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Journal of Infection

Yinfeng Kang, Xuejuan Shen, Runyu Yuan, Bin Xiang, Zhixin Fang, Robert W Murphy, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen, Tao Ren
Since 2013, highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have emerged in poultry and caused sporadic human infections in Asia. The recent discovery of three new avian H5N6 viruses - A/oriental magpie-robin/Guangdong/SW8/2014 (H5N6), A/common moorhen/Guangdong/GZ174/2014 (H5N6) and A/Pallas's sandgrouse/Guangdong/ZH283/2015 (H5N6) - isolated from apparently healthy wild birds in Southern China in 2014-2015 raises great concern for the spread of these highly pathogenic AIVs (HPAIVs) and their potential threat to human and animal health...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Infection
Julianne R Brown, Tehmina Bharucha, Judith Breuer
BACKGROUND: Current estimates suggest that even in the most resourced settings, the aetiology of encephalitis is identified in less than half of clinical cases. It is acknowledged that filling this gap needs a combination of rigorous sampling and improved diagnostic technologies. Next generation sequencing (NGS) methods are powerful tools with the potential for comprehensive and unbiased detection of pathogens in clinical samples. We reviewed the use of this new technology for the diagnosis of suspected infectious encephalitis, and discuss the feasibility for introduction of NGS methods as a frontline diagnostic test...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infection
Nicola Principi, Rita Cozzali, Edoardo Farinelli, Andrea Brusaferro, Susanna Esposito
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of gut dysbiosis in the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the impact of probiotics as a potential therapeutic measure. METHODS: PubMed was used to search for all of the studies published over the last 15 years using the key words: "irritable bowel syndrome" and "gut dysbiosis" or "probiotic". More than 800 articles were found, but only those published in English or providing evidence-based data were included in the evaluation...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Infection
E Marra, N Kroone, E Freriks, C L van Dam, C J Alberts, A A Hogewoning, S Bruisten, A van Dijk, M M Kroone, T Waterboer, M F Schim van der Loeff
BACKGROUND: We studied prevalence, risk factors and concordance of vaginal and anal HPV infection and L1 seropositivity among female sex workers (FSW) in Amsterdam. METHODS: In 2016, FSW aged ≥18 years having a sexually transmitted infections (STI) consultation were invited to participate. Participation entailed taking vaginal and anal self-swabs. Demographics and sexual behaviour data were collected. HPV DNA was analysed using the SPF10-PCR-DEIA-LiPA25-system-v1...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Infection
Sarah Collins, David Litt, Rachael Almond, Jamie Findlow, Ezra Linley, Mary Ramsay, Ray Borrow, Shamez Ladhani
Introduction The introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the United Kingdom resulted in a rapid decline in invasive Hib disease across all age groups. However, a resurgence in 2000-2002 prompted the introduction of additional control measures, including a routine 12-month booster in 2006. Here we describe results from a national serosurvey in children eligible for the 12-month booster and recent H. influenzae epidemiology in England and Wales. Methods A national serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of anti-polyribosyl-phosphate (anti-PRP) IgG antibodies in 1,000 residual samples from children up to 8 years of age in 2013-14...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Infection
Paulina Hanson-Manful, Alana L Whitcombe, Paul G Young, Polly E Atatoa Carr, Anita Bell, Alicia Didsbury, Edwin A Mitchell, P Rod Dunbar, Thomas Proft, Nicole J Moreland
OBJECTIVES: Streptococcal serology provides evidence of prior Group A Streptococcus (GAS) exposure, crucial to the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. However, current tests, which measure anti-streptolysin-O and anti-DNaseB antibodies, are limited by false positives in GAS endemic settings, and incompatible methodology requiring the two tests to be run in parallel. The objective was to improve streptococcal serology by combining the novel GAS antigen, SpnA, with streptolysin-O and DNaseB in a contemporary, bead-based immunoassay...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Infection
Dan Xu, Chao Han, Mao-Shui Wang, Jun-Li Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Journal of Infection
Mohammad Oskooi, Torgny Sunnerhagen, Erik Senneby, Magnus Rasmussen
OBJECTIVES: Aerococcus urinae and Aerococcus sanguinicola cause urinary tract infections (UTIs) and antibiotic treatment recommendations are solely based on in vitro findings and limited clinical experience. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of different treatment strategies in aerococcal UTI through a prospective observational study. METHODS: Urine samples with aerococci were identified and patients were enrolled. The aerococci were subjected to Etests...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Infection
Federico Martinón-Torres, Alfonso Carmona Martinez, Róbert Simkó, Pilar Infante Marquez, Josep-Lluis Arimany, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez, José Antonio Couceiro Gianzo, Éva Kovács, Pablo Rojo, Huajun Wang, Chiranjiwi Bhusal, Daniela Toneatto
OBJECTIVES: This phase IIIb, open-label, multicentre, extension study evaluated long-term antibody persistence and booster responses in participants who received a reduced 2+1 or licensed 3+1 meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB)-schedule (infants), or 2-dose catch-up schedule (2-10-year-olds) in parent study NCT01339923. METHODS: Children aged 35 months to 12 years (N=851) were enrolled. Follow-on participants (N=646) were randomised 2:1 to vaccination and non-vaccination subsets; vaccination subsets received an additional 4CMenB dose...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Infection
Dinanibè Kambiré, Heidi M Soeters, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Isaïe Medah, Lassana Sangaré, Issaka Yaméogo, Guetawendé Sawadogo, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Lesley McGee, Velusamy Srinivasan, Flavien Aké, Malika Congo-Ouédraogo, Absatou Ky Ba, Cynthia G Whitney, Ryan T Novak, Chris Van Beneden
OBJECTIVES: We evaluate early impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on pneumococcal meningitis in Burkina Faso. METHODS: Nationwide surveillance gathered demographic/clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results for meningitis cases. Pneumococcal cases were confirmed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or latex agglutination, and strains serotyped using PCR. We compared incidence (cases per 100,000) in the early post-PCV13 period (2014 and 2015) to average pre-PCV13 incidence (2011-2013)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Infection
S J Dickson, K A Clay, M Adam, C Ardley, M S Bailey, D S Burns, A T Cox, D G Craig, M Espina, G Fitchett, J Grindrod, D E Hinsley, S Horne, E Hutley, A M Johnston, R L C Kao, L E Lamb, S Lewis, D Marion, A J Moore, T C Nicholson-Roberts, A Phillips, J Praught, P S Rees, I Schoonbaert, T Trinick, D R Wilson, A J Simpson, D Wang, M K O'Shea, T E Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist describing supportive care management, laboratory abnormalities and outcomes in patients with EVD (Ebola virus disease) in West Africa. We report data which constitute the first description of the provision of enhanced EVD case management protocols in a West African setting. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected by retrospective review of clinical and laboratory records of patients with confirmed EVD admitted between 5 November 2014 and 30 June 2015...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
Hélène Guegan, Florence Robert-Gangneux, Christophe Camus, Sorya Belaz, Tony Marchand, Marion Baldeyrou, Jean-Pierre Gangneux
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate new tools to diagnose invasive aspergillosis (IA) directly from broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) samples. METHODS: All consecutive patients with suspected IA who underwent bronchoscopy with BAL were prospectively included. Mycological culture and ELISA detection of galactomannan (GM) were performed on BAL. Two in-house and two marketed PCR assays were used on BAL DNA extracts to detect Aspergillus species. Susceptibility testing was performed after culture; marketed PCR assays detected mutations in the CYP51A gene associated to resistance...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
Seiya Yamayoshi, Mutsumi Ito, Ryuta Uraki, Tadahiro Sasaki, Kazuyoshi Ikuta, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
OBJECTIVES: Broadly reactive human monoclonal antibodies against the HA stem of influenza A virus are being developed as therapeutic agents as well as to understand the epitopes that are essential for a universal influenza virus vaccine. METHODS: We isolated and characterized two hetero-reactive human monoclonal antibodies from an H3N2 virus-infected human. RESULTS: These antibodies, which are predominantly bound to the HA stem of group 2 HAs, used IGHV3-66 and IGHV4-38-2 germline genes, respectively...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
Jiahao Zhang, Guangjie Lao, Ronghua Zhang, Zhengji Wei, Hexing Wang, Guanming Su, Nan Shan, Bo Li, Huanan Li, Yuandi Yu, Weixin Jia, Ming Liao, Wenbao Qi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: Journal of Infection
Enrique Bernal-Morell, Eva García-Villalba, Maricarmen Vera, Blanca Medina, Monica Martinez, Victoria Callejo, Salvador Valero, Cesar Cinesi, Pascual Piñera, Antonia Alcaraz, Irene Marin, Angeles Muñoz, Alfredo Cano
BACKGROUND: Midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a prognostic biomarker in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and sepsis. In this paper, we examined the ability of MR-proADM to predict organ damage and long-term mortality in sepsis patients, compared to that of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and lactate. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort, enrolling severe sepsis or septic shock patients admitted to internal service department...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Infection
Mini Kamboj, Jennifer Brite, Tracy McMillen, Elizabeth Robilotti, Alejandro Herrera, Kent Sepkowitz, N Esther Babady
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a toxin-mediated disease. Oncology patients are at increased risk for developing CDI. Diagnosis of CDI by PCR has led to misclassification of some C. difficile carriers as CDI cases. We determined if an optimized C. difficile PCR cycle threshold value (CT) could reliably predict presence of free toxin, and in turn improve the utility of PCR in detecting clinically relevant CDI in oncology patients. METHODS: 183 consecutive patients positive for C...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infection
Jonas Z Hines, Meredith A Jagger, Thomas L Jeanne, Nicole West, Andrea Winquist, Byron F Robinson, Richard F Leman, Katrina Hedberg
OBJECTIVES: Shigella species are the third most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. During a Shigella sonnei outbreak in Oregon from July 2015 through June 2016, Shigella cases spread among homeless persons with onset of the wettest rainy season on record. METHODS: We conducted time series analyses using Poisson regression to determine if a temporal association between precipitation and shigellosis incidence existed. Models were stratified by housing status...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Infection
Dan Xiang, David M Irwin, Yongyi Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Journal of Infection
Nathalie Satta, Sabrina Pagano, Fabrizio Montecucco, Baris Gencer, François Mach, Laurent Kaiser, Alexandra Calmy, Nicolas Vuilleumier
OBJECTIVES: To determine the existence of autoantibodies against apolipoprotein A-1 (anti-apoA-1 IgG) in HIV patients and explore their association with biological features of HIV infection and different inflammatory biomarkers. We also evaluated their impact on CD4+ lymphocytes survival. METHODS: Anti-apoA-1 IgG plasma levels were assessed by ELISA in 237 HIV positive patients from a national prospective cohort with no current lipid-lowering therapy. RESULTS: 58% of patients were found positive for anti-apoA-1 IgG and were associated with lower CD4+ counts, but higher viremia and systemic inflammation...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Infection
Chikondi Peno, Dominic H Banda, Ndaru Jambo, Anstead M Kankwatira, Rose D Malamba, Theresa J Allain, Daniela Ferreira, Robert S Heyderman, David G Russell, Henry C Mwandumba, Kondwani C Jambo
OBJECTIVE: We explored if HIV infection is associated with impaired T-Helper 17 responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae in the lung METHODS: We recruited 30 HIV-uninfected healthy controls, 23 asymptomatic HIV-infected adults not on ART, and 40 asymptomatic HIV-infected adults on ART (Median time 3.5yrs), in whom we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We measured alveolar CD4+ T cell immune responses following stimulation with pneumococcal cell culture supernatant using flow cytometry-based intracellular cytokine staining...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Infection
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