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Immunology Letters

Chen Yan, Wang Dao Xin, Zhao Yan, Huang Bin, Cao Hai Quan, Qi Di
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been the major cause of acute respiratory failure in critical patients and one of the leading causes of death worldwide for several decades. Th17 cells are involved in the occurrence and progression of ARDS. Furthermore, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 is a transcriptional coactivator, and its activity is closely related to cancer and inflammatory diseases. p300 and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) interact with and stabilize the nuclear transcription factor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) and participate in the regulation of RORγt-mediated IL-17 transcription in T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation by acetylation and deacetylation...
July 12, 2018: Immunology Letters
Chaman Saini, Mohd Tarique, V Ramesh, Neena Khanna, Alpana Sharma
BACKGROUND: Leprosy reactions appear episodically in leprosy patients, which lead to high inflammation, morbidity and peripheral nerve damage. The role of Th17 cell has been well studied in leprosy reactions but the role of γδ or unconventional T cells which is an other major source of IL-17 in many diseases, not studied in leprosy reactional episodes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study to elucidate the role of γδ T cells in leprosy reactions. METHODOLOGY: A total of 40 untreated non-reaction and reactions patients were recruited...
July 10, 2018: Immunology Letters
Seung Hoon Lee, Ji Ye Kwon, JooYeon Jhun, KyungAh Jung, Sung-Hwan Park, Chul Woo Yang, YongSin Cho, Seok Jung Kim, Mi-La Cho
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic and degenerative disease that causes pain, cartilage deformation, and joint inflammation. Lactobacillus species have been used as dietary supplements to induce the production of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory factors. The goal of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus acidophilus ameliorates monosodium iodoacetate-induced OA. L. acidophilus showed anti-nociceptive properties and protected against cartilage destruction. It also downregulated the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the joints of OA rats...
July 9, 2018: Immunology Letters
Ali Abdi, Alireza Khabazi, Ebrahim Sakhinia, Shahriar Alipour, Mahsa Talei, Zohreh Babaloo
INTRODUCTION: Epigenetic discusses to inherited changes in mitosis and meiosis in the gene expression pattern which is independent of primary DNA sequence. Since, SOCS1 hyper-methylation can activate JAK / STAT signaling pathway and activation of this pathway can directly affect the impact of different cytokines on cell function and subsequently lead to pathophysiology of diseases, in particular autoimmune diseases that interact directly with the amount of cytokines and due to the fact that the cause and pathology of Behcet's disease (BD) have not ever been completely determined...
July 7, 2018: Immunology Letters
R Metlas, T Srdic-Rajic, H Kohler
The mechanisms for dominant T15 idiotype selection are not well understood, yet the significance of idiotypic regulation has been suggested. We proposed that to become dominant V regions of a given subset of B-1a cell must establish a functional idiotypic network with complementary T cells. Features required for the cells involved in immune network and steps preceding the establishment of clonal dominance are suggested.
July 7, 2018: Immunology Letters
M M Klicznik, A B Szenes-Nagy, D J Campbell, I K Gratz
The skin comprises a complex coordinated system of epithelial tissue cells and immune cells that ensure adequate immune reactions against trauma, toxins and pathogens, while maintaining tissue homeostasis. Keratinocytes form the outermost barrier of the skin, and sense changes in barrier integrity, intrusion of microbial components and stress molecules. Thus, they act as sentinels that continuously communicate the status of the organ to the cutaneous immune system. Upon damage the keratinocytes initiate a pro-inflammatory signaling cascade that leads to the activation of resident immune cells...
June 30, 2018: Immunology Letters
Enza Ferrero, Angelo C Faini, Fabio Malavasi
The leukocyte ectonucleotidases are a recently defined family included in the last Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshop, giving prominence to these membrane proteins whose catalytic activity is expressed outside the cell. Among the most important substrates of the leukocyte ectonucleotidases are extracellular ATP and NAD+ whose transient increases are not immunologically silent but rather perceived as danger signals by the host. Among the host responses to the release of ATP, NAD+ and related small molecules is their breakdown on behalf of a panel of leukocyte ectonucleotidases - CD38, CD39, CD73, CD157, CD203a and CD203c -, whose activities are concatenated to form two nucleotide-catabolizing channels defined as the canonical and non-canonical adenosinergic pathways...
June 26, 2018: Immunology Letters
Erika Ortolan, Stefania Augeri, Giulia Fissolo, Irene Musso, Ada Funaro
CD157/BST1 glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein is an evolutionary conserved dual-function receptor and β-NAD+-metabolizing ectoenzyme of the ADP-ribosyl cyclases gene family. Identified as bone marrow stromal cell and myeloid cell differentiation antigen, CD157 turned out to have a wider expression than originally assumed. The functional significance of human CD157 as an enzyme remains unclear, while it was well established in mouse models. Conversely, the receptor role of CD157 has been clearly delineated...
June 21, 2018: Immunology Letters
Lorena Bavia, Kárita Cláudia Freitas Lidani, Fabiana Antunes Andrade, Miguel Ibraim Abboud Hanna Sobrinho, Renato Mitsunori Nisihara, Iara Jose de Messias-Reason
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a potentially fatal condition, being a major cause of death worldwide. Ischemia suffered during AMI causes tissue damage, leading to an inflammatory process. Moreover, myocardial injury can generate damage-associated molecular patterns that activate pattern recognition molecules including some complement proteins. METHODS: Here we investigated products of complement activation, C3d and soluble C5b9 (sC5b9), as potential biomarkers for myocardial injury and inflammation, as well as serum cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and classical markers of myocardial necrosis (creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB isoform, myoglobin and troponin-I) in a longitudinal study of patients with AMI (from admission, 6 h and 12 h post admission, and at discharge from hospital)...
June 14, 2018: Immunology Letters
Bai Xuejuan, Wang Dongfang, Yinping Liu, Xiao Li, Yan Liang, Yourong Yang, Junxian Zhang, Minggui Lin, Wu Xueqiong
There is an urgent need for a more effective vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in combating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). The identification of novel CTL epitopes is essential for the design of peptide-based vaccines. In this study, we predicted CTL epitope peptides of M.tb antigen Rv2629 restricted by HLA-A2, using bioinformatics methods. The affinity and stability of binding of these peptides with HLA-A2 molecules were detected by flow cytometry. Their ability to induce CTLs generation was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy uninfected subjects, Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) subjects, and TB patients ex vivo...
June 14, 2018: Immunology Letters
Aida S Hansen, Josefine Slater, Mette Biltoft, Bettina B Bundgaard, Bjarne K Møller, Per Höllsberg
Similar to CD4+ T cells, precursor CD8+ T cells are thought to depend on a co-stimulatory signal through CD28 for proliferation and differentiation into effector cells. CD46 is another co-stimulatory receptor that promotes differentiation of CD4+ T-helper cells type 1 (Th1 cells) into a regulatory phenotype with a switch from IFN-γ towards IL-10-secretion over time. Whether CD46 exerts a similar function on CD8+ T cells remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that CD46 co-stimulation induced secretion of IFN-γ as well as expansion of IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells...
June 11, 2018: Immunology Letters
Chenlu Liu, Zhenzhen Lu, Yu Xie, Qianqian Guo, Fei Geng, Bo Sun, Hui Wu, Bin Yu, Jiaxin Wu, Haihong Zhang, Xianghui Yu, Wei Kong
Soluble PD-1 (sPD1) can bind with ligands PD-L1/PD-L2 on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs). Therefore, a sPD1 vaccine fused with an immunogen can increase T cell activation against cancer. Here, we constructed a MUC1 and survivin (MS) combination gene tumor vaccine expressing MS fused with soluble PD-1 (sPD1/MS). To investigate whether the sPD1/MS fusion vaccine could enhance tumor-specific immune responses, its immunogenicity and anti-tumor activity were examined after intramuscular immunization in mice...
June 9, 2018: Immunology Letters
Domenico Ribatti
Sir Mac Farlane Burnet was the most honored of all Australian scientists. In 1960, Burnet shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine with Peter Medawar of Britain for the discovery of acquired immunological tolerance. He developed techniques for growing influenza viruses in the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. This became a standard laboratory practice. He continued to work with chick embryos long after the use of cell cultures had become general. His virology research resulted in significant discoveries concerning the nature and replication of viruses and their interaction with the immune system...
June 7, 2018: Immunology Letters
Amélie Barozet, Marc Bianciotto, Thierry Siméon, Hervé Minoux, Juan Cortés
BACKGROUND: The existence of conformational changes in antibodies upon binding has been previously established. However, existing analyses focus on individual cases and no quantitative study provides a more global view of potential moves and repacking, especially on recent data. The present study focuses on analyzing the conformational changes in various antibodies upon binding, providing quantitative observations to be exploited for antibody-related modeling. METHODS: Cartesian and dihedral Root-Mean-Squared Deviations were calculated for different subparts of 27 different antibodies, for which X-ray structures in the bound and unbound states are available...
June 6, 2018: Immunology Letters
Mieke De Buck, Mieke Gouwy, Sofie Struyf, Ghislain Opdenakker, Jo Van Damme
During an inflammatory response, a large number of distinct mediators appears in the affected tissues or in the blood circulation. These include acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid A (SAA), cytokines and chemokines and proteolytic enzymes. Although these molecules are generated within a cascade sequence in specific body compartments allowing for independent action, their co-appearance in space and time during acute or chronic inflammation points toward important mutual interactions. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns lead to fast induction of the pro-inflammatory endogenous pyrogens, which are evoking the acute phase response...
June 2, 2018: Immunology Letters
Vassilios Lougaris, Giovanna Tabellini, Manuela Baronio, Ornella Patrizi, Silvia Parolini, Alessandro Plebani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2018: Immunology Letters
David Allard, Pavel Chrobak, Bertrand Allard, Nouredin Messaoudi, John Stagg
The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 are cell surface enzymes that catabolize the breakdown of extracellular ATP into adenosine. As such, they constitute critical components of the extracellular purinergic pathway and play important roles in maintaining tissue and immune homeostasis. With the coming of age of cancer immunotherapy, ectonucleotidases and adenosine receptors have emerged as novel therapeutic targets to enhance antitumor immune responses. With early-phase clinical trials showing promising results, it is becoming increasingly important to decipher the distinct mechanisms-of-action of adenosine-targeting agents, identify patients that will benefit from these agents and rationally develop novel synergistic combinations...
May 24, 2018: Immunology Letters
Marina Bolzoni, Denise Toscani, Federica Costa, Emanuela Vicario, Franco Aversa, Nicola Giuliani
The relationship between bone and immune cells is well established both in physiological and pathological conditions. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by an increase of number and activity of osteoclasts (OCLs) and a decrease of osteoblasts (OBs). These events are responsible for bone lesions of MM patients. OCLs support MM cells survival in vitro and in vivo. Recently, the possible role of OCLs as immunosuppressive cells in the MM BM microenvironment has been underlined. OCLs protect MM cells against T cell-mediated cytotoxicity through the expression of several molecules including programmed death-ligand (PD-L) 1, galectin (Gal) 9, CD200, and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)...
April 24, 2018: Immunology Letters
Luca Antonioli, Matteo Fornai, Corrado Blandizzi, Pál Pacher, György Haskó
Adenosine is increasingly recognized as a key mediator of the immune response. Signals delivered by extracellular adenosine are detected and transduced by G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptors, classified into four subtypes: A1 , A2A , A2B and A3 . These receptors, expressed virtually on all immune cells, modulate all aspects of immune/inflammatory responses. These immunoregulatory effects, which are mostly anti-inflammatory, contribute to the general tissue protective effects of adenosine and its receptors...
April 24, 2018: Immunology Letters
Jin-Sil Park, Na-Rae Kim, Mi-Ae Lim, Sung-Min Kim, Sun-Hee Hwang, Kyung-Ah Jung, JeongWon Choi, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with CD4+ T cell infiltration and hyperplasia of synovial tissues leading to progressive destruction of articular cartilage. In addition to the central role of T cells in the pathogenesis of RA, recent reports have suggested that B cells also contribute to RA. To explore the effects of interleukin (IL)-17 on B cell development and response in excess IL-1 signaling, we generated IL-17 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) double-deficient mice via backcrossing IL-17 knockout (KO) and IL-1RaKO mice...
July 2018: Immunology Letters
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