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Food and Nutrition Bulletin

Césaire T Ouédraogo, Elodie Becquey, Shelby E Wilson, Lea Prince, Amadou Ouédraogo, Noël Rouamba, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo, Stephen A Vosti, Kenneth H Brown, Sonja Y Hess
BACKGROUND: Assessment of high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) coverage often relies on postevent coverage (PEC) surveys, but the validity of these methods has rarely been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To assess reported VAS coverage and factors associated with missed coverage and to investigate the reliability of the results. METHODS: During a cross-sectional survey, 10 454 caregivers of children <27 months old were asked whether their child had received VAS in the past 6 months...
September 7, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Ana Paula Poblacion, John T Cook, Leticia Marín-León, Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa, Jonas A C Silveira, Tulio Konstantyner, José Augusto A C Taddei
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity (FI) refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from financial constraints. Numerous studies have shown association between FI and adverse health outcomes among adults and children around the world, but in Brazil, such information is scarce, especially if referring to nationally representative information. OBJECTIVE: To test for an independent association between FI and health outcomes. METHODS: Most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey using nationally representative complex probability sampling...
September 7, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Meena Fernandes, Rae Galloway, Aulo Gelli, Daniel Mumuni, Salha Hamdani, Josephine Kiamba, Kate Quarshie, Rita Bhatia, Elisabetta Aurino, Francis Peel, Lesley Drake
BACKGROUND: Interventions that enhance linkages between healthy diets and local agriculture can promote sustainable food systems. Home-grown school feeding programs present a promising entry point for such interventions, through the delivery of nutritious menus and meals. OBJECTIVE: To describe the adaptation of the School Meals Planner Package to the programmatic and environmental reality in Ghana during the 2014 to 2015 school year. METHODS: Guided by a conceptual framework highlighting key considerations and trade-offs in menu design, an open-source software was developed that could be easily understood by program implementers...
July 19, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Jessica Bliss, Nathan Jensen, Brian Thiede, Jeremy Shoham, Carmel Dolan, Victoria Sibson, Bridget Fenn
BACKGROUND: Assessing whether and how the expenditure of emergency cash transfer programs (CTPs) relates to child nutritional status is a necessary step for informed program design and targeting. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that greater child food expenditures would have a protective effect against the risk of acute malnutrition in the context of a food crisis in Niger. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between food and medical expenditures and acute malnutrition in children aged 6 to 36 months through an observational cohort study of 420 households enrolled in an emergency CTP in Niger...
July 11, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Getahun Ersino, Carol J Henry, Gordon A Zello
BACKGROUND: Good nutrition and appropriate child feeding are vital in early stages of child development, particularly in the first 1000 days of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the adoption of infant and young child feeding practices of World Health Organization, dietary intake, and level of undernutrition in children <2 years of age. METHODS: Baseline cross-sectional study was conducted (January-June 2013) in purposively selected rural communities of Halaba and Zeway, Ethiopia (N = 383 mother-child pairs, randomly selected)...
July 11, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Fatemeh Keykhaei, Mansour Shahraki, Elham Sargolhosseinzadeh, Touran Shahraki, Alireza Dashipour
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is currently one of the major concerns in pediatric field. In recent literature, correlation of obesity with some behavioral factors such as physical activity (PA) received attention. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2012 on 548 randomly selected 7- to 11-year schoolchildren from Zahedan, Iran...
July 8, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Erin Biehl, Rolf D W Klemm, Swetha Manohar, Patrick Webb, Devendra Gauchan, Keith P West
BACKGROUND: In Nepal, limited availability and affordability of nutritious foods contribute to malnutrition. OBJECTIVES: To identify nutrient deficiencies in commonly consumed diets and model lowest cost changes that could improve diet quality in 3 agroecological zones of Nepal. METHODS: In August to September 2014, we collected market price and women's food frequency data from 3 representative villages in Nepal's mountains (Mahat Gaun, Jumla, n = 181 households), hills (Sitapur, Arghakhanchi, n = 166), and terai (Saigaun, Banke, n = 232) and verified local diets during women's group discussions...
July 3, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar, Ram Krishna Chandyo
BACKGROUND: B vitamins may have beneficial roles in reducing inflammation; however, research on the role of B vitamins in inflammation among HIV-infected persons is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the association between B vitamins and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in HIV-infected persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 314 HIV-infected persons (180 men and 134 women) aged 18 to 60 years residing in the Kathmandu, Nepal...
July 1, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Sheila Chanani, Jeremy Wacksman, Devika Deshmukh, Shanti Pantvaidya, Armida Fernandez, Anuja Jayaraman
BACKGROUND: Acute malnutrition is linked to child mortality and morbidity. Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programs can be instrumental in large-scale detection and treatment of undernutrition. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 weight-for-height/length tables are diagnostic tools available to screen for acute malnutrition. Frontline workers (FWs) in a CMAM program in Dharavi, Mumbai, were using CommCare, a mobile application, for monitoring and case management of children in combination with the paper-based WHO simplified tables...
July 1, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Selamawit Bilal, Mark Spigt, Kasia Czabanowska, Afework Mulugeta, Roman Blanco, GeertJan Dinant
BACKGROUND: The role of fathers in proper nutrition of young children has not been a frequent topic of studies. Mothers are usually the primary caregivers for young children. However, the father is often responsible for the financial choices of the household, especially in developing countries; we wondered to what extent fathers were involved in child feeding. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the extent of perceptions, practices, and challenges of fathers from low-income settings in routine child care, particularly in relation to child-feeding practices...
June 26, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Saskia J M Osendarp, Britt Broersen, Marti J van Liere, Luz De-Regil, Lavannya Bahirathan, Eva Klassen, Lynnette M Neufeld
BACKGROUND: The question whether diets composed of local foods can meet recommended nutrient intakes in children aged 6 to 23 months living in low- and middle-income countries is contested. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence of studies evaluating whether (1) macro- and micronutrient requirements of children aged 6 to 23 months from low- and middle-income countries are met by the consumption of locally available foods ("observed intake") and (2) nutrient requirements can be met when the use of local foods is optimized, using modeling techniques ("modeled intake")...
June 22, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Lisa Hjelm, Astrid Mathiassen, Amit Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: Poverty and food insecurity are intrinsically linked as poor households often lack the resources required to access sufficient nutritious food to live an active and healthy life. Consumption and expenditure surveys are typically used to identify poor versus nonpoor households but are detailed and costly. Measures of wealth based on asset ownership and housing characteristics can be generated from lighter, less costly surveys. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether indices based on asset ownership and housing characteristics (stock) complement household consumption (flow) when used to analyze inequalities in food security outcomes...
June 22, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Monica Mazariegos, Christine Slater, Manuel Ramirez-Zea
INTRODUCTION: Breast-feeding practices (BFPs) can be assessed by interviewing the mother about current feeding practices and with a 24-hour recall. It is crucial to establish the accuracy of these methods, which are commonly used by public health decision makers to design health policies aimed at increasing exclusive breast-feeding rates. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate 2 self-report BFP instruments using the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide turnover technique (DMDOT) as the reference method...
June 17, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Rosalind S Gibson, Janet C King, Nicola Lowe
BACKGROUND: Large discrepancies exist among the dietary zinc recommendations set by expert groups. OBJECTIVE: To describe the basis for the differences in the dietary zinc recommendations set by the World Health Organization, the US Institute of Medicine, the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group, and the European Food Safety Agency. METHODS: We compared the sources of the data, the concepts, and methods used by the 4 expert groups to set the physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, the dietary zinc requirements (termed estimated and/or average requirements), recommended dietary allowances (or recommended nutrient intakes or population reference intakes), and tolerable upper intake levels for selected age, sex, and life-stage groups...
June 16, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Anne Marie Thow, Suneetha Kadiyala, Shweta Khandelwal, Purnima Menon, Shauna Downs, K Srinath Reddy
BACKGROUND: There is global consensus that a strong policy response is essential for addressing the dual burden of malnutrition. However, policy makers in low- and middle-income countries may perceive a conflict between food supply policies to combat persistent undernutrition and more recent recommendations for policies addressing rising rates of diet-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). OBJECTIVE: This article explores the potential to use policy space analysis to identify food supply policy opportunities for addressing both undernutrition and diet-related NCDs and to support improved policy coherence...
June 16, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Sabri Bromage, Tahmeed Ahmed, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh incurs among the highest prevalence of stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in the world, despite efforts against diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and protein-energy malnutrition which have led to substantial and continuous reductions in child mortality over the past 35 years. Although programs have generally paid more attention to other micronutrients, the local importance of calcium to health has been less recognized. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize available information on calcium deficiency in Bangladesh in order to inform the design of an effective national calcium program...
June 15, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Zeweter Abebe, Gulelat Desse Haki, Kaleab Baye
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how the knowledge and the knowledge-sharing effectiveness (KSE) of health extension workers (HEWs) affect maternal knowledge of optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and their child's nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate mothers' and HEWs' knowledge of key IYCF practices and to investigate whether mothers' knowledge and HEWs' KSE are associated with stunting in young children (aged 12-23 months)...
June 6, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Jennifer Burns, Jillian A Emerson, Kimberly Amundson, Shannon Doocy, Laura E Caulfield, Rolf D W Klemm
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are determinants of poor child nutritional status. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, few children are fed according to international guidelines; this combined with endemic poverty and food insecurity have contributed to the high prevalence of child undernutrition. OBJECTIVE: To characterize IYCF practices and barriers and enablers to optimal child feeding in South Kivu. METHODS: Focus group discussions, structured and in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age, mothers of children <2 years, and health workers were conducted in 2012 as part of formative research for the US Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Jenga Jamaa II multiyear assistance program...
June 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Georg Lietz, Harold C Furr, Bryan M Gannon, Michael H Green, Marjorie Haskell, Veronica Lopez-Teros, Janet A Novotny, Amanda C Palmer, Robert M Russell, Sherry A Tanumihardjo, Carolien A Van Loo-Bouwman
BACKGROUND: Retinol isotope dilution (RID) methodology provides a quantitative estimate of total body vitamin A (VA) stores and is the best method currently available for assessing VA status in adults and children. The methodology has also been used to test the efficacy of VA interventions in a number of low-income countries. Infections, micronutrient deficiencies (eg, iron and zinc), liver disease, physiological age, pregnancy, and lactation are known or hypothesized to influence the accuracy of estimating total body VA stores using the isotope dilution technique...
June 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Steven Haggblade, Kwaku G Duodu, John D Kabasa, Amanda Minnaar, Nelson K O Ojijo, John R N Taylor
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is the last region to undergo a nutrition transition and can still avoid its adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The article explores emerging responses to "bend the curve" in sub-Saharan Africa's nutrition transition to steer public health outcomes onto a healthier trajectory. METHODS: Early responses in 3 countries at different stages of food system transformation are examined: South Africa-advanced, Ghana-intermediate, and Uganda-early...
June 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
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