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Junhua Zhou, Brian Lam, Sudeshna G Neogi, Giles S H Yeo, Elena A B Azizan, Morris J Brown
Primary aldosteronism is present in ≈10% of hypertensives. We previously performed a microarray assay on aldosterone-producing adenomas and their paired zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. Confirmation of top genes validated the study design and functional experiments of zona glomerulosa selective genes established the role of the encoded proteins in aldosterone regulation. In this study, we further analyzed our microarray data using AmiGO 2 for gene ontology enrichment and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify potential biological processes and canonical pathways involved in pathological and physiological aldosterone regulation...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Clive J Petry, Nuria Sanz Marcos, Gracielle Pimentel, M Geoffrey Hayes, Michael Nodzenski, Denise M Scholtens, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, Ken K Ong, William L Lowe, David B Dunger
In addition to maternal genes and environmental exposures, variation in fetal imprinted genes could also affect maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. Our objective was to test the associations between polymorphic variants in 16 imprinted genes and maternal mean arterial blood pressures in 1160 DNA trios from 2 established birth cohorts (the Cambridge Baby Growth and Wellbeing Studies) and seek replication in 1367 Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study participants. Significant univariate associations, all independent of fetal sex, were observed in the Cambridge cohorts, including FAM99A rs1489945 transmitted from the mother (P=2×10(-)(4)), DLK1 rs10139403 (mother; P=9×10(-)(4)), DLK1 rs12147008 (mother; P=1×10(-)(3)), H19 rs217222 (father; P=1×10(-)(3)), SNRPN rs1453556 (father; P=1×10(-)(3)), IGF2 rs6356 (father; P=1×10(-)(3)), and NNAT rs6066671 (father; P=1×10(-)(3))...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Michel Burnier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Andrew Y Hwang, Chintan Dave, Steven M Smith
Little is known of US trends in antihypertensive drug use for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). We analyzed antihypertensive use among patients with TRH (treated with ≥4 antihypertensive drugs concurrently) from July 2008 through December 2014 using Marketscan administrative data. We included adults aged 18 to 65 years, with ≥6 months of continuous enrollment, a hypertension diagnosis, and ≥1 episode of overlapping use of ≥4 antihypertensive drugs; patients with heart failure were excluded...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Samantha G Bromfield, Daichi Shimbo, John N Booth, Adolfo Correa, Gbenga Ogedegbe, April P Carson, Paul Muntner
Masked hypertension is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Identifying modifiable risk factors for masked hypertension could provide approaches to reduce its prevalence. Life's Simple 7 is a measure of cardiovascular health developed by the American Heart Association that includes body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, and glucose. We examined the association between cardiovascular health and masked daytime hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black cohort...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
George S Stergiou, Angeliki Ntineri, Anastasios Kollias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Ellen E Gillis, Jennifer C Sullivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Drew A Hildebrandt, Eric D Irwin, Thomas E Lohmeier
Chronic electric activation of the carotid baroreflex produces sustained reductions in sympathetic activity and arterial pressure and is currently being evaluated for therapy in patients with resistant hypertension. However, patients with significant impairment of renal function have been largely excluded from clinical trials. Thus, there is little information on blood pressure and renal responses to baroreflex activation in subjects with advanced chronic kidney disease, which is common in resistant hypertension...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Ali Nehme, Catherine Cerutti, Kazem Zibara
Despite the well-known role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in atheroma, its global local organization is poorly understood. In this study, we used transcriptomic meta-analysis to reveal the local transcriptional organization and regulation of 37 extended RAAS (extRAAS) genes in atheroma. Expression analysis and hierarchical clustering were done on extRAAS genes in 32 paired early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Contrary to receptor-coding transcripts, multiple angiotensin-metabolizing enzymes showed higher expression in advance, in comparison to early lesions...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Elena Bartoloni, Giacomo Pucci, Francesca Cannarile, Francesca Battista, Alessia Alunno, Marco Giuliani, Giacomo Cafaro, Roberto Gerli, Giuseppe Schillaci
Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease and a poorer related prognosis have been reported in SSc than in the general population. The simultaneous assessment of prognostically relevant functional properties of larger and smaller arteries, and their effects on central hemodynamics, has never been performed in SSc using the state-of-the-art techniques. Thirty-four women with SSc (aged 61±15 years, disease duration 17±12 years, and blood pressure 123/70±18/11 mm Hg) and 34 healthy women individually matched by age and mean arterial pressure underwent the determination of carotid-femoral (aortic) and carotid-radial (upper limb) pulse wave velocity (a direct measure of arterial stiffness), aortic augmentation (a measure of the contribution of reflected wave to central pulse pressure), and aortobrachial pulse pressure amplification (brachial/aortic pulse pressure) through applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor)...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Sophie Grand'Maison, Louise Pilote, Marisa Okano, Tara Landry, Natalie Dayan
Women with prior hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are at twice the risk of cardiovascular disease compared with women with prior normotensive pregnancy, possibly because of sustained vascular dysfunction after delivery. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarize evidence of vascular dysfunction at least 3 months after HDP. Articles in all languages were retrieved from principal databases. Studies included were observational, with HDP as the main exposure and measurements of vascular dysfunction via imaging modalities or serum biomarkers as the main outcome, assessed at least 3 months postpartum...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Keisuke Shinohara, Xuebo Liu, Donald A Morgan, Deborah R Davis, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez, Martin D Cassell, Justin L Grobe, Kamal Rahmouni, Curt D Sigmund
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is a critical determinant of blood pressure, but the mechanisms regulating RAS activity in the brain remain unclear. Expression of brain renin (renin-b) occurs from an alternative promoter-first exon. The predicted translation product is a nonsecreted enzymatically active renin whose function is unknown. We generated a unique mouse model by selectively ablating the brain-specific isoform of renin (renin-b) while preserving the expression and function of the classical isoform expressed in the kidney (renin-a)...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Yoko Yoshii, Kenji Oki, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Haruya Ohno, Kiyotaka Itcho, Kazuhiro Kobuke, Masayasu Yoneda
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DNA methylation levels of steroidogenic enzyme genes in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and the effects of gene mutations in APA on the DNA methylation levels. DNA methylation array analysis was conducted using nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenoma (n=12) and APA (n=35) samples, including some with a KCNJ5 mutation (n=21), an ATP1A1 mutation (n=5), and without the known mutations (n=9). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was performed for the detection of CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 expression levels in nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenoma and APA...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Keri S Taylor, Hisayoshi Murai, Philip J Millar, Nobuhiko Haruki, Derek S Kimmerly, Beverley L Morris, George Tomlinson, T Douglas Bradley, John S Floras
Obstructive apnea during sleep elevates the set point for efferent sympathetic outflow during wakefulness. Such resetting is attributed to hypoxia-induced upregulation of peripheral chemoreceptor and brain stem sympathetic function. Whether recurrent arousal from sleep also influences daytime muscle sympathetic nerve activity is unknown. We therefore tested, in a cohort of 48 primarily nonsleepy, middle-aged, male (30) and female (18) volunteers (age: 59±1 years, mean±SE), the hypothesis that the frequency of arousals from sleep (arousal index) would relate to daytime muscle sympathetic burst incidence, independently of the frequency of apnea or its severity...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
Javier E Stern, Sookjin Son, Vinicia C Biancardi, Hong Zheng, Neeru Sharma, Kaushik P Patel
Angiotensin II (AngII) is a key neuropeptide that acting within the brain hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus regulates neurohumoral outflow to the circulation. Moreover, an exacerbated AngII action within the paraventricular nucleus contributes to neurohumoral activation in hypertension. Although AngII effects involve changes in paraventricular nucleus neuronal activity, the precise underlying mechanisms, cellular targets, and distribution of AngII receptors within the paraventricular nucleus remain largely unknown...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
Ségolène Galandrin, Colette Denis, Cédric Boularan, Jacky Marie, Céline M'Kadmi, Claire Pilette, Caroline Dubroca, Yvan Nicaise, Marie-Hélène Seguelas, Du N'Guyen, Jean-Louis Banères, Atul Pathak, Jean-Michel Sénard, Céline Galés
Hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system through the angiotensin II (Ang II)/Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) axis constitutes a hallmark of hypertension. Recent findings indicate that only a subset of AT1-R signaling pathways is cardiodeleterious, and their selective inhibition by biased ligands promotes therapeutic benefit. To date, only synthetic biased ligands have been described, and whether natural renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system peptides exhibit functional selectivity at AT1-R remains unknown...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
Christopher T Banek, Mark M Knuepfer, Jason D Foss, Jessica K Fiege, Ninitha Asirvatham-Jeyaraj, Dusty Van Helden, Yoji Shimizu, John W Osborn
Renal sympathetic denervation (RDNx) has emerged as a novel therapy for hypertension; however, the therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. Efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity has recently been implicated in trafficking renal inflammatory immune cells and inflammatory chemokine and cytokine release. Several of these inflammatory mediators are known to activate or sensitize afferent nerves. This study aimed to elucidate the roles of efferent and afferent renal nerves in renal inflammation and hypertension in the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt rat model...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
Edouard Lecarpentier, Anthony Atallah, Jean Guibourdenche, Marylise Hebert-Schuster, Sarah Vieillefosse, Audrey Chissey, Bassam Haddad, Guillaume Pidoux, Daniele Evain-Brion, Abdul Barakat, Thierry Fournier, Vassilis Tsatsaris
The effects of fluid shear stress (FSS) on the human syncytiotrophoblast and its biological functions have never been studied. During pregnancy, the syncytiotrophoblast is the main source of placental growth factor (PlGF), a proangiogenic factor involved in the placental angiogenesis and the vascular adaptation to pregnancy. The role of FSS in regulating PlGF expression in syncytiotrophoblasts is unknown. We investigated the impact of FSS on the production and secretion of the PlGF by the human syncytiotrophoblasts in primary cell culture...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
Stuart A Nicklin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
Yuan Yuan, Ling Yan, Qing-Qing Wu, Heng Zhou, Ya-Ge Jin, Zhou-Yan Bian, Wei Deng, Zheng Yang, Di-Fei Shen, Xiao-Feng Zeng, Sha-Sha Wang, Hongliang Li, Qi-Zhu Tang
Identifying the key factor involved in cardiac remodeling is critically important for developing novel strategies to protect against heart failure. Here, the role of Mnk1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase 1) in cardiac remodeling was clarified. Cardiac remodeling was induced by transverse aortic constriction in Mnk1-knockout mice and their wild-type control mice. After 4 weeks of transverse aortic constriction, Mnk1-knockout mice developed exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, dysfunction, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis and showed increased ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activation along with reduced sprouty2 expression...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
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