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Research on Aging

Zi Zhou, Fanzhen Mao, Jiaping Ma, Shichao Hao, Zhengmin Min Qian, Keith Elder, Jason S Turner, Ya Fang
This article used the nationally representative Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to explore the associations between living arrangements and health among older adults. Living arrangements were stratified into six categories. Health was measured by self-rated health, activities of daily living (ADL) disability, and cognitive impairment. Random-effects ordered probit regressions were applied. The results indicated that coresidence had a positive effect on self-rated health compared with living alone...
December 8, 2016: Research on Aging
Allison B Brenner, Philippa J Clarke
Our understanding of the mechanisms through which racial/ethnic disparities in disability in older adults develop and are maintained is limited. We examined the role of physical impairment, socioeconomic factors and health for racial/ethnic disparities in activities of daily living (ADL), and the modifying role of the indoor home environment. Data come from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (N = 5,640), and negative binomial regression models were specified separately for men and women. Blacks and Hispanics reported more ADL difficulty than Whites...
November 30, 2016: Research on Aging
David Neumark, Joanne Song, Patrick Button
We explore the effects of disability discrimination laws on hiring of older workers. A concern with antidiscrimination laws is that they may reduce hiring by raising the cost of terminations and-in the specific case of disability discrimination laws-raising the cost of employment because of the need to accommodate disabled workers. Moreover, disability discrimination laws can affect nondisabled older workers because they are fairly likely to develop work-related disabilities, but are generally not protected by these laws...
January 2017: Research on Aging
Geoffrey L Wallace, Robert Haveman, Barbara Wolfe
This article uses data on a sample of retirees drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine changes in health over the retirement years and to estimate the effects of health changes in retirement on wealth. Using the framework of item response theory, we develop a novel measure of health that makes use of multiple indicators of physical health that are available in the HRS. We find that large negative shocks to the health of male retirees and their spouses are frequent in retirement and that when such shocks do occur, recovery to the preshock level of health is rare...
January 2017: Research on Aging
Jeremy G Moulton, Jeffrey C Diebold, John C Scott
We explore the relationship between access to affordable health insurance and self-employment using exogenous variation from the introduction of Medicare Part D that reduced the out-of-pocket cost of prescription drugs and improved health outcomes in a difference-in-differences model using the American Community Survey. We find that our treatment group of individuals aged 65-69 were 0.5 percentage points (or 5%) more likely to be self-employed in relation to a control group aged 60-64.
January 2017: Research on Aging
Kalman Rupp, Irena Dushi
Using a new disability measure applicable to both the near elderly and elderly population, we track respondents aged 51-61 in 1992 from the Health and Retirement Study and account for their status over 20 years. We demonstrate that to screen in as disabled and to screen out as nondisabled require different analytic strategies and use multiple indicators to establish three groups: disabled, nondisabled, and a residual category with ambiguous status. We use work-disability and Supplemental Security Income/Disability Insurance (SSI/DI) receipt for testing distributional outcomes and assessing face validity of our disability measure...
January 2017: Research on Aging
Ajin Lee
This article argues that wealth uncertainty influences when couples choose to retire. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, I show that wives delay retirement when their husbands retire following a job loss. This effect is stronger when husbands are the primary earners, and couples are relatively poorer. This provides evidence of intra-household insurance that mitigates the impact of an unexpected earnings shock. I find that wives tend to delay retirement only until they become eligible for social security...
January 2017: Research on Aging
Kenneth A Couch, Gayle L Reznik, Christopher R Tamborini, Howard M Iams
Using microsimulation, we estimate the effects of three policy proposals that would alter Social Security's eligibility rules or benefit structure to reflect changes in women's labor force activity, marital patterns, and differential mortality among the aged. First, we estimate a set of options related to the duration of marriage required to receive divorced spouse and survivor benefits. Second, we estimate the effects of an earnings sharing proposal with survivor benefits, in which benefits are based entirely on earned benefits with spouses sharing their earnings during years of marriage...
January 2017: Research on Aging
I-Fen Lin, Susan L Brown, Anna M Hammersmith
Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels...
January 2017: Research on Aging
Julie Zissimopoulos, Barbara Blaylock, Dana P Goldman, John W Rowe
An aging America presents challenges but also brings social and economic capital. We quantify public revenues from, and public expenditures on, Americans aged 65 and older, the value of their unpaid, productive activities and financial gifts to family. Using microsimulation, we project the value of these activities, and government revenues and expenditures, under different scenarios of change to the Old Age and Survivors Insurance eligibility age through 2050. We find the value of unpaid productive activities and financial gifts are US$721 billion in 2010, while net (of tax revenues) spending on the 65 years and older is US$984 billion...
January 2017: Research on Aging
Emily E Wiemers, Vladislav Slanchev, Kathleen McGarry, V Joseph Hotz
Early in the last century, it was commonplace for elderly women to live with their adult children. Over time, the prevalence of this type of living arrangement declined, as incomes increased. In more recent decades, coresidence between adult children and their retirement-age parents has become more common, as children rely on parental support later into adulthood. We use panel data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the living arrangements of older mothers and their adult children over the life course...
January 2017: Research on Aging
David C Stapleton, Jody Schimmel Hyde
As workers near retirement, many experience a medical event that limits the ability to work. Public programs provide health insurance and income support for these individuals, but that support is often not adequate to protect against poverty following the onset of a new health condition. Moreover, these policies generally are not designed to encourage continuing work rather than premature retirement. In this article, we propose a new type of program-Employment Support for the Transition to Retirement-designed to encourage older workers with health limitations to remain in the workforce, reducing their reliance on federal disability and early retirement benefits...
January 2017: Research on Aging
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January 2017: Research on Aging
Yu-Chih Chen, Yi Wang, Ben Cooper, Timothy McBride, Huajuan Chen, Dongmin Wang, Ching-Ying Lai, Lauren C Montemuro, Nancy Morrow-Howell
Cross-national studies can elucidate the influence of sociocultural contexts on a wide variety of aging issues. This study aims to develop methods for using secondary data for cross-national comparisons using productive activities as an example. The study also identifies challenges in conducting cross-national research. Using the national representative data from the United States, China, and South Korea, this study developed a sequence of methods for cross-national analysis. Results indicate that productive activities vary by country, and this variation could possibly be due to the differences in sociocultural context and variations in operationalization and measurement...
November 21, 2016: Research on Aging
Erika L Sabbath, Christina Matz-Costa, John W Rowe, Annette Leclerc, Marie Zins, Marcel Goldberg, Lisa F Berkman
BACKGROUND: Active life engagement is important for successful aging of societies and individuals. We tested predictors of engagement in French adults aged 60-74 (the GAZEL cohort). METHODS: Participants (n = 10,764) reported the previous day's activities in a time-use survey. We modeled concurrent social, demographic, and health predictors of participation incidence and intensity in paid work, volunteering, caregiving, community involvement, and informal social interaction...
November 2016: Research on Aging
Mélanie G M Perras, Shaelyn M Strachan, Michelle S Fortier
Many retirees remain insufficiently physically active for health benefits. Self-perceptions can influence physical activity. Possible selves and identity are two self-perceptions that, when examined relative to physical activity, may help explain physical activity levels among retirees. Scholars claim that a focus on possible selves may impact identity, which, in the physical activity domain, is a known physical activity correlate. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between these variables, and more specifically, to determine whether exercise identity mediates the relationship between physical activity possible selves and physical activity...
November 2016: Research on Aging
Anna Mulasso, Mattia Roppolo, Robbert J J Gobbens, Emanuela Rabaglietti
This study aims to assess the reliability, construct validity (convergent/divergent), and criterion validity of the Italian version of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI). The TFI is a self-report questionnaire for screening frailty in older adults. Two hundred and sixty-seven community-dwelling older adults were involved. Psychometric properties were analyzed using validated instruments. Adverse outcomes such as disability, falls, and visits to a general practitioner were detected. Participants were mainly women (59...
November 2016: Research on Aging
Tracy Wharton, Daphne C Watkins, Jamie Mitchell, Helen Kales
This phenomenological study involved focus groups with church-affiliated, African American women and men (N = 50; ages 50 and older) in southeast Michigan to determine their attitudes and expectations around formal mental health care. Data analysis employed a constant comparative approach and yielded themes related to formal mental health care, along with delineating concerns about defining depression, health, and well-being. Health and well-being were defined as inclusive of physical and spiritual aspects of self...
October 26, 2016: Research on Aging
Christina Matz-Costa, Dawn C Carr, Tay K McNamara, Jacquelyn Boone James
The current study tests the indirect effect of activity-related physical activity, cognitive activity, social interaction, and emotional exchange on the relationship between activity involvement and health (physical and emotional) in later life. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 5,442) were used to estimate a series of linear regression models. We found significant indirect effects for social interaction and benefit to others (emotional exchange) on emotional health (depressive symptoms) and indirect effects for use of body and benefit to others (physical) on physical health (frailty)...
October 2016: Research on Aging
Scott E Wolfe, Michael D Reisig, Kristy Holtfreter
This study investigates whether low self-control theory explains self-reported criminal activity in late adulthood. Cross-sectional survey data from telephone interviews conducted with individuals aged 60 years and older in Arizona and Florida (N = 2,000) are used. Regression analyses show that low self-control is related to criminal offending. The relationship between low self-control and offending persists after the introduction of potential mediators (e.g., unstructured socializing, negative emotions, and familial ties) and is even observed across different stages of late adulthood (i...
October 2016: Research on Aging
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