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Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898598/pharmacokinetics-of-mycophenolic-acid-and-dose-optimization-in-children-after-intestinal-transplantation
#1
Caroline Barau, Antonio Mellos, Stéphanie Chhun, Florence Lacaille, Valérie Furlan
BACKGROUND: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (MPS) are now commonly used in pediatric intestinal transplantation (Tx), but to date, no clear recommendations regarding the dosing regimen have been made in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the MMF/MPS dosage required to achieve an area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12) for mycophenolic acid (MPA) greater than 30 mg.h/L in children after intestinal transplantation...
November 28, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861314/effect-of-the-direct-oral-anticoagulants-rivaroxaban-and-apixaban-on-the-disposition-of-calcineurin-inhibitors-in-transplant-recipients
#2
Thomas Vanhove, Isabel Spriet, Pieter Annaert, Johan Maertens, Johan Van Cleemput, Robin Vos, Dirk Kuypers
BACKGROUND: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) share certain metabolic pathways, but whether DOACs influence CNI exposure has not been assessed. METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis was performed including 39 organ recipients treated with the combination of a CNI and rivaroxaban (n = 29) or apixaban (n = 10). Dose-corrected CNI trough concentrations (C0/D) during 200 days before and after DOAC initiation were recorded (n = 261), together with covariates known to influence CNI disposition such as steroid dose and hematocrit...
November 17, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861313/is-trough-concentration-of-vancomycin-predictive-of-the-area-under-the-curve-a-clinical-study-in-elderly-patients
#3
Anis Bel Kamel, Laurent Bourguignon, Micaela Marcos, Michel Ducher, Sylvain Goutelle
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines suggest that vancomycin trough concentrations (Cmin) between 15 and 20 mg/L should be achieved to optimize vancomycin exposure and effect. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between vancomycin Cmin and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and assess the ability to predict an AUC target of 400 mg·h/L based on Cmin. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring data collected in 95 elderly patients treated with intermittent intravenous (IV) vancomycin was performed...
November 17, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861318/prediction-of-an-optimal-dose-of-aripiprazole-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-from-plasma-concentrations-of-aripiprazole-plus-its-active-metabolite-dehydroaripiprazole-at-week-1
#4
Goyo Nagai, Kazuo Mihara, Akifumi Nakamura, Kenji Nemoto, Shoko Kagawa, Takeshi Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Kondo
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that a plasma trough concentration of aripiprazole plus its active metabolite, dehydroaripiprazole of 225 ng/mL is a threshold for a good therapeutic response in the treatment of acutely exacerbated patients with schizophrenia. The present study investigated whether or not an optimal dose of aripiprazole could be predicted from these concentrations at week 1. METHODS: The subjects were 26 inpatients with schizophrenia, who received aripiprazole once a day for three weeks...
November 16, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861317/development-and-validation-of-a-simultaneous-quantification-method-of-fourteen-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-human-plasma-using-lc-ms-ms
#5
Huu-Hien Huynh, Claire Pressiat, Hélène Sauvageon, Isabelle Madelaine, Patricia Maslanka, Céleste Lebbé, Catherine Thieblemont, Lauriane Goldwirt, Samia Mourah
BACKGROUND: A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the analysis in a small volume of plasma of 14 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) currently used (imatinib, dasatinib, ibrutinib, ponatinib, trametinib, sunitinib, cobimetinib, dabrafenib, erlotinib, lapatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib, sorafenib, and vemurafenib) has been developed and validated. This multi-analyte LC-MS/MS assay is of interest for anticancer drug combination therapy. METHODS: After a simple protein precipitation of plasma samples, the chromatographic separation was performed using a UPLC system coupled with MS/MS in a positive ionization mode...
November 16, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861316/development-of-an-uhplc-uv-method-for-quantification-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-apixaban-rivaroxaban-dabigatran-and-its-prodrug-dabigatran-etexilate-in-human-serum
#6
Sebastian Boehr, Ekkehard Haen
BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) currently have no indication for monitoring even though there are data that imply that individual dosing can improve and add safety to the therapy. METHODS: An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with ultra violet (UV) detection has been developed and validated for apixaban, dabigatran, dabigatran etexilate, and rivaroxaban. Protein precipitation with methanol (1:3 vol/vol) was used as sample preparation...
November 16, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861315/brincidofovir-is-not-a-substrate-for-the-human-organic-anion-transporter-1-oat1-a-mechanistic-explanation-for-the-lack-of-nephrotoxicity-observed-in-clinical-studies
#7
Timothy K Tippin, Marion E Morrison, Thomas M Brundage, Hervé Momméja-Marin
BACKGROUND: Brincidofovir (BCV) is an orally bioavailable lipid conjugate of cidofovir with increased in vitro potency relative to cidofovir against all five families of double-stranded DNA viruses that cause human disease. Following intravenous (IV) administration of cidofovir, the organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) transports cidofovir from the blood into the renal proximal tubule epithelial cells with resulting dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. OBJECTIVE: To study whether OAT1 transports BCV and to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and renal safety profile of oral BCV compared with IV cidofovir...
November 16, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779557/variable-linezolid-exposure-in-icu-patients-possible-role-of-drug-drug-interactions
#8
Christoph Töpper, Cathérine Louise Steinbach, Christoph Dorn, Alexander Kratzer, Sebastian G Wicha, Michael Schleibinger, Uwe Liebchen, Frieder Kees, Bernd Salzberger, Martin G Kees
BACKGROUND: Standard doses of linezolid may not be suitable for all patient groups. ICU patients in particular may be at risk of inadequate concentrations. This study investigated variability of drug exposure and its potential sources in this population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Plasma concentrations of linezolid were determined by HPLC in a convenience sample of 20 ICU patients treated with intravenous linezolid 600 mg twice daily. Ultrafiltration applying physiological conditions (pH 7...
October 24, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764028/a-simple-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-determining-lapatinib-and-erlotinib-in-human-plasma
#9
Masahiro Ohgami, Masato Homma, Yoshiharu Suzuki, Kanako Naito, Motoko Yamada, Shoichi Mitsuhashi, Fumie Fujisawa, Hiroshi Kojima, Takayuki Kaburagi, Keiko Uchiumi, Yutaka Yamada, Hiroko Bando, Hisato Hara, Keiji Takei
BACKGROUND: Lapatinib and erlotinib are used for cancer treatment, showing large interindividual variability. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful for assessing the clinical outcomes and adverse events. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet method was developed for the determination of lapatinib and erlotinib in human plasma. METHODS: An aliquot of plasma sample spiked with IS was treated with acetonitrile to precipitate the proteins. Lapatinib and erlotinib were separated on an octadecylsilyl silica-gel column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, water, and trifluoroacetic acid (26:26:48:0...
October 17, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661401/gentamicin-pharmacokinetics-and-monitoring-in-pediatric-febrile-neutropenic-patients
#10
Sabina Bialkowski, Christine E Staatz, Julia Clark, Rachael Lawson, Stefanie Hennig
BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in pediatric febrile neutropenia patients is described and the adequacy of initial dosing of once daily gentamicin assessed at Queensland's largest Children's Hospital. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from all pediatrics with febrile neutropenia admitted over a two-year period who had at least two gentamicin concentration-time measurements (a paired set within one dosing interval). Gentamicin clearance (CL), volume of distribution (Vd), area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 hours post-dose (AUC0-24), and maximum concentration (Cmax) values were estimated using log-linear regression using each paired set...
September 16, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855136/the-impact-of-pharmacokinetic-interactions-with-eslicarbazepine-acetate-versus-oxcarbazepine-and-carbamazepine-in-clinical-practice-erratum
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855135/identification-of-different-patterns-of-dabigatran-in-vivo-bioactivation-in-patients-on-maintenance-anticoagulation-therapy
#12
Sara Baldelli, Dario Cattaneo, Matteo Cerea, Pasquale Pignatelli, Francesco Violi, Emilio Clementi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855134/effects-of-ugt1a6-and-gabra1-on-standardized-valproic-acid-plasma-concentrations-and-treatment-effect-in-children-with-epilepsy-in-china
#13
Weixing Feng, Shenghui Mei, Leting Zhu, Yazhen Yu, Weili Yang, Baoqin Gao, Xiaojuan Wu, Zhigang Zhao, Fang Fang
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used antiepileptic drug with acceptable safety and efficacy in treating pediatric patients with various kinds of seizures. However, interindividual variations in plasma concentrations and treatment effects of patients with epilepsy treated with VPA are observed. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of various genetic variations on normalized plasma concentration of VPA (NCVPA) and the treatment response in Chinese children with epilepsy administered with VPA...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855133/influence-of-genotype-on-warfarin-maintenance-dose-predictions-produced-using-a-bayesian-dose-individualization-tool
#14
Shamin M Saffian, Stephen B Duffull, Rebecca L Roberts, Robert C Tait, Leanne Black, Kirstin A Lund, Alison H Thomson, Daniel F B Wright
BACKGROUND: A previously established Bayesian dosing tool for warfarin was found to produce biased maintenance dose predictions. In this study, we aimed (1) to determine whether the biased warfarin dose predictions previously observed could be replicated in a new cohort of patients from 2 different clinical settings, (2) to explore the influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype on predictive performance of the Bayesian dosing tool, and (3) to determine whether the previous population used to develop the kinetic-pharmacodynamic model underpinning the Bayesian dosing tool was sufficiently different from the test (posterior) population to account for the biased dose predictions...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851688/brincidofovir-is-not-a-substrate-for-the-human-organic-anion-transporter-1-a-mechanistic-explanation-for-the-lack-of-nephrotoxicity-observed-in-clinical-studies
#15
Timothy K Tippin, Marion E Morrison, Thomas M Brundage, Hervé Momméja-Marin
BACKGROUND: Brincidofovir (BCV) is an orally bioavailable lipid conjugate of cidofovir (CDV) with increased in vitro potency relative to CDV against all 5 families of double-stranded DNA viruses that cause human disease. After intravenous (IV) administration of CDV, the organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) transports CDV from the blood into the renal proximal tubule epithelial cells with resulting dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. OBJECTIVE: To study whether OAT1 transports BCV and to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and renal safety profile of oral BCV compared with IV CDV...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851687/determination-of-antidepressants-in-hair-via-uhplc-ms-ms-as-a-complementary-informative-tool-for-clinical-and-forensic-toxicological-assessments
#16
María Del Mar Ramírez Fernández, Sarah M R Wille, Virginia Hill, Nele Samyn
BACKGROUND: Hair analysis is a complementary approach for the detection of antidepressants (ADs) in clinical and forensic schemes because it yields a picture of long-term exposure over a time window depending on the length of the hair. METHODS: A fast and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using a BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate/acetonitrile was developed and validated according to international guidelines for the simultaneous analysis of 24 ADs in hair...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851686/gentamicin-pharmacokinetics-and-monitoring-in-pediatric-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia
#17
Sabina Bialkowski, Christine E Staatz, Julia Clark, Rachael Lawson, Stefanie Hennig
BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia is described, and the adequacy of initial dosing of once-daily gentamicin assessed at Queensland's largest Children's Hospital. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from all pediatrics with febrile neutropenia admitted over a 2-year period who had at least 2 gentamicin concentration-time measurements (a paired set within 1 dosing interval). Gentamicin clearance, volume of distribution, area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 hours postdose (AUC0-24), and maximum concentration values were estimated with log-linear regression using each paired set...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851685/a-simple-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-determining-lapatinib-and-erlotinib-in-human-plasma
#18
Masahiro Ohgami, Masato Homma, Yoshiharu Suzuki, Kanako Naito, Motoko Yamada, Shoichi Mitsuhashi, Fumie Fujisawa, Hiroshi Kojima, Takayuki Kaburagi, Keiko Uchiumi, Yutaka Yamada, Hiroko Bando, Hisato Hara, Keiji Takei
BACKGROUND: Lapatinib and erlotinib are used for cancer treatment, showing large interindividual variability. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful for assessing the clinical outcomes and adverse events. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography UV method was developed for the determination of lapatinib and erlotinib in human plasma. METHODS: An aliquot of plasma sample spiked with internal standard was treated with acetonitrile to precipitate the proteins...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805928/development-of-a-simple-and-rapid-method-to-measure-the-free-fraction-of-tacrolimus-in-plasma-using-ultrafiltration-and-lc-ms-ms
#19
Nicolaas A Stienstra, Maaike A Sikma, Anouk L van Dapperen, Dylan W de Lange, Erik M van Maarseveen
BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant mainly used in the prophylaxis of solid organ transplant rejection. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus is essential for avoiding toxicity related to overexposure and transplant rejection from underexposure. Previous studies suggest that unbound tacrolimus concentrations in the plasma may serve as a better predictor of tacrolimus-associated nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity compared to tacrolimus concentration in whole blood. Monitoring the plasma concentrations of unbound tacrolimus might be of interest in preventing tacrolimus-related toxicity...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764027/quantitative-method-for-simultaneous-analysis-of-a-5-probe-cocktail-for-cytochrome-p450-enzymes
#20
Laureen A Lammers, Roos Achterbergh, Marcel C M Pistorius, Yuma Bijleveld, Emmely M de Vries, Anita Boelen, Heinz-Josef Klümpen, Johannes A Romijn, Ron A A Mathôt
BACKGROUND: The metabolic activity of P450 enzymes in vivo can be determined using selective probe drugs. The simultaneous administration of multiple CYP-specific probe drugs is commonly known as the "cocktail approach." Disadvantages of a cocktail are large volumes of samples required for analysis and time-consuming analyses. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simplified but sensitive method for the simultaneous quantification of 5 probe drugs [caffeine (CYP1A2), metoprolol (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19), and S-warfarin (CYP2C9)] in a previously validated cocktail using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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