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Research on Aging

Nasim B Ferdows, Gail A Jensen, Wassim Tarraf
This article examines the determinants of healthy aging using Grossman's framework of a health production function. Healthy aging, sometimes described as successful aging, is produced using a variety of inputs, determined in early life, young adulthood, midlife, and later life. A healthy aging production function is estimated using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 Health and Retirement Study on 7,355 noninstitutionalized seniors. Using a simultaneous equation mediation model, we quantify how childhood factors contribute to healthy aging, both directly and indirectly through their effects on mediating adult outcomes...
June 2018: Research on Aging
Blake Victor Kent, Matt Bradshaw, Jeremy E Uecker
We analyze a sample of older U.S. adults with religious backgrounds in order to examine the relationships among two types of divine forgiveness and three indicators of psychological well-being (PWB) as well as the moderating role of attachment to God. Results suggest that (a) feeling forgiven by God and transactional forgiveness from God are not associated with changes in PWB over time, (b) secure attachment to God at baseline is associated with increased optimism and self-esteem, (c) feeling forgiven by God and transactional forgiveness from God are more strongly associated with increased PWB among the securely attached, and (d) among the avoidantly attached, PWB is associated with consistency in one's beliefs, that is, a decreased emphasis on forgiveness from God...
June 2018: Research on Aging
Alex Bierman, Yeonjung Lee
This research examines whether unobserved time-stable influences confound the association between chronic pain and psychological distress in older adults as well as how race and ethnicity combine with subjective social status (SSS) to modify the association. In a nationally representative longitudinal survey, holistically controlling for unobserved time-stable influences using fixed-effects models substantially reduces the pain-depression relationship and eliminates the overall pain-anxiety relationship. The association with depression is stronger for Black and Hispanic elders, illustrating a process of double-jeopardy...
June 2018: Research on Aging
Brian Downer, Marc A Garcia, Joseph Saenz, Kyriakos S Markides, Rebeca Wong
Prior research indicates age of migration is associated with cognitive health outcomes among older Mexican Americans; however, factors that explain this relationship are unclear. This study used eight waves from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the role of education in the risk for cognitive impairment (CI) by nativity, age of migration, and gender. Foreign-born women had a higher risk for CI than U.S.-born women, regardless of age of migration. After adjusting for education, this risk remained significant only for late-life migrant women (risk ratio [RR] = 1...
June 2018: Research on Aging
Louise C Hawkley, Masha Kocherginsky
A substantial portion of the older adult population suffers from frequent feelings of loneliness, but a large proportion remains relatively unscathed by loneliness. To date, research examining both protective and risk factors for loneliness has not included data from the United States. The present study used the first two waves of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project to examine sociodemographic, structural, and functional factors thought to be associated with loneliness in older adults...
April 2018: Research on Aging
Zheng Wu, Margaret J Penning
This study examined the timing and risk factors for subsequent union disruption among individuals who were in a marital or cohabiting union at age 45, focusing particularly on the role of prior union history and children. Using retrospective data on union histories from the 2007 Canadian General Social Survey ( n = 17,194), the results of life-table analysis revealed that individuals in cohabiting relationships faced a greater risk of union disruption in middle or later life than those who were married. Cox proportional hazard models showed that both union biography (duration, remarriage/repartnership) and family biography (children born inside/outside union, child age) influenced union dissolution through separation or divorce, but their impact differed depending on union type and gender...
April 2018: Research on Aging
Marc A Garcia, Adriana M Reyes
This study examines the prevalence of morbidity and disability among older Mexican Americans using 5-year age groups. Twenty-year panel data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly are used to make detailed comparisons by nativity and gender. Results show that prevalence rates for most chronic conditions for both males and females do not vary by nativity. For disabilities, nativity is a significant predictor of increased instrumental activity of daily living disability for foreign-born females and reduced activity of daily living disability for U...
April 2018: Research on Aging
Ken Harada, Hidehiro Sugisawa, Yoko Sugihara, Shizuko Yanagisawa, Masaya Shimmei
This study examined the additive effects of social support and negative interactions in various relationship domains and the cross-domain buffering effects of social support on the detrimental impact of negative interactions on mental health among older adults in Japan. Data were obtained from a survey of residents of 30 municipalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area ( N = 1,592). The results indicated that family members living together may share ambivalent social ties, anchored in positive sentiments and serving as sources of support but where criticism and excessive demands may occur...
April 2018: Research on Aging
Charles A Emlet, Lesley Harris, Christina M Pierpaoli, Charles Furlotte
The National Institutes of Health human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Aging Working Group identified spirituality as a research emphasis. This qualitative study examines the importance of religion and spirituality among 30 HIV-positive older adults. Using modified grounded theory, adults 50+ were recruited in Ontario, Canada, through AIDS service organizations, clinics, and community agencies. Descriptions of religion and spirituality encapsulated the idea of a journey, which had two components: the long-term HIV survivor profile combined with the experience of aging itself...
March 2018: Research on Aging
Sojung Park, BoRin Kim, Yoonsun Han
OBJECTIVE: We examined cumulative and differential experiences of aging in place. METHOD: Data came from the 2002 and 2010 wave of the Health Retirement Study. We modeled the trajectory of later-life depressive symptoms, and how senior-housing environments moderate the negative association between economic disadvantages and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: At baseline, economically disadvantaged older adults were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms...
March 2018: Research on Aging
Catheryn S Koss, Tamara A Baker
Data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 6,946) were used to test whether differences in estate planning accounted for disparities in advance care planning between White and Black older adults. White participants were more likely to have advance directives after controlling for demographic, health, and financial variables. When estate planning was also controlled, the odds of having an advance directive were equal for White and Black participants. In contrast, Whites remained more likely to discuss end-of-life preferences after controlling for demographic, health, financial, and estate planning variables...
March 2018: Research on Aging
Joanne Song McLaughlin, David Neumark
Policy changes intended to delay retirements of older workers and extend their work lives may run up against barriers owing to rising physical challenges of work as people age. We examine whether physical challenges at work influence employment transitions of older male workers in the age range for which public policy is trying to extend work lives and whether older male workers are able to mitigate these challenges while still remaining employed. The evidence indicates that physical challenges pose a barrier to extending work lives, although some older male workers with physically demanding jobs are able to mitigate these demands-either at new jobs or with the same employer...
March 2018: Research on Aging
Jong Hyun Jung
Research indicates that childhood adversity is associated with poor mental health in adulthood. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the deleterious long-term effects of childhood adversity on adult mental health are reduced for individuals who are involved in religious practices. Using longitudinal data from a representative sample of American adults ( N = 1,635), I find that religious salience and spirituality buffer the noxious effects of childhood abuse on change in positive affect over time...
February 2018: Research on Aging
Jia Chen, Lucy P Jordan
Using data from the baseline wave of the China Family Panel Studies, we applied three-level random-intercept logistic regression models to investigate how the child gender gap in intergenerational support differed between one- and multi-child families in China based on 16,201 parent-child dyads. The results showed that sons were more likely to receive both financial and instrumental support from elderly parents. Additionally, sons tended to provide financial support and daughters tended to provide instrumental support...
February 2018: Research on Aging
Sojung Park, Ji Young Kang, Letha A Chadiha
This study examines the associations among social network types, multiple health conditions, and various health-care use. Data came from the 2006 and 2008 wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. A two-step cluster analytical approach was used to identify social network types. Regression models determined associations between social network types, health changes, and health-care use, including checkups, outpatient service, traditional medicine use, and hospitalization. Four social network types (restricted, couple focused, friend, and diverse) were found...
February 2018: Research on Aging
Allison B Brenner, Philippa J Clarke
Our understanding of the mechanisms through which racial/ethnic disparities in disability in older adults develop and are maintained is limited. We examined the role of physical impairment, socioeconomic factors and health for racial/ethnic disparities in activities of daily living (ADL), and the modifying role of the indoor home environment. Data come from the National Health and Aging Trends Study ( N = 5,640), and negative binomial regression models were specified separately for men and women. Blacks and Hispanics reported more ADL difficulty than Whites...
February 2018: Research on Aging
Weiyu Mao, Iris Chi, Shinyi Wu
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the dynamic relationship between multidimensional intergenerational instrumental support and health over time. This approach is of theoretical, methodological, and practical significance in gerontological research. METHOD: Data came from The Well-Being of Older People in Anhui Province in 2001, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. Of the 1,636 participants at baseline, a working sample of 1,557 older adults was used. Trajectories and correlated change were estimated using parallel latent growth curve modeling with maximum likelihood estimation...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
Philip J Badawy, Markus H Schafer, Haosen Sun
Life-course transitions among older adults often produce a reshuffling of social network members. Moving is a common experience for U.S. seniors, but relatively little is known about how core networks change amid the relocation process. Drawing on longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, the present study examines how late-life moving is associated with changes to network size and the loss and gain of particular network members. We find that when older adults undertake a long-distance move, they tend to add more family to their core network-yet this is moderated by their initial level of functional health...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
Ernest Gonzales, Huei-Wern Shen, Tam E Perry, Yi Wang
This study aims to further our understanding of formal volunteering as a protective mechanism for health in the context of housing relocation and to explore race, gender, and education as moderators. A quasi-experimental design evaluated the effects of volunteering on older adults' health (self-report health, number of instrumental activities of daily living [IADLs], and depressive symptoms) among individuals who relocated but did not volunteer at Time 1 ( N = 682) in the Health and Retirement Study (2008-2010)...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
Hanzhang Xu, Matthew E Dupre, Truls Østbye, Allison A Vorderstrasse, Bei Wu
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between rural and urban residential mobility and cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults in China. METHOD: We used data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health that included adults age 50+ from China ( N = 12,410). We used multivariate linear regressions to examine how residential mobility and age at migration were associated with cognitive function. RESULTS: Urban and urban-to-urban residents had the highest level of cognitive function, whereas rural and rural-to-rural residents had the poorest cognitive function...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
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