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Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

Derrick Ross, Stephen Howell, Maury Hull
Knowledge of A-P tibial contact locations provides an objective assessment of the relative motion of the tibia on the femur following total knee arthroplasty, which can be used to compare the effects of different components, surgical techniques, and alignment goals on knee function in vivo. Both the closest point method and the penetration method have been used to calculate A-P tibial contact locations using 3D model-to-2D image registration. Because the errors in calculating the A-P tibial contact locations using these two methods are unknown, the primary purpose of this study was to determine these errors...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Yunfeng Liu, Ying-Ying Fan, Hui-Yue Dong, Jian-Xing Zhang
BACKGROUND: The method used in biomechanical modeling for finite element method (FEM) analysis needs to deliver accurate results. There are currently two solutions used in FEM modeling for biomedical model of human bone from CT images: one is based on a triangular mesh, and the other is based on the parametric surface model and is more popular in practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The outline and modeling procedures for the two solutions are compared and analyzed...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Johannes Weickenmeier, Mahmood Jabareen, Benjamin J D Le Révérend, Marco Ramaioli, Edoardo Mazza
Predictive simulations of the mastication system would significantly improve our understanding of temporomandibular joint disorders and the planning of cranio-maxillofacial surgery procedures. Respective computational models must be validated by experimental data from in-vivo characterization of the mastication system's mechanical response. The present work introduces a combined experimental and numerical procedure for the validation of a computer model of the masseter muscle during biting. The proposed experimental setup enables simultaneous bite force measurements and ultrasound-based visualization of masseter deformation for the direct comparison with the numerically predicted masseter response...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Mingzhu Chen, Fergal Boyle
Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant cellular element suspended in blood. Together with the usual biconcave-shaped RBCs, i.e. discocytes, unusual-shaped RBCs are also observed under physiological and experimental conditions, e.g. stomatocytes and echinocytes. Stomatocytes and echinocytes are formed from discocytes and in addition can revert back to being discocytes; this shape change is known as the stomatocyte-discocyte-echinocyte (SDE) transformation. To-date limited research has been conducted on the numerical prediction of the full SDE transformation...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Karthik Somasundaram, Anil Kalra, Don Sherman, Paul Begeman, King H Yang, John M Cavanaugh
Anthropometric test devices (ATDs) such as Hybrid III dummy have been widely used in automotive crash tests to evaluate the risks of injury at different body regions. In recent years, researchers have started using automotive ATDs to study the high-speed vertical loading response caused by underbelly blast (UBB) impacts. This study analyzed the Hybrid III dummy responses to short-duration large magnitude vertical acceleration in a laboratory setup. Two unique test conditions were investigated using a horizontal sled system to simulate the UBB loading conditions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Kathryn M Robison, Cassandra K Conway, Laurephile Desrosiers, Leise R Knoepp, Kristin S Miller
Progress towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of pelvic organ prolapse is limited, in part, due to a lack of information on the biomechanical properties and microstructural composition of the vaginal wall. Compromised vaginal wall integrity is thought to contribute to pelvic floor disorders; however, normal structure-function relationships within the vaginal wall are not fully understood. In addition to the information produced from uniaxial testing, biaxial extension-inflation tests performed over a range of physiological values could provide additional insights into vaginal wall mechanical behavior (i...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Raviraj Nataraj, Antonie van den Bogert
The linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is a classical optimal control approach that can regulate gait dynamics about target kinematic trajectories. Exoskeletons to restore gait function have conventionally utilized time-varying proportional-derivative (PD) control of leg joints. But these PD parameters are not uniquely optimized for whole body (full-state) performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of LQR full-state feedback compared to PD control to maintain bipedal walking of a sagittal-plane computational model against force disturbances...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Andrew Shin, Lawrence H Yoo, Joseph Park, Joseph L Demer
Historical emphasis on increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma pathogenesis has been challenged by recognition that many patients lack abnormally elevated IOP. We employed finite element analysis (FEA) to infer contribution to optic neuropathy from tractional deformation of the optic nerve head (ONH) and lamina cribrosa (LC) by extraocular muscle counterforce exerted when optic nerve (ON) redundancy becomes exhausted in adduction. We characterized Young's modulus of fresh adult bovine ON, ON sheath, and peripapillary and peripheral sclera by tensile elongation to failure under physiological temperature and humidity...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Ava Segal, Kyle Yeates, Richard Neptune, Glenn K Klute
Coronally-uneven terrain, a common yet challenging feature encountered in daily ambulation, exposes individuals to an increased risk of falling. The foot-ankle complex may adapt to improve balance on uneven terrains, a recovery strategy which may be more challenging in patients with foot-ankle pathologies. A multi-segment foot model was used to study the biomechanical adaptations of the foot and ankle joints during a step on a visually obscured, coronally-uneven surface. Kinematic, kinetic and in-shoe pressure data were collected as ten participants walked on an instrumented walkway with a surface randomly positioned ±15° or 0° in the coronal plane...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Christopher Tan, William C H Parr, William R Walsh, Mariano Makara, Kenneth A Johnson
Radiographic data, including CT and planar x-ray, is increasingly used for human and animal kinematic studies. There is a tendency towards using as high resolution imaging as possible, which increases the precision of reconstructed 3d surface models of bone. However, to date no study has tested the effects of scan resolution, threshold and 3d model reconstruction parameters on the accuracy of bone kinematic results. The present study uses a novel method to do this where canine tarsal bones were positioned on a radiolucent LegoTM board and scanned before and after undergoing known translations and/or rotations...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Mary H Foltz, Craig C Kage, Casey P Johnson, Arin M Ellingson
Intervertebral disc degeneration is a prevalent phenomenon associated with back pain. It is of critical clinical interest to discriminate disc health and identify early stages of degeneration. Traditional clinical T2-weighted MRI, assessed using the Pfirrmann classification system, is subjective and fails to adequately capture initial degenerative changes. Emerging quantitative MRI techniques offer a solution. Specifically, T2* mapping images water mobility in the macromolecular network and our preliminary ex vivo work shows high predictability of the disc's glycosaminoglycan content (s-GAG) and residual mechanics...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Numpong Punyaratabandhu, Pimkhwan Kongoup, Panadda Dechadilok, Pisut Katavetin, Wannapong Triampo
Viewed in renal physiology as a refined filtration device, the glomerulus filters large volumes of blood plasma while keeping proteins within blood circulation. Effects of macromolecule size and macromolecule hydrodynamic interaction with the nanostructure of the cellular layers of the glomerular capillary wall on the glomerular size-selectivity are investigated through a mathematical simulation based on an ultrastructural model. The epithelial slit, a planar arrangement of fibers connecting the epithelial podocytes, is represented as a row of parallel cylinders with non-uniform spacing between adjacent fibers...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Lili Ehrlich, Gregory M Fahy, Brian Wowk, Jonathan A Malen, Yoed Rabin
This study focuses on thermal analysis of the problem of scaling up from the vitrification of rabbit kidneys to the vitrification of human kidneys, where vitrification is the preservation of biological material in the glassy state. The basis for this study is a successful cryopreservation protocol for a rabbit kidney model, based on using a proprietary vitrification solution known as M22. Using the finite elements analysis commercial code ANSYS, heat transfer simulations suggest that indeed the rabbit kidney unquestionably cools rapidly enough to be vitrified based on known intra-renal concentrations of M22...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Viswanath Managuli, Sitikantha Roy
A new asymptotically correct contact model has been developed for conical tip based AFM nanoindentation. This new model provides both elastic and non-specific adhesion properties of cells and soft gels by taking sample thickness at the point of indentation and its depth of indentation into consideration. The bottom substrate effect is the most common source of error in the study of "AFM force maps" of the cellular sample. The present model incorporates an asymptotically correct correction term as a function of depth of indentation to eliminate the substrate effect in the analysis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Arnab Chanda, Isuzu Meyer, Holly E Richter, Mark E Lockhart, Fabia R D Moraes, Vinu U Unnikrishnan
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), downward descent of the pelvic organs resulting in a protrusion of the vagina, is a highly prevalent condition, responsible for 300,000 surgeries in the United States annually. Rectocele, a posterior vaginal wall prolapse of the rectum is the second most common type of POP after cystocele. A rectocele usually manifests itself along with other types of prolapse with multi-compartment pelvic floor defects. To date, the specific mechanics of rectocele formation are poorly understood, which does not allow its early stage detection and progression prediction over time...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Kaushik Mukherjee, Sanjay Gupta
Bone ingrowth and remodelling are two different evolutionary processes which might occur simultaneously. Both these processes are influenced by local mechanical stimulus. However, a combined study on bone ingrowth and remodelling has rarely been performed. This study is aimed at understanding the relationship between bone ingrowth and adaptation and their combined influence on fixation of the acetabular component. Based on 3-D macroscale FE model of implanted pelvis and microscale FE model of implant-bone interface, a multiscale framework has been developed...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Chris DiDomenico, Andrew Goodearl, Anna Yarilina, Victor Sun, Soumya Mitra, Annette Schwartz Sterman, Lawrence J Bonassar
Because of the heterogeneous nature of articular cartilage tissue, penetration of potential therapeutic molecules for osteoarthritis (OA) through the articular surface is complex, with many factors that affect transport of these solutes within the tissue. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate how the size of antibody variants, as well as application of cyclic mechanical loading, affect solute transport within healthy cartilage tissue. Penetration of fluorescently-tagged solutes was quantified using confocal microscopy...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Andersen Michael S, de Zee Mark, Damsgaard Michael, Nolte Daniel, Rasmussen John
Knowledge of the muscle, ligament and joint forces is important when planning orthopedic surgeries. Since these quantities cannot be measured in vivo under normal circumstances, the best alternative is to estimate them using musculoskeletal models. These models typically assume idealized joints, which are sufficient for general investigations but insufficient if the joint in focus is far from an idealized joint. The purpose of this study was to provide the mathematical details of a novel musculoskeletal modelling approach, called Force-dependent Kinematics (FDK), capable of simultaneously computing muscle, ligament and joint forces as well as internal joint displacements governed by contact surfaces and ligament structures...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Alen Alexanderian, Liang Zhu, Maher Salloum, Ronghui Ma, Meilin Yu
In this study, statistical models are developed for modeling uncertain heterogeneous permeability and porosity in tumors, and the resulting uncertainties in pressure and velocity fields during an intratumoral injection are quantified using a non-intrusive spectral uncertainty quantification (UQ) method. Specifically, the uncertain permeability is modeled as a log-Gaussian random field, represented using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion, and the uncertain porosity is modeled as a log-normal random variable...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Ruchi Chande, Jennifer S Wayne
Computational models of diarthrodial joints serve to inform the biomechanical function of these structures, and as such, must be supplied appropriate inputs for performance that is representative of actual joint function. Inputs for these models are sourced from both imaging modalities as well as literature. The latter is often the source of mechanical properties for soft tissues, like ligament stiffnesses; however, such data is not always available for all soft tissues nor is it known for patient specific work...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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