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Immunology Letters

Carlo Chizzolini, Aleksandra Maria Dufour, Nicolò Costantino Brembilla
In systemic sclerosis (SSc) immuno-inflammatory events are central to disease development. Amongst other mediators of inflammation, interleukin 17 (IL-17) and Th17 cells have been reported to be increased in the peripheral blood and target organs including involved skin in SSc. They participate and amplify inflammatory responses by inducing the production of cytokines such as IL-6, chemokines such as CCL2 and CXCL8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinases-1, -2, -9 and the expression of adhesion molecules in stromal cells including fibroblasts and endothelial cells...
September 14, 2017: Immunology Letters
Alessandra Battaglia, Marco Fossati, Alexia Buzzonetti, Giovanni Scambia, Andrea Fattorossi
INTRODUCTION: Despite encouraging phase I and II study results, vaccination of ovarian cancer patients with abagovomab - an anti-idiotypic mAb that mimics the ovarian cancer CA125 protein - failed to demonstrate efficacy in the phase III trial named MIMOSA (NCT00418574). We postulated that in this trial patients with a more robust immune system did respond to abagovomab but went undetected among a larger number of non-responders. We also postulated that assessment of the immune system status ahead of abagovomab administration might predict patients' propensity to respond to abagovomab...
September 14, 2017: Immunology Letters
Alireza Milani, Azam Bolhassani, Sepideh Shahbazi, Fatemeh Motevalli, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Sepehr Soleymani
Novel vaccine modalities have been designed to improve the efficiency of vaccines against HIV infections. In this way, the HIV-1 Nef protein has been known as an attractive antigenic candidate in therapeutic vaccine development. Moreover, the endogenous adjuvants such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) have been suggested effectively to induce antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, different Nef DNA and protein constructs were produced in eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems, and their immunostimulatory properties were evaluated using small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and the HMGB1-derived peptide (Hp91) in a mouse model...
September 13, 2017: Immunology Letters
Mao Lin, Shu-Zhen Liang, Jian Shi, Li-Zhi Niu, Ji-Bing Chen, Ming-Jie Zhang, Ke-Cheng Xu
In this study, we determined the number of peripheral blood circulating tumor cells (CTCs) pre- and post-NK in patients with stage IV non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a reference for understanding the relevance of any changes to the efficacy of NK cells therapy. The patients were given one to three courses of immunotherapy. CTC numbers and CTC-related gene expression were measured in the peripheral blood of 31 patients with stage IV NSCLC at 1day before and 7 and 30d after NK cells therapy using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) combined with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)...
September 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
Yingying Dong, Yi Zhang, Linlin Xia, Ping Wang, Jingyun Chen, Meifeng Xu, Xingyin Liu, Yumin Xia
Anti-DNA IgG is a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus and induces internal injuries in patients. It is known that cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) involves the deposition of autoantibodies in the dermoepidermal junction of the skin and that anti-DNA IgG binds specifically to keratinocytes. However, the definite role of anti-DNA IgG in CLE remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of anti-DNA IgG on keratinocytes in CLE. Skin tissues were collected from patients with CLE and healthy controls...
September 9, 2017: Immunology Letters
Daniel Hofmann, Samantha E Zak, Elisabeth K Nyakatura, Eva Mittler, Russell R Bakken, Kartik Chandran, John M Dye, Jonathan R Lai
The Sudan virus (SUDV), an ebolavirus, causes severe hemorrhagic fever with human case fatality rates of ∼50%. Previous work from our lab demonstrated the synthetic antibody F4 potently inhibits viral entry and protects against lethal virus challenge in mice [Chen et al., ACS Chem. Biol., 2014, 9, 2263-2273]. Here, we explore mechanistic requirements as well as contribution of the Fc region and function on neutralization and in vivo protection. Live cell imaging demonstrates that the antibody colocalizes with vesicular stomatitis virus particles containing the Sudan virus glycoprotein (VSV-GPSUDV) and that the antibody is rapidly degraded within cellular endosomes...
September 8, 2017: Immunology Letters
Steven O'Reilly
Pattern Recognition Receptors are critical receptors that elicit an immune response upon their activation that culminates in activation of NF-KB and cytokine secretion. Key among these receptors are the Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs). These evolutionary conserved receptors form a key part in the defence against various pathogens and comprise a key part of the innate immune system. Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease in which a breach of tolerance has occurred and leads to fulminant autoimmunity, dysregulated cytokines, pro-fibrotic mediators and activation of fibroblasts leading to fibrosis via collagen deposition...
September 6, 2017: Immunology Letters
Bao-Jian Hong, Hui Liu, Zhou-Han Wang, Yue-Xia Zhu, Li-Yun Su, Min-Xia Zhang, Ke Xu, Jian-Zhong Chen
Liver transplantation has emerged as a vital therapy for end-stage liver diseases. Acute -phase inflammation play an important role in liver graft injury.Recent studies have revealed that inflammasome are responsible for initiating inflammation in early stage of acute organ rejection in liver transplantation, however the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we explored to block inflammasome activation to see whether it can alleviate early inflammation reaction during rejection of allgrafts in a rat model and gain further insights into the mechanism of inhibiting inflammation in allografts...
September 5, 2017: Immunology Letters
Shirin Eyvazi, Bahram Kazemi, Mojgan Bandehpour, Siavoush Dastmalchi
CD24 is a heavy glycosylated protein that is overexpressed in numerous cancer and cancer stem cells. It is involved in the development, invasion, and metastasis of the cancer cells. CD24 can be considered in targeted cancer therapy as a new target. Here, phage display technology was used for the identification of novel scFv antibodies against CD24. To do so, the CD24 protein was expressed and purified from a stable transgenic CHO cell line. The cells were developed by using a CD24 encoding construct, which targets the 18S rRNA gene...
September 1, 2017: Immunology Letters
F Saettini, M A Pelagatti, D Sala, D Moratto, S Giliani, R Badolato, A Biondi
Heterozygous gain of function mutations in the gene encoding p110δ subunit of PI3K have been recently associated with activated PI3K-δ syndrome (APDS), a novel combined immune deficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, lymphopenia, reduced class-switched memory B cells, lymphadenopathy, CMV and/or EBV viremia and EBV-related lymphoma. Here we report a dominant gain of function PIK3CD mutation (E1021K) in a patient presenting with recurrent otitis media, massive splenomegaly, and persistent EBV-viraemia...
August 31, 2017: Immunology Letters
Semi Rho, Heejoo Kim, Seung Hyun Shim, Seung Young Lee, Min Jung Kim, Bo-Gie Yang, Myoung Ho Jang, Byung Woo Han, Man Ki Song, Cecil Czerkinsky, Jae-Ouk Kim
Oral vaccine responsiveness is often lower in children from less developed countries. Childhood malnutrition may be associated with poor immune response to oral vaccines. The present study was designed to investigate whether protein energy malnutrition (PEM) impairs B cell immunity and ultimately reduces oral vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. Purified isocaloric diets containing low protein (1/10 the protein of the control diet) were used to determine the effect of PEM. PEM increased both nonspecific total IgA and oral antigen-specific IgA in serum without alteration of gut permeability...
August 30, 2017: Immunology Letters
S Gauthami, Deepak Kumar, K S R SivaSai, Nagendra R Hegde
Biotinylation has been extensively used for antibody tagging, affinity-based purification, and in protein/DNA-protein interaction studies. Here we describe the use of biotinylation to study the turn-over of proteins in cells. We use the prokaryotic biotin ligase (BirA) to biotinylate the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 (A2) heavy chain (HC), which was engineered to contain a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP). Controlled availability of biotin in combination with visualization using streptavidin-conjugated peroxidase made it possible to detect biotinylated BAP-A2...
August 30, 2017: Immunology Letters
Petya Ganova, Valeriya Gyurkovska, Lyudmila Belenska-Todorova, Nina Ivanovska
Synovial inflammation plays a critical role in the symptoms and structural progression of arthritis which leads to irreversible damage of the adjacent cartilage and bone. Activation of complement system is strongly implicated as a factor in the pathogenesis of chronic synovitis in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we show that the depletion of functional complement activity at the time of the initiation of zymosan-induced arthritis, significantly reduced the expression of TGF-beta1/3, BMP2 and pSmad2 and decreased the number of Sudan Black B positive cells in the synovium...
August 30, 2017: Immunology Letters
David C Thomas
When exposed to certain stimuli, phagocytes (including neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils) undergo marked changes in the way they handle oxygen. Firstly, their rate of oxygen uptake increases greatly. This is accompanied by (i) the production of large amounts of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide and (ii) the metabolism of large quantities of glucose through the hexose monophosphate shunt. We now know that the oxygen used is not for respiration but for the production of powerful microbiocidal agents downstream of the initial production of superoxide...
August 29, 2017: Immunology Letters
Yang Xiao, Xunyao Wu, Lijing Ma, Jingang Gui, Lina Bai, Xin Ni, Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: Defects in the adaptive immune response to human papillomavirus-6 and -11 are among the most important mechanisms for Juvenile-onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JORRP) development. However, the percentage of CD8+ T cells and peripheral TH1/TH2 immune responses in Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is still not well addressed due to limited sample sizes. METHODS: Twenty-three patients who were diagnosed with JORRP and underwent surgical intervention at the Beijing TongRen Hospital from October 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in our study...
August 28, 2017: Immunology Letters
Qi-Yu Yang, Jia-Dan Yang, Yong-Sheng Wang
Adoptive immunotherapy adopting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells has arisen attention as a hard-hitting therapy for numerous cancers. CARs are genetically engineered receptors that could stimulate tumor cytotoxicity once binding to the specific tumor epitopes. In spite of current noteworthy achievements in hematologic malignancies, the safety problems have aroused public awareness. In this review, we will focus on recent potential strategies to improve the security of CAR modified T cells.
August 28, 2017: Immunology Letters
Stephanie Y Owyang, Min Zhang, Christopher C Owyang, Grace Daugherty, Grace Chen, Helmut Grasberger, Mohamad El-Zaatari, John Y Kao
INTRODUCTION: TGF-β is an important target for many cancer therapies under development. In addition to suppressing anti-tumor immunity, it has pleiotropic direct pro- and anti- tumor effects. The actions of increased endogenous TGF-β production remain unclear, and may affect the outcomes of anti-TGF-β cancer therapy. We hypothesize that tumor-derived TGF-β (td-TGF-β) plays an important role in maintaining tumor remission by controlling tumor proliferation in vivo, and that decreasing td-TGF-β in the tumor microenvironment will result in tumor progression...
August 27, 2017: Immunology Letters
Suzana Stanisavljević, Neda Đedović, Milica Vujičić, Tamara Saksida, Bojan Jevtić, Boško Milovanović, Miljana Momčilović, Đorđe Miljković, Ivana Stojanović
C57BL/6, BALB/c and NOD mice are among the most frequently used strains in autoimmunity research. NOD mice spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes (T1D) and they are prone to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Both diseases can be routinely induced in C57BL/6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice. Also, C57BL/6 mice are generally considered T helper (Th)1-biased and BALB/c Th2-biased mice. Having in mind increasingly appreciated role of gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells in autoimmunity, especially in relation to gut Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells, our aim was to determine if there are differences in proportion of CD4(+) T cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches of these mouse strains...
August 26, 2017: Immunology Letters
Mojgan Noroozi Karimabad, Soudeh Khanamani Falahati-Pour, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi, Lili Koochakzadeh
The Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is produced by the members of the cruciferous family, in particular members of the Brassica genus. In vitro investigations has shown that I3C suppresses the proliferation of various tumor cells, including breast, prostate, endometrial, colon cancers and leukemic cells via induction of G1/S arrest of the cell cycle and further induces apoptosis. Cancer cells exhibit deregulation in multiple cellular signaling pathways. Therefore, treatments with specific agents which only target one of these pathways are usually not effective in cancer therapy...
August 26, 2017: Immunology Letters
Seema P Ajbani, Shilpa M Velhal, Ravindra B Kadam, Vainav V Patel, Kenneth Lundstrom, Atmaram H Bandivdekar
Development of a vaccine targeting human immunodeficiency virus-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) is an important public health priority in regions with a high prevalence of the clade C virus. The present study demonstrates the immunogenicity of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV)-based virus-like replicon particles (VRPs) expressing Indian HIV-1C env/gag/polRT genes. Immunization of mice with recombinant VRPs in a homologous prime-boost protocol, either individually or in combination, elicited significant antigen-specific IFN-γ T cell responses as detected by the ELISPOT assay...
August 26, 2017: Immunology Letters
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