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Food and Nutrition Bulletin

Babu Ram Thapa, Pooja Goyal, Jagadeesh Menon, Ajay Sharma
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a salient health problem in India. Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) Research and Analysis Centre, New Delhi, prepared nutreal equivalent to ready-to-use therapeutic food by World Health Organization (WHO) for the management of SAM and defined food like homemade diet. OBJECTIVE: To compare acceptability and efficacy of nutreal over defined food for the management of SAM. METHODS: One hundred twelve children aged less than 5 years with SAM were enrolled as per the standard of WHO...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Sonja Y Hess
BACKGROUND: Information is needed on the national prevalence of zinc deficiency to guide program development and evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To summarize results of national surveys that assessed plasma or serum zinc concentrations (PZC) and compare the prevalence of low PZC with other methods used to estimate countries' risk of zinc deficiency. METHODS: National surveys that included PZC were identified through Internet searches and personal contacts...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Anastasia Marshak, Helen Young, Elizabeth N Bontrager, Erin M Boyd
BACKGROUND: The causes of acute malnutrition are complex and time and geography variant and need to be better understood in order to both design more effective nutrition programs and evaluate them. The findings reported here are part of an evaluation of a 4-year multisectoral nutrition program led by Concern Worldwide in the Sila Region of eastern Chad. OBJECTIVE: To present evidence and learning about the relationships between acute malnutrition and potential drivers in Sila, Chad...
December 8, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Madhu Kumar Marasini, Ssansa Mugenyi
The multisectoral approach has evolved as a popular instrument to attain nutrition goals and targets. But as policy makers, we need timely, relevant, and accurate information in order to effectively support these plans. This commentary comes from the members of the nutrition secretariats at the National Planning Commission in Nepal and the Office of the Prime Minister in Uganda on availability and use of evidence and the nutrition policy cycle. As has been highlighted in this supplement, some of the challenges we have faced include tracking nutrition spending and limited human resource capacity...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Patrick Webb, Shibani Ghosh, Robin Shrestha, Grace Namirembe, Sabi Gurung, Diplav Sapkota, Winnie Fay Bell, Dale Davis, Eileen Kennedy, Shailes Neupane, Swetha Manohar, Kedar Baral
BACKGROUND: Global commitments to nutrition have supported calls for better evidence to support effective investments at national level. However, too little attention has so far been paid to the role of governance in achieving impacts. OBJECTIVE: This article explores the ways by which the commitment and capabilities of policy implementers affect collaborative efforts for achieving nutrition goals. METHODS: Over 1370 structured interviews were held with government and nongovernment officials over 3 years in 21 districts...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Madhukar B Shrestha, Monica Biradavolu, Kusum Hachhethu, Robin Houston, Indu Sharma, Jolene Wun
BACKGROUND: Nepal has a long tradition of designing good multisectoral nutrition policy. However, success of policy implementation has varied. More evidence on how to successfully carry out multisector nutrition policy is needed. OBJECTIVE: We tracked the influence of Nepal's multisectoral nutrition plan (MSNP) on the process of priority setting and budgeting from 2014 to 2016. METHODS: This study used a mixed-method longitudinal design to track qualitative and budgetary changes related to MSNP processes nationally as well as in 3 districts...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Edgar Agaba, Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Shibani Ghosh, Jeffrey K Griffiths
BACKGROUND: The 2011 Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP) established 2016 maternal and child nutrition targets. However, there is a lack of routine district-level data collection to assess UNAP implementation. OBJECTIVE: To use Nutrition Innovation Lab (NIL) data to inform policy makers on the progress of UNAP-related indicators. METHODS: The NIL collected serial household-level survey data (n = 3600) in 6 districts, including 2 UNAP implementation districts, in 2012 and 2014...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Alexis D'Agostino, Nancy Adero, Hannah Foehringer Merchant, Abel Muzoora, Ezekiel Mupere, Edgar Agaba, Lidan Du
BACKGROUND: In 2010, Uganda began developing its first multisectoral nutrition plan, the Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP), to reduce malnutrition. While the UNAP signals high-level commitment to addressing nutrition, knowledge gaps remain about how to successfully implement such a plan. OBJECTIVE: We tracked the UNAP's influence on the process of priority setting and funding for nutrition from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: This study used a longitudinal mixed methods design to track qualitative and budgetary changes related to UNAP processes nationally as well as in 2 study districts...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Eileen Kennedy, Habtamu Fekadu, Shibani Ghosh, Kedar Baral, Dale Davis, Diplav Sapkota, Patrick Webb
Effective governance is essential for effective nutrition program implementation. There are additional challenges in launching multisector plans to enhance nutritional status. The present study compares the challenges and opportunities in Ethiopia and Nepal in designing and implementing a multisector plan for nutrition. A semi-quantitative questionnaire with open-ended questions was used to solicit information from senior national-level policy officials and other key stakeholders. The nature of the major nutrition problems in each country was similar; these include malnutrition (particularly stunting), food insecurity, and micronutrient malnutrition...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Sascha Lamstein, Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Patrick Webb, Eileen Kennedy
Based on the data collected in Uganda, Nepal, and Ethiopia, the papers included in this supplement fill a critical gap in evidence regarding multisectoral National Nutrition Action Plans. The studies offer new data and new thinking on how and why governance, effective financial decentralization, and improved accountability all matter for nutrition actions in low-income countries. This introductory paper offers an overview of the current state of evidence and thinking on the multisectoral nutrition policy cycle, including how governance and financing support that process...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Césaire T Ouédraogo, Elodie Becquey, Shelby E Wilson, Lea Prince, Amadou Ouédraogo, Noël Rouamba, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo, Stephen A Vosti, Kenneth H Brown, Sonja Y Hess
BACKGROUND: Assessment of high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) coverage often relies on postevent coverage (PEC) surveys, but the validity of these methods has rarely been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To assess reported VAS coverage and factors associated with missed coverage and to investigate the reliability of the results. METHODS: During a cross-sectional survey, 10 454 caregivers of children <27 months old were asked whether their child had received VAS in the past 6 months...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Ana Paula Poblacion, John T Cook, Leticia Marín-León, Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa, Jonas A C Silveira, Tulio Konstantyner, José Augusto A C Taddei
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity (FI) refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from financial constraints. Numerous studies have shown association between FI and adverse health outcomes among adults and children around the world, but in Brazil, such information is scarce, especially if referring to nationally representative information. OBJECTIVE: To test for an independent association between FI and health outcomes. METHODS: Most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey using nationally representative complex probability sampling...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Meenakshi Fernandes, Rae Galloway, Aulo Gelli, Daniel Mumuni, Salha Hamdani, Josephine Kiamba, Kate Quarshie, Rita Bhatia, Elisabetta Aurino, Francis Peel, Lesley Drake
BACKGROUND: Interventions that enhance linkages between healthy diets and local agriculture can promote sustainable food systems. Home-grown school feeding programs present a promising entry point for such interventions, through the delivery of nutritious menus and meals. OBJECTIVE: To describe the adaptation of the School Meals Planner Package to the programmatic and environmental reality in Ghana during the 2014 to 2015 school year. METHODS: Guided by a conceptual framework highlighting key considerations and trade-offs in menu design, an open-source software was developed that could be easily understood by program implementers...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar, Ram Krishna Chandyo
BACKGROUND: B vitamins may have beneficial roles in reducing inflammation; however, research on the role of B vitamins in inflammation among HIV-infected persons is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the association between B vitamins and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in HIV-infected persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 314 HIV-infected persons (180 men and 134 women) aged 18 to 60 years residing in the Kathmandu, Nepal...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Sheila Chanani, Jeremy Wacksman, Devika Deshmukh, Shanti Pantvaidya, Armida Fernandez, Anuja Jayaraman
BACKGROUND: Acute malnutrition is linked to child mortality and morbidity. Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programs can be instrumental in large-scale detection and treatment of undernutrition. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 weight-for-height/length tables are diagnostic tools available to screen for acute malnutrition. Frontline workers (FWs) in a CMAM program in Dharavi, Mumbai, were using CommCare, a mobile application, for monitoring and case management of children in combination with the paper-based WHO simplified tables...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Saskia J M Osendarp, Britt Broersen, Marti J van Liere, Luz M De-Regil, Lavannya Bahirathan, Eva Klassen, Lynnette M Neufeld
BACKGROUND: The question whether diets composed of local foods can meet recommended nutrient intakes in children aged 6 to 23 months living in low- and middle-income countries is contested. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence of studies evaluating whether (1) macro- and micronutrient requirements of children aged 6 to 23 months from low- and middle-income countries are met by the consumption of locally available foods ("observed intake") and (2) nutrient requirements can be met when the use of local foods is optimized, using modeling techniques ("modeled intake")...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Monica Mazariegos, Christine Slater, Manuel Ramirez-Zea
INTRODUCTION: Breast-feeding practices (BFPs) can be assessed by interviewing the mother about current feeding practices and with a 24-hour recall. It is crucial to establish the accuracy of these methods, which are commonly used by public health decision makers to design health policies aimed at increasing exclusive breast-feeding rates. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate 2 self-report BFP instruments using the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide turnover technique (DMDOT) as the reference method...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Rosalind S Gibson, Janet C King, Nicola Lowe
BACKGROUND: Large discrepancies exist among the dietary zinc recommendations set by expert groups. OBJECTIVE: To describe the basis for the differences in the dietary zinc recommendations set by the World Health Organization, the US Institute of Medicine, the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group, and the European Food Safety Agency. METHODS: We compared the sources of the data, the concepts, and methods used by the 4 expert groups to set the physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, the dietary zinc requirements (termed estimated and/or average requirements), recommended dietary allowances (or recommended nutrient intakes or population reference intakes), and tolerable upper intake levels for selected age, sex, and life-stage groups...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Sabri Bromage, Tahmeed Ahmed, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh incurs among the highest prevalence of stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in the world, despite efforts against diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and protein-energy malnutrition which have led to substantial and continuous reductions in child mortality over the past 35 years. Although programs have generally paid more attention to other micronutrients, the local importance of calcium to health has been less recognized. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize available information on calcium deficiency in Bangladesh in order to inform the design of an effective national calcium program...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Meredith Nechitilo, Phuong Nguyen, Amy Webb-Girard, Ines Gonzalez-Casanova, Reynaldo Martorell, Ann DiGirolamo, Usha Ramakrishnan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Initiation and adherence are both critical challenges for micronutrient supplementation programs, especially during the preconceptional period. This study examines factors influencing initiation of supplement use and continued adherence among women participating in PRECONCEPT, a double-blind randomized controlled trial of preconception micronutrient supplementation. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 39 participants during different periods (prepregnancy [n = 15], pregnancy [n = 8], postpartum [n = 8], and dropouts [n = 8])...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
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