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Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570758/benchmark-for-numerical-models-of-stented-coronary-bifurcation-flow
#1
Pedro Garcia Carrascal, Javier Garcia, Jose Sierra Pallares, Francisco Castro Ruiz, Fernando Manuel Martín
In-stent restenosis ails many patients who have undergone stenting. When the stented artery is a bifurcation, the intervention is especially critical because of the complex stent geometry involved in these structures. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has demonstrated to be an effective approach when modelling blood flow behavior and understanding the mechanisms that underlie in-stent restenosis. These CFD models, however, require validation through experimental data in order to be reliable. It is with this purpose in mind that we performed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocity fields within flows through a simplified coronary bifurcation...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570749/influence-of-the-musculotendon-dynamics-on-the-muscle-force-sharing-problem-of-the-shoulder-a-fully-inverse-dynamics-approach
#2
Quental Carlos, Azevedo Margarida, Ambrósio Jorge, Gonçalves Sérgio, Folgado João
Most dynamic simulations are based on inverse dynamics, being the time-dependent physiological nature of the muscle properties rarely considered due to numerical challenges. Since the influence of muscle physiology on the consistency of inverse dynamics simulations remains unclear, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the computational efficiency and biological validity of four musculotendon models that differ in the simulation of the muscle activation and contraction dynamics. Inverse dynamic analyses are performed using a spatial musculoskeletal model of the upper limb...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570757/simulation-of-airflow-in-an-idealized-emphysematous-human-acinus
#3
Amitvikram Dutta, Dragos Vasilescu, James C Hogg, A B Phillion, Joshua R Brinkerhoff
Emphysema is the permanent enlargement of air spaces in the respiratory regions of the lung due to destruction of the inter-alveolar septa. The progressive coalescence of alveoli and alveolar ducts into larger airspaces leads to the disruption of normal airway wall motion and airflow rates within the pulmonary acinus. To contribute to the understanding of the individual effects of emphysema during its earliest stages, computational fluid dynamics simulations of airflow in mathematically-derived models of the pulmonary acinus were performed...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570756/appropriate-objective-functions-for-quantifying-iris-mechanical-properties-using-inverse-finite-element-modeling
#4
Anup Pant, Syril Dorairaj, Rouzbeh Amini
Quantifying the mechanical properties of the iris is important, as it provides insight into the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Recent ex-vivo studies have shown that the mechanical properties of the iris are different in glaucomatous eyes as compared to normal ones. Notwithstanding the importance of the ex-vivo studies, such measurements are severely limited for diagnosis and preclude development of treatment strategies. With the advent of detailed imaging modalities, it is possible to determine the in-vivo mechanical properties using inverse finite element modeling...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570754/computational-fluid-dynamics-of-vascular-disease-in-animal-models
#5
Andrea Acuna, Alycia Berman, Frederick Damen, Brett Myers, Amelia Adelsperger, Kelsey Bayer, Melissa Brindise, Brittani L Bungart, Alexander M Kiel, Rachel Morrison, Joseph Muskat, Kelsey Wasilczuk, Yi Wen, Jiacheng Zhang, Patrick Zito, Craig Goergen
Recent applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) applied to the cardiovascular system have demonstrated its power in investigating the impact of hemodynamics on disease initiation, progression, and treatment outcomes. Flow metrics such as pressure distributions, wall shear stresses, and blood velocity profiles can be quantified to provide insight into observed pathologies, assist with surgical planning, or even predict disease progression. While numerous studies have performed simulations on clinical human patient data, it often lacks pre-diagnosis information and can be subject to large inter-subject variability, limiting the generalizability of findings...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570752/selecting-sensitive-parameter-subsets-in-dynamical-models-with-application-to-biomechanical-system-identification
#6
Ahmed Ramadan, Connor Boss, Jongeun Choi, N Peter Reeves, Jacek Cholewicki, John Popovich, Clark J Radcliffe
Estimating many parameters of biomechanical systems with limited data may achieve good fit, but there could be multiple parameter solutions that yield very similar model response. This results in lack of identifiability in the estimation problem. Therefore, we propose two systematic methods to select a sensitive parameter subset to be estimated, while fixing the remaining parameters to values obtained from preliminary estimation. The selection approach relies on identifying the parameter subset to which the measurement output is most sensitive...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570751/applying-a-hybrid-experimental-computational-technique-to-study-elbow-joint-ligamentous-stabilizers
#7
Danial Sharifi Kia, Ryan Willing
Much of our understanding of the role of elbow ligaments to overall joint biomechanics has been developed through in vitro cadaver studies using joint motion simulators. The principle of superposition can be used to indirectly compute the force contributions of ligaments during prescribed motions. Previous studies have analyzed the contribution of different soft tissue structures to the stability of human elbow joints, but have limitations in evaluating the loads sustained by those tissues. This manuscript introduces a unique, hybrid experimental-computational technique for measuring and simulating the biomechanical contributions of ligaments to elbow joint kinematics and stability...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570748/inertial-properties-of-football-helmets
#8
James Funk, Roberto Quesada, Alexander Miles, Jeff Crandall
The inertial properties of a helmet play an important role in both athletic performance and head protection. In this study, we measured the inertial properties of 37 football helmets, a NOCSAE size 7 ¼ headform, and a 50th percentile male Hybrid III dummy head. The helmet measurements were taken with the helmets placed on the Hybrid III dummy head. The center of gravity and moment of inertia were measured about 6 axes (x, y, z, xy, yz, and xz), allowing for a complete description of the inertial properties of the head and helmets...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560497/properties-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-in-growing-pigs
#9
Jesse Lowe, Rohan Bansal, Stephen Badylak, Bryan Brown, William Chung, Alejandro Almarza
A subset of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are attributed to joint degeneration. The pig has been considered the preferred in-vivo model for the evaluation of potential therapies for TMJ disorders, and practical considerations such as cost and husbandry issues have favored the use of young, skeletally immature animals. However, the effect of growth on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the TMJ disc and articulating cartilage has not been examined. The present study investigates the effect of age on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of healthy porcine TMJs at 3, 6, and 9 months of age...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560495/material-properties-of-rat-middle-cerebral-arteries-at-high-strain-rates
#10
E David Bell, Matthew Converse, Haojie Mao, Ginu Unnikrishnan, Jaques Reifman, Kenneth L Monson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting from either impact- or non-impact blast-related mechanisms, is a devastating cause of death and disability. The cerebral blood vessels, which provide critical support for brain tissue in both health and disease, are commonly injured in TBI. However, little is known about how vessels respond to traumatic loading, particularly at rates relevant to blast. To better understand vessel responses to trauma, the objective of this project was to characterize the high-rate response of passive cerebral arteries...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560498/beneficial-effects-of-exercise-on-subendothelial-matrix-stiffness-are-short-lived
#11
Julie Kohn, Francois Bordeleau, Joseph Miller, Hannah Watkins, Shweta Modi, Jenny Ma, Julian Azar, David Putnam, Cynthia Reinhart-King
Aerobic exercise helps to maintain cardiovascular health in part by mitigating age-induced arterial stiffening. However, the long-term effects of exercise regimens on aortic stiffness remain unknown, especially in the intimal extracellular matrix layer known as the subendothelial matrix. To examine how the stiffness of the subendothelial matrix changes following exercise cessation, mice were exposed to an 8-week swimming regimen followed by an 8-week sedentary rest period. Whole vessel and subendothelial matrix stiffness were measured after both the exercise and rest periods...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560496/a-uniaxial-testing-approach-for-consistent-failure-in-vascular-tissues
#12
Chao Sang, Spandan Maiti, Ronald Fortunato, Julia Kofler, Anne M Robertson
Although uniaxial tensile testing is commonly used to evaluate failure properties of vascular tissue, there is no established protocol for specimen shape or gripping method. Large percentages of specimens are reported to fail near the clamp and can potentially confound the studies, or, if discarded will result in sample waste. The objective of this study is to identify sample geometry and clamping conditions that can achieve consistent failure in the mid-region of small arterial specimens, even for vessels from older individuals...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560494/frontal-plane-tibiofemoral-alignment-is-strongly-related-to-compartmental-knee-joint-contact-forces-and-muscle-control-strategies-during-stair-ascent
#13
Hunter J Bennett, Joshua T Weinhandl, Kristina Fleenor, Songning Zhang
Static frontal plane tibiofemoral alignment is an important factor in dynamic knee alignment and knee adduction moments. However, little is known about the relationship between alignment and compartment contact forces or muscle control strategies. The purpose of this study was to estimate medial (MCF) and lateral (LCF) compartment knee joint contact forces and muscle forces during stair ascent using a musculoskeletal model implementing subject specific knee alignments. Kinematic and kinetic data from 20 healthy individuals with radiographically confirmed varus or valgus knee alignments were simulated using alignment specific models to predict MCFs and LCFs...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560491/comparative-evaluation-between-anatomic-and-non-anatomic-lateral-ligament-reconstruction-techniques-in-the-ankle-joint-a-computational-study
#14
Tserenchimed Purevsuren, Myagmarbayar Batbaatar, Batbayar Khuyagbaatar, Kyungsoo Kim, Yoon Hyuk Kim
Biomechanical studies have indicated that the conventional non-anatomic reconstruction techniques for lateral ankle sprain (LAS) tend to restrict subtalar joint motion compared to intact ankle joints. Excessive restriction in subtalar motion may lead to chronic pain, functional difficulties, and development of osteoarthritis. Therefore, various anatomic surgical techniques to reconstruct both the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments have been introduced. In this study, ankle joint stability was evaluated using multibody computational ankle joint model to assess two new anatomic reconstruction and three popular non-anatomic reconstruction techniques...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715364/quantitative-analysis-of-tissue-damage-evolution-in-porcine-liver-with-interrupted-mechanical-testing-under-tension-compression-and-shear
#15
Joseph Chen, Bryn Brazile, Raj Prabhu, Sourav S Patnaik, Robbin Bertucci, Hongjoo Rhee, M F Horstemeyer, Yi Hong, Lakiesha N Williams, Jun Liao
In this study, the damage evolution of liver tissue was quantified at the microstructural level under tensile, compression, and shear loading conditions using an interrupted mechanical testing method. To capture the internal microstructural changes in response to global deformation, the tissue samples were loaded to different strain levels and chemically fixed to permanently preserve the deformed tissue geometry. Tissue microstructural alterations were analyzed to quantify the accumulated damages, with damage-related parameters such as number density, area fraction, mean area, and mean nearest neighbor distance (NND)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715363/hip-joint-contact-pressure-distribution-during-pavlik-harness-treatment-of-an-infant-hip-a-patient-specific-finite-element-model
#16
Behzad Vafaeian, Samer Adeeb, Marwan El-Rich, Dornoosh Zonoobi, Abhilash R Hareendranathan, Jacob L Jaremko
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants under 6 months of age is typically treated by the Pavlik harness (PH). During successful PH treatment, a subluxed/dislocated hip is spontaneously reduced into the acetabulum, and DDH undergoes self-correction. PH treatment may fail due to avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. An improved understanding of mechanical factors accounting for the success/failure of PH treatment may arise from investigating articular cartilage contact pressure (CCP) within a hip during treatment...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715362/characterizing-the-heartmate-ii-left-ventricular-assist-device-outflow-using-particle-image-velocimetry
#17
Grant W Rowlands, Bryan C Good, Steven Deutsch, Keefe B Manning
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are implanted in patients with a diseased ventricle to maintain peripheral perfusion as a bridge-to-transplant or as destination therapy. However, some patients with continuous flow VADs (e.g., HeartMate II (HMII)) have experienced gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, in part caused by the proteolytic cleavage or mechanical destruction of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a clotting glycoprotein. in vitro studies were performed to measure the flow located within the HMII outlet cannula under both steady and physiological conditions using particle image velocimetry (PIV)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715361/assessment-of-mechanical-characteristics-of-ankle-foot-orthoses
#18
Amanda Wach, Linda McGrady, Mei Wang, Barbara Silver-Thorn
Recent designs of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) have been influenced by the increasing demand for higher function from active individuals. The biomechanical function of the individual and device is dependent upon the underlying mechanical characteristics of the AFO. Prior mechanical testing of AFOs has primarily focused on rotational stiffness to provide insight into expected functional outcomes; mechanical characteristics pertaining to energy storage and release have not yet been investigated. A pseudostatic bench testing method is introduced to characterize compressive stiffness, device deflection, and motion of solid-ankle, anterior floor reaction, posterior leaf spring, and the intrepid dynamic exoskeletal orthosis (IDEO) AFOs...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677281/biomechanical-effects-on-cervical-spinal-cord-and-nerve-root-following-laminoplasty-for-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-in-the-cervical-spine-a-comparison-between-open-door-and-double-door-laminoplasty-using-finite-element-analysis
#19
Batbayar Khuyagbaatar, Kyungsoo Kim, Tserenchimed Purevsuren, Sang-Hun Lee, Yoon Hyuk Kim
Many clinical case series have reported the predisposing factors for C5 palsy and have presented comparisons of the two types of laminoplasty. However, there have been no biomechanical studies focusing on cervical spinal cord and nerve root following laminoplasty. The purpose of this study is to investigate biomechanical changes in the spinal cord and nerve roots following the two most common types of laminoplasty, open-door and double-door laminoplasty, for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677280/assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-combat-eyewear-protection-against-blast-overpressure
#20
A Sundaramurthy, M Skotak, E Alay, G Unnikrishnan, H Mao, X Duan, S T Williams, T H Harding, N Chandra, J Reifman
It is unclear whether combat eyewear used by U. S. Service members is protective against blast overpressures (BOPs) caused by explosive devices. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which BOP bypasses eyewear and increases eye surface pressure. We performed experiments and developed three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of a head form (HF) equipped with an advanced combat helmet (ACH) and with no eyewear, spectacles, or goggles in a shock tube at three BOPs and five head orientations relative to the blast wave...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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