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International Journal of Biological Macromolecules

Yuhao Ma, Wenhang Wang, Yabin Wang, Yang Guo, Songmei Duan, Kaixuan Zhao, Shuzhi Li
From the previous experiment, it was confirmed that the incorporation of 0.3 wt% sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) into collagen (Co) fibers can improve the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composite films. In this study, Ca2+ , Fe3+ and Ag+ ranging 0.001-0.004 mol/g were used to improve the properties of Co-PAAS blend films based on the rationale of their potential electrostatic interaction with these biopolymers. As expected, Zeta-potential film-forming solutions was decreased to some extent with the addition of metal ions...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Roxana Y Parada, Mayumi Egusa, Yihum F Aklog, Chihiro Miura, Shinsuke Ifuku, Hironori Kaminaka
Chitin has not been extensively used in agriculture owing to its handling difficulties despite its utilizable functions such as induction of disease resistance and growth promotion in plants. Chitin nanofiber (CNF), which has an elicitor activity to induce plant disease resistance, can be handled like a water-soluble material, because of its high dispersibility. To determine the potential use of CNF in agriculture, the nanofibrillation degree of chitin for elicitor activity and its effect on the disease resistance against pathogens were examined in cabbage and strawberry plants...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zheng-Wen Cai, Hui-Hua Ge, Zhi-Wei Yi, Run-Ying Zeng, Guang-Ya Zhang
β-1, 3-Xylanase is one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes to prepare oligosaccharides as functional foods in seaweed industry. However, less than five β-1, 3-xylanases have been experimentally expressed and characterized; moreover, none of them is psychrophilic and salt tolerant. Here, we mined a novel β-1, 3-xylanase (Xyl512) from the genome of the deep-sea bacterium Flammeovirga pacifica strain WPAGA1 and biochemically characterized it in detail. The Xyl512 did not contain any carbohydrate-binding module; the catalytic domain of it belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 26...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ana Gamarra, Eva Forés, Jordi Morató, Sebastián Muñoz-Guerra
Amphiphilic ionic complexes of hyaluronic acid and alkyltrimethylphosphonium soaps with alkyl chains containing even numbers of carbons from 12 to 22 have been produced. The complexes have a nearly stoichiometric composition, are non-water soluble, and are stable to heat up to temperatures above 200 °C. These complexes are amphiphilic and able to adopt a biphasic structure with the paraffinic and polysaccharide phases ordered arranged with a periodicity ranging between 3 and 5 nm depending on n. The paraffinic phase in complexes with n ≥ 18 was crystallized and showed melting at temperatures between 58 and 70 °C depending on the n value...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yonggang Wang, Ye Xu, Xueqing Ma, Xiaofeng Liu, Mingjun Yang, Wenguang Fan, Haiwei Ren, Nehikhare Efehi, Xiaoli Wang, Xinqiang Zhu
The extraction process, purification and characterization analyses of polysaccharides (LZJP) in Ziziphus jujuba planted in Linze County, Gansu Province were investigated, respectively. The results showed a maximum polysaccharide yield of 5.72% was achieved at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:20 g/mL for 90 min at 80 °C. Two homogenous acidic polysaccharides (LZJP3 and LZJP4) were purified successively by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. LZJP3 is composed of one polymer with galactose while LZJP4 is made up of two different kinds of polymers with xylose and glucose by size-exclusion chromatograph combined with multi-angle laser photometer (HPSEC-LLS) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ping Shao, Haoya Zhang, Ben Niu, Weiping Jin
In this research, Pickering emulsion stabilized by taro starch nanoparticles was successfully prepared, and the potential application of encapsulating tea polyphenols was investigated. The nanoparticle size (about 460 nm) and contact angle (81.5°) of taro starch indicate that it is suitable for adsorbing on the oil-water interface and forming a dense interfacial layer. Emulsion stability at different particle concentrations, oil-water ratios, and sodium chloride concentrations has been systematically studied...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Liang Zhang, Xian-Fen Wang, Hongsheng Liu, Long Yu, Yanfei Wang, George P Simon, Jianya Qian
Polymer film blends of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) were produced with an incorporation of three different plasticizers, including polyethylene glycol (PEG), glycerol and 1, 2-propylene glycol (PG) respectively, and the influence of these plasticizers were compared and studied by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), small angel X-ray Scattering (SAXS), optical microscope and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Results showed that multi-scale structure of the blends were greatly affected by the plasticizers and therefore caused significant changes in mechanical properties...
July 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Małgorzata Piecyk, Beata Drużyńska, Agnieszka Ołtarzewska, Rafał Wołosiak, Elwira Worobiej, Ewa Ostrowska-Ligęza
This study aimed to investigate functional and thermal properties and digestibility of grass pea starch, and provide information on the effect of hydrothermal modifications - annealing (ANN) and heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on the physico-chemical characteristics of the starch and digestibility, especially after processing (cooking, storage after cooking and freezing). After heat treatment, especially after cooking and storage at a temperature of -18 °C, the total content of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch in grass pea starch was high, which may indicate its great tendency for retrogradation...
July 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hyoun Sook Kim, Hyunggu Hahn, Jieun Kim, Dong Man Jang, Ji Yeon Lee, Jang Mi Back, Ha Na Im, Haelee Kim, Byung Woo Han, Se Won Suh
Vancomycin resistance in Enterococci and its transfer to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are challenging problems in health care institutions worldwide. High-level vancomycin resistance is conferred by acquiring either transposable elements of the VanA or VanB type. Enterococcus faecalis VanYB in the VanB-type operon is a d,d-carboxypeptidase that recognizes the peptidyl-d-Ala4 -d-Ala5 extremity of peptidoglycan and hydrolyses the terminal d-Ala on the extracellular side of the cell wall, thereby increasing the level of glycopeptide antibiotics resistance...
July 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Thanh Sang Vo, Young-Sang Kim, Dai Hung Ngo, Phuong Uyen Le, So-Yeon Kim, Se-Kwon Kim
In this study, the suppressive effects of peptides P1 (LDAVNR) and P2 (MMLDF) from enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima on mast cell degranulation was elucidated. It was revealed that P1 and P2 exhibited significant inhibition on cell degranulation via decreasing β-hexosaminidase release at concentration of 200 μM. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of P1 and P2 on expression and production of interleukin (IL)-13 were evidenced. Furthermore, peptide treatment caused a remarkable inhibition on the phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including ERK, p38, and JNK...
July 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Th I Shaheen, Abeer A Abd El Aty
In the realm of green synthesis of metals nanoparticles for medical textile application, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized in situ cotton fabrics for the first time by using fungi for rendering cotton fabrics antimicrobial activity with abroad range towards different pathogenic organisms. Herein, five different isolated fungi from medicinal plants were identified and optimized their growth media prior examined their ability to reduce Ag+ ions to AgNPs in-situ cotton fabrics along with ex-situ method...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Youming Xiong, Xinran Li, Meng Xiong, Sindhu Vikash, Pan Liu, Meng Wang, Yufan Zhu, Wen Yuan, Qiuping Zhang, Boqiao Fu, Caiqin Qin
PURPOSE: Chitosan is an easily accessible and biocompatible natural molecule which facilitate the immune system. In recent studies, chitosan is being applied to the drug nanosphere to deliver drugs. However, whether chitosan could promote health under exercising condition remains yet to be elucidated. Hence, we designed to investigate the effect of chitosan on swimming rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups, exercise with chitosan, exercise with water, sedentary with chitosan, and sedentary with water...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Raffaella Campana, Francesca Biondo, Francesca Mastrotto, Wally Baffone, Luca Casettari
Urinary catheters contamination by microorganisms is a major cause of hospital acquired infections and represents a limitation for long-term use. In this work, biofilms of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli clinical isolates were developed on urinary catheters for 48 and 72 h in artificial urine medium (AUM) with different molecular weight chitosans (AUM-CS solutions) at pH 5.0. The number of viable bacteria was determined by standard plate count agar while crystal violet (CV) staining was carried out to assess biomass production (optical density at 570 nm) in the mentioned conditions...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yousof Farrag, Walther Ide, Belén Montero, Maite Rico, Saddys Rodríguez-Llamazares, Luis Barral, Rebeca Bouza
Starch films loaded with donut-shaped starch-quercetin microparticles were prepared from two different botanical origins. The quercetin release kinetics through the films were studied. The donut-shaped starch-quercetin microparticles were prepared by thermal aqueous-alcoholic treatment. The quercetin loading percentage and therefore the antioxidant activity were higher for the microparticles from legume than those of cereal origins. The starch-quercetin microparticles also showed higher thermal stability than the starch granules...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Juliana Silva de Lima, Mariana Paola Cabrera, Alessandro Alberto Casazza, Milena Fernandes da Silva, Patrizia Perego, Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho, Attilio Converti
Tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase, E.C. is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester and depside linkages in hydrolysable tannins such as tannic acid, releasing gallic acid and glucose. It has several commercial applications in food industry, among which are gallic acid production, reduction of tannin content in fruit juices, and preparation of instantaneous tea. In this study we immobilized Aspergillus ficuum tannase in calcium alginate beads and then used it to treat boldo (Peumus boldus) tea...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yilin Jie, Xiaoyun Li, Zhaoxia Cai, Meihu Ma, Yongguo Jin, Dong Uk Ahn, Xi Huang
This study investigated the effects of phosvitin (PV), one of the major proteins from egg yolk, with different degree of phosphorylation on the physiology of an osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cell line. The proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 were analyzed using the CCK-8 and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, respectively. The effect of PV on the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 was monitored using the Alizarin-red staining. PV at 100 μg/mL increased the ALP activity by 145% of the control after 7 days of incubation...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Vahab Jafarian, Reza H Sajedi, Saman Hosseinkhani, Reyhaneh Sariri, Majid Taghdir, Khosrow Khalifeh, Masoomeh Vafa, Mahmoud Reza Aghamaali
Mnemiopsin 2 from Mnemiopsis leidyi is a calcium-regulated photoprotein which has luminescence properties in the presence of calcium and coelenterazine. All calcium-regulated photoproteins contain EF-hand loops consisting of 12 individual residues in which the 6th position is occupied by Gly. However, the 6th residue in mneniopsin 2 is Glu rather than Gly. Here, we investigated the structural and functional consequences of substitution of Glu by Gly (E50G variant) using site-directed mutagenesis and spectroscopic procedures...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yunbo Wu, Ye Ying, Yuhong Liu, Haijiang Zhang, Jianying Huang
Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (CH)-based blend films were prepared via a simple mixing and casting method. The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). Mechanical properties, thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and the inhibition of biofilm formation against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (P. aeruginosa PAO1) of CH/PVA films were investigated. The results indicated that CH and PVA in the blend films interacted by physical crosslinks consisting of intermolecular hydrogen bonds and intermolecular hydrogen bonds with compatibility, and were more thermally-stable than that of PVA...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Elena A Günter, Pavel A Markov, Anatoliy K Melekhin, Vladislav S Belozerov, Ekaterina A Martinson, Sergey G Litvinets, Sergey V Popov
The aim of this work is to produce calcium pectin-silica gel beads containing mesalazine as a drug model in order to control the drug release in the colon. The mesalazine loaded calcium pectin-silica gel beads were prepared using the ionotropic gelation method. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis revealed that increasing the Na2 SiO3 concentration led to an increase of the silicon content on the surface and in the cross-sections of the beads. The addition of Na2 SiO3 to the gel formulations made from the duckweed callus culture pectin led to a decrease in the swelling degree that appeared to be related to the higher gel strength of these beads...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Marzieh Ramzani Shemami, Mehdi Tabarsa, SangGuan You
Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from Azolla filiculoides to determine their chemical and structural characteristics as well as anticancer and immunostimulatory activities. Crude and fractions (F1 and F2 ) were mainly composed of neutral sugars (70.0-80.1%), proteins (2.1-14.2%) and uronic acids (1.2-10.8%). The polysaccharides were mostly formed of different levels of fucose (23.8-61.2%), galactose (28.5-38.7%), mannose (7.5-16.7%), xylose (13.3-13.6%), glucose (12.7-13.3%), arabinose (5.5-11.6%) and rhamnose (8...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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