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International Journal of Biological Macromolecules

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533018/a-facile-physical-approach-to-make-chitosan-soluble-in-acid-free-water
#1
Yinghao Fu, Congming Xiao
We changed the situation that chitosan was only dissolved in diluted acid through mild physical treatment. In viewing of the usual methods to modify chitosan are chemical ones, we established the approach by using a water-soluble chitosan derivative as the model polymer. Its water-solubility was modulated via changing the concentration of solution and varying the precipitants. Such a physical method was adopted to treat chitiosan. One gram chitosan was dissolved in a mixture of 100mL 10% acetic acid and 50mL methanol, and then precipitated from a precipitant consisted of 10mL ethanol and 90mL acetate ester...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533017/morphological-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-porous-starches-obtained-from-different-botanical-sources-and-amylolytic-enzymes
#2
Yaiza Benavent-Gil, Cristina M Rosell
Porous starches might offer an attractive alternative as bio-adsorbents of a variety of compounds. However, morphology and physicochemical properties of starches must be understood before exploring their applications. Objective was to study the action of different amylolytic enzymes for producing porous starches. Wheat, rice, potato and cassava starches were treated with Amyloglucosidase (AMG), α-amylase (AM) and cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGTase). Morphological characteristics, chemical composition, adsorptive capacity and pasting/thermal properties were assessed...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528955/potential-therapeutic-activity-of-phlogacanthus-thyrsiformis-hardow-mabb-flower-extract-and-its-biofabricated-silver-nanoparticles-against-chemically-induced-urolithiasis-in-male-wistar-rats
#3
Poppy Das, Kiran Kumar, Arunai Nambiraj, Reshma Rajan, Rajendra Awasthi, Kamal Dua, Himaja M
Urolithiasis is a painful disorder in which stones are formed in the kidney, bladder or urethra. There are no proper therapeutic treatments available for kidney stones and people suffering from larger stones have to undergo surgery which has many side effects. A natural remedy with therapeutic effects that can dissipate and remove even the larger stones would eliminate the need of a surgery and the risks associated with it. The flowers of Phlogacanthus thyrsiformis used in culinary recipes in the north eastern India are also widely used as a folklore medicine for the treatment of kidney stones and liver disorders...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528954/effects-of-plasticizers-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-kappa-carrageenan-films-extracted-from-eucheuma-cottonii
#4
A M Ili Balqis, M A R Nor Khaizura, A R Russly, Z A Nur Hanani
The physicochemical properties of κ-carrageenan films extracted from Eucheuma cottonii (E. cottonii) incorporated with different concentrations and types of plasticizers were studied. Glycerol, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol-300 (PEG-300) in the range of 10 to 60% were used as plasticizers. The results showed that the thickness and moisture content (MC) of films increased significantly (p≤0.05) with the increase in plasticizer concentration. Sorbitol-plasticized films had the lowest values. Sorbitol-plasticized films have better mechanical properties and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility and water uptake ratio (WUR) compared with glycerol and PEG-plasticized films (p≤0...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528953/composite-poly-lactic-acid-chitosan-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering
#5
Yaowen Liu, Shuyao Wang, Rong Zhang
Fibrous scaffolds with different ratios of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan were fabricated by conventional electrospinning. After crosslinking by the glutaraldehyde vapor, the structure, mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, and in-fiber chemical interactions of the scaffolds were investigated. We found that the fiber diameter decreased with the concentration of chitosan, while mechanical properties and hydrophilicity improved. In addition, we found that scaffolds with aligned fibers have higher mechanical strength and biocompatibility than scaffolds with randomly oriented fibers...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528952/an-overview-of-natural-renewable-bio-polymer-lignin-towards-nano-and-biotechnological-applications
#6
REVIEW
Selvaraj Mohana Roopan
Lignin were said to be major bio-polymer next to cellulose which is an abundant biopolymer. This type of lignin was mostly isolated from woods which were named after their physical, morphological appearances and majorly on extracting sources. Still now there are very few reports on isolation, identification of pure lignin and isolating pathways are also not well defined. Molecular weight of lignin varies from thousands to ten thousands which are not explored accurately. Even-though lignins were surrounded by these many hurdles it has various application studies which were studied and reported...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528951/polysaccharides-from-sargassum-thunbergii-monthly-variations-and-anti-complement-and-anti-tumour-activities
#7
Weihua Jin, Ge Liu, Weihong Zhong, Chaomin Sun, Quanbin Zhang
Monthly variations of polysaccharides from Sargassum thunbergii and their anti-complement and anti-tumour activities were investigated. It was observed that an increase in fucose and total sugar contents occurred during the growth period (from early April to mid-June), accompanied by a decrease in molar ratios of other monosaccharides to fucose. The highest yields were obtained from early July to early September, which was in accordance with the significant increase in molar ratio of glucose to fucose and decrease in molar ratio of other monosaccharides to fucose...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528950/effects-of-cataract-causing-mutations-w59c-and-w151c-on-%C3%AE-b2-crystallin-structure-stability-and-folding
#8
Wei-Jie Zhao, Jia Xu, Xiang-Jun Chen, Hui-Hui Liu, Ke Yao, Yong-Bin Yan
β/γ-Crystallins, the predominant structural proteins in vertebrate lens with lifelong stability to maintain lens transparency, share a high similarity in their primary sequences and tertiary structures. Four conserved Trp residues have been shown to be important to γ-crystallin structure, stability and protection against UV irradiation, whereas their roles in β-crystallins remain elusive. Herein we found that two congenital cataract-causing mutations, W59C and W151C, dramatically decreased βB2-crystallin solubility and stability against thermal and guanidine hydrochloride-induced denaturation...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528949/synthesis-and-characterization-of-cellulose-silver-nanocomposites-from-bioflocculant-reducing-agent
#9
L Muthulakshmi, N Rajini, A Varada Rajalu, Suchart Siengchin, T Kathiresan
Microbial secreted polymers have high molecular weight due to the presence of repeated units of macromolecules. Some of the polymers are derived from natural resources, including marine and soil microorganisms. In nano-biotechnology people are using different biological agents in the preparation of metal nanoparticles. In this study, the microbial bioflocculant polymer was used as an agent in preparation of silver nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were immobilized into the cellulose matrix. The presence of silver nanoparticles inside the cellulose matrix was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) analyses...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528948/multi-functional-activities-of-citrus-flavonoid-narirutin-in-alzheimer-s-disease-therapeutics-an-integrated-screening-approach-and-in-vitro-validation
#10
Sandipan Chakraborty, Soumalee Basu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex disorder and the disease mechanism is yet to be properly characterized. Over the years, "amyloid cascade" emerges as principal pathogenic event in AD. β-Secretase 1 (BACE1) controls the rate-limiting step in amyloid beta (Aβ) generation and Aβ rapidly aggregates to form neurotoxic amyloid fibrils. Oxidative stress is one of the principal mediators of the observed neurotoxicity of amyloid fibril. The disease pathogenesis involves induction of multiple signaling cascades and the cross-talk therein...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528947/syntrophic-association-of-termite-gut-bacterial-symbionts-with-bifunctional-characteristics-of-cellulose-degrading-and-polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing-bacteria
#11
Balasubramanian Cibichakravarthy, Subramani Abinaya, Solai Ramatchandirane Prabagaran
The guild between higher termites and their partnership with the diverse community of bacteria and archaea in their gut is a marvel evolutionary achievement. Sustained attempts were made worldwide with a quest for identifying viable important biological macromolecule polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulating bacteria. Termite gut serve as a novel source for bacteria with dual properties like PHA production as well as cellulose degradation. Among 40 isolates cultivated, 32.5% turned positive for PCR based screening of PhaC gene...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528946/effects-of-different-durations-of-acid-hydrolysis-on-the-properties-of-starch-based-wood-adhesive
#12
Yajie Wang, Hanguo Xiong, Zhenjiong Wang, Zia-Ud-Din, Lei Chen
In this study, the effect of different durations of acid hydrolysis on the improvement of the properties of starch-based wood adhesive was investigated through a variety of determination methods The improved properties were analyzed using the pasting properties, viscosity, shear performance in dry and wet states, fourier infrared spectrometer, dynamic time sweep, and low filed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Starch hydrolysis improved the viscosity stability, bonding performance, and water resistance of the starch-based wood adhesive...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528945/the-chemical-profile-and-pharmacodynamic-properties-of-extracellular-wollea-saccata-biopolymer
#13
Martina Šutovská, Michaela Kočmálová, Lenka Pappová, Soňa Fraňová, Andrej Chyba, Jiří Kopecký, Jaromír Lukavský, Vladislav Cepák, Peter Capek
Microalgae organisms are of interest for many biotechnology applications due to the production of a wide range of biologically active compounds. Incubation of W. saccata in a large scale afforded a mucilaginous, high molecular weight biopolymer composed of carbohydrate, protein and phenolic compounds. Sugar moiety was rich in hexoses (60%) and 6-deoxyhexoses (31%), while only 9% of pentoses was identified. Methylation analysis revealed about 40 types of methylated sugar derivatives, suggesting a very complex structure of Wollea biopolymer...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528944/structure-analysis-of-a-novel-heteroxylan-from-the-stem-of-dendrobium-officinale-and-anti-angiogenesis-activities-of-its-sulfated-derivative
#14
Han Yue, Yanqiu Liu, Huanhuan Qu, Kan Ding
Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (Tie-Pi-Shi-Hu), a precious folk medicine exhibiting multiple bioactivities, including antitumor, immune-enhancing and so on. Although evidences showed polysaccharide is one of the major bioactive substances from this herb, several of them were homogenous with fine structures elucidated. In this study, we showed a novel homogeneous heteroxylan obtained from alkali-extracted crude polysaccharide. It composed of arabinose, xylose, glucose and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid (4-MGA) as well as trace amount of rhamnose and galactose in a ratio of 8...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528943/impacts-of-dextran-sulfate-s-chain-length-on-the-characteristics-of-its-self-assembled-colloidal-complex-formed-with-amphiphilic-small-molecule-drug
#15
Hong Yu, Kunn Hadinoto
Self-assembled colloidal complexes of dextran sulfate (DXT) and amphiphilic small-molecule drugs have recently emerged as an attractive drug formulation strategy to improve drug delivery efficacy. Herein we investigated the effects of DXT's chain length (MW=5kDa and 500kDa) on the (1) physical characteristics (i.e. size, zeta potential, drug payload, colloidal stability), (2) preparation efficiency, and (3) dissolution characteristics of the colloidal complexes produced. Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) was used as the model amphiphilic drug...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528942/sol-gel-derived-xanthan-gum-silica-nanocomposite-a-highly-efficient-cationic-dyes-adsorbent-in-aqueous-system
#16
Sourbh Thakur, Sadanand Pandey, Omotayo Arotiba
A sol-gel synthesis of nanocomposite adsorbent materials by dehydroxylation condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of xanthan gum (XG) using base catalyst and ethanol as co-solvent is discussed. The synthesized nanocomposite material was evaluated for their ability to adsorb cationic dyes - methylene blue (MB) and bismarck brown Y (BB) from an aqueous solution. The XG/SiO2 nanocomposite shows the ordered macro- and meso-porous structures and also exhibited large surface area, excellent chemical/mechanical stability and high binding capability for MB and BB dyes...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528941/polyacrylamide-and-poly-n-n-dimethylacrylamide-grafted-cellulose-nanocrystals-as-efficient-flocculants-for-kaolin-suspension
#17
Ting Liu, Enyong Ding, Feng Xue
Natural polymer flocculants for wastewater treatment have received close attention in recent years. Here we used two flocculants, polyacrylamide and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) grafted cellulose nanocrystals synthesized by a "macro-RAFT assisted" strategy, for the flocculation of kaolin suspension. The flocculation performance of these two flocculants, including flocculants dosage, settling time and floc size, was carefully studied and compared. Results suggested that poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) grafted cellulose nanocrstyals showed better flocculation performance than polyacrylamide grafted ones...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528940/macromolecular-agents-with-antimicrobial-potentialities-a-drive-to-combat-antimicrobial-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Muhammad Bilal, Tahir Rasheed, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Hongbo Hu, Wei Wang, Xuehong Zhang
In recent years, the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) or multidrug resistance (MDR) has become a serious health concern and major challenging issue, worldwide. After decades of negligence, the AMR has now captured global attention. The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains has threatened the achievements of science and medicine since it inactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists are trying to respond to AMR/MDR threat by exploring innovative platforms and new therapeutic strategies to tackle infections from these resistant strains and bypass treatment limitations related to these pathologies...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528003/acinetobacter-baumannii-k11-and-k83-capsular-polysaccharides-have-the-same-6-deoxy-l-talose-containing-pentasaccharide-k-units-but-different-linkages-between-the-k-units
#19
Johanna J Kenyon, Alexander S Shashkov, Sof'ya N Senchenkova, Mikhail M Shneider, Bin Liu, Anastasiya V Popova, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Konstantin A Miroshnikov, Lei Wang, Yuriy A Knirel, Ruth M Hall
Acinetobacter baumannii produces a variety of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) via genes located at the chromosomal K locus and some KL gene clusters include genes for the synthesis of specific sugars. The structures of K11 and K83 CPS produced by isolates LUH5545 and LUH5538, which carry related KL11a and KL83 gene clusters, respectively, were established by sugar analysis and one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Both CPS contain L-rhamnose (L-Rha) and 6-deoxy-L-talose (L-6dTal), and both KL gene clusters include genes for dTDP-L-Rhap synthesis and a tle (talose epimerase) gene encoding an epimerase that converts dTDP-L-Rhap to dTDP-L-6dTalp...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528002/iron-microencapsulation-in-gum-tragacanth-using-solvent-evaporation-method
#20
Elham Asghari-Varzaneh, Mohammad Shahedi, Hajar Shekarchizadeh
In this study iron salt (FeSO4·7H2O) was microencapsulated in gum tragacanth hydrogel using solvent evaporation method. Three significant parameters (ferrous sulfate content, content of gum tragacanth, and alcohol to mixture ratio) were optimized by response surface methodology to obtain maximum encapsulation efficiency. Ferrous sulfate content, 5%, content of gum tragacanth, 22%, and alcohol to mixture ratio, 11:1 was determined to be the optimum condition to reach maximum encapsulation efficiency. Microstructure of iron microcapsules was thoroughly monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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