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Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520913/when-theatre-comes-to-engineering-design-oh-how-creative-they-can-be
#1
Ferris M Pfeiffer, Rachel Bauer, Steve Borgelt, Suzanne Burgoyne, Sheila Grant, Heather Hunt, Jennie Pardoe, David Schmidt
The creative process is fun, complex, and sometimes frustrating, but it is critical to the future of our nation and progress in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, as well as other fields. Thus, we set out to see if implementing methods of active learning typical to the theatre department could impact the creativity of senior capstone design students in the Bioengineering department. Senior Bioengineering capstone design students were allowed to self-select into groups. Prior to the beginning of coursework, all students completed a validated survey measuring engineering design self-efficacy...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494057/biomechanics-education-redux
#2
Kristen L Billiar, Eric Kennedy
N/A.
May 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492928/local-changes-to-the-distal-femoral-growth-plate-following-injury-in-mice
#3
Lauren M Mangano Drenkard, Meghan E Kupratis, Katie Li, Louis C Gerstenfeld, Elise F Morgan
Injury to the growth plate is associated with growth disturbances, most notably premature cessation of growth. The goal of this study was to identify spatial changes in the structure and composition of the growth plate in response to injury to provide a foundation for developing therapies that minimize the consequences for skeletal development. We used contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CECT) and histological analyses of a murine model of growth plate injury to quantify changes in the cartilaginous and osseous tissue of the growth plate...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464119/structural-and-chemical-modification-to-improve-adhesive-and-material-properties-of-fibrin-genipin-for-repair-of-annulus-fibrosus-defects-in-intervertebral-discs
#4
Michelle A Cruz, Steven McAnany, Nikita Gupta, Rose Long, Phillip R Nasser, David Eglin, Andrew Hecht, Svenja Illien-Junger, James C Iatridis
Annulus fibrosus (AF) defects from intervertebral disc herniation and degeneration are highly correlated with back pain. Genipin crosslinked fibrin hydrogel (FibGen) is an injectable, space-filling AF sealant that was optimized to match AF shear properties and partially restored disc biomechanics. This study enhanced mechanical behaviors of FibGen to more closely match AF compressive, tensile and shear properties by adjusting genipin crosslink density and by creating a composite formulation by adding Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLGA)...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462429/on-the-stiffness-of-the-mesh-and-urethral-mobility-a-finite-element-analysis
#5
Sofia Brandão, Marco Parente, Thuane Huyer Da Roza, Elisabete Silva, Isabel Maria Ramos, Teresa Mascarenhas, Renato Manuel Natal Jorge
Midurethral slings are used to correct urethral hypermobility in female stress urinary incontinence, defined as the complaint of involuntary urine leakage when the intra-abdominal pressure is increased. Structural and thermal features influence their mechanical properties, which may explain postoperative complications, e.g., erosion, urethral obstruction. We studied the effect of the mesh stiffness on urethral mobility at Valsalva maneuver, under impairment of the supporting structures (levator ani and/or ligaments), by using a numerical model...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462424/evaluation-of-a-surrogate-contact-model-in-multi-body-dynamic-simulations-of-total-knee-replacement
#6
Marco A Marra, Michael S Andersen, Michael Damsgaard, Bart F J M Koopman, Dennis Janssen, Nico Verdonschot
Knowing the forces in the human body is of great clinical interest and musculoskeletal models are the most commonly used tool to estimate them in vivo. Unfortunately, the process of computing muscle, joint contact and ligament forces simultaneously is computationally highly demanding. The goal of this study was to develop a fast surrogate model of the tibiofemoral (TF) contact in a total knee replacement (TKR) model and apply it to force-dependent kinematic simulations of activities of daily living (ADLs). Multiple domains were populated with sample points from the reference TKR contact model, based on reference simulations and design-of-experiments...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462423/design-and-validation-of-a-biosensor-implantation-capsule-robot
#7
Wanchuan Xie, Weston M Lewis, Jared Kaser, C Ross Welch, Pengbo Li, Carl A Nelson, Vishal Kothari, Benjamin S Terry
We have proposed a long-term, non-invasive, non-restrictive method of delivering and implanting a biosensor within the body via a swallowable implantation capsule robot (ICR). The design and preliminary validation of the ICR's primary subsystem-the sensor deployment system-is discussed and evidence is provided for major design choices. The purpose of the sensor deployment system is to adhere a small biosensor to the mucosa of the intestine long-term, and the modality was inspired by tapeworms and other organisms that employ a strategy of mechanical adhesion to soft tissue via the combined use of hooks or needles and suckers...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462422/a-new-approach-to-teaching-biomechanics-through-active-adaptive-and-experiential-learning
#8
Anita Singh
Demand of biomedical engineers is rising exponentially to meet the needs of healthcare industry. Current training of bioengineers follows the traditional and dominant model of theory-focused curricula. However, the unmet needs of the healthcare industry warrant newer skill sets in these engineers where translational training strategies such as solving real world problems can be incorporated to the existing biomedical engineering education through active, adaptive and experiential learning. In this paper we report our findings of active and adaptive project based learning approach through a simulation lab visit that served as a clinical immersion experience for students enrolled in a senior-level Biomechanics undergraduate course...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462420/computational-parametric-analysis-of-the-mechanical-response-of-structurally-varying-pacinian-corpuscles
#9
Julia C Quindlen, Burak Güçlü, Eric A Schepis, Victor H Barocas
The Pacinian corpuscle (PC) is a cutaneous mechanoreceptor that senses low-amplitude, high-frequency vibrations. The PC contains a nerve fiber surrounded by alternating layers of solid lamellae and interlamellar fluid, and this structure is hypothesized to contribute to the PC's role as a band-pass filter for vibrations. In this study, we sought to evaluate the relationship between the PC's material and geometric parameters and its response to vibration. We used a spherical finite-element mechanical model based on shell theory and lubrication theory to model the PC's outer core...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462418/multiscale-mechanical-evaluation-of-human-supraspinatus-tendon-under-shear-loading-after-glycosaminoglycan-reduction
#10
Fei Fang, Spencer P Lake
Proteoglycans (PGs) have been reported to be broadly distributed within many soft tissues and, among other roles, often contribute to mechanical properties. Although PGs were once assumed to help support load in tendon, numerous studies have found no changes to tensile mechanics after PG depletion. Since PGs are known to help sustain non-tensile loading in other tissues (e.g., compressive forces in cartilage), we hypothesized that PGs might help support non-tensile loading in the human supraspinatus tendon (SST), a commonly injured tendon which functions in a complex multiaxial loading environment...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462417/non-uniform-moving-boundary-method-for-cfd-simulation-of-intrathecal-cerebrospinal-flow-distribution-in-a-cynomolgus-monkey
#11
Mohammadreza Khani, Tao Xing, Christina Gibbs, John Oshinski, Gregory R Stewart, Jillynne R Zeller, Bryn A Martin
A detailed quantification and understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics may improve detection and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and help optimize CSF system-based delivery of CNS therapeutics. This study presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that utilizes a non-uniform moving boundary approach to accurately reproduce the non-uniform distribution of CSF flow along the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS) of a single cynomolgus monkey. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol was developed and applied to quantify subject-specific CSF space geometry and flow and define the CFD domain and boundary conditions...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418515/pronation-supination-motion-is-altered-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic-elbow-contracture
#12
Chelsey L Dunham, Ryan M Castile, Aaron M Chamberlain, Leesa M Galatz, Spencer P Lake
The elbow joint is highly susceptible to joint contracture, and treating elbow contracture is a challenging clinical problem. Previously, we established an animal model to study elbow contracture that exhibited features similar to the human condition including persistent decreased range of motion (ROM) in flexion-extension and increased capsule thickness/adhesions. The objective of this study was to mechanically quantify pronation-supination in different injury models to determine if significant differences compared to control or contralateral persist long-term in our animal elbow contracture model...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418506/an-improved-optical-flow-method-for-blood-velocimetry
#13
Zifeng Yang, Hongtao Yu, George P Huang, Bryan Ludwig
Detailed blood velocity map in vascular system can be obtained by applying the optical flow method (OFM) in processing fluoroscopic digital subtracted catheter angiographic images, however, there are still challenges with the accuracy of this method. In the present study, a divergence compensatory Optical Flow Method (DC-OFM), in which a non-zero divergence of velocity is assumed due to the finite resolution of the image, was explored and applied to the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images of blood flow...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418458/right-ventricular-fiber-structure-as-a-compensatory-mechanism-in-experimental-pressure-overload-a-computational-study
#14
Arnold D Gomez, Huashan Zou, Megan E Bowen, Xiaoqing Liu, Edward W Hsu, Stephen H McKellar
Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a lethal condition in diverse pathologies. Pressure overload is the most common etiology of RVF, but our understanding of the tissue structure remodeling and other biomechanical factors involved in RVF is limited. Some remodeling patterns are interpreted as compensatory mechanisms including myocyte hypertrophy, extracellular fibrosis, and changes in fiber orientation. However, the specific implications of these changes, especially in relation to clinically observable measurements, are difficult to investigate experimentally...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418526/empirically-determined-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-mechano-adaptation-law
#15
Kerianne E Steucke, Zaw Win, Taylor R Stemler, Emily E Walsh, Jennifer L Hall, Patrick W Alford
Cardiovascular disease can alter the mechanical environment of the vascular system, leading to mechano-adaptive growth and remodeling. Predictive models of arterial mechano-adaptation could improve patient treatments and outcomes in cardiovascular disease. Vessel-scale mechano-adaptation includes remodeling of both the cells and extracellular matrix. Here, we aimed to experimentally measure and characterize a phenomenological mechano-adaptation law for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) within an artery. To do this, we developed a highly controlled and reproducible system for applying a chronic step-change in strain to individual VSMCs with in vivo like architecture, and tracked the temporal cellular stress evolution...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397957/single-cell-strain-energy-density-function-measured-by-cellular-micro-biaxial-stretching
#16
Zaw Win, Justin M Buksa, Kerianne E Steucke, G W Gant Luxton, Victor H Barocas, Patrick W Alford
The stress in a cell due to extracellular mechanical stimulus is determined by its mechanical properties, and the structural organization of many adherent cells suggests that their properties are anisotropic. This anisotropy may significantly influence the cells' mechanotransductive response to complex loads, and has important implications for development of accurate models of tissue biomechanics. Standard methods for measuring cellular mechanics report linear moduli that cannot capture large-deformation anisotropic properties, which in a continuum mechanics framework are best described by a strain energy density function (SED)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397956/a-project-course-sequence-in-innovation-and-commercialization-of-medical-devices
#17
Alan W Eberhardt, Shea Tillman, Brandon Kirkland, Brandon Sherrod
There exists a need for educational processes in which students gain experience with design and commercialization of medical devices. This manuscript describes the implementation of, and assessment results from, the first year offering of a "project course" sequence in a Master of Engineering (MEng) in Design and Commercialization at our institution. The three-semester course sequence focused on developing and applying hands-on skills that contribute to product development to address medical device needs found within our university hospital and local community...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388735/a-novel-anterior-trans-pedicular-screw-artificial-vertebral-body-system-for-lower-cervical-spine-fixation-a-finite-element-study
#18
Weidong Wu, Chun Chen, Jinpei Ning, Pei-Dong Sun, Jinyuan Zhang, Changfu Wu, Zhenyu Bi, Jihong Fan, Xianliang Lai, Jun Ouyang
Objective A finite element model was used to compare the biomechanical properties of a novel anterior trans-pedicular screw artificial vertebral body system (AVBS) with a conventional anterior screw plate system (ASPS) for fixation in the lower cervical spine. Methods A model of the intact cervical spine (C3-C7) was established. AVBS or ASPS constructs were implanted between C4 and C6. The models were loaded in three-dimensional motion. The Von Mises stress distribution in the internal fixators was evaluated, as well as the range of motion (ROM) and facet joint force...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388715/separation-of-solid-stress-from-interstitial-fluid-pressure-in-pancreas-cancer-correlates-with-collagen-area-fraction
#19
Michael D Nieskoski, Kayla Marra, Jason R Gunn, Stephen C Kanick, Marvin M Doyley, Tayyaba Hasan, Stephen Pereira, B Stuart Trembly, Brian W Pogue
Elevated total tissue pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma is often associated with stress applied by cellular proliferation and hydrated hyaluronic acid osmotic swelling; however, the causal roles of collagen in total tissue pressure have yet to be clearly measured. This study illustrates one direct correlation between total tissue pressure and increased deposition of collagen within the tissue matrix. This observation comes from a new modification to a conventional piezoelectric pressure catheter, used to independently separate and quantify total tissue pressure, solid stress, and interstitial fluid pressure within the same tumor location, thereby clarifying the relationship between these parameters...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334372/simulations-imaging-and-modeling-a-unique-theme-for-an-undergraduate-research-program-in-biomechanics
#20
Stephanie M George, Zachary J Domire
As the reliance on computational models to inform experiments and evaluate medical devices grows, the demand for students with modeling experience will grow. In this paper, we report on the three year experience of a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) based on the theme simulations, imaging, and modeling in biomechanics. While directly applicable to REU sites, our findings also apply to those creating other types of summer undergraduate research programs. The objective of the paper is to examine if a theme of simulations, imaging, and modeling will improve students' understanding of the important topic of modeling, provide an overall positive research experience, and provide an interdisciplinary experience...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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