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Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450503/the-mechanical-contribution-of-vimentin-to-cellular-stress-generation
#1
Inge A E W van Loosdregt, Giulia Weissenberger, Marc P F H L van Maris, Cees W J Oomens, Sandra Loerakker, Oscar Stassen, Carlijn V C Bouten
Contractile stress generation by adherent cells is largely determined by the interplay of forces within their cytoskeleton. It is known that actin stress fibers, connected to focal adhesions, provide contractile stress generation, while microtubules and intermediate filaments provide cells compressive stiffness. Recent studies have shown the importance of the interplay between stress fibers and the intermediate filament vimentin. Therefore, the effect of the interplay between the stress fibers and vimentin on stress generation was quantified in this study...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450477/cyclic-compression-of-tissue-engineered-intervertebral-disc-constructs-composed-of-electrospinning-polycaprolactone
#2
Andrea Fotticchia, Emrah Demirci, Cristina Lenardi, Y Liu
There is lack of investigation capturing the complex mechanical interaction of tissue engineered IVD (intervertebral disc) constructs in physiologically-relevant environmental conditions. In this study, mechanical characterisation of anisotropic eletrospinning (ES) substrates made of polycaprolactone (PCL) was carried out in wet and dry conditions and viability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded within double layers of ES PCL was also studied. Cyclic compression of IVD-like constructs composed of an agarose core confined by ES PCL double-layers was implemented using a bioreactor and the cellular response to the mechanical stimulation was evaluated...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450473/elevated-blood-viscosity-and-micro-recirculation-linked-to-coronary-stent-malapposition
#3
Eric Poon, Vikas Thondapu, Umair Hayat, Peter Barlis, Chooi Yap, Po Kuo, Qisen Wang, Jiawei Ma, Shuang Zhu, Stephen Moore, Andrew Ooi
One particular complexity of coronary artery is the natural tapering of the vessel with proximal segments having larger caliber and distal tapering as the vessel get smaller. The natural tapering of a coronary artery often leads to proximal incomplete stent apposition (ISA). ISA alters coronary hemodynamics and creates pathological path to develop complications such as in-stent restenosis, and more worryingly, stent thrombosis. By employing state-of-the-art computer-aided design software, generic stent hoops were virtually deployed in an idealized tapered coronary artery with decreasing malapposition distance...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423504/nonlinear-dynamics-of-dacron-aortic-prostheses-conveying-pulsatile-flow
#4
Eleonora Tubaldi, Michael Paidoussis, Marco Amabili
This study addresses the dynamic response to pulsatile physiological blood flow and pressure of a woven Dacron graft currently used in thoracic aortic surgery. The model of the prosthesis assumes a cylindrical orthotropic shell described by means of nonlinear Novozhilov shell theory. The blood flow is modeled as Newtonian pulsatile flow, and unsteady viscous effects are included. Coupled fluid-structure Lagrange equations for open systems with wave propagation subject to pulsatile flow are applied. Physiological waveforms of blood pressure and velocity are approximated with the first eight harmonics of the corresponding Fourier series...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396577/a-priori-assessment-of-adipose-tissue-mechanical-testing-by-global-sensitivity-analysis
#5
Hosein Naseri, Håkan Johansson
In modelling the mechanical behavior of soft tissues, the proper choice of an experiment for identifying material parameters is not an easy task. In this study, a finite element computational framework is used to virtually simulate and assess commonly used experimental setups; rotational rheometer tests, confined- and unconfined- compression tests, and indentation tests. Variance-based global sensitivity analysis is employed to identify which parameters in different experimental setups govern model prediction, and are thus more likely to be determined through parameter identification processes...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392300/effects-of-increased-arterial-stiffness-on-atherosclerotic-plaque-amounts
#6
Kellie Stoka, Justine Maedeker, L Bennett, Siddharth Bhayani, William Gardner, Jesse Procknow, Austin J Cocciolone, Tezin Walji, Clarissa Craft, Jessica E Wagenseil
Increased arterial stiffness is associated with atherosclerosis in humans, but there have been limited animal studies investigating the relationship between these factors. We bred elastin wildtype (Eln+/+) and heterozygous (Eln+/-) mice to apolipoprotein E wildtype (Apoe+/+) and knockout (Apoe-/-) mice and fed them normal (ND) or Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks. Eln+/- mice have increased arterial stiffness. Apoe-/- mice develop atherosclerosis on ND that is accelerated by WD. It has been reported that Apoe-/- mice have increased arterial stiffness and that the increased stiffness may play a role in atherosclerotic plaque progression...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392299/validating-fatigue-safety-factor-calculation-methods-for-cardiovascular-stents
#7
Ramesh Marrey, Brian Baillargeon, Maureen Dreher, Jason D Weaver, Srinidhi Nagaraja, Nuno Rebelo, Xiao-Yan Gong
Evaluating risk of fatigue fractures in cardiovascular implants via non-clinical testing is essential to provide an indication of their durability. This is generally accomplished by experimental accelerated durability testing and often complemented with computational simulations to calculate "fatigue safety factors". While many methods exist to calculate fatigue safety factors, none have been validated against experimental data. The current study presents three methods for calculating fatigue safety factors and compares them to experimental fracture outcomes under axial fatigue loading, using cobalt-chromium test specimens designed to represent cardiovascular stents...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392289/finite-element-study-to-evaluate-the-biomechanical-performance-of-the-spine-after-augmenting-percutaneous-pedicle-screw-fixation-with-kyphoplasty-for-the-treatment-of-burst-fractures
#8
Shady Elmasry, Shihab Asfour, Francesco Travascio
Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PPSF) is a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) employed in the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures (TBF). However, hardware failure and loss of angular correction are common limitations caused by the poor support of the anterior column of the spine. Balloon Kyphoplasty (KP) is another MIS successfully used in the treatment of compression fractures by augmenting the injured vertebral body with cement. To overcome its limitations as a stand-alone procedure, it was suggested to augment PPSF with KP when treating TBF...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383379/effect-of-local-coil-density-on-blood-flow-stagnation-in-densely-coiled-cerebral-aneurysms-a-computational-study-using-a-cartesian-grid-method
#9
Tomohiro Otani, Takuya Shindo, Satoshi Ii, Masayuki Hirata, Shigeo Wada
Aneurysm recurrence is the most critical concern following coil embolization of a cerebral aneurysm. Adequate packing density (PD) and coil uniformity are believed necessary to achieve sufficient flow stagnation, which decreases the risk of aneurysm recurrence. The effect of coil distribution on the extent of flow stagnation, however, especially in cases of dense packing (high PD), has received less attention. Thus, the cause of aneurysm recurrence despite dense packing is still an open question. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of local coil density on the extent of blood flow stagnation in densely coiled aneurysms...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383374/validation-of-a-custom-instrumented-retainer-form-factor-for-measuring-linear-and-angular-head-impact-kinematics
#10
Logan Miller, Calvin Kuo, Lyndia C Wu, Jillian Urban, David Camarillo, Joel D Stitzel
Head impact exposure in popular contact sports is not well understood, especially in the youth population, despite recent advances in impact-sensing technology which has allowed widespread collection of real-time head impact data. Head kinematics have been measured in previous studies using instrumented helmets, skin patches, skull caps, and instrumented mouthpieces. A limitation of instrumented helmets is that they cannot be used in contact sports where the athletes do not wear helmets, such as soccer and women's lacrosse...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350744/preventing-mesh-pore-collapse-by-designing-mesh-pores-with-auxetic-geometries-a-comprehensive-evaluation-via-computational-modeling
#11
Katrina Knight, Pamela Moalli, Steven D Abramowitch
Pelvic organ prolapse meshes are exposed to predominately tensile loading conditions in vivo that can lead to pore collapse by 70-90%, decreasing overall porosity, and providing a plausible mechanism for the contraction/shrinkage of mesh observed following implantation. To prevent pore collapse, we proposed to design synthetic meshes with a macrostructure that results in auxetic behavior, the pores expand laterally, instead of contracting when loaded. Such behavior can be achieved with a range of auxetic structures/geometries...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305613/optimized-time-resolved-echo-piv-ptv-measurements-elucidate-blood-flow-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-thrombus
#12
Kaushik Sampath, Thura T Harfi, Ricard/T George, Joseph Katz
Contrast ultrasound is a widely used clinical tool to obtain real-time qualitative blood flow assessments in the heart, liver, etc. Echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV) is a technique for obtaining quantitative velocity maps from contrast ultrasound images. However, unlike optical PIV, routine echo images are prone to non-uniform spatiotemporal variations in tracer distribution, making analysis difficult for standard PIV algorithms. This study introduces optimized procedures that integrate image enhancement, PIV and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to obtain reliable time-resolved 2D velocity distributions...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305611/mechanical-properties-of-arterial-elastin-with-water-loss
#13
Yunjie Wang, Jacob Hahn, Yanhang Zhang
Elastin is a peculiar elastomer in that it requires water to maintain resilience, and its mechanical properties are closely associated with the immediate aqueous environment. The bulk, extra- and intrafibrillar water plays important roles in both elastic and viscoelastic properties of elastin. In this study, a two-stage liquid-vapor method was developed to investigate the effects of water loss on the mechanical properties of porcine aortic elastin. The tissue samples started in a PBS solution at their fully hydrated condition, with a gravimetric water content of 370 ± 36%...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305610/flow-structure-interaction-simulations-of-the-aortic-heart-valve-at-physiologic-conditions-the-role-of-tissue-constitutive-model
#14
Anvar Gilmanov, Henryk Stolarski, Fotis Sotiropoulos
The blood flow patterns in the region around the aortic valve depend on the geometry of the aorta and on the complex flow-structure interaction between the pulsatile flow and the valve leaflets. Consequently, the flow depends strongly on the constitutive properties of the tissue, which can be expected to vary between healthy and diseased heart valves or native and prosthetic valves. In this work we seek to demonstrate the role of tissue constitutive model on aortic valve hemodynamics. We employ the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary - Finite Element - Fluid Structure Interaction (CURVIB-FE-FSI) method developed by Gilmanov et al...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305609/does-wrist-laxity-influence-3d-carpal-bone-motion
#15
Gordie Best, Michelle Zec, David Pichora, Robin Kamal, Michael J Rainbow
Previous 2D studies have shown that there is a spectrum of carpal mechanics that varies between row-type motion and column-type motion as a function of wrist laxity. More recent 3D studies have suggested instead that carpal bone motion is consistent across individuals. The purpose of this study was to use 3D methods to determine whether carpal kinematics differ between stiffer wrists and wrists with higher laxity. Wrist laxity was quantified using a goniometer in 10 subjects by measuring passive wrist flexion-extension range of motion...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305603/assessing-airflow-sensitivity-to-healthy-and-diseased-lung-conditions-in-a-computational-fluid-dynamics-model-validated-in-vitro
#16
Bora Sul, Zachary Oppito, Shehan Jayasekera, Brian Vanger, Amy Zeller, Michael Morris, Kai Ruppert, Talissa Altes, Vineet Rakesh, Steven Day, Risa J Robinson, Jaques Reifman, Anders Wallqvist
Computational models are useful for understanding respiratory physiology. Crucial to such models are the boundary conditions specifying the flow conditions at truncated airway branches (terminal flow rates). However, most studies make assumptions about these values, which are difficult to obtain in vivo. We developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of airflows for steady expiration to investigate how terminal flows affect airflow patterns in respiratory airways. First, we measured in vitro airflow patterns in a physical airway model, using particle image velocimetry...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272321/the-stressful-life-of-adhesion-molecules-on-the-molecular-mechanosensitivity-of-adhesomes
#17
Hengameh Shams, Brenton D Hoffman, Mohammad Mofrad
Cells have evolved into complicated sensory machines that can signal back and forth with their (micro)environment. Extracellular mechanical cues trigger complex biochemical pathways inside cells, which may lead to various cellular phenotypes. Focal adhesions are large protein complexes directly engaged with the cytoskeleton and responsible for controlling cell shape and motility. Focal adhesions are part of a powerful intracellular machinery orchestrating mechanotransduction pathways. Force-dependent regulation of focal adhesion proteins determines adhesion-mediated mechanosensing in the molecular level...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260188/a-short-history-of-bioengineering-research-in-ireland
#18
Daniel J Kelly, Fergal O'Brien, Patrick Prendergast
In July 2018, Ireland will host the World Congress of Biomechanics in Dublin. The World Congress of Biomechanics is held once every 4 years and is the premier meeting worldwide in its field, with over 3000 people expected to attend the Congress. The awarding of the 2018 Congress to Ireland is a reflection of the strength of biomechanics and bioengineering research in this country. To mark this event, herein we describe the development of biomechanics and bioengineering research in Ireland over the past 40 years, which has grown in parallel with the medical device industry in this country as well as the expansion of Government investment in science, innovation and a knowledge based economy...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247253/perspectives-on-sharing-models-and-related-resources-in-computational-biomechanics-research
#19
Ahmet Erdemir, Peter J Hunter, Gerhard A Holzapfel, Leslie M Loew, John Middleton, Christopher R Jacobs, Perumal Nithiarasu, Rainald Lohner, Guowei Wei, Beth A Winkelstein, Victor H Barocas, Farshid Guilak, Joy Ku, Jennifer L Hicks, Scott Delp, Michael Sacks, Jeffrey A Weiss, Dr Gerard A Ateshian, Steve A Maas, Andrew D McCulloch, Grace C Y Peng
The role of computational modeling for biomechanics will be increasingly prominent. In computational biomechanics, model sharing can facilitate assessment of reproducibility, and can provide an opportunity for repurposing and reuse, and a venue for medical training. The community's desire to investigate biological and biomechanical phenomena crossing multiple systems, scales, and physical domains, also motivates sharing of modeling resources as blending of models developed by domain experts is anticipated. The goal of this article is to understand current perspectives in the biomechanics community for the sharing of computational models and related resources...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247252/lessons-learned-from-kinematics-research-applied-to-medical-device-design
#20
Arthur Erdman
NA.
December 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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