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Journal of Infection

Maroun M Sfeir
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is an emerging pathogen causes life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis patients. This narrative review aims to highlight an update on the epidemiology, the microbiological diagnostic methods, the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and the most current as well the promising therapeutic options for Bcc. Although Bcc plays a role in crop growth due to its fungicidal activity and pesticide metabolizer, it has been frequently implicated in outbreaks in the United States and Worldwide due to contaminated medicines or medical devices...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Infection
Pei Gao, Haoyun Du, Lei Fan, Libin Chen, Ming Liao, Chenggang Xu, Bin Xiang, Tao Ren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Journal of Infection
Imran Rizvi, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Neeraj Kumar, Ravi Uniyal, Shweta Pandey
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculous meningitis carries high rate of mortality and morbidity despite adequate treatment. Newer agents are being searched to improve outcome of these patients. Fluoroquinolones might be useful in the management of tuberculous meningitis in view of good cerebrospinal fluid penetration and good in-vitro activity against mycobacterium. This review summarizes the effects of fluoroquinolone in first line regimens in tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: A systematic search of literature was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and LILACS for articles published till march 2017...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Infection
Jianxing Yu, Shengjie Lai, Qibin Geng, Chuchu Ye, Zike Zhang, Yaming Zheng, Liping Wang, Zhaojun Duan, Jing Zhang, Shuyu Wu, Umesh Parashar, Weizhong Yang, Qiaohong Liao, Zhongjie Li
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. In China, the universal immunization of children with the rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced, and the two globally distributed vaccines (RotaTeq and Rotarix) are not licensed in the country. We aim to determine the prevalence and strain diversity of rotavirus in children with diarrhea aged ≤ five years across China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sentinel-based surveillance of acute diarrhea was conducted at 213 participating hospitals in China from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2015...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Infection
A Kowada
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease with high mortality for solid-organ transplantation. Preventive therapy of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been considered to reduce TB risk and improve outcomes of transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs); QuantiFERON® -TB Gold in-Tube (QFT) and T-SPOT® .TB (TSPOT)), for kidney, liver and lung transplant recipients in low TB incidence countries...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Infection
Luz Maria Vilca, Aman Verma, Maurizio Bonati, Magda Campins
OBJECTIVE: To estimate outpatient visits and hospitalization rates due to cardiopulmonary illness attributable to influenza from 2008-09 to 2012-13 in a large cohort of pregnant women from Catalonia, Spain. METHODS: We estimated the event rates occurring during influenza epidemic, influenza non-epidemic and non-influenza seasons, and by pregnancy status (one year before pregnancy, first, second and third trimester). We fitted quasi-Poisson models in order to identify the variables associated to higher event rates...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Infection
Asa Auta, Muhammad Abdul Hadi, Enoche Oga, Emmanuel O Adewuyi, Samirah N Abdu-Aguye, Davies Adeloye, Barry Strickland-Hodge, Daniel J Morgan
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of over-the-counter antibiotic requests or consultations that resulted in non-prescription supply of antibiotics in community pharmacies globally. METHODS: We systematically searched EMBASE, Medline and CINAHL databases for studies published from January 2000 to September 2017 reporting the frequency of non-prescription sale and supply of antibiotics in community pharmacies across the world. Additional articles were identified by checking reference lists and a Google Scholar search...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Infection
Yazhou Gao, Zhengdong Zhang, Jianping Deng, Mikael Mansjö, Zhu Ning, Yang Li, Xuliang Li, Yi Hu, Sven Hoffner, Biao Xu
OBJECTIVES: The implementation of rapid and reliable drug susceptibilities diagnosis is fundamental for effective treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB). The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of the 2nd -version GenoType MTBDRsl kit as well as the impact of its implementation on the turnaround time in a multi-center Chinese study. METHODS: Totally 353 MDR-TB patient specimens were consecutively tested. The 2nd -version GenoType MTBDRsl assay, drug susceptibility testing with the MGIT 960 system, and sequencing were performed and compared...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Infection
Abdelghani El Rafei, Daniel C DeSimone, Aalap D Narichania, M Rizwan Sohail, Holenarasipur R Vikram, Zhuo Li, James M Steckelberg, Walter R Wilson, Larry M Baddour
BACKGROUND: Dual β-lactam therapy and a penicillin-aminoglycoside combination are first line regimens in the treatment of penicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE). Our aim was to compare ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (A+C) to ampicillin plus gentamicin (A+G) in the treatment of EFIE. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of adults (≥18 years) patients diagnosed with EFIE at Mayo Clinic campuses in Rochester, Minnesota, and Phoenix, Arizona and treated with either A+C or A+G...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Infection
Florence Abravanel, Julie Pique, Elisabeth Couturier, Florence Nicot, Chloé Dimeglio, Sébastien Lhomme, Julie Chiabrando, Karine Saune, Jean-Marie Péron, Nassim Kamar, Solène Evrard, Henriette de Valk, Pascal Cintas, Jacques Izopet
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. However, our understanding of the source of contamination is incomplete and the frequency of neurological manifestations in still unknown. METHODS: 200 eligible cases reported to the French National Reference Center from January 2015 to December 2015 were prospectively included in this case-control study (1 case: 1 control, matched for sex, age and area of living) to investigate the risk of infection...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Infection
Evelyn Balsells, Ron Dagan, Inci Yildirim, Prabhu P Gounder, Anneke Steens, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Chiara Mameli, Rama Kandasamy, Noga Givon Lavi, Laura Daprai, Arie van der Ende, Krzysztof Trzciński, Susan Nzenze, Susan Meiring, Dona Foster, Lisa R Bulkow, Karen Rudolph, Ana Valero-Rello, Struan Ducker, Didrik Frimann Vestrheim, Anne von Gottberg, Stephen I Pelton, GianVincenzo Zuccotti, Andrew J Pollard, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Harry Campbell, Shabir A Madhi, Harish Nair, Moe H Kyaw
OBJECTIVES: Burden of pneumococcal disease depends on the prevalence and invasive disease potential of serotypes. We aimed to estimate the invasive disease potential of serotypes in children under 5 years of age by combining data from different settings with routine immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, supplemented by unpublished data, to identify data on the frequency of pneumococcal serotypes in carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Infection
Kin Wang To, Kai Man Kam, Denise Pui Chung Chan, Wing Ho Yip, Ka Pang Chan, Rachael Lo, Susanna Ng, Jenny Ngai, Shui Shan Lee
OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinical role of GeneXpert in managing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in an intermediate burden city. METHODS: sputum acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) smear negative patients underwent bronchoscopy for bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL). Fluids collected were examined for AFB smear, TB culture, TB polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Cobas Taqman) and for GeneXpert. RESULTS: From October 2015 to February 2017, 227 BAL samples were collected...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Infection
Sarah Larcombe, Melanie L Hutton, Thomas V Riley, Helen E Abud, Dena Lyras
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) caused by C. difficile is one of the most common nosocomial infections, however, little is known about infections related to antimicrobial use for pathogens other than C. difficile. We therefore aimed to provide insight into other bacterial causes of AAD, and how infection with these pathogens causes damage in the dysbiotic gut. METHODS: Clinical isolates from C. difficile-negative AAD patients were whole genome sequenced for in silico analysis of potential virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance determinants...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Infection
Oghenekome A Gbinigie, Jose M Ordonez-Mena, Thomas R Fanshawe, Annette Pluddemann, Carl Heneghan
OBJECTIVES: To critically appraise and evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms and signs in identifying UTI in older adult outpatients, using evidence from observational studies. METHODS: We searched Medline and Medline in process, Embase and Web of Science, from inception up to September 2017. We included studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and/or signs in predicting UTI in outpatients aged 65 years and above. Study quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Infection
Caelin C Potts, Sandeep J Joseph, How-Yi Chang, Alexander Chen, Jeni Vuong, Fang Hu, Laurel T Jenkins, Susanna Schmink, Amy Blain, Jessica R MacNeil, Lee H Harrison, Xin Wang
OBJECTIVES: Meningococcal conjugate vaccines (MenACWY) were licensed in the United States in 2005. We assessed the population structure of invasive Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) ten years after recommended use of MenACWY among adolescents. METHODS: Meningococcal isolates obtained through Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) from 2000-05, 2006-10, and 2011-15 underwent whole genome or Sanger sequencing. Genome phylogenies were completed using maximum likelihood methods; and distribution of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type (ST) and clonal complex (CC), and PorA and FetA types were assessed...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Infection
Zeshuai Deng, Qing Li, Haoan Yi, Yanjie Zhang, Fang Yang, Hong Li, Lan Luo, Limei Ma, Zhaoqing Yang, Yongshu He, Liwang Cui
OBJECTIVES: Hemoglobin E (HbE, β26 Glu-Lys ) is the most prevalent hemoglobinopathy in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to determine whether HbE protects against clinical Plasmodium vivax malaria in Southeast Asia. METHODS: In a case-control study performed in villages along the China-Myanmar border, we determined the prevalence of HbE in 257 villagers who had acute P. vivax infections and in 157 control healthy villagers. RESULTS: HbE in P...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Infection
Mary Meehan, Stephen Murchan, Patrick Gavin, Richard J Drew, Robert Cunney
OBJECTIVES: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for mild to very severe disease. The epidemiology of an upsurge in invasive GAS (iGAS) infections in Ireland, 2012-2015 was investigated. METHODS: Epidemiological typing of iGAS (n=473) isolates was performed and compared to non-invasive (n=517) isolates. Clinical data of notified iGAS was obtained from the national infectious disease information system. RESULTS: Annual incidences of iGAS cases (n=561) were 2...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Infection
Kuan-Yin Lin, Pao-Yu Chen, Yu-Chung Chuang, Jann-Tay Wang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yee-Chun Chen, Shan-Chwen Chang
OBJECTIVES: Echinocandins are fungicidal and more active than fluconazole against Candida biofilms. This is known to be an important mechanism for Candida persistence. However, there is limited evidence of effectiveness of echinocandins for treating persistent candidemia. METHODS: We prospectively observed adult patients with persistent candidemia from March 2011 to February 2016. This was defined as the isolation of the same Candida species for ≥5 days from blood cultures...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Infection
Mr Edward Jeans, Mr Richard Holleyman, Dr David Tate, Mr Mike Reed, Mr Ajay Malviya
AIMS: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a catastrophic and potentially life threatening complication following arthroplasty. In addition to the resulting impact on patient morbidity and mortality, PJI is associated with significant financial cost, which is estimated at £21,937 per case. Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is a common isolate in PJI and colonisation is a proven risk factor for subsequent infection. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine if MSSA screening and decolonisation reduced MSSA PJI rate in primary joint replacement and 2) to determine cost effectiveness of such a screening program...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Infection
E Moran, J Baharani, M Dedicoat, E Robinson, G Smith, P Bhomra, O S Thien, R Ryan
OBJECTIVES: The risk of developing active TB is greater in those receiving haemodialysis. This study aimed to describe the incidence of active tuberculosis among patients referred for management of kidney disease and dialysis in a high incidence UK city, with the purpose of informing latent TB testing and treatment practice. METHODS: Information from the tuberculosis register was cross-referenced with the Department of Renal Medicine patient information system. All patients seen between 1st January 2005 and 1st October 2016 were included in the analyses with the exception of those with prior TB...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Infection
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