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Brain & Development

Abadi Leul Welderufael, Birhane Alem Berihu, Yibrah Berhe, Tony Magana, Selemawit Asfaw, Kibrom Gebreselassie, Ezra Beley, Hayelom Kebede, Afework Mulugeta
BACKGROUND: Nutritional deficiency in pregnant women is a confirmed cause of neural tube defects (NTDs). Alongside to this background, We sought to determine the nutritional status and level of awareness on the issue of the NTDs as well as folic acid (FA) utilization among women who born infants with NTDs in Tigray region of Ethiopia. METHOD: A standard interviewer and a food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain information from mothers of cases with neural tube defects (n = 205) and their controls (n = 412)...
January 14, 2019: Brain & Development
Federica Lotti, Ursula Geronzi, Salvatore Grosso
MECP2 duplication syndrome (MECP2 DS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, poor speech development, recurrent respiratory infections, epilepsy and progressive spasticity. Epilepsy occurs in more than 50% of the affected patients. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) are the most common seizure-type described but atonic seizures, absences and myoclonic seizures have also been reported. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and seizure types occurring in MECP2 DS have been poorly investigated...
January 11, 2019: Brain & Development
Eva Bültmann, Loukia M Spineli, Hans Hartmann, Heinrich Lanfermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Brain & Development
Napa Pruetarat, Wiracha Netbaramee, Siriporn Pattharathitikul, Montida Veeravigrom
OBJECTIVE: Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder that is increasingly recognized in pediatric populations. Several studies of the disorder have been conducted worldwide but there are few publications in Thailand. Here, we describe the clinical manifestations, treatment outcomes, and prognostic factors in children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. METHODS: Between January 2007 and September 2017, we conducted a retrospective/prospective cohort study of children diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis from three tertiary care hospitals in Thailand: King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Chonburi Hospital, and Prapokklao Hospital...
January 10, 2019: Brain & Development
Eu Gene Park, Jiwon Lee, Jeehun Lee
OBJECTIVES: Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is one of the most challenging issues in intensive care units (ICUs) in that it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the ketogenic diet (KD) has been reported to be effective in treating of SRSE, the use of the diet as therapy can be complicated by concomitant medical problems specific to critically ill patients. In this study, we aimed to describe our experience of the KD for SRSE patients in ICUs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 16 patients (10 males, 6 females) with SRSE who were treated with the KD in the ICUs at Samsung Medical Center from July 2005 to July 2017...
January 9, 2019: Brain & Development
Tomoe Yanagishita, Keiko Yamamoto-Shimojima, Sayaka Nakano, Testuya Sasaki, Hideo Shigematsu, Katsumi Imai, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
1q41q42 microdeletion syndrome has been established in 2007. Since then, more than 17 patients have been reported so far. The reported deletions showed random breakpoints and deletion regions are aligned as roof tiles. Patients with 1q41q42 microdeletion syndrome show intellectual disability, seizures, and distinctive features. Many genotype-phenotype correlation studies have been performed and some genes included in this region have been suggested as potential candidate genes. Recently, de novo variants in WDR26 and FBXO28 were identified in patients who showed consistent phenotypes with 1q41q42 microdeletion syndrome...
January 8, 2019: Brain & Development
Akihito Takeuchi, Takashi Yorifuji, Mariko Hattori, Kei Tamai, Kazue Nakamura, Makoto Nakamura, Misao Kageyama, Toshihide Kubo, Tatsuya Ogino, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Doi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the catch-up growth of preterm, SGA children and their behavioral development. METHODS: We analyzed data from a large Japanese, nationwide, population-based, longitudinal survey that started in 2001. We restricted the study participants to preterm children with information on height at 2 years of age (n = 1667). Catch-up growth for SGA infants was defined as achieving a height at 2 years of age above -2.0 standard deviations for chronological age...
January 2, 2019: Brain & Development
Shih-Yun Lan, Cheng-Yen Kuo, Cheng-Che Chou, Shu-Sing Kong, Po-Cheng Hung, Hsin-Yu Tsai, Yi-Ching Chen, Jainn-Jim Lin, I-Jun Chou, Kuang-Lin Lin
BACKGROUND: Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a commonly used inhaled anesthetic in outpatient dental procedures. However, the increasing recreational use of N2 O may result in vitamin B12 deficiency-related neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical features of chronic N2 O abuse in pediatric patients. METHODS: Patients under 20 years of age who were diagnosed with N2 O-induced subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord from 2012 to 2018 were enrolled in this study...
January 2, 2019: Brain & Development
Akihisa Okumura, Harushi Mori, Pin Fee Chong, Ryutaro Kira, Hiroyuki Torisu, Sawa Yasumoto, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Keiko Tanaka-Taya
OBJECIVE: To clarify the neuroimaging findings of children with acute flaccid myelitis during an outbreak of EV-D68 infection. METHODS: We performed a detailed review of the spinal and cranial MRI results of 54 children with acute flaccid myelitis. We focused on the range of longitudinal lesions, the localization and appearance of lesions within a horizontal section, Gadolinium-enhancement, and changes over time. RESULTS: All children had longitudinal spinal lesions involving central gray matter...
December 26, 2018: Brain & Development
Palita Arayakarnkul, Krisnachai Chomtho
BACKGROUND: Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is a seizure that continues >24 h after anesthesia, or recurs on the reduction of anesthesia. SRSE is extremely difficult-to-control and associated with poor outcome. To date, optimal therapy and outcome data in children is limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess etiology, treatment options and outcome in pediatric SRSE patients. METHOD: We reviewed medical records of children <15 years old with SRSE during 2007-2017 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital...
December 7, 2018: Brain & Development
Tomoko Egashira, Mizuko Hashimoto, Tada-Aki Shiraishi, Akinori Shichijo, Masakazu Egashira, Tomoko Mizukami, Toshimitsu Takayanagi
AIM: To clarify the influence of intra- and extra-uterine growth on subsequent psychomotor development in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty VLBW infants (28.4 ± 2.6 weeks, 1000 ± 294 g) were enrolled. Psychomotor development was determined at 37.1 ± 2.1 months after birth using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD), which includes Postural-Motor (P-M), Cognitive-Adaptive (C-A) and Language-Social (L-S) subscales...
December 7, 2018: Brain & Development
Ryuki Matsuura, Shin-Ichiro Hamano, Jun Kubota, Atsuro Daida, Satoru Ikemoto, Yuko Hirata, Reiko Koichihara
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pyridoxal for treating West syndrome. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated pyridoxal's efficacy and safety in 117 patients with West syndrome at Saitama Children's Medical Center from July 1993 to May 2016. Pyridoxal was administered at doses of 10-50 mg/kg/day. We evaluated seizure outcomes and electroencephalographic findings at 4 weeks after pyridoxal therapy. The responders were those with complete cessation of spasms for more than 4 weeks and those with resolution of hypsarrhythmia on EEG at 1-4 weeks after pyridoxal therapy...
December 5, 2018: Brain & Development
Yukako Yae, Go Kawano, Takaoki Yokochi, Toru Imagi, Yukihiro Akita, Keizo Ohbu, Toyojiro Matsuishi
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a typically monophasic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a favorable outcome. However, 2% of ADEM involves acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE), which is a fulminant and hyperacute variant of ADEM with a poor outcome and high mortality. There are limited case reports of fulminant ADEM including AHLE in children. Herein, we report two pediatric cases of fulminant ADEM. Both cases had a rapid deterioration of consciousness, repetitive seizures, and brain edema on neuroimaging, in addition to atypical neuroradiological findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a reversible splenial lesion in case 1, and bilateral frontal and occipital cortical lesions in case 2...
December 3, 2018: Brain & Development
Takashi Okazaki, Tetsu Niwa, Keiji Suzuki, Shuhei Shibukawa, Yutaka Imai
PURPOSE: Signals of some brain regions change along with development in T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) in infants. This study aimed to assess the association of the signal intensity of the pituitary stalk on thin-slice T1WI with infant age. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed in 89 infants (gestational age [GA], 25-41 weeks; postmenstrual age [PMA], 36-46 weeks; chronological age [CA], 4-141 days) without intracranial abnormalities. The signal ratio of the pituitary stalk/pons on thin-slice T1WI was calculated, and its correlations with GA, PMA, and CA were assessed...
December 1, 2018: Brain & Development
Yuko Yamauchi, Sayaka Aoki, Junko Koike, Naomi Hanzawa, Keiji Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between motor and cognitive/language development in children with Down syndrome (DS). We also tested the hypothesis that acquisition of walking skills facilitates later cognitive/language development. METHODS: Participants were 156 children with DS who were less than 48 months old and had undergone a health checkup by medical doctors and received rehabilitation treatment between April 2013 and March 2017 in Yokohama, Japan...
November 28, 2018: Brain & Development
Kanae Suzuki, Shu Takagai, Masatsugu Tsujii, Hiroyuki Ito, Tomoko Nishimura, Kenji J Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: Sensory processing difficulties, which commonly occur in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are expected to have negative effects on the primary caregiver's mental health. The aim of this study was to examine the association between sensory processing difficulties in children with ASD and the mental health of primary caregivers. METHODS: A total of 707 primary caregivers (mothers in the present study) and their children with ASD (4-18 years of age) participated in this study...
November 28, 2018: Brain & Development
Naoki Hashizume, Yoshiaki Tanaka, Motomu Yoshida, Suguru Fukahori, Shinji Ishii, Nobuyuki Saikusa, Daisuke Masui, Naruki Higashidate, Saki Sakamoto, Shiori Tsuruhisa, Kotaro Yuge, Takashi Ohya, Minoru Yagi, Yushiro Yamashita
INTRODUCTION: Resting energy expenditure (REE) is expected to be lower in with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) patients than in healthy subjects because of their relatively low fat-free mass (FFM). Therefore, an REE predictive equation for SMID patients may be required. The aim of this study was to validate existing REE predictive weight-based equations (Harris-Benedict, WHO, Mifflin, Owen, Schofield) and FFM-based REE equations (Mifflin, Owen and Cunningham) and to develop a new SMID patient-specific FFM-based REE equation...
November 27, 2018: Brain & Development
Julie Chi Chow, Chen-Sen Ouyang, Ching-Tai Chiang, Rei-Cheng Yang, Rong-Ching Wu, Hui-Chuan Wu, Lung-Chang Lin
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder. Diagnosis of ADHD is based on core symptoms or checklists; however, practitioner subjectivity inevitably results in instances of over- or under-diagnosis. Although an elevated theta/beta ratio (TBR) of the electroencephalography (EEG) band has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a factor that may be used in diagnosis of ADHD, several studies have reported no significant differences between the TBR of patients with ADHD and controls...
November 22, 2018: Brain & Development
Aya Kondo, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Yusuke Ishida, Daisaku Toyoshima, Mai Azumi, Nobuyuki Akutsu, Junji Koyama, Hiroshi Kurosawa, Atushi Kawamura, Azusa Maruyama
BACKGROUND: The initial symptoms of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) can be similar to a case of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) located at the cervicothoracic junction. Therefore, SSEH may be misdiagnosed as GBS. CASE REPORT: A previously healthy 6-year-old girl presented with a 2-day history of progressive pain in the lower extremities and an inability to walk. On initial evaluation, she was completely paraparetic in the lower extremities. Deep tendon reflexes were absent in the lower extremities, and Babinski reflexes were positive on both sides...
November 21, 2018: Brain & Development
Hitoshi Osaka, Akihiko Miyauchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2018: Brain & Development
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