhou, Z Wang
Mebendazole is approved for use in aquatic animals and is widely used in Chinese aquaculture. We developed a pharmacokinetic and residue analysis for mebendazole levels in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Plasma and muscle samples of C. auratus were taken after oral administration of 10 mg/kg mebendazole. The maximal drug plasma concentration of 0.55 mg/L was achieved at 48 hr and then declined with the elimination half-life (T1/2β ) of 7.99 hr. Administration of 10 mg/kg by oral gavage for 5 successive days resulted in a peak mebendazole concentration of 0...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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