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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

William Buhles, Jessica M Quimby, Daizie Labelle, Valentine S Williams
Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of mirtazapine transdermal ointment applied to the inner ear pinna of cats were assessed. Study 1 was a randomized, cross-over single dose study (n = 8). Cats were treated once with 0.5 mg/kg of mirtazapine transdermal ointment applied topically to the inner ear pinna (treatment) or administered orally (control) and then crossed over after washout. Plasma was collected predose and at specified intervals over 96 hr following dosing. Study 2 was a multiple dose study (n = 8)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Fazul Nabi, Muhammad K Iqbal, Hui Zhang, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Shahzad, Shucheng Huang, Zhaoqing Han, Khalid Mehmood, Nisar Ahmed, Bahram Chachar, Muhammad A Arain, Jiakui Li
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a bone defect of broilers and other poultry birds that disturbs growth plate and it causes lameness. Previously we evaluated differential expression of multiple genes involved in growth plate angiogenesis and reported the safety and efficacious of medicinal plant root extracted for controlling TD. In this study, clinical and protective effect of an antibiotic Novobiocin (Hsp90 inhibitor) and expression of Hsp90 and proteoglycan aggrecan was examined. The chicks were divided into three groups; Control, thiram-induced TD, and Novobiocin injected TD...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Denisa Soledad Pérez Gaudio, Guadalupe Martínez, María Belén Fernández Paggi, Julieta María Decundo, Agustina Romanelli, Susana Nelly Dieguez, Alejandro Luis Soraci
Fosfomycin (FOS) is an antibiotic used, mostly in Latin America, for the treatment of lung and enteric infections of pigs. Intracellular fluids of enterocytes can act as biophase for Lawsonia intracellularis, the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE). The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of L. intracellularis in the enterocytes modifies FOS penetration. Eight healthy pigs in growth-finishing stage were used to produce healthy (group A) and L. intracellularis-colonized (group B) intestinal explants...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Zhichang Liu, Ting Rong, Dongping Zeng, Xiangguang Shen, Xianyong Ma, Zhenling Zeng
Bayesian population pharmacokinetic models of florfenicol in healthy pigs were developed based on retrospective data in pigs either via intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration. Following i.v. administration, the disposition of florfenicol was best described by a two-compartment open model with the typical values of half-life at α phase (t1/2α ), half-life at β phase (t1/2β ), total body clearance (Cl), and volume of distribution (Vd ) were 0.132 ± 0.0289, 2.78 ± 0.166 hr, 0.215 ± 0...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Patrick J Gorden, Joshua A Ydstie, Michael D Kleinhenz, Troy A Brick, Joe S Smith, Ronald W Griffith, Larry W Wulf, Suzanne M Rajewski, Min Zhang, Pritam K Sidhu, Jonathan P Mochel, Johann F Coetzee
Ceftiofur (CEF) is a third-generation cephalosporin that is the most widely used antimicrobial in the dairy industry. Currently, violative meat residues in cull dairy cattle are commonly associated with CEF. One potential cause for violative residues is altered pharmacokinetics of the drug due to disease, which could increase the time needed for the residue to deplete. The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the absolute bioavailability of CEF crystalline-free acid (CFA) in healthy versus diseased cows; (b) to compare the plasma and interstitial fluid pharmacokinetics and plasma protein binding of CEF between healthy dairy cows and those with disease; and (c) to determine the CEF residue profile in tissues of diseased cows...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Elizabeth E Hickey, Hui San Wong, Manouchehr Khazandi, Abiodun D Ogunniyi, Kiro R Petrovski, Sanjay Garg, Stephen W Page, Ryan O'Handley, Darren J Trott
Increasing reports of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in animals has created a need for novel antimicrobial agents that do not promote cross-resistance to critically important antimicrobial classes used in human medicine. In response to the recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance in several bovine mastitis pathogens, in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for four polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin and salinomycin) against Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Qi Shan, Jingxin Wang, Jing Wang, Lisha Ma, Fenghua Yang, Yi Yin, Ren Huang, Shugui Liu, Lichun Li, Guangming Zheng
The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of enrofloxacin (ENR) and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP) were investigated in crucian carp following oral administration at different dose levels (5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg body weight). The disposition kinetics of ENR was found to be linear over the dose range studied. Serum half-lives ranged from 64.56 to 72.68 hr. The in vitro and ex vivo activities of ENR in serum against a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. In vitro and ex vivo bactericidal activity of ENR was concentration dependent...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tae Won Kim, Beata Łebkowska-Wieruszewska, Andrejs Sitovs, Amnart Poapolathep, Helen Owen, Andrzej Lisowski, Zulkyya Abilova, Mario Giorgi
Metamizole (dipyrone, MET) is a nonopioid analgesic drug commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to assess two major active metabolites of MET, 4-methylaminoantipyrin (MAA) and 4-aminoantipyrin (AA), in goat plasma after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. In addition, metabolite concentration in milk was monitored after IM injection. Six healthy female goats received MET at a dose of 25 mg/kg by IV and IM routes in a crossover design study. The blood and milk samples were analyzed using HPLC coupled with ultraviolet detector and the plasma vs concentration curves analyzed by a noncompartmental model...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Trevor Elwell-Cuddy, Miao Li, Butch KuKanich, Zhoumeng Lin
Methadone is an opioid analgesic in veterinary and human medicine. To help develop appropriate pain management practices and to develop a quantitative model for predicting methadone dosimetry, a flow-limited multiroute physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for methadone in dogs constructed with Berkeley Madonna™ was developed. The model accounts for intravenous (IV), subcutaneous (SC), and oral administrations, and compartmentalizes the body into different components. This model was calibrated from plasma pharmacokinetic data after IV administration of methadone in Beagles and Greyhounds...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Marilyn N Martinez, Michael H Court, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Katrina L Mealey
There is an increasing effort to understand the many sources of population variability that can influence drug absorption, metabolism, disposition, and clearance in veterinary species. This growing interest reflects the recognition that this diversity can influence dose-exposure-response relationships and can affect the drug residues present in the edible tissues of food-producing animals. To appreciate the pharmacokinetic diversity that may exist across a population of potential drug product recipients, both endogenous and exogenous variables need to be considered...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Laura Moreno, Mariana Bistoletti, Hector Fernández, Lucila Cantón, Laura Ceballos, Candela Cantón, Carlos Lanusse, Luis I Álvarez
This work characterized the egg residual concentrations of albendazole (ABZ) and its sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2 ) metabolites and evaluated their effect on egg fertility and hatchability after ABZ treatments to laying hens. Seventy hens were allocated in groups: Group-1 was the control without treatment; Group-2 received a single ABZ oral dose (10 mg/kg); Group-3, -4 and -5 were treated with ABZ in medicated feed over 7 days at 10, 40, or 80 mg kg-1  day-1 , respectively. Eggs were analyzed to determine the ABZ/metabolite level by HPLC or subjected to incubation to evaluate the fertility and hatchability...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Antoine Rostang, Marion Mosca, Morgan Jeannin, Coralie Luissiez, Philippe Berny, Isabelle Fourel, Didier Pin, Caroline Prouillac
Methotrexate may be an alternative to ciclosporin in the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) as suggested by recent data. The aim of the study was to investigate both the tolerance and the pharmacokinetic behavior of methotrexate (MTX) in plasma, following intravenous (i.v.), subcutaneous (s.c.) or oral (OR) administration over several weeks. Six healthy dogs were given oral MTX once a week, respectively, per dog at 2.5 mg/1 week, 5 mg/4 weeks, 7.5 mg/3 weeks, 10 mg/6 weeks and 12.5 mg/5 weeks...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Fan Yang, Fang Yang, Tao Kong, Guoyong Wang, Dongying Bai, Baobao Liu
The pharmacokinetic profiles of florfenicol (FF) or florfenicol amine (FFA) in crucian carp were compared at different water temperatures after single intramuscular administration of FF at 10 mg/kg bodyweight. The concentrations of FF and FFA were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method, and then, the concentration versus time data were subjected to compartmental analysis using a one-compartment open model. At the water temperatures of 10, 20, and 25°C, the peak concentrations (Cmax s) of FF were 2...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Elke Abbeloos, Satu Pyörälä, Päivi Rajala-Schultz, Vesa Myllys
The aim of this study was to determine the intramammary dose of benzylpenicillin required to maintain a concentration in the milk above the MIC for the Gram-positive bacteria that cause mastitis. The product used in this study was a commercially available procaine benzylpenicillin in an oily suspension with micronized particles. Three dose levels were used: 200,000, 300,000, and 600,000 IU. Concentrations of benzylpenicillin in cow milk and plasma were determined after a single intramammary dose was administered into one quarter of each of the five cows in each treatment group...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J Riquelme, V Cazanga, J Jeldres, R Pérez
The comparative pharmacokinetics of ivermectin (IVM), between healthy and in Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) injected sheep, was investigated after an intravenous (IV) administration of a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Ten Suffolk Down sheep, 55 ± 3.3 kg, were distributed in two experimental groups: Group 1 (LPS): treated with three doses of 1 μg LPS/kg bw at -24, -16, and -0.75 hr before IVM; group 2 (Control): treated with saline solution (SS). An IV dose of 0.2 mg IVM/kg was administered 45 min after the last injection of LPS or SS...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
B Pastina, P J Early, R L Bergman, J Nettifee, A Maller, K Y Bray, R J Waldron, A M Castel, K R Munana, M G Papich, K M Messenger
The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cytarabine (CA) after subcutaneous (SC) administration to dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology (MUE). Twelve dogs received a single SC dose of CA at 50 mg/m2 as part of treatment of MUE. A sparse sampling technique was used to collect four blood samples from each dog from 0 to 360 min after administration. All dogs were concurrently receiving prednisone (0.5-2 mg kg-1 day-1 ). Plasma CA concentrations were measured by HPLC, and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NLME)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Gestrich, D Bedenice, M Ceresia, I Zaghloul
The study objective was to evaluate the effects of age on aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics in eight young-adult (<4 years) and eight aged (≥14 years) healthy alpacas, receiving a single 6.6 mg/kg intravenous gentamicin injection. Heparinized plasma samples were obtained at designated time points following drug administration and frozen at -80°C until assayed by a validated immunoassay (QMS® ). Compartmental and noncompartmental analyses of gentamicin plasma concentrations versus time were performed using WinNonlin (v6...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
E R Sikina, J F Bach, Z Lin, R Gehring, B KuKanich
To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of suppository acetaminophen (APAP) in healthy dogs and clinically ill dogs. This prospective study used six healthy client-owned and 20 clinically ill hospitalized dogs. The healthy dogs were randomized by coin flip to receive APAP orally or as a suppository in crossover study design. Blood samples were collected up to 10 hr after APAP dosing. The hospitalized dogs were administered APAP as a suppository, and blood collected at 2 and 6 hr after dosing. Plasma samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
L Zhang, Y Li, Y Wang, A Sajid, S Ahmed, X Li
The aims of this study were to establish optimal doses of doxycycline (dox) against Haemophilus parasuis on the basis of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) integration modeling. The infected model was established by intranasal inoculation of organism in pigs and confirmed by clinical signs, blood biochemistry, and microscopic examinations. The recommended dose (20 mg/kg b.w.) was administered in pigs through intramuscular routes for PK studies. The area under the concentration 0- to 24-hr curve (AUC0-24 ), elimination half-life (T½ke ), and mean residence time (MRT) of dox in healthy and H...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Leiberich, R Krebber, M Hewetson, J Marais, V Naidoo
The alleviation of pain and prevention of suffering are key aspects of animal welfare. Unfortunately, analgesic drugs are not available for all species. White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), representing one of such species, which survive poaching attempts inflicted with severe facial injuries and gunshot wounds, nonetheless require analgesic support. To improve treatment conditions, this study explored the use of carprofen for the treatment of pain and inflammation in white rhinoceros. The pharmacokinetics of 1 mg/kg intramuscular carprofen was evaluated in six healthy white rhinoceros...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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