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Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055128/a-generalized-outflow-boundary-condition-impedance-model-for-non-invasive-prediction-of-ischemia-in-diseased-coronary-arteries
#1
Iyad A Fayssal, Fadl Moukalled, Samir Alam, Hussain Isma'eel
This paper reports on a new boundary condition formulation to model the total coronary myocardial flow and impedance characteristics of the myocardial vascular bed for any specific patient when considered for non-invasive diagnosis of fractional flow reserve (FFR). The developed boundary condition model inherits an implicit representation of the downstream truncated vascular bed and is based on integrating patient-specific physiologic parameters that can be non-invasively extracted for each patient to account for blood flow demand to the myocardium at rest and hyperemic conditions...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055127/shoe-floor-interactions-in-human-walking-with-slips-modeling-and-experiments
#2
Mitja Trkov, Jingang Yi, Tao Liu, Kang Li
Shoe-floor interactions play a crucial role in determining the possibility of potential slip and fall during human walking. Biomechanical and tribological parameters influence the friction characteristics between the shoe sole and the floor and the existing work mainly focus on experimental studies. In this paper, we present modeling, analysis, and experiments to understand slip and force distributions between the shoe sole and floor surface during human walking. We present results for both soft and hard sole material...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049689/a-nonlinear-viscoelastic-model-for-adipose-tissue-representing-tissue-response-at-a-wide-range-of-strain-rates-and-high-strain-levels
#3
Hosein Naseri, Håkan Johansson, Karin Brolin
Finite element human body models are nowdays commonly used to simulate pre- and in-crash occupant response in order to develop advanced safety systems. In this study a biofidelic model for adipose tissue is developed for this application. It is a nonlinear viscoelastic model based on the Reese et al. formulation. The model is formulated in a large strain framework and applied for finite element simulation of two types of experiments: rheological experiments and ramped-displacement experiments. The adipose tissue behavior in both experiments are represented well by this model...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049542/nanoparticle-optimization-for-enhanced-targeted-anti-cancer-drug-delivery
#4
Ibrahim Chamseddine, Michael Kokkolaras
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery is a promising method to increase the therapeutic index of anti-cancer agents with low median toxic dose. The delivery efficiency, corresponding to the fraction of the injected nanoparticles that adhere to the tumor site, depends on nanoparticle size $a$ and aspect ratio $AR$. Currently, values for these variables are chosen empirically, and may not yield optimal targeted drug delivery. This study applies rigorous optimization to the design of nanoparticles. A preliminary investigation revealed that delivery efficiency increases monotonically with $a$ and $AR$...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049521/can-measured-muscle-synergies-construct-unmeasured-muscle-excitations
#5
Nicholas A Bianco, Carolynn Patten, Benjamin J Fregly
Accurate prediction of muscle and joint contact forces during human movement could improve treatment planning for disorders such as osteoarthritis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy. Recent studies suggest that muscle synergies, a low-dimensional representation of a large set of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals (henceforth called "muscle excitations"), may increase the uniqueness of muscle excitations predicted by optimization methods. This study explores the feasibility of using muscle synergy information extracted from eight muscle EMG signals (henceforth called "included" muscle excitations) to accurately construct muscle excitations from up to 16 additional EMG signals (henceforth called "excluded" muscle excitations)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049515/simulating-reversibility-of-dcv-capture-in-en-passant-boutons-using-mathematical-modeling-to-understand-the-fate-of-dense-core-vesicles-in-en-passant-boutons
#6
Ivan A Kuznetsov, Andrey Kuznetsov
The goal of this paper is to use mathematical modeling to investigate the fate of dense core vesicles (DCVs) captured in en passant boutons located in nerve terminals. One possibility is that all DCVs captured in boutons are destroyed, another possibility is that captured DCVs can escape and reenter the pool of transiting DCVs that move through the boutons, and a third possibility is that some DCVs are destroyed in boutons, while some reenter the transiting pool. We developed a model by applying the conservation of DCVs in various compartments composing the terminal, to predict different scenarios that emerge from the above assumptions about the fate of DCVs captured in boutons...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049670/an-alternative-method-to-characterize-the-quasi-static-non-linear-material-properties-of-murine-articular-cartilage
#7
Alexander Kotelsky, Chandler W Woo, Luis F Delgadillo, Michael S Richards, Mark R Buckley
With the onset and progression of osteoarthritis (OA), articular cartilage (AC) mechanical properties are altered. These alterations can serve as an objective measure of tissue degradation. Although the mouse is a common and useful animal model for studying OA, it is extremely challenging to measure the mechanical properties of murine AC due to its small size (thickness < 50 um). In this study, we developed novel and direct approach to independently quantify two quasi-static mechanical properties of mouse AC: the load-dependent (non-linear) solid matrix Young's modulus (E) and drained Poisson ratio (v)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049632/an-engineering-model-to-test-for-sensory-reweighting-in-non-human-primate-posture
#8
Lara A Thompson, Csilla Haburcakova, Adam D Goodworth, Richard F Lewis
Quantitative animal models are critically needed to provide proof-of-concept for the investigation of rehabilitative balance therapies (e.g., invasive vestibular prostheses) and treatment response prior to, or in conjunction with, human clinical trials. This paper describes a novel approach to modeling the non-human primate postural control system. Our observation that rhesus macaques and humans have even remotely similar postural control motivates the further application of the rhesus macaque as a model for studying the effects of vestibular dysfunction, as well as vestibular prosthesis-assisted states, on human postural control...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049545/contributions-of-kinetic-energy-and-viscous-dissipation-to-airway-resistance-in-pulmonary-inspiratory-and-expiratory-airflows-in-multiscale-symmetric-airway-models-with-various-bifurcation-angles
#9
Sanghun Choi, Jiwoong Choi, Ching-Long Lin
The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify contributions of kinetic energy and viscous dissipation to airway resistance during inspiration and expiration at various flow-rates in airway models of different bifurcation angles. We employed symmetric airway models up to the 20th generation with the following five different bifurcation angles at a tracheal flow-rate of 20 L/min: 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 degrees. Thus, a total of 10 CFD simulations for both inspiration and expiration were conducted. Furthermore, we performed an additional four simulations with tracheal flow-rate values of 10 and 40 L/min for a bifurcation angle of 35 degree to study the effect of flow-rate on inspiration and expiration...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973131/special-issue-spotlight-on-the-future-of-musculoskeletal-engineering-frontiers-and-challenges-in-musculoskeletal-biomechanics
#10
Dawn M Elliott, Kyle Allen
Not applicable.
September 29, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975279/the-effects-of-aging-and-dual-tasking-on-human-gait-complexity-a-comparative-study-using-quantized-dynamical-entropy-and-sample-entropy
#11
Samira Ahmadi, Christine Q Wu, Nariman Sepehri, Anuprita Kantikar, Mayur Nankar, Tony Szturm
Quantized Dynamical Entropy (QDE) has recently been proposed as a new measure to quantify the complexity of dynamical systems with the purpose of offering a better computational efficiency. This paper further investigates the viability of this method using five different human gait signals. These signals are recorded while normal walking and while performing secondary tasks among two age groups (young and older age groups). The results are compared with the outcomes of previously established Sample Entropy (SampEn) measure for the same signals...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975262/a-small-deformation-thermo-poromechanics-finite-element-model-and-its-application-to-arterial-tissue-fusion
#12
Douglas Fankell, Richard A Regueiro, Eric Kramer, Virginia L Ferguson, Mark E Rentschler
Understanding the impact of thermally and mechanically loading biological tissue to supraphysiological levels is becoming of increasing importance as complex multi-physical tissue-device interactions increase. The ability to conduct accurate, patient specific computer simulations would provide surgeons with valuable insight into the physical processes occurring within the tissue as it is heated or cooled. Several studies have modeled tissue as porous media, yet fully coupled thermo-poromechanics (TPM) models are limited...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975258/contractile-smooth-muscle-and-active-stress-generation-in-porcine-common-carotids
#13
Boran Zhou, David A Prim, Eva Romito, Liam P McNamara, Francis G Spinale, Tarek Shazly, John F Eberth
The mechanical response of intact blood vessels to applied loads can be delineated into passive and active components using an isometric decomposition approach. Whereas the passive response is due predominantly to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and amorphous ground substance, the active response depends on the presence of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the contractile machinery activated within those cells. To better understand determinants of active stress generation within the vascular wall we subjected porcine common carotid arteries (CCAs) to biaxial inflation-extension testing under maximally contracted or passive SMC conditions and semi-quantitatively measured two known markers of the contractile SMC phenotype: smoothelin and smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975252/an-agent-based-discrete-collagen-fiber-network-model-of-dynamic-traction-force-induced-remodeling
#14
James W Reinhardt, Keith Gooch
We developed an agent-based model that incorporates repetitively applied traction force within a discrete fiber network to understand how microstructural properties of the network influence mechanical properties and traction force-induced remodeling. An important difference between our model and similar finite-element models is that by implementing more biologically-realistic dynamic traction, we can explore a greater range of matrix remodeling. Here, we validated our model by reproducing qualitative trends observed in three sets of experimental data reported by others: tensile and shear testing of cell-free collagen gels, collagen remodeling around a single isolated cell, and collagen remodeling between pairs of cells...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916839/study-of-tissue-level-hypoxic-response-in-microfluidic-environment
#15
Adnan Morshed, Prashanta Dutta
Availability of essential species like oxygen is critical in shaping the dynamics of tumor growth. When the intracellular oxygen level falls below normal, it initiates major cascades in cellular dynamics leading to tumor cell survival. In a cellular block with cells growing away from the blood vessel, the scenario can be aggravated for the cells further inside the block. In this study, the dynamics of intracellular species inside a colony of tumor cells are investigated by varying the cell block thickness and cell types in a microfluidic cell culture device...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916836/modelling-the-deformation-of-the-elastin-network-in-aortic-valve
#16
Afshin Anssari-Benam, Andrea Bucchi
This paper is concerned with proposing a suitable structurally-motivated strain energy function for modelling the deformation of the elastin network within the aortic valve (AV) tissue. The AV elastin network is the main non-collagenous load-bearing component of the valve matrix and therefore, within the context of continuum-based modelling of the AV, it essentially serves as the contribution of the 'isotropic matrix'. To date, such function has mainly been considered as either a generic neo-Hookean term or a general exponential function...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901373/kinesin-and-dynein-mechanics-measurement-methods-and-research-applications
#17
Zachary Abraham, Emma Hawley, Daniel Hayosh, Victoria Webster-Wood, Ozan Akkus
Motor proteins play critical roles in the normal function of cells and proper development of organisms. Among motor proteins, failings in the normal function of two types of proteins, kinesin and dynein, have been shown to lead many pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. As such, it is critical for researchers to understand the underlying mechanics and behaviors of these proteins, not only to shed light on how failures may lead to disease, but also to guide research towards novel treatment and nanoengineering solutions...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877309/a-finite-element-model-of-a-mid-size-male-for-simulating-pedestrian-accidents
#18
Costin D Untaroiu, Wansoo Pak, Yunzhu Meng, Jeremy M Schap, Bharath Koya, F Scott Gayzik
Pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable road users and comprise nearly 22% the road crash related fatalities in the world. Therefore, protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian collisions (CPC) has recently generated increased attention with regulations involving three subsystem tests. The development of a finite element (FE) pedestrian model could provide a complementary component that characterizes the whole-body response of vehicle-pedestrian interactions and assesses the pedestrian injuries...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857114/the-statistical-segment-length-of-dna-opportunities-for-biomechanical-modeling-in-polymer-physics-and-next-generation-genomics
#19
Kevin D Dorfman
The development of bright bis-intercalating dyes for DNA in the 1990s, most notably YOYO-1, revolutionized the field of polymer physics in the ensuing years. These dyes, in conjunction with modern molecular biology techniques, permit the facile observation of polymer dynamics via fluorescence microscopy, and thus direct tests of different theories of polymer dynamics. At the same time, they have played a key role in advancing an emerging next-generation method known as genome mapping in nanochannels. The effect of intercalation on the bending energy of DNA, as embodied by a change in its statistical segment length (or, alternatively, its persistence length) has been the subject of significant controversy...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787472/foot-and-ankle-joint-biomechanical-adaptations-to-an-unpredictable-coronally-uneven-surface
#20
Ava Segal, Kyle Yeates, Richard Neptune, Glenn K Klute
Coronally-uneven terrain, a common yet challenging feature encountered in daily ambulation, exposes individuals to an increased risk of falling. The foot-ankle complex may adapt to improve balance on uneven terrains, a recovery strategy which may be more challenging in patients with foot-ankle pathologies. A multi-segment foot model was used to study the biomechanical adaptations of the foot and ankle joints during a step on a visually obscured, coronally-uneven surface. Kinematic, kinetic and in-shoe pressure data were collected as ten participants walked on an instrumented walkway with a surface randomly positioned ±15° or 0° in the coronal plane...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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