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Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925636/on-the-2d-simplification-of-3d-bone-implant-systems-application-to-a-femoral-cementless-hip-stem
#1
Fernando J Quevedo González, Michael Reimeringer, Natalia Nuño
Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models are commonly used to analyze the mechanical behavior of the bone under different conditions (i.e. before and after arthroplasty). They can provide detailed information but they are numerically expensive and this limits their use in cases where large or numerous simulations are required. On the other hand, 2D models show less computational cost but the precision of results depends on the approach used for the simplification. Two main questions arise: are the 3D results adequately represented in a 2D section of the model? Which approach should be used to build a 2D model that provides reliable results compared to the 3D model? In this paper, we first evaluate if the plane used for generating the 2D models of bone-implant systems adequately represents the results of the full 3D model...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925635/fatigue-detection-using-phase-space-warping
#2
Abdullatif Alwasel, Marcus Yung, Eihab Abdel-Rahman, Richard P Wells, Carl T Haas
A novel application of Phase-Space Warping (PSW) method to detect fatigue in the musculoskeletal system is presented. Experimental kinematic, force, and physiological signals are used to produce a fatigue metric. The metric is produced using time-delay embedding and PSW methods. Results showed that by using force and kinematic signals, an overall estimate of the muscle group state can be achieved. Further, when using electromyography (EMG) signals the fatigue metric can be used as a tool to evaluate muscles activation and load sharing patterns for individual muscles...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925634/influence-of-implant-surface-texture-design-on-peri-acetabular-bone-ingrowth-a-mechanobiology-based-finite-element-analysis
#3
Kaushik Mukherjee, Sanjay Gupta
The fixation of uncemented acetabular components largely depends on the amount of bone ingrowth, which is influenced by the design of the implant surface texture. The objective of this numerical study is to evaluate the effect of these implant texture design factors on bone ingrowth around an acetabular component. The novelty of this study lies in comparative Finite Element analysis of 3D microscale models of the implant-bone interface, considering patient-specific mechanical environment, host bone material property and implant-bone relative displacement, in combination with sequential mechanoregulatory algorithm and design of experiment based statistical framework...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918797/going-nuclear-evidence-implicating-the-cell-nucleus-in-mechanotransduction
#4
Spencer E Szczesny, Robert L Mauck
Biophysical stimuli presented to cells via micro-environmental properties (e.g., alignment, stiffness) or external forces have a significant impact on their function and behavior. Recently, the cell nucleus has been identified as a mechano-responsive organelle that contributes to the perception and response to mechanical stimuli. However, the specific mechanotransduction mechanisms that mediate these effects have not been clearly defined. Here, we review the evidence supporting (and refuting) three hypothetical nuclear mechanotransduction mechanisms: physical reorganization of chromatin, signaling at the nuclear envelope, and altered cytoskeletal structure/tension due to nuclear remodeling...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893065/histology-and-biaxial-mechanical-behavior-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-tissue-samples
#5
Francesco Q Pancheri, Robert A Peattie, Nithin D Reddy, Touhid Ahamed, Wenjian Lin, Timothy D Ouellette, Mark D Iafrati, A Luis Dorfmann
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) represent permanent, localized dilations of the abdominal aorta that can be life-threatening if progressing to rupture. Evaluation of risk of rupture depends on understanding the mechanical behavior of patient AAA walls. In this project, a series of patient AAA wall tissue samples have been evaluated through a combined anamnestic, mechanical and histopathologic approach. Mechanical properties of the samples have been characterized using a novel, strain-controlled, planar biaxial testing protocol emulating the in vivo deformation of the aorta...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893051/study-of-cholesterol-repletion-effect-on-nanomechanical-properties-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cell-via-rapid-broadband-atomic-force-microscopy
#6
Bo Yan, Juan Ren, Yue Liu, Huarong Huang, Xi Zheng, Qingze Zou
Abnormalities of blood cholesterol concentration are associated with increased risks for vascular disease, especially heart attacks and strokes. As one of the main lipid components of plasma membrane in mammalian cells, cholesterol has a major impact on the mechanical properties of endothelial cells. Although the effect of cholesterol depletion on cell mechanical properties has been studied, no results yet have been reported on quantitative investigation of cholesterol repletion effect. In this study, cholesterol repletion effect on nanomechanical properties of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EA...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893044/failure-of-the-porcine-ascending-aorta-multidirectional-experiments-and-a-unifying-microstructural-model
#7
Colleen M Witzenburg, Rohit Y Dhume, Sachin B Shah, Christopher E Korenczuk, Hallie P Wagner, Patrick W Alford, Victor H Barocas
The ascending thoracic aorta is poorly understood mechanically, especially its risk of dissection. To make better predictions of dissection risk, more information about the multi-dimensional failure behavior of the tissue is needed, and this information must be incorporated into an appropriate theoretical / computational model. Towards the creation of such a model, uniaxial, equibiaxial, peel, and shear lap tests were performed on healthy porcine ascending aorta samples. Uniaxial and equibiaxial tests showed anisotropy with greater stiffness and strength in the circumferential direction...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814431/the-mechanics-of-single-cell-and-collective-migration-of-tumor-cells
#8
Marianne Lintz, Adam Muñoz, Cynthia A Reinhart-King
Metastasis is a dynamic process in which cancer cells navigate the tumor microenvironment, largely guided by external chemical and mechanical cues. Our current understanding of metastatic cell migration has relied primarily on studies of single cell migration, most of which have been performed using two-dimensional cell culture techniques and, more recently, using three-dimensional scaffolds. However, the current paradigm focused on single cell movements is shifting towards the idea that collective migration is likely one of the primary modes of migration during metastasis of many solid tumors...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814430/computational-biomechanics-of-human-red-blood-cells-in-hematological-disorders
#9
Xuejin Li, He Li, Hung-Yu Chang, George Lykotrafitis, George Em Karniadakis
We review recent advances in multiscale modeling of the biomechanical characteristics of red blood cells (RBCs) in hematological diseases, and their relevance to the structure and dynamics of defective RBCs. We highlight examples of successful simulations of blood disorders including malaria and other hereditary disorders, such as sickle-cell anemia, spherocytosis and elliptocytosis.
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802481/metatarsal-shape-and-foot-type-a-geometric-morphometric-analysis
#10
Scott Telfer, Matthew W Kindig, Bruce J Sangeorzan, William R Ledoux
Planus and cavus foot types have been associated with an increased risk of pain and disability. Improving our understanding of the geometric differences between bones in different foot types may provide insights into injury risk profiles and have implications for the design of musculoskeletal and finite element models. In this study we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on the geometry of metatarsal bones from 65 feet, segmented from computed tomography scans. These were categorized into four foot types: pes cavus, neutrally aligned, asymptomatic pes planus, and symptomatic pes planus...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760260/the-solid-mechanics-of-cancer-and-strategies-for-improved-therapy
#11
Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Tumor progression and response to treatment is determined in large part by the generation of mechanical stresses that stem from both the solid and the fluid phase of the tumor. Furthermore, elevated solid stress levels can regulate fluid stresses by compressing intratumoral blood and lymphatic vessels. Blood vessel compression reduces tumor perfusion, while compression of lymphatic vessels hinders the ability of the tumor to drain excessive fluid from its interstitial space contributing to the uniform elevation of the interstitial fluid pressure...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760253/multi-scale-strain-as-a-predictor-of-impact-induced-fissuring-in-articular-cartilage
#12
Corinne R Henak, Lena R Bartell, Itai Cohen, Lawrence J Bonassar
Mechanical damage is central to both initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, specific causal links between mechanics and cartilage damage are incompletely understood, which results in an inability to predict failure. The lack of understanding is primarily due to the difficulty in simultaneously resolving the high rates and small length scales relevant to the problem and in correlating such measurements to the resulting fissures. This study leveraged microscopy and high-speed imaging to resolve mechanics on the previously unexamined time and length scales of interest in cartilage damage, and used those mechanics to develop predictive models...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760249/multidirectional-in-vivo-characterization-of-skin-using-wiener-nonlinear-stochastic-system-identification-techniques
#13
Matthew D Parker, Lynette A Jones, Ian W Hunter, A J Taberner, M P Nash, P M F Nielsen
A triaxial force-sensitive microrobot was developed to dynamically perturb skin in multiple deformation modes, in vivo. Wiener static nonlinear identification was used to extract the linear dynamics and static nonlinearity of the force-displacement behavior of skin. Stochastic input forces were applied to the volar forearm and thenar eminence of the hand, producing probe tip perturbations in indentation and extension. Wiener static nonlinear approaches increased the variance accounted for by 0.1 % to 3.4 % over linear approaches, to 94 % to 97 %...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760246/an-approach-to-assessing-turbulent-flow-damage-to-blood-in-medical-devices
#14
Mesude Ozturk, Dimitrios V Papavassiliou, Edgar A O'Rear
In this work, contributing factors for red blood cell damage in turbulence were investigated by simulating jet flow experiments. Results showed that dissipative eddies comparable or smaller in size to the red blood cells cause hemolysis and that hemolysis corresponds to the number and the surface area of eddies that are associated with Kolmogorov length scale smaller than about 10 µm. The size distribution of Kolmogorov scale eddies was used to define a turbulent flow extensive property with eddies serving as a means to assess the turbulence effectiveness in damaging cells, and a new hemolysis model was proposed...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727400/hemodynamics-of-flow-diverters
#15
Ronak Dholakia, Chandramouli Sadasivan, David Fiorella, Henry Woo, B Barry Lieber
Cerebral aneurysms are pathological focal evaginations of the arterial wall at and around the junctions of the circle of Willis. Their tenuous walls predispose aneurysms to leak or rupture leading to hemorrhagic strokes with high morbidity and mortality rates. The endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms currently includes the implantation of fine-mesh stents, called flow diverters, within the parent artery bearing the aneurysm. By mitigating flow velocities within the aneurysmal sac, the devices preferentially induce thrombus formation in the aneurysm within hours to days...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701627/frontiers-and-challenges-in-cardiovascular-biomechanics
#16
Jeffrey W Holmes, Jessica E Wagenseil
(none).
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685536/biaxial-properties-of-the-left-and-right-pulmonary-arteries-in-a-monocrotaline-rat-animal-model-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#17
Erica R Pursell, Daniela Vélez-Rendón, Daniela Valdez-Jasso
In a MCT induced-PAH rat animal model, the dynamic stress-strain relation was investigated in the circumferential and axial direction using a linear elastic response model within the quasi-linear viscoelasticity theory framework. Right and left pulmonary arterial segments (RPA, LPA) were mechanically tested in a tubular biaxial device at the early stage (1 week post-MCT treatment) and at the advanced stage of the disease (4 weeks post-MCT treatment). The vessels were tested circumferentially at the in vivo axial length with matching in vivo measured pressure ranges...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685359/linear-and-non-linear-viscoelastic-arterial-wall-models-application-on-animals
#18
Arthur R Ghigo, Xiao-Fei Wang, Ricardo Armentano, Jose Maria Fullana, Pierre-Yves Lagrée
This work deals with the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall and its influence on the pulse waves. We describe the viscoelasticity by a nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model in which the coefficients are fitted using experimental time series of pressure and radius measured on a sheep's arterial network. We obtained a good agreement between the results of the nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model and the experimental measurements. We found that the viscoelastic relaxation time - defined by the ratio between the viscoelastic coefficient and the Young's modulus - is nearly constant throughout the network...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685182/a-robust-and-subject-specific-hemodynamic-model-of-the-lower-limb-based-on-non-invasive-arterial-measurements
#19
Laurent Dumas, Tamara El Bouti, Didier Lucor
Cardiovascular diseases are currently the leading cause of mortality in the population of developed countries, due to the constant increase in cardiovascular risk factors. Numerous prospective and retrospective studies have shown that arterial stiffening is a relevant predictor of these diseases. Unfortunately, arterial stiffness distribution across the human body is difficult to measure experimentally. We propose a numerical approach to determine the arterial stiffness distribution of an arterial network using a subject-specific one-dimensional model...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685017/a-computational-efficient-method-to-assess-the-sensitivity-of-finite-element-models-an-illustration-with-the-hemipelvis
#20
Dermot O'Rourke, Saulo Martelli, Murk Bottema, Mark Taylor
Understanding the sensitivity of FE models to assumptions and uncertainties in geometric parameters and material properties is a fundamental step in understanding the reliability of model predictions. The computational cost of individual simulations and the large number of required models limits comprehensive quantification of model sensitivity. To quickly assess the sensitivity of a FE model, we built linear and Kriging surrogate models of a FE model of the intact hemipelvis. The percentage of the total sum of squares (%TSS) was used to determine the most influential input parameters and their possible interactions on the median, 95th percentile and maximum equivalent strains...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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