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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

S K Pedersen, A E Cribb, E K Read, D French, H E Banse
In equids, phenylbutazone at high doses induces gastric disease, primarily in the glandular portion of the stomach. However, the mechanism of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric disease in horses has yet to be determined. While phenylbutazone-associated ulceration is often attributed to a decrease in basal gastric prostaglandins, this has not been demonstrated in the horse. Twelve horses were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 6; 4.4 mg/kg phenylbutazone PO in 20 ml molasses q 12 hr for 7 days) or placebo (n = 6; 20 ml molasses PO q 12 hr for 7 days) groups...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
O L Levionnois, T K Fosse, B Ranheim
Flunixin is marketed in several countries for analgesia in adult swine but little is known about its efficacy in piglets. Thirty-two piglets (6-8 days old) were randomized to receive placebo saline (n = 11, group CONTROL) or flunixin meglumine intravenously at 2.2 (n = 11, group MEDIUM) or 4.4 (n = 10, group HIGH) mg/kg, 10 hr after subcutaneous injection of kaolin in the left metacarpal area. A hand-held algometer was used to determine each piglet's mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) from both front feet up to 50 hr after treatment (cut-off value of 24...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Hoenig, M Clark, D J Schaeffer, D Reiche
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are used in the treatment of human diabetics. They increase glucose excretion and correct hyperglycemia. We examined the investigational SGLT2 inhibitor velagliflozin in two groups of six neutered adult obese cats (equal gender distribution). Placebo (Pl) or drug (D; 1 mg/kg) was administered for 35 days. Routine blood examinations, fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucagon, adiponectin, and leptin were measured before and after treatment, also water intake, and urinary electrolytes, glucose, and volume...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Ballent, P Viviani, F Imperiale, P Dominguez, S Halwachs, H Mahnke, W Honscha, C Lanusse, G Virkel, A Lifschitz
Monepantel (MNP) is a novel anthelmintic compound launched into the veterinary pharmaceutical market. MNP is not licenced for use in dairy animals due to the prolonged elimination of its metabolite monepantel sulphone (MNPSO2 ) into milk. The goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of potential in vivo drug-drug interactions affecting the pattern of milk excretion after the coadministration of the anthelmintics MNP and oxfendazole (OFZ) to lactating dairy cows. The concentrations of both parent drugs and their metabolites were measured in plasma and milk samples by HPLC...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J E Hare, C M K Morrow, J Caldwell, W E Lloyd
The safety of synthetic levothyroxine sodium tablets (Thyro-Tabs® Canine; LLOYD, Inc.) in dogs was evaluated in a randomized, sham-dose controlled, parallel-group study. Young, healthy, euthyroid Beagle dogs were randomized into four groups (four females and four males per group) and received single daily doses of 0×, 2× (0.044 mg/kg), 6× (0.132 mg/kg), or 10× (0.22 mg/kg) the labeled starting dose of 0.022 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) for 182 days. Every 2 weeks, physical examinations, electrocardiology examinations, and sample collections for thyroid panel, hematology, serum biochemistry, coagulation panel, and urinalysis were performed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Z Ling, L Yonghong, L Junfeng, Z Li, L Xianqiang
The combined antibacterial effects of tilmicosin (TIL) and florfenicol (FF) against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) (n = 2), Streptococcus suis (S. suis) (n = 2), and Haemophilus parasuis (HPS) (n = 2) were evaluated by chekerboard test and time-kill assays. The pharmacokinetics (PKs) of TIL- and FF-loaded hydrogenated castor oil (HCO)-solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were performed in healthy pigs. The results indicated that TIL and FF showed synergistic or additive antibacterial activities against APP, S...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Kirby, G A Lewbart, A Hancock-Ronemus, M G Papich
The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and the metabolite ciprofloxacin were studied in horseshoe crabs after a single injection of 5 mg/kg. Twelve Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) of undetermined age were injected with enrofloxacin into the dorsal cardiac sinus. Hemolymph samples were collected by syringe and needle at regular intervals for 120 hr. Samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and compartmental analysis performed on the results. Following injection, the elimination half-life (T½), peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and volume of distribution (VD) for enrofloxacin were 27...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A G P Guedes, F Aristizabal, A Sole, A Adedeji, R Brosnan, H Knych, J Yang, S-H Hwang, C Morisseau, B D Hammock
This study determined the pharmacokinetics, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory effects of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor t-TUCB (trans-4-{4-[3-(4-Trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid) in horses with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced radiocarpal synovitis. A total of seven adult healthy mares (n = 4-6/treatment) were administered 3 μg LPS into one radiocarpal joint and t-TUCB intravenously (i.v.) at 0 (control), 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg in a blinded, randomized, crossover design with at least 3 weeks washout between...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J A Wofford, B Zollers, L Rhodes, M Bell, E Heinen
Capromorelin is a ghrelin receptor agonist that is FDA approved for appetite stimulation in dogs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of daily oral administration of capromorelin to cats over a range of doses and for an extended period. Two randomized, controlled studies were conducted: in Study 1, cats (n = 6 per group) received placebo or capromorelin at a dose of 9, 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg once daily for 14 days; and in Study 2, cats received capromorelin at 6 mg/kg (n = 8) or placebo (n = 4) once daily for 91 days...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K A Thompson, M G Papich, B Higgins, J Flanagan, E F Christiansen, C A Harms
Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent that nonselectively inhibits cyclooxygenase, with both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition. Recent studies on COX receptor expression in reptiles suggest that nonselective COX inhibitors may be more appropriate than more selective inhibitors in some reptiles, but few pharmacokinetic studies are available. The goal of this study was to determine single- and multidose (three consecutive days) pharmacokinetics of racemic ketoprofen administered intravenously and intramuscularly at 2 mg/kg in healthy juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta)...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Di Salvo, M Giorgi, S Nannarone, H K Lee, J Corsalini, G Della Rocca
NSAIDs are often used in horses with colic syndrome during the postoperative period, due to their ability to contrast endotoxemia and to promote an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. As the pharmacokinetics of a drug are often modified in unhealthy animals compared to healthy subjects, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of meloxicam after i.v. administration in horses undergoing laparotomy for colic syndrome. Eight horses received 0.6 mg/kg of meloxicam i.v. towards the end of surgery...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
H K Knych, A Vale, W D Wilson, P H Kass, R M Arthur, J H Jones
Furosemide is a diuretic agent used commonly in racehorses to attenuate the bleeding associated with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH). The current study describes serum and urine concentrations and the pharmacokinetics of furosemide following administration at 4 and 24 hrs prior to maximal exercise. Eight exercised adult Thoroughbred horses received a single IV administration of 250 mg of furosemide at 4 and 24 hrs prior to maximal exercise on a high-speed treadmill. Blood and urine samples were collected at time 0 and at various times for up to 72 hrs and furosemide concentrations determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Mendel, M Chłopecka, N Dziekan, W Karlik
Continued ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by ruminants can provoke pharmacological interactions with pharmaceutical agents used in animals. As some drugs and phytocompounds affect smooth muscle activity, the aim of this study was to verify the possible interaction between selected pharmaceutical agents and plant secondary metabolites towards bovine gastrointestinal motility. The interactions between phytocompounds-apigenin, quercetin, hederagenin, medicagenic acid-and medicines-erythromycin, flunixin meglumine and levamisole-were evaluated on bovine isolated abomasal and duodenal specimens obtained from routinely slaughtered cows...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J Wang, T Zhao, X Sun, Y Liu, J Zhu, S Zhang, X Cao
The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of tildipirosin (TD) in 24 beagle dogs following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration, respectively, at 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg. Plasma samples at certain time points (0-14 days) were collected, and the concentrations of drug were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS. Plasma concentration-time data and relevant parameters were described by noncompartmental through WinNonlin 6.4 software. After single i.m. injection at 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg body weight, mean maximum concentration (Cmax ) was 412...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K Kongara
Genetic variation causes interindividual variability in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. These pharmacokinetic processes will influence the observed efficacy and toxicity of a drug. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the metabolizing enzymes, transport proteins and receptors have been linked to the inconsistency in responses to opioid treatment in humans and laboratory animals. Pharmacogenetics is relatively less developed field in veterinary medicine compared to significant advances in knowledge on genetic basis of variation in drug responses and clinical applications in human medicine...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K Washburn, V R Fajt, P Plummer, E Papastavros, J F Coetzee, L W Wulf, S Washburn
The purpose of this study was to determine if concentrations of chlortetracycline could be detected in fetal plasma or tissues after administering an oral dose of chlortetracycline (CTC; 500 mg/head/day) reported to be effective in controlling Campylobacter spp. abortions. Five pregnant ewes were administered 250 mg/head twice a day (total dose 500 mg/hd/d) for 7 days. On the beginning of day 7, intravenous catheters were surgically implanted or inserted into the fetus and dam. Plasma samples were collected from the ewe and fetus at various time points before and up to 36 hr after the last dose of CTC...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
D Venkatachalam, V K Dumka, B Ranjan
The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome following single intramuscular (IM) administration in six healthy male buffalo calves. Cefquinome was administered intramuscularly (2 mg/kg bodyweight) and blood samples were collected prior to drug administration and up to 24 hr after injection. No adverse effects or changes were observed after the IM injection of cefquinome. Plasma concentrations of cefquinome were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The disposition of plasma cefquinome is characterized by a mono-compartmental open model...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K O Echeverria, K M Lascola, S Giguère, J H Foreman
Minocycline is commonly used to treat bacterial and rickettsial infections in adult horses but limited information exists regarding the impact of feeding on its oral bioavailability. This study's objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of minocycline after administration of a single oral dose in horses with feed withheld and with feed provided at the time of drug administration. Six healthy adult horses were administered intravenous (2.2 mg/kg) and oral minocycline (4 mg/kg) with access to hay at the time of oral drug administration (fed) and with access to hay delayed for 2 hr after oral drug administration (fasted), with a 7-day washout between treatments...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
M Grobman, D M Boothe, H Rindt, B G Williamson, M L Katz, J R Coates, C R Reinero
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is recommended as an alternative/complementary immunosuppressant. Pharmacokinetic and dynamic effects of MMF are unknown in young-aged dogs. We investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single oral dose MMF metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), in healthy juvenile dogs purpose-bred for the tripeptidyl peptidase 1 gene (TPP1) mutation. The dogs were heterozygous for the mutation (nonaffected carriers). Six dogs received 13 mg/kg oral MMF and two placebo. Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from plasma MPA were evaluated...
December 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
L Dorey, S Hobson, P Lees
The pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was determined for pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Indices of potency were determined for the following: (i) two matrices, broth and pig serum; (ii) five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions; and (iii) a high strength starting culture. For A. pleuropneumoniae, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar for the two matrices, but for P. multocida, differences were marked and significantly different. MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) serum: broth ratios for A...
October 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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