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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Zeynep Ozdemir, Bunyamin Tras, Kamil Uney, Hatice Eser Faki, Tugba Melike Besoluk
This study was conducted to determine the passage ratio of amoxicillin into milk and its pharmacokinetics in milk and plasma after intramuscular administration. Five healthy dairy cows (Holstein, weighing 450-500 kg, aged 2-4 years) were used in this study. They received single intramuscular amoxicillin at a dose of 14 mg/kg body weight. Blood and milk samples were collected prior to drug administration (0); after 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min; and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hr after administration. The plasma and milk concentrations of amoxicillin were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Agnieszka Szuster-Ciesielska, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Andrzej Wernicki, Laurent Mascaron, Marek Wasak, Eric Bousquet
Escherichia coli is one of the major pathogens in humans and animals causing localized and systemic infections, which often lead to acute inflammation, watery diarrhea, and hemorrhagic colitis. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Shiga exotoxins (Stx) are mostly responsible for such clinical signs. Therefore, highly effective treatment of E. coli infections should include both eradication of bacteria and neutralization of their toxins. Here, for the first time, we compared the in vitro ability of common antibiotics to decrease LPS- and Stx-mediated cytotoxicity: colistin, amoxicillin (used separately or combined), enrofloxacin, and its metabolite ciprofloxacin...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Xia Xiao, Weixuan Lan, Ying Wang, Lijie Jiang, Yongjia Jiang, Zhiqiang Wang
Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) infection causes substantial economic loss in the duck industry. Danofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone solely used in animals, shows good antibacterial activity against P. multocida. In this study, the in vitro pharmacodynamics of danofloxacin against P. multocida was studied. The serum and lung tissue pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin were studied in healthy and P. multocida infected ducks following oral administration of a single dose of 5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The MIC, MBC and MPC of danofloxacin against P...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ruth A Parsley, Adrian G Mutlow, Jacqueline Hansted, Femke J Taverne, Lisa A Tell, Ronette Gehring
Aspergillosis is a condition causing serious morbidity and mortality in captive penguins and other bird species. It can be treated with antifungal drugs, such as voriconazole. However, the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole are variable between different animal and bird species. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole were investigated in this study in Magellanic penguins. Pharmacokinetic models were constructed and applied to predict the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole during long-term treatment in Magellanic penguins, since the voriconazole treatment duration in chronic aspergillosis cases can last up to several months...
September 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Marike Visser, Kristina L Weber, Leslie A Lyons, Gonzalo Rincon, Dawn M Boothe, Dawn A Merritt
Understanding of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform distribution and function in the domestic feline is limited. Only a few studies have defined individual CYP isoforms across metabolically relevant tissues, hampering the ability to predict drug metabolism and potential drug-drug interactions. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), transcriptomes from the 99 Lives Cat Genome Sequencing Initiative databank combined with experimentally acquired whole transcriptome sequencing of healthy, adult male (n = 2) and female (n = 2) domestic felines, expression of 42 CYP isoforms were identified in 20 different tissues...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Adrià Aguilar, Xavier Moll, Félix García, Anna Andaluz
Neuromuscular blocking agents should be included as part of a balanced anaesthetic protocol to improve anaesthetic management, although doses are not always established for each species. Cis-atracurium is a benzylisoquinolinium neuromuscular blocking agent with an intermediate duration of action devoid of significant adverse effects previously used in pigs with a wide dosage range. Cis-atracurium was administered at 1 mg/kg bolus to sixteen pigs to establish its time profile and effects. The pigs were premedicated intramuscularly with 4 mg/kg azaperone, 8 mg/kg ketamine and 0...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tania E Perez Jimenez, Katrina L Mealey, Darren Schnider, Tamara L Grubb, Stephen A Greene, Michael H Court
We previously showed that (+)-tramadol is metabolized in dog liver to (+)-M1 exclusively by CYP2D15 and to (+)-M2 by multiple CYPs, but primarily CYP2B11. However, (+)-M1 and (+)-M2 are further metabolized in dogs to (+)-M5, which is the major metabolite found in dog plasma and urine. In this study, we identified canine CYPs involved in metabolizing (+)-M1 and (+)-M2 using recombinant enzymes, untreated dog liver microsomes (DLMs), inhibitor-treated DLMs, and DLMs from CYP inducer-treated dogs. A canine P-glycoprotein expressing cell line was also used to evaluate whether (+)-tramadol, (+)-M1, (+)-M2, or (+)-M5 are substrates of canine P-glycoprotein, thereby limiting their distribution into the central nervous system...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Orhan Corum, Duygu Durna Corum, Ayse Er, Ramazan Yildiz, Kamil Uney
The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and tolerability of tolfenamic acid (TA) were determined after treating sheep with TA via different routes and doses. This crossover study was carried out with a washout period of 15 days. In the study, 16 clinically healthy sheep were randomly assigned to two equal groups. In the first group (n = 8), animals received TA by intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), or oral (OR) routes at 2 mg/kg. In the second group (n = 8), TA was administered intravenously to each sheep at 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Trishna Patel, Tara Marmulak, Ronette Gehring, Maurice Pitesky, Maaike O Clapham, Lisa A Tell
Poultry meat is widely consumed throughout the world and production practices often include the administration of pharmaceutical products. When appropriate, extra-label drug use of medications is necessary, but scientifically derived drug withdrawal intervals must be observed so that poultry meat is not contaminated with drug residues which could pose health risks to consumers. Over the past decade, there has been increased advocacy for judicious use of antimicrobial drugs for treating food animals. Judicious use of medications is commonly referred to as practices that reduce antibiotic resistance, but also includes residue avoidance...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tim Morris, Stuart W Paine, Marjaana Viljanto, Simon Hudson, Simon Gower, Melissa Pittorino, Sally Colgan
The oral tablet formulation of butylscopolamine, which is available without prescription, is commonly used by trainers of racing greyhounds to treat functional urethral obstruction. As medication control of butylscopolamine is therefore required for such use to ensure the integrity of greyhound racing, an administration study was performed in six greyhounds to determine the pharmacokinetics of orally administered butylscopolamine. A single dose of one 10 mg butylscopolamine tablet was administered orally to simulate this use in greyhound racing...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jianzhong Wang, Jiao Xue, Jingyuan Kong, Jing Li, Suxia Zhang, Xingyuan Cao
The pharmacokinetic properties of vitacoxib have not been established completely; current dosage recommendations are based on clinical experiences. The primary objective of this study was to describe plasma concentrations and characterize the pharmacokinetics of vitacoxib formulation following oral administrations in horses. Also, the effect of the state of stomach contents on the absorption of vitacoxib was investigated in fed/fasted horses. Blood samples were collected prior to and at various times up to 72 hr post-administration...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Yuanhao Yang, Juanning Yang, Derong Shang, Fengling Li, Lvzhou Wang, Fenggang Li, Yi Li, Yuhang Sun, Shuangheng He, Jinxing Wu
In order to understand pharmacokinetics in vivo and tissue residues of florfenicol in Hybrid sturgeon cultured in cold water, changes in concentration of florfenicol in plasma, muscle, liver and kidney of sturgeon after administration were measured by high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The results show that after 15.0 mg/kg dose administration, the concentration change in plasma and liver, kidney and muscle of sturgeon are suitable for the one compartment open model. Florfenicol pharmacokinetic parameters in plasma, liver, kidney and sturgeon muscle showed that the peak concentration (Cmax ) were 549...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Raffaella Barbero, Cristina Vercelli, Barbara Cuniberti, Maria Federica Della Valle, Marina Martano, Giovanni Re
The interest for the endovanilloid system and for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is continuously increasing, due to their involvement in inflammation, nociception and pruritus. Even if TRPV1 enrolment was highlighted in both physiological and pathological conditions, some aspects remain unclear, mostly in veterinary medicine. This study aimed to verify the expression and functionality of TRPV1 in canine keratinocytes to investigate in vitro the role of TRPV1 in these cells that are involved in different cutaneous pathologies...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Fan Yang, Fang Yang, Guoyong Wang, Tao Kong
As a semisynthetic tetracycline derivative, doxycycline (α-6-deoxy-5-hydroxytetracycline) is a time-dependent bacteriostatic agent. It is being widely used in the broiler husbandry in China. In this study, doxycycline was orally administered by gavage to 10 healthy broiler chickens at the dose of 20 mg/kg body weight every 24 hr for five total treatments. Plasma samples were collected from each animal at 5, 10, 20, and 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hr after the first dose, at 0.25, 0.5, 0.45, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 13...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Freya Stein, Lyndi Gilliam, Jennifer Davis, Jared Taylor
In a randomized crossover design study, 10 adult horses were administered crushed metronidazole tablets rectally at 20 mg/kg. Horses' rectums were either evacuated (E) or not evacuated (NE) of manure prior to the administration of the drug. Serum samples were taken over 24 hr and plasma concentrations were determined via high pressure liquid chromatography. At 15 min post-administration, group E had a significantly higher plasma concentration (p = 0.027), but there were no concentration differences at any other time points...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Lawrence R Soma, Youwen You, Mary A Robinson, Raymond C Boston
Intravenous (iv), subcutaneous (sq), and topical (tp) lidocaine was administered to six horses in a cross-over, randomized design study. Samples were collected for up to 72 hr. Compartmental models were used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of (LD) and its metabolites 3-hydroxylidocaine (3-OH), 4-hydroxylidocaine (4-OH), and monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX). Metabolites 3-OH and 4-OH were present in conjugated forms, whereas LD and metabolite MEXG were present primarily in the un-conjugated form. Plasma concentrations of LD after iv administration (100 mg) were described by three-compartment model with an additional three compartments to describe the elimination of metabolites...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Michael J Myers, Marilyn Martinez, Fei Li, Karyn Howard, Haile F Yancy, Lisa Troutman, Michele Sharkey
Thirty-two Collies were used to determine the impact of ABCB1 genotype and phenotype on the plasma pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine's (Fex) R- and S-enantiomers after bolus Fex administration, as human P-gp exhibits stereoselectivity. Each Collie's ABCB1 genotype and ivermectin (IVM) sensitivity (phenotype) was determined prior to study enrolment. Wild-type (WT) Collies had lower plasma concentrations of the individual enantiomers as compared to heterozygous IVM nonsensitive (HNS), heterozygous IVM-sensitive (HS) and homozygous mutant (MUT) Collies...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sonia Rubio-Langre, Soledad Aguilar-Sola, Augusto Matías Lorenzutti, Manuel I San Andrés, José J De Lucas, Nicolás J Litterio
In llama crias (tekes), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are major pathogens, and marbofloxacin could be a suitable choice. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the serum pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin (5 mg/kg) after intravenous administration in tekes and simulate a multidose regimen; (b) to emulate pharmacokinetic profiles after single dose and steady-state conditions by Monte Carlo simulation (c) to determine the MIC of regional strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus; (d) to perform a PK/PD analysis by Monte Carlo simulation...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Fazul Nabi, Muhammad K Iqbal, Hui Zhang, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Shahzad, Shucheng Huang, Zhaoqing Han, Khalid Mehmood, Nisar Ahmed, Bahram Chachar, Muhammad A Arain, Jiakui Li
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a bone defect of broilers and other poultry birds that disturbs growth plate and it causes lameness. Previously we evaluated differential expression of multiple genes involved in growth plate angiogenesis and reported the safety and efficacious of medicinal plant root extracted for controlling TD. In this study, clinical and protective effect of an antibiotic Novobiocin (Hsp90 inhibitor) and expression of Hsp90 and proteoglycan aggrecan was examined. The chicks were divided into three groups; Control, thiram-induced TD, and Novobiocin injected TD...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Denisa Soledad Pérez Gaudio, Guadalupe Martínez, María Belén Fernández Paggi, Julieta María Decundo, Agustina Romanelli, Susana Nelly Dieguez, Alejandro Luis Soraci
Fosfomycin (FOS) is an antibiotic used, mostly in Latin America, for the treatment of lung and enteric infections of pigs. Intracellular fluids of enterocytes can act as biophase for Lawsonia intracellularis, the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE). The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of L. intracellularis in the enterocytes modifies FOS penetration. Eight healthy pigs in growth-finishing stage were used to produce healthy (group A) and L. intracellularis-colonized (group B) intestinal explants...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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