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Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418563/tensile-mechanical-properties-and-dynamic-collagen-fiber-re-alignment-of-the-murine-cervix-are-dramatically-altered-throughout-pregnancy
#1
Carrie E Barnum, Jennifer L Fey, Stephanie N Weiss, Guillermo Barila, Amy G Brown, Brianne K Connizzo, Snehal S Shetye, Michal A Elovitz, Louis J Soslowsky
The cervix is a unique organ able to dramatically change its shape and function by serving as a physical barrier for the growing fetus and then undergoing dramatic dilation allowing for delivery of a term infant. As a result, the cervix endures changing mechanical forces from the growing fetus. There is an emerging concept that the cervix may change or remodel "early" in many cases of spontaneous preterm birth. However, the mechanical role of the cervix in both normal and preterm birth remains unclear. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to determine the mechanical and structural response of murine cervical tissue throughout a normal gestational time course...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418515/pronation-supination-motion-is-altered-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic-elbow-contracture
#2
Chelsey L Dunham, Ryan M Castile, Aaron M Chamberlain, Leesa M Galatz, Spencer P Lake
The elbow joint is highly susceptible to joint contracture, and treating elbow contracture is a challenging clinical problem. Previously, we established an animal model to study elbow contracture that exhibited features similar to the human condition including persistent decreased range of motion (ROM) in flexion-extension and increased capsule thickness/adhesions. The objective of this study was to mechanically quantify pronation-supination in different injury models to determine if significant differences compared to control or contralateral persist long-term in our animal elbow contracture model...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418506/an-improved-optical-flow-method-for-blood-velocimetry
#3
Zifeng Yang, Hongtao Yu, George P Huang, Bryan Ludwig
Detailed blood velocity map in vascular system can be obtained by applying the optical flow method (OFM) in processing fluoroscopic digital subtracted catheter angiographic images, however, there are still challenges with the accuracy of this method. In the present study, a divergence compensatory Optical Flow Method (DC-OFM), in which a non-zero divergence of velocity is assumed due to the finite resolution of the image, was explored and applied to the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images of blood flow...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418458/right-ventricular-fiber-structure-as-a-compensatory-mechanism-in-experimental-pressure-overload-a-computational-study
#4
Arnold D Gomez, Huashan Zou, Megan E Bowen, Xiaoqing Liu, Edward W Hsu, Stephen H McKellar
Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a lethal condition in diverse pathologies. Pressure overload is the most common etiology of RVF, but our understanding of the tissue structure remodeling and other biomechanical factors involved in RVF is limited. Some remodeling patterns are interpreted as compensatory mechanisms including myocyte hypertrophy, extracellular fibrosis, and changes in fiber orientation. However, the specific implications of these changes, especially in relation to clinically observable measurements, are difficult to investigate experimentally...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418454/an-indirect-indentation-method-for-evaluating-the-linear-viscoelastic-properties-of-the-brain-tissue
#5
Aref Samadi-Dooki, George Z Voyiadjis, Rhett W Stout
Indentation experiments offer a robust, fast, and repeatable testing method for evaluating the mechanical properties of solid state materials in a wide stiffness range. With the advantage of requiring a minimal sample preparation and multiple tests on a small piece of specimen, this method has recently become a popular technique for measuring the elastic properties of the biological materials, especially the brain tissue whose ultra-soft nature makes its mechanical characterization very challenging. Nevertheless, some limitations are associated with the indentation of the brain tissue, such as improper surface detection, negative initial contact force due to tip-tissue moisture interaction, partial contact between the tip and the sample, etc...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418526/empirically-determined-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-mechano-adaptation-law
#6
Kerianne E Steucke, Zaw Win, Taylor R Stemler, Emily E Walsh, Jennifer L Hall, Patrick W Alford
Cardiovascular disease can alter the mechanical environment of the vascular system, leading to mechano-adaptive growth and remodeling. Predictive models of arterial mechano-adaptation could improve patient treatments and outcomes in cardiovascular disease. Vessel-scale mechano-adaptation includes remodeling of both the cells and extracellular matrix. Here, we aimed to experimentally measure and characterize a phenomenological mechano-adaptation law for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) within an artery. To do this, we developed a highly controlled and reproducible system for applying a chronic step-change in strain to individual VSMCs with in vivo like architecture, and tracked the temporal cellular stress evolution...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418508/validation-method-for-motion-segments-of-the-lower-cervical-spine-kinematic-and-kinetic-response-for-quasi-static-and-dynamic-loading
#7
Jeffrey B Barker, Duane S Cronin, Roger W Nightingale
Advanced computational human body models enabling enhanced occupant safety require verification and validation at different levels or scales. Specifically, the motion segments, which are the building blocks of a detailed neck model, must be validated with representative experimental data to have confidence in segment and, ultimately, full neck model response. In this study, we demonstrate the importance of objective validation for quasi-static and dynamic loading. Finite element segment models at all levels in the lower human cervical spine were developed from scans of a 26 year old male subject...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397957/single-cell-strain-energy-density-function-measured-by-cellular-micro-biaxial-stretching
#8
Zaw Win, Justin M Buksa, Kerianne E Steucke, G W Gant Luxton, Victor H Barocas, Patrick W Alford
The stress in a cell due to extracellular mechanical stimulus is determined by its mechanical properties, and the structural organization of many adherent cells suggests that their properties are anisotropic. This anisotropy may significantly influence the cells' mechanotransductive response to complex loads, and has important implications for development of accurate models of tissue biomechanics. Standard methods for measuring cellular mechanics report linear moduli that cannot capture large-deformation anisotropic properties, which in a continuum mechanics framework are best described by a strain energy density function (SED)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397956/a-project-course-sequence-in-innovation-and-commercialization-of-medical-devices
#9
Alan W Eberhardt, Shea Tillman, Brandon Kirkland, Brandon Sherrod
There exists a need for educational processes in which students gain experience with design and commercialization of medical devices. This manuscript describes the implementation of, and assessment results from, the first year offering of a "project course" sequence in a Master of Engineering (MEng) in Design and Commercialization at our institution. The three-semester course sequence focused on developing and applying hands-on skills that contribute to product development to address medical device needs found within our university hospital and local community...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388735/a-novel-anterior-trans-pedicular-screw-artificial-vertebral-body-system-for-lower-cervical-spine-fixation-a-finite-element-study
#10
Weidong Wu, Chun Chen, Jinpei Ning, Pei-Dong Sun, Jinyuan Zhang, Changfu Wu, Zhenyu Bi, Jihong Fan, Xianliang Lai, Jun Ouyang
Objective A finite element model was used to compare the biomechanical properties of a novel anterior trans-pedicular screw artificial vertebral body system (AVBS) with a conventional anterior screw plate system (ASPS) for fixation in the lower cervical spine. Methods A model of the intact cervical spine (C3-C7) was established. AVBS or ASPS constructs were implanted between C4 and C6. The models were loaded in three-dimensional motion. The Von Mises stress distribution in the internal fixators was evaluated, as well as the range of motion (ROM) and facet joint force...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388715/separation-of-solid-stress-from-interstitial-fluid-pressure-in-pancreas-cancer-correlates-with-collagen-area-fraction
#11
Michael D Nieskoski, Kayla Marra, Jason R Gunn, Stephen C Kanick, Marvin M Doyley, Tayyaba Hasan, Stephen Pereira, B Stuart Trembly, Brian W Pogue
Elevated total tissue pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma is often associated with stress applied by cellular proliferation and hydrated hyaluronic acid osmotic swelling; however, the causal roles of collagen in total tissue pressure have yet to be clearly measured. This study illustrates one direct correlation between total tissue pressure and increased deposition of collagen within the tissue matrix. This observation comes from a new modification to a conventional piezoelectric pressure catheter, used to independently separate and quantify total tissue pressure, solid stress, and interstitial fluid pressure within the same tumor location, thereby clarifying the relationship between these parameters...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334372/simulations-imaging-and-modeling-a-unique-theme-for-an-undergraduate-research-program-in-biomechanics
#12
Stephanie M George, Zachary J Domire
As the reliance on computational models to inform experiments and evaluate medical devices grows, the demand for students with modeling experience will grow. In this paper, we report on the three year experience of a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) based on the theme simulations, imaging, and modeling in biomechanics. While directly applicable to REU sites, our findings also apply to those creating other types of summer undergraduate research programs. The objective of the paper is to examine if a theme of simulations, imaging, and modeling will improve students' understanding of the important topic of modeling, provide an overall positive research experience, and provide an interdisciplinary experience...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334369/isotropic-failure-criteria-are-not-appropriate-for-anisotropic-fibrous-biological-tissues
#13
Christopher E Korenczuk, Lauren E Votava, Rohit Y Dhume, Shannen B Kizilski, George E Brown, Rahul Narain, Victor H Barocas
The von Mises (VM) stress is a common stress measure for finite-element models of tissue mechanics. The VM failure criterion, however, is inherently isotropic, and therefore may yield incorrect results for anisotropic tissues, and the relevance of the VM stress to anisotropic materials is not clear. We explored the application of a well-studied anisotropic failure criterion, the Tsai-Hill (TH) theory, to the mechanically anisotropic porcine aorta. Uniaxial dogbones were cut at different angles and stretched to failure...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303275/modeling-pathological-hemodynamic-responses-to-the-valsalva-maneuver
#14
Leszek Pstras, Karl Thomaseth, Jacek Waniewski, Italo Balzani, Federico Bellavere
The Valsalva maneuver consisting in a forced expiration against closed airways is one of the most popular clinical tests of the autonomic nervous system function. When properly performed by a healthy subject, it features four characteristic phases of arterial blood pressure and heart rate variations, based on the magnitude of which the autonomic function may be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. In patients with some disorders or in healthy patients subject to specific conditions, the pattern of blood pressure and heart rate changes during the execution of the Valsalva maneuver may, however, differ from the typical sinusoidal-like pattern...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303272/structural-and-functional-differences-between-aorta-and-vena-cava
#15
Jeffrey M Mattson, Yanhang Zhang
Elastin and collagen fibers are the major load-bearing extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents of the vascular wall. Arteries function differently than veins in the circulatory system, however as a result from several treatment options veins are subjected to sudden elevated arterial pressure. It is thus important to recognize the fundamental structure and function differences between a vein and an artery. Our research compared the relationship between biaxial mechanical function and ECM structure of porcine thoracic aorta and inferior vena cava...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267191/characterization-and-correction-of-errors-in-computing-contact-location-between-curved-articular-surfaces-application-to-total-knee-arthroplasty
#16
Joshua D Roth, Stephen M Howell, Maury L Hull
Previous reports of tibial force sensors have neither characterized nor corrected errors in the computed contact location between the femoral and tibial components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that are theoretically caused by the curved articular surface of the tibial component. The objectives were to experimentally characterize there errors and to develop and validate an error correction algorithm. The errors were characterized by calculating the difference between the errors in the computed contact location when forces were applied normal to the tibial articular surface and those when forces were applied normal to the tibial baseplate...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241270/collagen-organization-in-facet-capsular-ligaments-varies-with-spinal-region-and-with-ligament-deformation
#17
Ehsan Ban, Sijia Zhang, Vahhab Zarei, Victor H Barocas, Beth A Winkelstein, Catalin R Picu
The spinal facet capsular ligament (FCL) is primarily comprised of heterogeneous arrangements of collagen fibers. This complex fibrous structure and its evolution under loading play a critical role in determining the mechanical behavior of the FCL. A lack of analytical tools to characterize the spatial anisotropy and heterogeneity of the FCL's microstructure has limited the current understanding of its structure-function relationships. Here, the collagen organization was characterized using spatial correlation analysis of its optically-obtain fiber orientation field...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418512/a-method-for-in-vitro-tcpc-compliance-verification
#18
Mike Tree, Zhenglun Alan Wei, Brady Munz, Kevin Maher, Shriprasad Deshpande, Timothy Slesnick, Ajit Yoganathan
The Fontan procedure is a common palliative intervention for sufferers of single ventricle congenital heart defects that results in an anastomosis of the venous return to the pulmonary arteries called the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). Local TCPC and global Fontan circulation hemodynamics are studied with in vitro circulatory models because of hemodynamic ties to Fontan patient long-term complications. The majority of in vitro studies, to date, employ a rigid TCPC model. Recently, a few studies have incorporated flexible TCPC models, but provide no justification for the model material properties...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395001/the-impact-of-simultaneously-applying-normal-stress-and-vibrotactile-stimulation-for-feedback-of-exteroceptive-information
#19
M Reza Motamedi, Martin Otis, Vincent Duchaine
Commercially available prosthetic hands do not convey any tactile information, forcing amputees to rely solely on visual attention. A promising solution to this problem is haptics, which could lead to new prostheses in which tactile information is conveyed between the amputee and the artificial limb. However, the haptic feedback must be optimized so that amputees can use it effectively; and although several studies have examined how specific haptic feedback systems can transmit certain types of tactile information, there has not yet been much research on the effects of superposing two or more types of feedback at the same location, which might prove to be more effective than using a single type of feedback alone...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334358/ranges-of-cervical-intervertebral-disc-deformation-during-an-in-vivo-dynamic-flexion-extension-of-the-neck
#20
Yan Yu, Haiqing Mao, Jing-Sheng Li, Tsung-Yuan Tsai, Liming Cheng, Kirkham B Wood, Guoan Li, Thomas D Cha
While abnormal loading is widely believed to cause cervical spine disc diseases, in vivo cervical disc deformation during dynamic neck motion has not been well delineated. This study investigated the range of cervical disc deformation during an in vivo functional flexion-extension of the neck. Ten asymptomatic human subjects were tested using a combined dual fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based three-dimensional (3D) modeling technique. Overall disc deformation was determined using the changes of the space geometry between upper and lower endplates of each intervertebral segment (C3/4, C4/5, C5/6, and C6/7)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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