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Research on Aging

Sin-Hyang Kim, Sihyun Park
OBJECTIVE: Successful aging (SA) is a concept that remains without a consensus definition. The purpose of the current study was to explore the components of SA by systematically reviewing factors correlated with SA. We also compared the relative strength of the components by using the meta-analytic method. METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively synthesize the correlates of SA from three online databases: PubMed, CINAHL, and SCOPUS. MAIN FINDINGS: The correlates were categorized into four domains: (1) avoiding disease and disability, (2) having high cognitive/mental/physical function, (3) actively engaging in life, and (4) psychologically well adapted in later life...
June 2017: Research on Aging
Jing Zhou, Weiyu Mao, Yura Lee, Iris Chi
Little longitudinal data exist on grandparent caregivers and few studies have examined their physical health outcomes. This study examined the effect of caring for grandchildren on grandparents' physical health and the role of intergenerational support from adult children. Longitudinal data derived from a survey on the well-being of older adults in China were used to conduct path analysis of previous grandparent caregivers (vs. noncaregivers) and repeated grandparent caregivers (vs. noncaregivers). The final sample was 799 grandparents aged 60 or older living in rural China...
June 2017: Research on Aging
Jeffrey E Stokes
This study examines dyadic reports of marital quality and loneliness over a two-year period among 932 older married couples resident in Ireland. Data from the first two waves of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (2009-2013) were analyzed to determine whether husbands' and wives' marital quality and loneliness at baseline predicted both spouses' loneliness 2 years later. Two-wave lagged models tested the cognitive perspective on loneliness, the induction hypothesis, and actor-partner interdependence. Results indicated that perceptions of negative marital quality at baseline were related with greater loneliness 2 years later, supporting the cognitive perspective...
June 2017: Research on Aging
Denise A Tyler, Mary L Fennell
Policies to "rebalance" funding away from nursing homes and toward home and community-based services (HCBS) have encouraged national trends of nursing home closure and an expansion of the HCBS industry. These changes are unfolding without a clear understanding of what services are available at the local level. The purpose of this study was: (1) to describe the current distribution of community-based services (CBS) in areas where nursing homes have closed and (2) to examine differences in availability of CBS using local market and population characteristics as regressors in a multinomial logistic model...
June 2017: Research on Aging
Kimberly J Johnson, S Hannah Lee
The present study investigated how volunteering was influenced by individual resources and social capital among four racial/ethnic groups of adults aged 50 and older. The data came from the California Health Interview Survey, a statewide sample that includes non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 18,927), non-Hispanic Asians ( n = 2,428), non-Hispanic Blacks ( n = 1,265), and Hispanics ( n = 3,799). Logistic regression models of volunteering were estimated to explore the effects of human and social capital within and across the racial/ethnic groups...
June 2017: Research on Aging
Jessica Kelley-Moore, Wenxuan Huang
Race differences in midlife circumstances explain much of the disability gap in older adulthood, but questions remain about whether early life selection processes are race invariant. To address this, we (1) isolate the 1930s cohort to explore potential race-specific life courses and (2) utilize a two-stage estimation procedure to examine the role of early-to-midlife selection in shaping later-life functional limitations. Using data on Black and White adults born 1931-1941 from the Health and Retirement Study (W2-W9), we estimate trajectories of later-life functional limitations after modeling midlife income and comorbidity as a function of early life factors...
April 2017: Research on Aging
Emma C Potter, Karen A Roberto, Nancy Brossoie, Rosemary Blieszner
African American families' experiences with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have received little attention in the research literature. Guided by the life-course perspective, we analyzed qualitative interview data from members of 27 African American families including the person with MCI (PwMCI), a relative or friend who was highly involved in the PwMCI's daily life, and if available, a relative or friend who had at least monthly contact with the PwMCI. Findings uncovered variability in families' MCI awareness, assessment, and need for role changes; the importance of reaching out to trusted others; and honoring PwMCI's care preferences (e...
April 2017: Research on Aging
Jielu Lin, Jessica Kelley-Moore
Consistent with the weathering hypothesis, many studies have captured racial/ethnic disparities in average functional health trajectories. The same mechanisms of social inequality that contribute to worse average health among minority adults may also contribute to greater fluctuations in their physical function at upper ages. Using panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examine patterns of intraindividual variability over time in trajectories of functional limitations for White, Black, and Hispanic older adults...
April 2017: Research on Aging
Emily Joy Nicklett, Robert Joseph Taylor, Ola Rostant, Kimson E Johnson, Linnea Evans
This study identifies risk and protective factors for falls among older, community-dwelling African Americans. Drawing upon the biopsychosocial perspective, we conducted a series of sex- and age-adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify the correlates of fall events among older African Americans. Our sample consisted of 1,442 community-dwelling African Americans aged 65 and older, participating in the 2010-2012 rounds of the Health and Retirement Study. Biophysical characteristics associated with greater relative risk of experiencing single and/or multiple falls included greater functional limitations, poorer self-rated health, poorer self-rated vision, chronic illnesses (high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer, lung disease, heart problems, stroke, and arthritis), greater chronic illness comorbidity, older age, and female sex...
April 2017: Research on Aging
Roland J Thorpe, Keith E Whitfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Research on Aging
Oanh L Meyer, Shannon M Sisco, Danielle Harvey, Laura B Zahodne, M Maria Glymour, Jennifer J Manly, Michael Marsiske
We examined the influence of neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP), racial/ethnic composition, and living in a major city on cognitive trajectories and intervention outcomes. Data came from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study ( N = 2,438). Mixed effects analyses examined the associations between neighborhood variables and memory, reasoning, speed of processing, and everyday cognition, estimating differences in initial gains (potentially related to practice) and long-term rate of change over 10 years...
March 2017: Research on Aging
Blake Victor Kent, Matt Bradshaw, Jeremy E Uecker
We analyze a sample of older U.S. adults with religious backgrounds in order to examine the relationships among two types of divine forgiveness and three indicators of psychological well-being (PWB) as well as the moderating role of attachment to God. Results suggest that (a) feeling forgiven by God and transactional forgiveness from God are not associated with changes in PWB over time, (b) secure attachment to God at baseline is associated with increased optimism and self-esteem, (c) feeling forgiven by God and transactional forgiveness from God are more strongly associated with increased PWB among the securely attached, and (d) among the avoidantly attached, PWB is associated with consistency in one's beliefs, that is, a decreased emphasis on forgiveness from God...
January 1, 2017: Research on Aging
Alex Bierman, Yeonjung Lee
This research examines whether unobserved time-stable influences confound the association between chronic pain and psychological distress in older adults as well as how race and ethnicity combine with subjective social status (SSS) to modify the association. In a nationally representative longitudinal survey, holistically controlling for unobserved time-stable influences using fixed-effects models substantially reduces the pain-depression relationship and eliminates the overall pain-anxiety relationship. The association with depression is stronger for Black and Hispanic elders, illustrating a process of double-jeopardy...
January 1, 2017: Research on Aging
Joanne Song McLaughlin, David Neumark
Policy changes intended to delay retirements of older workers and extend their work lives may run up against barriers owing to rising physical challenges of work as people age. We examine whether physical challenges at work influence employment transitions of older male workers in the age range for which public policy is trying to extend work lives and whether older male workers are able to mitigate these challenges while still remaining employed. The evidence indicates that physical challenges pose a barrier to extending work lives, although some older male workers with physically demanding jobs are able to mitigate these demands-either at new jobs or with the same employer...
January 1, 2017: Research on Aging
Ken Harada, Hidehiro Sugisawa, Yoko Sugihara, Shizuko Yanagisawa, Masaya Shimmei
This study examined the additive effects of social support and negative interactions in various relationship domains and the cross-domain buffering effects of social support on the detrimental impact of negative interactions on mental health among older adults in Japan. Data were obtained from a survey of residents of 30 municipalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area ( N = 1,592). The results indicated that family members living together may share ambivalent social ties, anchored in positive sentiments and serving as sources of support but where criticism and excessive demands may occur...
January 1, 2017: Research on Aging
Brian Downer, Marc A Garcia, Joseph Saenz, Kyriakos S Markides, Rebeca Wong
Prior research indicates age of migration is associated with cognitive health outcomes among older Mexican Americans; however, factors that explain this relationship are unclear. This study used eight waves from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the role of education in the risk for cognitive impairment (CI) by nativity, age of migration, and gender. Foreign-born women had a higher risk for CI than U.S.-born women, regardless of age of migration. After adjusting for education, this risk remained significant only for late-life migrant women (risk ratio [RR] = 1...
January 1, 2017: Research on Aging
David Neumark, Joanne Song, Patrick Button
We explore the effects of disability discrimination laws on hiring of older workers. A concern with antidiscrimination laws is that they may reduce hiring by raising the cost of terminations and-in the specific case of disability discrimination laws-raising the cost of employment because of the need to accommodate disabled workers. Moreover, disability discrimination laws can affect nondisabled older workers because they are fairly likely to develop work-related disabilities, but are generally not protected by these laws...
January 2017: Research on Aging
Geoffrey L Wallace, Robert Haveman, Barbara Wolfe
This article uses data on a sample of retirees drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine changes in health over the retirement years and to estimate the effects of health changes in retirement on wealth. Using the framework of item response theory, we develop a novel measure of health that makes use of multiple indicators of physical health that are available in the HRS. We find that large negative shocks to the health of male retirees and their spouses are frequent in retirement and that when such shocks do occur, recovery to the preshock level of health is rare...
January 2017: Research on Aging
Jeremy G Moulton, Jeffrey C Diebold, John C Scott
We explore the relationship between access to affordable health insurance and self-employment using exogenous variation from the introduction of Medicare Part D that reduced the out-of-pocket cost of prescription drugs and improved health outcomes in a difference-in-differences model using the American Community Survey. We find that our treatment group of individuals aged 65-69 were 0.5 percentage points (or 5%) more likely to be self-employed in relation to a control group aged 60-64.
January 2017: Research on Aging
Kalman Rupp, Irena Dushi
Using a new disability measure applicable to both the near elderly and elderly population, we track respondents aged 51-61 in 1992 from the Health and Retirement Study and account for their status over 20 years. We demonstrate that to screen in as disabled and to screen out as nondisabled require different analytic strategies and use multiple indicators to establish three groups: disabled, nondisabled, and a residual category with ambiguous status. We use work-disability and Supplemental Security Income/Disability Insurance (SSI/DI) receipt for testing distributional outcomes and assessing face validity of our disability measure...
January 2017: Research on Aging
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