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Martin Johnson, Mohamed Trebak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2018: Hypertension
Venkata Ramana Vaka, Kristen M McMaster, Mark W Cunningham, Tarek Ibrahim, Rebekah Hazlewood, Nathan Usry, Denise C Cornelius, Lorena M Amaral, Babbette LaMarca
Placental ischemia is believed to be the initial event in the development of preeclampsia. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress, however, there are not many studies examining the role of mitochondrial ROS in the pathology of preeclampsia. The purpose of this study was to not only examine the effect of placental ischemia on mitochondrial-mediated oxidative stress in reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of preeclampsia but to also examine the role of mitochondrial ROS in contributing to hypertension in response to placental ischemia...
July 16, 2018: Hypertension
Lucie S Meyer, Xiao Wang, Eva Sušnik, Jacopo Burrello, Alessio Burrello, Isabella Castellano, Graeme Eisenhofer, Francesco Fallo, Gregory A Kline, Thomas Knösel, Tomaz Kocjan, Jacques W M Lenders, Paolo Mulatero, Mitsuhide Naruse, Tetsuo Nishikawa, Mirko Peitzsch, Lars C Rump, Felix Beuschlein, Stefanie Hahner, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Martin Reincke, Tracy Ann Williams
Unilateral primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common surgically curable form of hypertension that must be accurately differentiated from bilateral PA for therapeutic management (surgical versus medical). Adrenalectomy results in biochemical cure (complete biochemical success) in almost all patients diagnosed with unilateral PA; the remaining patients with partial or absent biochemical success comprise those with persisting aldosteronism who were misdiagnosed as unilateral PA preoperatively. To identify determinants of postsurgical biochemical outcomes, we compared the adrenal histopathology and the peripheral venous steroid profiles of patients with partial and absent or complete biochemical success after adrenalectomy for unilateral PA...
July 16, 2018: Hypertension
David Carrick, Caroline Haig, Annette M Maznyczka, Jaclyn Carberry, Kenneth Mangion, Nadeem Ahmed, Vannesa Teng Yue May, Margaret McEntegart, Mark C Petrie, Hany Eteiba, Mitchell Lindsay, Stuart Hood, Stuart Watkins, Andrew Davie, Ahmed Mahrous, Ify Mordi, Ian Ford, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Paul Welsh, Naveed Sattar, Kirsty Wetherall, Keith G Oldroyd, Colin Berry
The rationale for our study was to investigate the pathophysiology of microvascular injury in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction in relation to a history of hypertension. We undertook a cohort study using invasive and noninvasive measures of microvascular injury, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 2 days and 6 months, and assessed health outcomes in the longer term (URL: Unique identifier: NCT02072850). Three hundred twenty-four patients with acute myocardial infarction (mean age, 59 [12] years; blood pressure, 135 [25] / 79 [14] mm Hg; 237 [73%] male, 105 [32%] with antecedent hypertension) were prospectively enrolled during emergency percutaneous coronary intervention...
July 16, 2018: Hypertension
Ayumu Nakashima, Takeshi Kawamoto, Mitsuhide Noshiro, Toshinori Ueno, Shigehiro Doi, Kiyomasa Honda, Tatsuya Maruhashi, Kensuke Noma, Sato Honma, Takao Masaki, Yukihito Higashi, Yukio Kato
Blood pressure shows a circadian rhythm, and recent studies have suggested the involvement of a molecular clock system in its control. In the clock system, the CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput):BMAL1 (brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein-1) heterodimer enhances promoter activity of clock genes, and DEC1 (BHLHE40/STRA13/SHARP-2) represses CLOCK/BMAL1-enhanced promoter activity through competition for binding to the clock element, CACGTG E-box. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this system regulates blood pressure remain unclear...
July 16, 2018: Hypertension
M Dennis Leo, Xue Zhai, Wen Yin, Jonathan H Jaggar
Hypertension is a risk factor for cerebrovascular diseases, including stroke and dementia. During hypertension, arteries become constricted and are less responsive to vasodilators, including nitric oxide (NO). The regulation of arterial contractility by smooth muscle cell (myocyte) large-conductance calcium (Ca2+ )-activated potassium (BK) channels is altered during hypertension, although mechanisms involved are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that dysfunctional trafficking of pore-forming BK channel (BKα) and auxiliary β1 subunits contributes to changes in cerebral artery contractility of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SP-SHRs)...
July 16, 2018: Hypertension
Hong Zheng, Kenichi Katsurada, Xuefei Liu, Mark M Knuepfer, Kaushik P Patel
Renal denervation (RDN) has been shown to restore endogenous neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and reduce sympathetic drive during chronic heart failure (CHF). The purpose of the present study was to assess the contribution of afferent renal nerves to the nNOS-mediated sympathetic outflow within the PVN in rats with CHF. CHF was induced in rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Four weeks after surgery, selective afferent RDN (A-RDN) was performed by bilateral perivascular application of capsaicin on the renal arteries...
July 16, 2018: Hypertension
Gregory L Hundemer, Gary C Curhan, Nicholas Yozamp, Molin Wang, Anand Vaidya
Lifelong therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) or surgical adrenalectomy are the recommended treatments for primary aldosteronism (PA). Whether these treatments mitigate the risk for kidney disease remains unknown. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with PA treated with MRAs (N=400) or surgical adrenalectomy (N=120) and age- and estimated glomerular filtration rate-matched patients with essential hypertension (N=15 474) to determine risk for chronic kidney disease and longitudinal estimated glomerular filtration rate decline...
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
Scott A Hubers, Jessica R Wilson, Chang Yu, Hui Nian, Eric Grouzmann, Philippe Eugster, Cyndya A Shibao, Frederic T Billings, Scott Jafarian Kerman, Nancy J Brown
DPP (dipeptidyl peptidase)-4 inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that may increase heart failure in high-risk patients. NPY (neuropeptide Y) is coreleased with norepinephrine, causes vasoconstriction via the Y1 receptor, and is degraded by DPP4 to NPY (3-36) in vitro. NPY (3-36) decreases release of norepinephrine via the Y2 receptor. We tested the hypothesis that DPP4 inhibition would potentiate the vasoconstrictor effect of NPY. Eighteen nonsmokers (12 healthy controls and 6 with type 2 diabetes mellitus) participated in 1 of 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies...
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
Christoph Lange, Manuela Sommerfeld, Pawel Namsolleck, Ulrich Kintscher, Thomas Unger, Elena Kaschina
The effects of the selective AT2 R (angiotensin AT2 receptor) agonist, Compound 21 (C21), on abdominal aortic aneurysm formation were investigated in normotensive Wistar rats. Abdominal aortic aneurysm was induced by perfusion of isolated aortic segments with elastase. Treatment with C21 (0.03 mg/kg daily) was started after operation and continued for 14 days. Sham-operated animals and vehicle-treated animals after aneurysm induction served as controls. Aortic diameter, aortic wall distensibility, and pulse propagation velocity were measured via ultrasound...
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
U Muscha Steckelings, Michael Bader
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
Masanari Kuwabara, Mehmet Kanbay, Ichiro Hisatome
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
Rong Ren, Naima Covassin, Linghui Yang, Yun Li, Ye Zhang, Junying Zhou, Lu Tan, Taomei Li, Xiao Li, Yanyan Wang, Jihui Zhang, Yun-Kwok Wing, Weimin Li, Virend K Somers, Xiangdong Tang
Extremes of sleep duration and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are both associated with hypertension. We aimed to explore whether sleep duration modifies the relationship between OSA and prevalent hypertension, using both objective and subjective measures of total sleep duration. A total of 7107 OSA patients and 1118 primary snorers were included in the study. Hypertension was defined based either on direct blood pressure measures or on diagnosis by a physician. Objective sleep duration was derived by polysomnography and subjective sleep duration was self-reported...
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
Guanghong Jia, Annayya R Aroor, Michael A Hill, James R Sowers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
Hirofumi Tomiyama, Kazuki Shiina, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Yoichi Iwasaki, Chisa Matsumoto, Kazutaka Kimura, Masatsune Fujii, Taishiro Chikamori, Akira Yamashina
This study analyzed repeated measurement data to clarify the longitudinal associations between hyperuricemia and the risk factors for the development of hypertension (ie, increased arterial stiffness, renal dysfunction, and inflammation), and then examined whether these risk factors show longitudinal associations with the development of hypertension. In 3274 Japanese men without hypertension, the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and serum uric acid and CRP (C-reactive protein) levels were measured annually over an 8-year period...
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
Brenda Mendizábal, Elaine M Urbina, Richard Becker, Stephen R Daniels, Bonita E Falkner, Gilad Hamdani, Coral D Hanevold, Stephen R Hooper, Julie R Ingelfinger, Marc Lande, Lisa J Martin, Kevin Meyers, Mark Mitsnefes, Bernard Rosner, Joshua A Samuels, Joseph T Flynn
Although hypertension is identifiable in children and adolescents, there are many knowledge gaps on how to best define and manage high blood pressure in the young. SHIP-AHOY (Study of High Blood Pressure in Pediatrics: Adult Hypertension Onset in Youth) is being conducted to address these knowledge gaps. Five hundred adolescents will be recruited and will undergo ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiographic, vascular, and cognitive assessments, as well as epigenetic studies to identify mechanisms that underlie the development of hypertensive target organ damage...
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
Guanghong Jia, Javad Habibi, Annayya R Aroor, Michael A Hill, Yan Yang, Adam Whaley-Connell, Frederic Jaisser, James R Sowers
Enhanced activation of the endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor contributes to the development of arterial stiffness, which is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. Previously, we showed that enhanced endothelium mineralocorticoid receptor signaling in female mice prompts expression and translocation of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel to the endothelial cell (EC) surface (EnNaC) inducing vascular fibrosis and stiffness. Further, amiloride, an epithelial sodium channel antagonist, inhibits vascular fibrosis, remodeling, and stiffness induced by feeding a Western diet high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates...
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
Tracy A Williams, Jacopo Burrello, Leonardo A Sechi, Carlos E Fardella, Joanna Matrozova, Christian Adolf, René Baudrand, Stella Bernardi, Felix Beuschlein, Cristiana Catena, Michalis Doumas, Francesco Fallo, Gilberta Giacchetti, Daniel A Heinrich, Gaëlle Saint-Hilary, Pieter M Jansen, Andrzej Januszewicz, Tomaz Kocjan, Tetsuo Nishikawa, Marcus Quinkler, Fumitoshi Satoh, Hironobu Umakoshi, Jiří Widimský, Stefanie Hahner, Stella Douma, Michael Stowasser, Paolo Mulatero, Martin Reincke
Unilateral primary aldosteronism is the most common surgically correctable form of endocrine hypertension and is usually differentiated from bilateral forms by adrenal venous sampling (AVS) or computed tomography (CT). Our objective was to compare clinical and biochemical postsurgical outcomes of patients with unilateral primary aldosteronism diagnosed by CT or AVS and identify predictors of surgical outcomes. Patient data were obtained from 18 internationally distributed centers and retrospectively analyzed for clinical and biochemical outcomes of adrenalectomy of patients with surgical management based on CT (n=235 patients, diagnosed from 1994-2016) or AVS (526 patients, diagnosed from 1994-2015) using the standardized PASO (Primary Aldosteronism Surgical Outcome) criteria...
July 9, 2018: Hypertension
Tetsuro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Kajio
This study aimed to assess whether intensive blood pressure (BP) treatment has benefits in preventing cardiovascular events, including heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using the ACCORD BP trial (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure) data, hazard ratios for cardiovascular events with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard models to compare the time to the first cardiovascular event in patients receiving standard (n=2362) or intensive glycemic control (n=2371)...
August 2018: Hypertension
Neil R Poulter, Rafael Castillo, Fadi J Charchar, Markus P Schlaich, Aletta E Schutte, Maciej Tomaszewski, Rhian M Touyz, Ji-Guang Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Hypertension
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