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Journal of Infection

Fredrik Sjövall, Anders Perner, Morten Hylander Møller
OBJECTIVES: To assess benefits and harms of empirical mono- vs. combination antibiotic therapy in adult patients with severe sepsis in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We performed a systematic review according to the Cochrane Collaboration methodology, including meta-analysis, risk of bias assessment and trial sequential analysis (TSA). We included randomised clinical trials (RCT) assessing empirical mono-antibiotic therapy versus a combination of two or more antibiotics in adult ICU patients with severe sepsis...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Infection
Sophie Octavia, Sunny Z Wu, Sandeep Kaur, Lea Valinsky, Esther Marva, Jacob Moran-Gilad, Ruiting Lan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Journal of Infection
Elena Jordana-Lluch, Belén Rivaya, Clara Marcó, Montserrat Giménez, Ma Dolores Quesada, Agustín Escobedo, Montserrat Batlle, Elisa Martró, Vicente Ausina
OBJECTIVES: Onco-haematological patients are prone to develop infections, and antibiotic prophylaxis may lead to negative blood cultures. Thus, the microbiological diagnosis and subsequent administration of a targeted antimicrobial therapy is often difficult. The goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of IRIDICA (PCR/ESI-MS technology) for the molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections in this patient group. METHODS: A total of 463 whole blood specimens from different sepsis episodes in 429 patients were analysed using the PCR/ESI-MS platform, comparing the results with those of blood culture and other clinically relevant information...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Infection
Habibollah Arefian, Steffen Heublein, André Scherag, Frank Martin Brunkhorst, Mustafa Z Younis, Onnen Moerer, Dagmar Fischer, Michael Hartmann
OBJECTIVES: This article systematically reviews research on the costs of sepsis and, as a secondary aim, evaluates the quality of economic evaluations reported in peer-reviewed journals. METHODS: We systematically searched the MEDLINE, National Health Service (Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Economic Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment), Cost-effectiveness Analysis Registry and Web of Knowledge databases for studies published between January 2005 and June 2015...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Infection
Eun-Jeong Won, Jung-Ho Choi, Young-Nan Cho, Hye-Mi Jin, Hae Jin Kee, Yong-Wook Park, Yong-Soo Kwon, Seung-Jung Kee
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether combinations of multiplex cytokine responses could differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection states. METHODS: Mtb-specific antigen-induced and unstimulated cytokines were measured by Luminex assay in supernatants of QuantiFERON(®) Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) in 48 active pulmonary TB patients (TB), 15 latent TB infection subjects (LTBI), and 13 healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: Among the 29 cytokines, eight Mtb antigen-specific biomarkers (GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-3, IL-13, IP-10, and MIP-1β) in the Mtb-infected group were significantly different from those of the HCs...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Infection
Shari Sapuan, Christina Kortsalioudaki, Mark Anthony, John Chang, Nicholas D Embleton, Ruppa M Geethanath, Jim Gray, Anne Greenough, Mithilesh K Lal, Suzanne Luck, Santosh Pattnayak, Peter Reynolds, Allison B Russell, Timothy Scorrer, Mark Turner, Paul T Heath, Stefania Vergnano
OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical features and outcomes of neonatal listeriosis, and identify the maternal risk factors to seek scope for improvement. METHODS: Neonatal listeriosis was identified prospectively from a United Kingdom neonatal infection surveillance network (neonIN) between 2004 and 2014. The participating neonatal units completed a study-specific proforma. RESULTS: The incidence of neonatal listeriosis was 3.4 per 100,000 live births...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Infection
F Sahr, R Ansumana, T A Massaquoi, B R Idriss, F R Sesay, J M Lamin, S Baker, S Nicol, B Conton, W Johnson, O T Abiri, O Kargbo, P Kamara, A Goba, J B W Russell, S M Gevao
BACKGROUND: Convalescent blood therapy has been a promising form of treatment for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), but less attention has been focused on it for treatment. METHOD: We assessed the effectiveness of convalescent whole blood (CWB) in the treatment of consented EVD patients. We recruited 69 subjects in December 2014 up to April 2015, at the 34 Military Hospital in Wilberforce and the PTS 1 Ebola Treatment Unit in Hastings, Freetown. Forty-four were given CWB, and 25 who consented but preferred to be exempted from the CWB treatment were used to compare clinical outcomes...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Infection
Laia Fernández-Barat, Miquel Ferrer, Francesca De Rosa, Albert Gabarrús, Mariano Esperatti, Silvia Terraneo, Mariano Rinaudo, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Antoni Torres
OBJECTIVE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa often presents multi-drug resistance (MDR) in intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP), possibly resulting in inappropriate empiric treatment and worse outcomes. We aimed to identify patients with ICUAP at risk for these pathogens in order to improve treatment selection and outcomes. METHODS: We prospectively assessed 222 consecutive immunocompetent ICUAP patients confirmed microbiologically. We determined the characteristics, risk factors, systemic inflammatory response and outcomes of P...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Infection
S A J Schmidt, A Mor, H C Schønheyder, H T Sørensen, O M Dekkers, D Cronin-Fenton
OBJECTIVES: Researchers have advocated for an increased awareness of occult cancer among herpes zoster patients, but there are no systematic reviews to support these claims. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence on zoster and risk of occult cancer. METHODS: Through February 18, 2016, we searched PubMed, EMBASE and references of relevant papers for studies on zoster and risk of any cancer. One author screened retrieved papers by title and abstract; included papers were reviewed by two authors for eligibility, data extraction, and potential biases...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Infection
Adam J DiPippo, Frank P Tverdek, Jeffrey J Tarrand, Jose M Munita, Truc T Tran, Cesar A Arias, Samuel A Shelburne, Samuel L Aitken
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the association between previous daptomycin exposure and daptomycin non-susceptible Enterococcus faecium (DNSEf) bloodstream infections (BSI) in adult leukemia patients. METHODS: We retrospectively identified adult (≥18 years old) leukemia patients with Enterococcus spp. bacteremia at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) from 6/1/2013 to 7/22/2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility and previous antibiotic exposure within the 90 days prior to bacteremia were collected...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Infection
C Valencia, H Bah, B Fatoumata, G Rodier, B Diallo, M Koné, C Giese, L Conde, E Malano, T Mollet, J Jansa, D Coulombier, B Sudre
BACKGROUND: During the 2014-2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in N'Zérékoré, Forested Guinea, modes of transmission remained unexamined for a number of new cases. We used network visualization to investigate EVD transmission chains (TC) in seven sub-prefectures of N'Zérékoré in order to adapt outbreak response. METHODS: Between August 2014 and February 2015, the EVD outbreak response team including the World Health Organization (WHO) and local health authorities routinely collected information among new cases regarding hospital visits, cases within a household, participation in burials, as well as dates of symptom onset, serial intervals (SI) and exposure to EVD...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Infection
Jasper F W Chan, Kah-Meng Tee, Garnet K Y Choi, Zheng Zhu, Rosana W S Poon, Kevin T P Ng, Kwok-Hung Chan, Ivan F N Hung, Kwan Man, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Oncovirus-associated malignancies are potentially preventable diseases with major public health significance. Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) may be associated with oncogenesis or symptomatic illnesses in immunocompromised patients, but the site of viral shedding of most recently discovered HPyVs remains obscure. Using real-time PCR assay using specific primers targeting the HPyV6 large tumor antigen gene, we detected a phylogenetically distinct HPyV6 which was highly prevalent in the bile samples of patients with malignant biliary obstruction (18...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Infection
Jongwon Oh, Rihwa Choi, Hyung-Doo Park, Hyun Lee, Byeong-Ho Jeong, Hye Yun Park, Kyeongman Jeon, O Jung Kwon, Won-Jung Koh, Soo-Youn Lee
OBJECTIVE: Vitamins are known to be associated with immunity and nutrition. Moreover, vitamin deficiency can affect host immunity to various infectious diseases, including tuberculosis. Although patients with tuberculosis often have vitamin D deficiency, little is known about the levels of other vitamins. Here, we aimed to investigate the status of vitamins A, B12, D, and E in patients with tuberculosis. We also aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory variables related to vitamin status in patients with tuberculosis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Infection
Gayatri Amirthalingam, Colin S Brown, Helen Campbell, Meera A Chand, Norman K Fry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: Journal of Infection
Hetty Jolink, Renate de Boer, Pleun Hombrink, René E Jonkers, Jaap T van Dissel, J H Frederik Falkenburg, Mirjam H M Heemskerk
: In healthy individuals and in patients with invasive aspergillosis, Aspergillus-specific T-cells in peripheral blood display mainly a Thelper1 phenotype. Although in other fungal infections Thelper17 immunity is important, it was suggested that in aspergillus infection Thelper17 cells do not play a role or may even be detrimental. OBJECTIVES: To compare the cytokine profiles of Aspergillus-specific CD4+ T-cells in peripheral blood and in the lung. To investigate the Thelper phenotype at the primary location of A...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Infection
Christophe Adrie, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Wafa Ibn Essaied, Carole Schwebel, Michael Darmon, Bruno Mourvillier, Stéphane Ruckly, Anne-Sylvie Dumenil, Hatem Kallel, Laurent Argaud, Guillaume Marcotte, Francois Barbier, Virginie Laurent, Dany Goldgran-Toledano, Christophe Clec'h, Elie Azoulay, Bertrand Souweine, Jean-François Timsit
OBJECTIVES: ICU-acquired bloodstream infection (ICUBSI) in Intensive Care unit (ICU) is still associated with a high mortality rate. The increase of antimicrobial drug resistance makes its treatment increasingly challenging. METHODS: We analyzed 571 ICU-BSI occurring amongst 10,734 patients who were prospectively included in the Outcomerea Database and who stayed at least 4 days in ICU. The hazard ratio of death associated with ICU-BSI was estimated using a multivariate Cox model adjusted on case mix, patient severity and daily SOFA...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Infection
Kirstine K Søgaard, Dóra K Farkas, Mette Søgaard, Henrik C Schønheyder, Reimar W Thomsen, Henrik T Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: Gram-negative bacteremia may be a harbinger of occult cancer. We examined the risk of cancer following hospitalization with bacteremia. METHODS: Using medical databases, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of all Danes with a discharge diagnosis of Gram-negative bacteremia during 1994-2013. We calculated absolute risks and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer, comparing the observed risk to that expected in the general population...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Infection
Eleftherios Mandragos, Aikaterini Pistiki, Iraklis Tsangaris, Christina Routsi, Michael Paraschos, Dionyssia-Irene Droggiti, Olga Savvidou, Dimitrios Mastrokalos, Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos, Mihai G Netea, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the susceptibility to Gram-negative sepsis after multiple traumas (MT). METHODS: From a prospective cohort of 5076 Greek patients with sepsis, 16 with Gram-negative bacteremia after MT were compared with 204 patients well-matched for severity, comorbidities and appropriateness of antimicrobials; circulating mononuclear cells were isolated and stimulated for the release of interleukin (IL)-10. Male C57Bl6J mice were subject to MT (right pneumothorax and right femur fracture) followed after 72 h by the intravenous challenge with Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Infection
C Royo-Cebrecos, C Gudiol, J García, F Tubau, J Laporte, C Ardanuy, M Antonio, M Marin, J B Gornals, J Carratalà
OBJECTIVES: To asses the clinical features, aetiology, antimicrobial resistance and outcomes of bacteraemic cholangitis in patients with solid tumours (ST). METHODS: All consecutive episodes of bacteraemia in hospitalized patients were prospectively analysed (2006-2015). RESULTS: Of 1852 episodes of bacteraemia, 750 involved patients with ST. Among them, 173 episodes (23%) were due to cholangitis. The most frequent neoplasms were hepato-biliary-pancreatic tumours (68...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Infection
A Oliva, L Scorzolini, D Castaldi, F Gizzi, M De Angelis, M Storto, A D'Abramo, F Aloj, M T Mascellino, C M Mastroianni, Vullo V
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Journal of Infection
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