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Food and Nutrition Bulletin

Saskia J M Osendarp, Homero Martinez, Greg S Garrett, Lynnette M Neufeld, Luz Maria De-Regil, Marieke Vossenaar, Ian Darnton-Hill
BACKGROUND: Food fortification and biofortification are well-established strategies to address micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations. However, the effectiveness of fortification programs is not only determined by the biological efficacy of the fortified foods but also by effective and sustainable implementation, which requires continual monitoring, quality assurance and control, and corrective measures to ensure high compliance. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of efficacy, effectiveness, economics of food fortification and biofortification, and status of and challenges faced by large-scale food fortification programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been recognized as central for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic. However, very few real-world examples have been published documenting the workings of effective PPPs. The objective of this article is to identify the factors that enabled the successful implementation of school-based PPPs focusing mainly on nutrition and physical activity in 7 countries located in Asia (China and India), Africa (South Africa), Europe (Germany, United Kingdom), and Latin America (Brazil and Mexico)...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
While some of our countries are still facing nutrition deficiencies (stunting/short stature and micronutrient deficiencies), overweight and obesity are increasing in an alarming way. In addition, a very limited research network and lack of funding make it extremely challenging to foster collaborative efforts to address the complex nutritional problems that Latin America is facing. Therefore, as the future leaders in nutrition, we reinforce our commitment to improve our research capacity to identify opportunities for action to end malnutrition in all its forms in our region to address health disparities and to strengthen the Latin American Society of Nutrition...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Zekarias Shumeta, Marijke D'Haese
BACKGROUND: Most coffee in Ethiopia is produced by smallholder farmers who face a daily struggle to get sufficient income but also to feed their families. At the same time, many smallholder coffee producers are members of cooperatives. Yet, literature has paid little attention to the effect of cooperatives on combating food insecurity among cash crop producers including coffee farmers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate how coffee cooperative membership may affect food security among coffee farm households in Southwest Ethiopia...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Mulubrhan Amare, Todd Benson, Olusegun Fadare, Motunrayo Oyeyemi
BACKGROUND: Close to half of all children younger than 5 years in the Northeast and Northwest geopolitical zones were estimated to be stunted in their growth for their age in 2013 compared to 22% of children in the rest of Nigeria. OBJECTIVES: We examine the drivers of chronic child undernutrition in northern Nigeria and how those drivers differ from other areas of the country. METHODS: Both a standard child-level regression-based approach and decomposition analysis were used to address the determinants of stunting and decompose how drivers differ between northern Nigeria and other areas of the country using 2008 and 2013 Nigeria DHS data...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Yanhong Li, Yan Li, Xian Zhang, Lin Zhao, Liqin Chen, Haisong Sun
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in 6- to 23-month-old children from 4 different ethnic groups, Han, Lisu, Hani, and Bai, in Yunnan Province of China. METHODS: A large cohort of 938 young children aged 6 to 23 months who were living in Yunnan, China (23°28'-27°52' N), were selected and recruited in this study. Venous-blood sampling was conducted in all the participants, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were measured...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Megan Huang, Christopher Sudfeld, Abbas Ismail, Said Vuai, Julius Ntwenya, Mary Mwanyika-Sando, Wafaie Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of maternal dietary diversity in rural Dodoma, Tanzania and assess its association with child growth outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 361 mothers with children under 24 months of age was conducted in 5 villages in rural Dodoma, Tanzania. Maternal diets were assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and dietary diversity was categorized using Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) guidelines. Child anthropometric measures were taken to calculate height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ)...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
William F Waters, Carlos Andres Gallegos, Celia Karp, Chessa Lutter, Christine Stewart, Lora Iannotti
BACKGROUND: Food-based interventions can reduce the prevalence of undernutrition and improve household food security, but nutritious and accessible foods may be underutilized. In Ecuador, eggs are inexpensive and widely available, but while they are a valuable source of essential nutrients for infants and young children, medical advice and community-based information have limited their inclusion in infants' diets. OBJECTIVE: A qualitative component was conducted to understand local perceptions, knowledge, and practices to complement a randomized control trial that studied the effect of introducing eggs on nutritional status and growth in infants from 6 to 9 months in rural communities in the highland province of Cotopaxi, Ecuador...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Tyler J Titcomb, Samantha T Schmaelzle, Emily T Nuss, Jesse F Gregory, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
BACKGROUND: Hidden hunger affects individuals who chronically consume an inadequate intake of at least 1 micronutrient and is associated with low dietary diversity. Little data are available on dietary intake or status assessment of B vitamins among preschool children in Zambia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess 24-hour dietary recall records obtained from Zambian children aged 3 to 7 years for B vitamin intake in relation to adequacy and change over time in the same community...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Margaret Armar-Klemesu, Sarah Osei-Menya, Sawudatu Zakariah-Akoto, Alison Tumilowicz, James Lee, Christine Hotz
BACKGROUND: Understanding the context of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is recognized as essential for designing appropriate complementary feeding interventions. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study household IYCF behaviors in 2 districts in southern and northern Ghana to identify opportunities to improve existing nutrition programs. METHODS: We interviewed 80 caregivers of children aged 6 to 23 months using ethnographic methods, including free listing, guided discussions and cognitive mapping techniques, and 24-hour dietary recall...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Renata Micha, Jennifer Coates, Catherine Leclercq, U Ruth Charrondiere, Dariush Mozaffarian
BACKGROUND: Detailed information on global individual-level consumption patterns is imperative for informed policy making. However, such data are dispersed and incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the methodologies, observed data availability, challenges, and opportunities pertaining to global dietary surveillance. METHODS: This investigation provides an extensive review of global dietary assessment methodologies and challenges, including at the survey level, the dietary collection and assessment level, and the dietary data processing and analysis level...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Cheng-Ming Zhang, Wan-Yi Zhao, A-Xiang Gao, Ting-Ting Su, Yan-Kun Wang, Yue-Qiang Zhang, Xin-Bin Zhou, Xin-Hua He
BACKGROUND: Iron and zinc deficiencies affect human health globally, especially in developing countries. Agronomic biofortification, as a strategy for alleviating these issues, has been focused on small-scale field studies, and not widely applied while lacking of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). OBJECTIVE: We conducted the CEA of agronomic biofortification, expressed as USD per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) saved, to recommend a cost-effectiveness strategy that can be widely applied...
June 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Bradley A Woodruff, James P Wirth, Ismael Ngnie-Teta, Jean Max Beaulière, Daffe Mamady, Mohamed Ag Ayoya, Fabian Rohner
Wasting, stunting, and anemia are persistent and important forms of malnutrition in preschool-age children in the less developed world, in particular the Republic of Guinea, which was the site of a large outbreak of Ebola virus disease in 2014 to 2015. We analyzed data from 3 Demographic and Health Surveys done in Guinea in 1999, 2005, and 2012 to identify possible determinants of wasting, stunting, and anemia. All analyses, both bivariate and multivariate, were carried out separately for each of 3 age groups: less than 6 months, 6 to 23 months, and 24 to 59 months...
March 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Magali Leyvraz, Dorcus M David-Kigaru, Catherine Macharia-Mutie, Grant J Aaron, Marlene Roefs, Alison Tumilowicz
BACKGROUND: Intake of micronutrient-rich foods among children aged 6 to 23 months in Nairobi is low. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess existing coverage and utilization of micronutrient powders (MNPs), fortified staples, and iodized salt among children aged 6 to 23 months prior to implementation of an MNP program. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among caregivers of children aged 6 to 23 months (n = 618) was implemented in 7 neighborhoods within Nairobi County, representing the implementation area of the new MNP program...
March 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye
Moringa oleifera is an important tropical food plant that seems to have great nutritional, therapeutic, industrial, agricultural, and socioeconomic value. Dietary consumption of its parts and preparations is encouraged by several organizations, health food enthusiasts, and other specialists as a strategy of personal health preservation and self-medication in the treatment of various diseases. Studies extoling its ability to mitigate various degenerative ailments now exist in both the scientific and the popular literature...
March 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Sonja Y Hess, Guy-Marino Hinnouho, Maxwell A Barffour, Bangone Bounheuang, Charles D Arnold, David Bell, Tola H Marts, Sengchanh Kounnavong
BACKGROUND: Measurements of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) may result in measurement error due to incorrect placement along the arm or tight pulling of tape. To reduce the risk of these measurement errors, a new wider tape was developed. OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurement agreement and precision and the ease of use of the standard and wide MUAC tapes. METHODS: Mid-upper arm circumference was measured in 814 children aged 9 to 32 months with both tapes...
March 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Nuzhat Choudhury, Tahmeed Ahmed, Md Iqbal Hossain, M Munirul Islam, Shafiqul A Sarker, Mamane Zeilani, John David Clemens
BACKGROUND: With a prevalence of 3.1%, approximately, 450 000 children in Bangladesh are having severe acute malnutrition (SAM). There is currently no national community-based program run by government to take care of these children, one of the reasons being lack of access to ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). OBJECTIVE: To develop RUTF using locally available food ingredients and test its acceptability. METHODS: A checklist was prepared for all food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for developing a RUTF...
March 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Sarah E Dumas, Abena Maranga, Patrick Mbullo, Shalean Collins, Pauline Wekesa, Maricianah Onono, Sera L Young
BACKGROUND: Livestock can promote resilience in low-income communities through a number of pathways. Livestock development programs seek to amplify these benefits but often fail to consider the costs to intended beneficiaries or the effect of prevailing gender norms. OBJECTIVE: To explore perceptions of livestock ownership among female smallholder livestock keepers in Nyanza Region, Kenya, and unpack how the distribution of livestock benefits and investments varies by gender within households...
March 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Ndèye Fatou Ndiaye, Nicole Idohou-Dossou, Adama Diouf, Amadou Tidiane Guiro, Salimata Wade
BACKGROUND: Widely spread throughout the world, folate and iron deficiencies are risk factors for many diseases. However, contrary to iron deficiency and anemia, which have been documented in depth, the prevalence of folate deficiency among women has not been well-studied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of folate deficiency and anemia and their association among Senegalese women of reproductive age. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey using a stratified 2-stage cluster sampling was conducted...
March 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Fan-Fen Wang, Kam-Tsun Tang, Wen-Harn Pan, Justin Ging-Shing Won, Yao-Te Hsieh, Chun-Jui Huang
BACKGROUND: In 2003, Taiwan's iodine policy changed from mandatory to voluntary. The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2001-2002 for schoolchildren showed adequate iodine nutrition, while NAHSIT 2005-2008 for adults showed the iodine status was at borderline adequacy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the iodine status of the Taiwanese population from schoolchildren to adulthood 10 years after the change of the salt iodization policy. METHOD: Urinary iodine was measured in samples from subjects in NAHSIT 2013...
March 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
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