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Journal of Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237069/comparison-the-pathogen-diagnosis-of-severe-pneumonia-by-using-next-generation-sequencing-and-traditional-detection-methods-china-2010-2018
#1
LETTER
Yun Xie, Jiang Du, Wei Jin, Xiaolei Teng, Ruijie Cheng, Peijie Huang, Hui Xie, Zhigang Zhou, Tienan Feng, Rui Tian, Ruilan Wang
Severe pneumonia is one of the most common infectious diseases and can be fatal. The benefits of early pathogen diagnosis in intensive care units are known, but the association between early pathogen diagnosis by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and in-hospital mortality of patients with severe pneumonia has rarely been studied. The study aims to explore the association between early pathogen diagnosis by NGS and the mortality of patients with severe pneumonia admitted to intensive care units, effects of early pathogen diagnosis on ICU and hospital lengths of stay, and other clinical outcome...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219662/emergency-of-fungemia-cases-caused-by-fluconazole-resistant-candida-auris-in-beijing-china
#2
LETTER
Yong Chen, Lihua Qi, Zhigang Wang, Xian Xia, Weihong Fan, Jingya Zhao, Jia Chen, Liangliang Zhang, Jie Liu, Li Han
We describe the microbiological characterization and clinical presentation of two fungemia cases caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida auris in neonatal intensive care unit of a hospital in Beijing, China. We advocate for the need of guidelines or recommendations to improve identification, surveillance, and implementation of infection control measures in Chinese hospitals.
September 13, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217659/improving-the-microbiological-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis-a-prospective-international-multicentre-comparison-of-conventional-and-modified-ziehl-neelsen-stain-genexpert-and-culture-of-cerebrospinal-fluid
#3
A Dorothee Heemskerk, Joseph Donovan, Do Dang Anh Thu, Suzaan Marais, Lidya Chaidir, Vu Thi Mong Dung, Chad M Centner, Vu Thi Ngoc Ha, Jessi Annisa, Sofiati Dian, Louise Bovijn, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Ahmad Rizal Ganiem, Cao Thao Van, Ronald B Geskus, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Rovina Ruslami, Graeme Meintjes, Reinout van Crevel, Robert J Wilkinson, Guy E Thwaites
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the severest form of tuberculosis, but current diagnostic tests are insensitive. Recent reports suggest simple modifications to conventional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining may greatly improve sensitivity. We sought to define the performance of modified and conventional ZN stain for TBM diagnosis. METHODS: In hospitals in Vietnam, South Africa and Indonesia we conducted a prospective study of modified ZN with or without cytospin, conventional ZN smear, GeneXpert, and culture on CSF in adults with suspected TBM...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205122/debridement-antibiotics-and-implant-retention-for-periprosthetic-joint-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-treatment-outcomes
#4
Setor K Kunutsor, Andrew D Beswick, Michael R Whitehouse, Vikki Wylde, Ashley W Blom
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess infection control rates after DAIR in patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following joint arthroplasty and evaluate factors associated with infection control using a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane databases and reference lists of relevant studies up to May 2017. Longitudinal studies conducted in patients with PJI treated exclusively by DAIR were eligible...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194956/communicating-antimicrobial-resistance-and-stewardship-in-the-national-press-lessons-from-sepsis-awareness-campaigns
#5
L Rush, C Patterson, L McDaid, S Hilton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179645/survival-following-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infection-a-prospective-multinational-cohort-study-assessing-the-impact-of-place-of-care
#6
Kate Nambiar, Harald Seifert, Siegbert Rieg, Winfried V Kern, Matt Scarborough, N Claire Gordon, Hong Bin Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Robert Tilley, Hannah Gott, Chun Hsing Liao, Jonathan Edgeworth, Emmanuel Nsutebu, Luis Eduardo López-Cortés, Laura Morata, A Sarah Walker, Guy Thwaites, Martin J Llewelyn, Achim J Kaasch
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) is a common, life-threatening infection with a high mortality. Survival can be improved by implementing quality of care bundles in hospitals. We previously observed marked differences in mortality between hospitals and now assessed whether mortality could serve as a valid and easy to implement quality of care outcome measure. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study between January 2013 and April 2015 on consecutive, adult patients with SAB from 11 tertiary care centers in Germany, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176274/a-unified-personal-protective-equipment-ensemble-for-clinical-response-to-possible-high-consequence-infectious-diseases-a-consensus-document-on-behalf-of-the-hcid-programme
#7
Bozena Poller, Anne Tunbridge, Samantha Hall, Mike Beadsworth, Mike Jacobs, Erica Peters, Matthias L Schmid, Allison Sykes, Vin Poran, Nick Gent, Cariad Evans, Brian Crook
The importance of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) as a component of healthcare worker (HCW) protection was highlighted during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. The large number of HCW deaths in Africa was in part due to lack of resources or prior training in PPE usage. As part of the Ebola legacy, the High Consequence Infectious Disease (HCID) programme was initiated by NHS England and Public Health England (PHE) to improve preparedness for Ebola and other infections that not only endanger the life of the patient, but also pose particular dangers to HCWs...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171877/unsolicited-consultation-by-infectious-diseases-specialist-improves-outcomes-in-patients-with-bloodstream-infection-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Patricia Jiménez-Aguilar, Alberto Romero-Palacios, Iría-Jesus De-la-Calle, María-Carmen Martínez-Rubio, José-Antonio Girón-González, Jesus Rodríguez-Baño
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an intervention based on unsolicited consultations by an infectious diseases specialist (IDS) on the adequacy of antimicrobial treatment and mortality in patients with BSI. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed in a 410-bed hospital. An intervention based on unsolicited consultation by an IDS for patients with BSI was performed only on days when an IDS was available. Outcomes were the percentage of days on optimal antimicrobial treatment (PDOAT) and mortality...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149030/a-cluster-of-cases-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-identified-by-shotgun-metagenomics-approach
#9
Yi Zhang, Jing-Wen Ai, Peng Cui, Hong-Long Wu, Ming-Zhi Ye, Wen-Hong Zhang
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a major threat in immunocompromised patients with high mortality, and early rapid diagnose is critical in its recovery. Our study investigated clinical application of shotgun metagenomics sequencing in diagnosing PCP compared with conventional culture and smear. We reported 13 cases in which metagenomics sequencing identified Pneumocystis jiroveci in all acquired specimens and clinical evaluation further confirmed the diagnosis. Among reported cases, 4 out of 8 BALF had positive Wright-Giemsa stained findings and 1 out of 13 sputum sample had positive Pneumocystis jirovecii microscopy findings, indicating that metagenomics sequencing had a satisfactory detection rate in diagnosing PCP when compared to conventional methods...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149029/candida-infection-of-membrane-oxygenator-during-ecmo-therapy
#10
Gernot Schilcher, Thomas Valentin, Florian Eisner, Gerald Hackl, Luka Brcic, Ines Zollner-Schwetz, Robert Krause, Philipp Eller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149028/enteroviruses-associated-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-brazil
#11
LETTER
Ivanildo P Sousa, Fernanda M Burlandy, Eliane V Costa, Fernando N Tavares, Edson E da Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138640/serum-level-of-il-8-is-associated-with-reversion-of-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-tests
#12
Henan Xin, Haoran Zhang, Xuefang Cao, Xiangwei Li, Mufei Li, Boxuan Feng, Qi Jin, Lei Gao
BACKGROUND: Frequent reversion has been commonly observed in serial QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) tests, which limited its accuracy in defining the status of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Serum cytokine profiles might provide additional information to clarify the infection status. METHOD: Based on a population-based cohort study aiming to track MTB infection acquisition and disease development, serum profiles of 12 cytokines were determined by bead-based multiplex assays in parallel with QFT and tuberculin skin tests (TST) to explore potential relation between serum cytokines and MTB infection status...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138639/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-prosthetic-joint-infections-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#13
Fabrice Uhel, Gregory Corvaisier, Yves Poinsignon, Catherine Chirouze, Guillaume Beraud, Olivier Grossi, Nicolas Varache, Cédric Arvieux, Rozenn Le Berre, Pierre Tattevin
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize diagnosis, management, and outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis prosthetic joint infections (PJI). METHODS: Cases of M. tuberculosis PJI documented in 7 referral French centers were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected from medical files on a standardized questionnaire. We performed a literature review using the keywords 'prosthetic joint', and 'tuberculosis'. RESULTS: During years 1997-2016, 13 patients (8 males, 5 females, median age 79 years [range, 60-86]) had documented M...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30134143/a-hand-hygiene-intervention-to-decrease-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-absence-due-to-sickness-among-kindergarteners-in-china-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Xiaona Liu, Wanli Hou, Zhiguang Zhao, Jinquan Cheng, Ed F van Beeck, Xiaodong Peng, Kylah Jones, Xia Fu, Yan Zhou, Zhen Zhang, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Vicki Erasmus
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the "Clean Hands, Happy Life" intervention on the incidence of hand, food and mouth disease (HFMD) and on school absences due to sickness in kindergarten students. METHODS: The intervention consisted of four hand hygiene (HH) promotion components and was evaluated in a cluster-randomized controlled trial among 8275 children and 18 kindergartens from May to October, 2015 in Shenzhen, China. We compared two intervention arms - received the intervention in kindergartens only and in both kindergartens and families, respectively - to the control arm in multilevel analyses...
August 19, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30134142/emergence-of-coxsackie-a6-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-comparative-severity-of-coxsackie-b-vs-echovirus-infections-2014-2016-uk
#15
LETTER
Kah Wee Teo, Florence Yl Lai, Srini Bandi, David J Allen, Julian W Tang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121209/diagnostic-stewardship-in-the-post-vaccine-era-reducing-demand-for-meningococcal-and-pneumococcal-pcr
#16
LETTER
Ciara O'Connor, Claire McGuinness, Deirdre Cafferty, Robert Cunney, Richard J Drew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107196/gut-microbiota-associated-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-dysbiosis-caused-by-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#17
Yongfeng Hu, Qianting Yang, Bo Liu, Jie Dong, Lilian Sun, Yafang Zhu, Haoxiang Su, Jian Yang, Fan Yang, Xinchun Chen, Qi Jin
BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of the gut microbiota could lead to better strategies for the diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis of tuberculosis (TB). The impact of both Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and anti-TB treatment on the gut microbiota has rarely been studied. METHODS: We characterized the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in pulmonary TB patients as well as the effects of anti-TB drugs on the gut microbiota. RESULTS: Pulmonary Mtb infection led to a minor decrease in the α diversity of the gut microbiota when compared to healthy controls, which mainly resulted from changes in the relative abundance of the members of genus Bacteroides...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102944/mrsa-colonization-status-as-a-predictor-of-clinical-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Samuel De L'Étoile-Morel, Matthew P Cheng, Emily G McDonald, Todd C Lee
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is often used as empiric therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), but can be associated with clinically important adverse events including renal failure. MRSA colonization swabs are primarily used for infection control; their use as a diagnostic test to inform the decision to add empiric vancomycin therapy has not been well elucidated. METHODS: We performed a Medline and Embase systematic review for peer-reviewed studies reporting the diagnostic accuracy of using MRSA colonization status to predict MRSA infections...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099085/public-acceptability-of-computer-controlled-antibiotic-management-an-exploration-of-automated-dosing-and-opportunities-for-implementation
#19
LETTER
Timothy M Rawson, Damien Ming, Sally An Gowers, David Me Freeman, Pau Herrero, Pantelis Georgiou, Anthony E Cass, Danny O'Hare, Alison H Holmes
A paucity of data describing citizen perceptions of novel technologies, including those containing unsupervised computer-controlled systems is currently available. We explored citizen perceptions of using a microneedle biosensor and automated dose control system at a university public festival. Groups of citizens (from 2-6 people per group) attended a short demonstration of a microneedle biosensor and automated dosing system versus a traditional phlebotomy approach over a two-day public festival. Individual groups discussed and reached consensus on a number of short questions regarding their perceptions on the acceptability of such technology...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098322/the-advantages-of-next-generation-sequencing-technology-in-the-detection-of-different-sources-of-abscess
#20
LETTER
Ling-Yun Guo, Wen-Ya Feng, Xin Guo, Bing Liu, Gang Liu, Jie Dong
We reported the application of next-generation sequencing to identify a series of different sources of abscess cases indicating next-generation sequencing could offer unbiased sequencing and rapid diagnosis of pathogens. For the cases of having positive culture results, the metagenome analysis results were all consistent with those of conventional culture examination. Moreover, NGS could detect multiple pathogenic microorganisms and demonstrated dramatically decrease reads of identification pathogens in recovery phase...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Infection
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