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Research on Aging

Louise C Hawkley, Masha Kocherginsky
A substantial portion of the older adult population suffers from frequent feelings of loneliness, but a large proportion remains relatively unscathed by loneliness. To date, research examining both protective and risk factors for loneliness has not included data from the United States. The present study used the first two waves of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project to examine sociodemographic, structural, and functional factors thought to be associated with loneliness in older adults...
April 2018: Research on Aging
Zheng Wu, Margaret J Penning
This study examined the timing and risk factors for subsequent union disruption among individuals who were in a marital or cohabiting union at age 45, focusing particularly on the role of prior union history and children. Using retrospective data on union histories from the 2007 Canadian General Social Survey ( n = 17,194), the results of life-table analysis revealed that individuals in cohabiting relationships faced a greater risk of union disruption in middle or later life than those who were married. Cox proportional hazard models showed that both union biography (duration, remarriage/repartnership) and family biography (children born inside/outside union, child age) influenced union dissolution through separation or divorce, but their impact differed depending on union type and gender...
April 2018: Research on Aging
Marc A Garcia, Adriana M Reyes
This study examines the prevalence of morbidity and disability among older Mexican Americans using 5-year age groups. Twenty-year panel data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly are used to make detailed comparisons by nativity and gender. Results show that prevalence rates for most chronic conditions for both males and females do not vary by nativity. For disabilities, nativity is a significant predictor of increased instrumental activity of daily living disability for foreign-born females and reduced activity of daily living disability for U...
April 2018: Research on Aging
Charles A Emlet, Lesley Harris, Christina M Pierpaoli, Charles Furlotte
The National Institutes of Health human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Aging Working Group identified spirituality as a research emphasis. This qualitative study examines the importance of religion and spirituality among 30 HIV-positive older adults. Using modified grounded theory, adults 50+ were recruited in Ontario, Canada, through AIDS service organizations, clinics, and community agencies. Descriptions of religion and spirituality encapsulated the idea of a journey, which had two components: the long-term HIV survivor profile combined with the experience of aging itself...
March 2018: Research on Aging
Sojung Park, BoRin Kim, Yoonsun Han
OBJECTIVE: We examined cumulative and differential experiences of aging in place. METHOD: Data came from the 2002 and 2010 wave of the Health Retirement Study. We modeled the trajectory of later-life depressive symptoms, and how senior-housing environments moderate the negative association between economic disadvantages and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: At baseline, economically disadvantaged older adults were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms...
March 2018: Research on Aging
Catheryn S Koss, Tamara A Baker
Data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 6,946) were used to test whether differences in estate planning accounted for disparities in advance care planning between White and Black older adults. White participants were more likely to have advance directives after controlling for demographic, health, and financial variables. When estate planning was also controlled, the odds of having an advance directive were equal for White and Black participants. In contrast, Whites remained more likely to discuss end-of-life preferences after controlling for demographic, health, financial, and estate planning variables...
March 2018: Research on Aging
Joanne Song McLaughlin, David Neumark
Policy changes intended to delay retirements of older workers and extend their work lives may run up against barriers owing to rising physical challenges of work as people age. We examine whether physical challenges at work influence employment transitions of older male workers in the age range for which public policy is trying to extend work lives and whether older male workers are able to mitigate these challenges while still remaining employed. The evidence indicates that physical challenges pose a barrier to extending work lives, although some older male workers with physically demanding jobs are able to mitigate these demands-either at new jobs or with the same employer...
March 2018: Research on Aging
Jong Hyun Jung
Research indicates that childhood adversity is associated with poor mental health in adulthood. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the deleterious long-term effects of childhood adversity on adult mental health are reduced for individuals who are involved in religious practices. Using longitudinal data from a representative sample of American adults ( N = 1,635), I find that religious salience and spirituality buffer the noxious effects of childhood abuse on change in positive affect over time...
February 2018: Research on Aging
Jia Chen, Lucy P Jordan
Using data from the baseline wave of the China Family Panel Studies, we applied three-level random-intercept logistic regression models to investigate how the child gender gap in intergenerational support differed between one- and multi-child families in China based on 16,201 parent-child dyads. The results showed that sons were more likely to receive both financial and instrumental support from elderly parents. Additionally, sons tended to provide financial support and daughters tended to provide instrumental support...
February 2018: Research on Aging
Sojung Park, Ji Young Kang, Letha A Chadiha
This study examines the associations among social network types, multiple health conditions, and various health-care use. Data came from the 2006 and 2008 wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. A two-step cluster analytical approach was used to identify social network types. Regression models determined associations between social network types, health changes, and health-care use, including checkups, outpatient service, traditional medicine use, and hospitalization. Four social network types (restricted, couple focused, friend, and diverse) were found...
February 2018: Research on Aging
Allison B Brenner, Philippa J Clarke
Our understanding of the mechanisms through which racial/ethnic disparities in disability in older adults develop and are maintained is limited. We examined the role of physical impairment, socioeconomic factors and health for racial/ethnic disparities in activities of daily living (ADL), and the modifying role of the indoor home environment. Data come from the National Health and Aging Trends Study ( N = 5,640), and negative binomial regression models were specified separately for men and women. Blacks and Hispanics reported more ADL difficulty than Whites...
February 2018: Research on Aging
Hanzhang Xu, Matthew E Dupre, Truls Østbye, Allison A Vorderstrasse, Bei Wu
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between rural and urban residential mobility and cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults in China. METHOD: We used data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health that included adults age 50+ from China ( N = 12,410). We used multivariate linear regressions to examine how residential mobility and age at migration were associated with cognitive function. RESULTS: Urban and urban-to-urban residents had the highest level of cognitive function, whereas rural and rural-to-rural residents had the poorest cognitive function...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
Seung-Won Choi, Zhenmei Zhang
An increasing number of older Korean women have played an important role in taking care of their grandchildren to help their adult children. This study investigates the effects of grandparenting on older women' health in South Korea. Using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging ( N = 3,092), we estimated ordinal logistic regression models with lagged dependent variable to examine whether and how grandparenting type and transition and grandparenting intensity are associated with older women's self-rated health...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
Alex Bierman, Yeonjung Lee, Scott Schieman
The association between chronic discrimination and sleep problems is important to examine in older adults because sleep is highly reactive to stress and impaired sleep has diverse adverse health effects. The association between chronic discrimination and sleep problems may, however, be confounded by a number of time-stable influences, and this association may also vary by religious involvement. In three waves (2006, 2010, and 2014) of the Health and Retirement Study ( N = 7,130), the overall association between chronic discrimination and sleep problems is negated in econometric models that control for all time-stable sources of confounding...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
Lili Xie
This study aims to examine the extent to which older adults' perceptions of environmental age-friendliness are associated with their life satisfaction. We used a national representative sample ( N = 9,965) with elders aged 60 and above from urban China and structural equation modeling to analyze the relationship among community characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES), and life satisfaction. Results showed that older people's perceptions of housing conditions, local amenities, and social inclusion were significantly associated with general life satisfaction...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
Anna Muraco, Jennifer Putney, Chengshi Shiu, Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
This study uses mixed-methods data and a life-course perspective to explore the role of pets in the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults age 50 and over and addresses the following research questions: (1) How does having a pet relate to perceived social support and social network size? and (2) how do LGBT older adults describe the meaning of pets in their lives? The qualitative data ( N = 59) were collected from face-to-face interviews, and the quantitative data ( N = 2,560) were collected via surveys from a sample across the United States...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
Liat Ayalon
The study examined family relations and elder care, in light of the modernization processes that are taking place in the Arab sector. Interviews with 25 older adults, 27 family members, and 5 paid home care workers of an Arab origin were conducted. Qualitative analysis consisted of constant comparisons and contrasts of relevant themes. Most Arabs reported that intergenerational solidarity is very strong in the Arab sector. Whereas many older adults and a few of their family members tended to favor paid care, the majority of Arab family members and fewer older adults stated that family care is preferred...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
Theodore Figinski, David Neumark
Reducing or eliminating Social Security's retirement earnings test (RET) can encourage labor supply of older individuals receiving benefits. However, these reforms can encourage earlier claiming of Social Security benefits, permanently lowering future benefits. We explore the consequences, for older women, of eliminating the RET from the full retirement age to age 69 (in 2000), relying on the intercohort variation in exposure to changes in the RET to estimate these effects. The evidence is consistent with the conclusion that eliminating the RET increased the likelihood of having very low incomes among women in their mid-70s and older-ages at which the lower benefits from claiming earlier could outweigh higher income in the earlier period when women or their husbands increased their labor supply...
January 2018: Research on Aging
Zi Zhou, Fanzhen Mao, Jiaping Ma, Shichao Hao, Zhengmin Min Qian, Keith Elder, Jason S Turner, Ya Fang
This article used the nationally representative Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to explore the associations between living arrangements and health among older adults. Living arrangements were stratified into six categories. Health was measured by self-rated health, activities of daily living (ADL) disability, and cognitive impairment. Random-effects ordered probit regressions were applied. The results indicated that coresidence had a positive effect on self-rated health compared with living alone...
January 2018: Research on Aging
Yu-Chih Chen, Yi Wang, Ben Cooper, Timothy McBride, Huajuan Chen, Dongmin Wang, Ching-Ying Lai, Lauren C Montemuro, Nancy Morrow-Howell
Cross-national studies can elucidate the influence of sociocultural contexts on a wide variety of aging issues. This study aims to develop methods for using secondary data for cross-national comparisons using productive activities as an example. The study also identifies challenges in conducting cross-national research. Using the national representative data from the United States, China, and South Korea, this study developed a sequence of methods for cross-national analysis. Results indicate that productive activities vary by country, and this variation could possibly be due to the differences in sociocultural context and variations in operationalization and measurement...
January 2018: Research on Aging
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