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Immunology Letters

Hamidreza Ebrahimiyan, Saeed Aslani, Nima Rezaei, Ahmadreza Jamshidi, Mahdi Mahmoudi
Autoimmunity is a status that immune mechanisms react against self-structure. The immune mechanisms, including cellular and molecular elements have been developed to immune body against foreign invades. Multiple factors such as genetic and epigenetic background, hormonal status, microbiome, and other factors can cause launching the autoreactive responses, in which the immune tolerance breaks and immune mechanisms are against self-antigens. Apoptosis is one of the important mechanisms in maintaining the tolerance and eliminating the autoreactive lymphocyte clones...
November 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
Femke C C van Rhijn-Brouwer, Julia Spierings, Jacob M van Laar
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is an effective therapy for refractory autoimmune disease, in particular diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). ASCT is the only treatment that can induce long term remission in dcSSc. However, the mechanism of action of ASCT has not yet been fully elucidated. The current hypothesis is that ASCT induces a long term 'reset' of the immune system, but there is no clear definition yet of such an immunological 'reset to tolerance', nor has it been established how to distinguish a 'reset' from long term immunosuppression...
November 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
Giovanni M Rossi, Francesco Bonatti, Alessia Adorni, Federico Alberici, Monica Bodria, Alice Bonanni, Gian M Ghiggeri, Davide Martorana, Augusto Vaglio
Childhood-onset idiopathic nephrotic syndrome affects 1.15-3.4 children/100,000 children/year in Western Countries. Immune-mediated mechanisms, particularly T cell-mediated, are thought to play a key pathogenic role. The genetic basis of the disease is still poorly understood. We tested the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of four genes encoding Fc gamma receptors (FCGR2A, FCGR2B, FCGR3A, FCGR3B) and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in a case-control study of paediatric patients. Children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (aged 1-16 years) were included...
November 15, 2017: Immunology Letters
Mathew Kelly, Douglas McNeel, Paul Fisch, Miroslav Malkovsky
The success of active immunotherapies in the prevention of many infectious diseases over the course of over 200 years has lead scientists to wonder if the same principles could be applied to cancer. Antigen-specific active immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer have been researched for over two decades, however, the overwhelming majority of these studies have failed to stimulate robust clinical responses. It is clear that current active immunotherapy research should incorporate methods to increase the immunostimulatory capacity of these therapies...
November 10, 2017: Immunology Letters
Alsya J Affandi, Tiago Carvalheiro, Timothy R D J Radstake, Wioleta Marut
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex heterogeneous fibrotic autoimmune disease with an unknown exact etiology, and characterized by three hallmarks: fibrosis, vasculopathy, and immune dysfunction. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized cells in pathogen sensing with high potency of antigen presentation and capable of releasing mediators to shape the immune response. Altered DCs distributions and their impaired functions may account for their role in breaking the immune tolerance and driving inflammation in SSc, and the direct contribution of DCs in promoting endothelial dysfunction and fibrotic process has only begun to be understood...
November 7, 2017: Immunology Letters
Mahyar Nouri-Shirazi, Saba Tamjidi, Erika Nourishirazi, Elisabeth Guinet
BACKGROUND: Most current prophylactic vaccines confer protection primarily through humoral immunity. Indeed, aluminum salts which have been widely used as adjuvants in vaccines primarily enhance Th2-driven antibody responses. Therefore, new vaccines formulation is moving toward a careful selection of adjuvants that also elicit significant Th1 or Tc1 responses. Several TLR agonists have been tested as potential new adjuvants in clinical and preclinical studies with some efficacy. These studies suggest that combining more than one of TLR ligands enhances the magnitude of immune responses to cancer and infectious disease...
November 2, 2017: Immunology Letters
Marzena Ciechomska, Urszula Skalska
Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterised by vasculopathy, uncontrolled inflammation and enhanced fibrosis which can subsequently lead to the loss of organ function or even premature death. Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines that are critical not only in mounting an effective immune response against viral and bacterial infections but also strongly contribute to the pathogenesis of SSc. Furthermore, elevated levels of IFNs are found in SSc patients and correlate with skin thickness and disease activity suggesting potential role of IFNs as biomarkers...
October 26, 2017: Immunology Letters
Ganesh Tadepalli, Balakrishna Konduru, Harishchandra Sripathy Murali, Harsh Vardhan Batra
Recombinant engineering of immunologically active chimeric protein consisting of Omp19 and P39 domains of B. abortus (rOP), was purified under denaturing conditions upon expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and refolded to dynamic form. The immuno-protective efficacy of rOP was evaluated by challenging the BALB/c mice intraperitoneally (I.P) with the infective species of Brucella in the absence or presence of adjuvants, such as Aluminum hydroxide gel (Al), or Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA)/Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA)...
October 26, 2017: Immunology Letters
Oriane Cédile, Line Østerby Jørgensen, Ida Frank, Agnieszka Wlodarczyk, Trevor Owens
Thymic dendritic cells (DC) play a role in central tolerance. Three thymic DC subtypes have been described: plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and two conventional DC (cDC), CD8α(+) Sirpα(-) DC and Sirpα(+) CD8α(-) cDC. Both pDC and Sirpα(+) cDC can take up antigen in periphery and migrate into the thymus in response to chemokine signaling via CCR9 and CCR2 respectively. CCL2 is a major ligand for CCR2 and we previously showed that it was constitutively expressed in thymus, and that mice overexpressing CCL2 in thymus had reduced numbers of autoreactive T cells but elevated numbers of pDC...
October 26, 2017: Immunology Letters
Zahra Sepehri, Zohre Kiani, Mahdi Afshari, Farhad Kohan, Azadeh Dalvand, Saeid Ghavami
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder that is accompanied by chronic inflammation. The main mechanisms and molecular signaling of the induction of inflammation in T2D are still unknown. It seems that intracellular sensors that participate in recognition of endogenous damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play key roles in the induction/stimulation of chronic inflammation in T2D. The Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, Leucine-rich Repeat and Pyrin domain containing (NLRP) family and accompanying Inflammasomes are important intracellular receptors of inflammatory pathogens and stress signals that elevate caspase-1-mediated release of IL-1β and IL-18...
October 24, 2017: Immunology Letters
Adeline Unterreiner, Natacha Stoehr, Christine Huppertz, Thomas Calzascia, Christopher J Farady, Frédéric Bornancin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Immunology Letters
Zehui Zhang, Fan Wang, Chuandao Chen, Zhou Zheng, Jude Juventus Aweya, Yueling Zhang
Hemocyanin is an important multifunctional non-specific immune molecule. In this study, we purified lectin binding and non-lectin binding hemocyanin from Litopenaeus vannamei using Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin affinity chromatography (designated HMC-C and HMC-NC, respectively). Analysis of the carbohydrate content showed that HMC-C had about 20 times as much carbohydrate as HMC-NC. 54 and 42 peaks were observed in HMC-C and HMC-NC by HPLC, which reduced to 49 and 6 peaks, respectively, when digested with trypsin and repurified with ConA lectin column...
October 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
Gianluca Moroncini, Silvia Svegliati Baroni, Armando Gabrielli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
Shouzhen Wu, Hailong Li, Lijuan Yu, Ning Wang, Xu Li, Wei Chen
The manifest and important feature in respiratory diseases, including asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), is the increased numbers and hypersecretion of goblet cells and overexpression of mucins, especially Muc5ac. Many proinflammatory cytokines play important roles in goblet cell metaplasia and overproduction of Muc5ac. However, the effect of IL-1β on Muc5ac expression in asthma remains unknown. Here, we detected the correlation between IL-1β and Muc5ac in asthma patients and further explored the mechanism of IL-1β-induced Muc5ac overexpression...
October 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
Virginie Driss, Frédéric Leprêtre, Isabelle Briche, Alexia Mopin, Céline Villenet, Martin Figeac, Bruno Quesnel, Carine Brinster
BACKGROUND: In acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)-affected patients, the presence of heterogeneous sub-clones at diagnosis has been shown to be responsible for minimal residual disease and relapses. The role played by the immune system in this leukaemic sub-clonal hierarchy and maintenance remains unknown. As leukaemic sub-clone immunogenicity could not be evaluated in human AML xenograft models, we assessed the sub-clonal diversity of the murine C1498 AML cell line and the immunogenicity of its sub-clones in immune-competent syngeneic mice...
October 10, 2017: Immunology Letters
Majid Ahmadi, Sanaz Abbaspour Aghdam, Mohammad Nouri, Zohreh Babaloo, Laya Farzadi, Aliye Ghasemzadeh, Kobra Hamdi, Ali Akbar Movassaghpour, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Amir Afkham, Morteza Motallebnezhad, Shadi Eghbal-Fard, Sanam Dolati, Vahid Younesi, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Th17 cells and Treg cells have been proposed as new risk factors for recurrent miscarriage (RM). In this study, we investigated the effect of Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) on the levels and function of Th17 and Treg cells and pregnancy outcome in women with RM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 94 pregnant women with RM were enrolled in this study. Blood was drawn at the time of positive pregnancy. On the same day, IVIG 400mg/kg was administered intravenously for 44 patients...
October 10, 2017: Immunology Letters
Patrizia Fuschiotti
Despite long-standing recognition of the importance of T cells in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma), the role of CD8(+) T cells in disease pathogenesis has not been well studied. Our work has shown that over-production of the pro-fibrotic cytokine IL-13 by peripheral blood effector/memory CD8(+) T cells is critical for predisposing patients to more severe forms of cutaneous fibrosis. Moreover, IL-13-producing CD8(+) T cells induce a pro-fibrotic phenotype in normal and SSc dermal fibroblasts, and exhibit a strong cytotoxic activity ex vivo...
October 5, 2017: Immunology Letters
Marlene Ballbach, Angelika Dannert, Anurag Singh, Darina M Siegmund, Rupert Handgretinger, Luca Piali, Nikolaus Rieber, Dominik Hartl
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous cell population expanded in cancer, infection and autoimmunity capable of suppressing T-cell functions. Checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a key therapeutic strategy in immune-oncology. While checkpoint molecules were initially associated with T cell functions, recent evidence suggests a broader expression and function in innate myeloid cells. Previous studies provided first evidence for a potential role for checkpoints on MDSCs, yet the human relevance remained poorly understood...
October 4, 2017: Immunology Letters
Shannon Pasley, Claudia Zylberberg, Sandro Matosevic
Natural killer (NK) cells are a critical part of the innate immune system, and have emerged as attractive targets for immunotherapies for various malignancies. Alongside the need for expansion of NK cells to reach clinically useful numbers, a critical component in the availability of NK cells for allogeneic therapy is cryopreservation. While a continuously-growing cell line such as NK-92 can avoid issues associated with isolating, activating, expanding, and manufacturing large numbers of peripheral blood-derived NKs, cryopreservation of these cells has not made much progress...
September 29, 2017: Immunology Letters
Swati Bhattacharyya, John Varga
Fibrosis, the hallmark of scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc), is a complex, dynamic and generally irreversible pathophysiological process that leads to tissue disruption, and lacks effective therapy. While early-stage fibrosis resembles normal wound healing, in SSc fibrosis fails to resolve. Innate immune signaling via toll-like receptors (TLRs) has recently emerged as a key driver of persistent fibrotic response in SSc. Recurrent injury in genetically predisposed individual causes generation of "damage-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) such as fibronectin-EDA and tenascin-C...
September 28, 2017: Immunology Letters
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