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European Journal of Cell Biology

Jolanda van Hengel, Celine Van den Broeke, Tim Pieters, Louis Libbrecht, Ilse Hofmann, Frans van Roy
p120 catenin (p120ctn) is required for the stability of classic cadherins at the cell surface and is thought to play a central role in modulating cell-cell adhesion. Cytoplasmic p120ctn promotes cell motility, and probably other activities, by modulating the activities of RhoA, Rac and Cdc42. E-cadherin is expressed in periportal but not in perivenous hepatocytes. In contrast, all hepatocytes of normal mouse liver express N-cadherin. Cholangiocytes express exclusively E-cadherin. Mice with p120ctn ablation in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (p120LiKO mice) were generated by Cre-loxP technology...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Mayu Horie, Tomoya Kotani
Many translationally repressed mRNAs are deposited in the oocyte cytoplasm for progression of the meiotic cell cycle and early development. mos and cyclin B1 mRNAs encode proteins promoting oocyte meiosis, and translational control of these mRNAs is important for normal progression of meiotic cell division. We previously demonstrated that cyclin B1 mRNA forms RNA granules in the zebrafish and mouse oocyte cytoplasm and that the formation of RNA granules is crucial for regulating the timing of translational activation of the mRNA...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Zakaria Ezzoukhry, Elodie Henriet, Léo Piquet, Kevin Boyé, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Charles Balabaud, Gabrielle Couchy, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Violaine Moreau, Frédéric Saltel
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important player in chronic liver diseases inducing fibrogenesis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. TGF-β1 promotes pleiotropic modifications at the cellular and matrix microenvironment levels. TGF-β1 was described to enhance production of type I collagen and its associated cross-linking enzyme, the lysyl oxidase-like2 (LOXL2). In addition, TGF-β1 and type I collagen are potent inducers of invadosomes. Indeed, type I collagen fibers induce the formation of active linear invadosomes through the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1)...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Francesca Zito, Nadia Lampiasi, Igor Kireev, Roberta Russo
Cell-cell fusion is a physiological process playing an essential role for fertilization, shaping organs, tissue repair and immune defense in multicellular organisms. Recent research in the field aims to understand why two or more cells fuse each other and to decipher the general mechanisms regulating this process. Few basic and general steps can be identified, i.e. migration, adhesion and fusion, which are common to different types of cells. As pre-fused and fused cells undergo dramatic changes in their ultrastructure and behavior, the coordinated action of multiple factors is required, including adhesion molecules, cell surface receptors, intracellular kinases, transcription factors, and miRNAs...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ewa Kosicka, Daria Grobys, Hanna Kmita, Andrzej Lesicki, Joanna R Pieńkowska
Water channel proteins, classified as a family of Membrane Intrinsic Proteins (MIPs) superfamily, enable rapid movement of water and small uncharged molecules through biological membranes. Although water channel proteins are required in several important processes characteristic for the animals, such as osmoregulation, mucus secretion, or defense against desiccation, molluscs, until now, have been very poorly explored in this aspect. Therefore, we decided to study MIPs in Helix pomatia L. applied as a model in studies on terrestrial snail physiology...
September 14, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ewa Szczęsna, Andrzej A Kasprzak
End-binding proteins are capable of tracking the plus-ends of growing microtubules (MTs). The motor protein Ncd, a member of the kinesin-14 family, interacts with EB1 protein and becomes a non-autonomous tip-tracker. Here, we attempted to find out whether at least for Ncd, the efficient EB1-mediated tip-tracking involves the interaction of the kinesin with the MT surface. We prepared a series of Ncd tail mutants in which the MT-binding sites were altered or eliminated. Using TIRF microscopy, we characterized their behavior as tip-trackers and measured the dwell times of single molecules of EB1 and Ncd tail or its mutated forms...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Victor Midlej, Luciana Penha, Rosane Silva, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol
The mitosome is a double-membrane enveloped organelle that is found in few unicellular eukaryotes, one of which is the human intestinal parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis, which also lacks mitochondria and peroxisomes. This flagellated protist grows in vitro as trophozoites and under some conditions, differentiates into cysts, which are characterized by the absence of externalized flagella, a round shape, and the presence of a cyst wall. The presence and distribution of mitosomal proteins, such as giardial iron-sulfur cluster protein (GiIscU), heat-shock protein 70 (mit-HSP70) and giardial chaperonin 60 (GiCpn60), during the process of trophozoite-to-cyst transformation was tracked using confocal laser scanning microscopy and western blotting...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Youmna Attieh, Danijela Matic Vignjevic
The ability of cancer cells to move out of the primary tumor and disseminate through the circulation to form metastases is one of the main contributors to poor patient outcome. The tumor microenvironment provides a niche that supports cancer cell invasion and proliferation. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a highly enriched cell population in the tumor microenvironment that plays an important role in cancer invasion. However, it remains unclear whether CAFs directly stimulate cancer cell invasion or they remodel the extracellular matrix to make it more permissive for invasion...
August 22, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Valentina Galimberti, Noa Kinor, Yaron Shav-Tal, Marco Biggiogera, Ansgar Brüning
Functional protein homeostasis is essential for the maintenance of normal cellular physiology, cell growth, and cell survival. Proteasome inhibition in cancer cells can disturb protein homeostasis in such a way that synthetic proteasome inhibitors like bortezomib may selectively kill myeloma cells. Solid cancer cells appear to respond less to bortezomib which may in part be due to a rescue mechanism of the unfolded protein response/endoplasmic reticulum stress mechanism which leads to a temporary shutdown of protein biosynthesis at the translational level...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Maneet Bhatia, Carrie J Lovitt, Prahlad V Raninga, Vicky M Avery, Giovanna Di Trapani, Kathryn F Tonissen
As essential elements of the tumor microenvironment, the variable oxygenation state of the tumor tissue, the extracellular matrix (ECM) and different cell types are important determinants of carcinogenesis. These elements may also influence how tumor cells respond to therapeutic treatments. In the present study, we assessed the anti-cancer activity of auranofin and its effect on the thioredoxin (Trx) system under conditions that closely resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment with respect to the oxygen levels and tissue architecture...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
María Macarena Massip Copiz, Tomás Antonio Santa Coloma
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal inherited disease produced by mutations in the gene encoding the CFTR chloride channel. Loss of function in the CFTR gene is associated with a not much noticed increased expression and activity of the non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase c-Src. CF is therefore the result from the loss of CFTR chloride transport function and its consequences, including a chronic and excessive c-Src signaling. On the other hand, c-Src, encoded by the SRC gene, is involved in diverse signaling mechanisms that regulate key cellular functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and innate immunity...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Jingyi Li, Qian Zeng, Yixin Zhang, Xiaofang Li, Hui Hu, Xiaokang Miao, Wenle Yang, Wei Zhang, Xiaoyun Song, Lingyun Mou, Rui Wang
Breast cancer (BC) is a common reason of cancer-associated death in female. To develop novel strategy of therapeutics, it is crucial to comprehensively understand the receptor status of BC cells on the surface and inner, because chemical messengers can bind the receptors and promote tumorigenesis. Compared with normal and benign samples, BC cell lines and malignant biopsies showed higher expression of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1). In current work, we examined the role and mechanism of NK1 receptor signaling in BC cell migration...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Kristyna Markova, Magdalena Uzlikova, Pavla Tumova, Klara Jirakova, Guy Hagen, Jaroslav Kulda, Eva Nohynkova
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) joins the machinery of chromosome-to-spindle microtubule attachment with that of the cell cycle to prevent missegregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Although a functioning SAC has been verified in a limited number of organisms, it is regarded as an evolutionarily conserved safeguard mechanism. In this report, we focus on the existence of the SAC in a single-celled parasitic eukaryote, Giardia intestinalis. Giardia belongs to Excavata, a large and diverse supergroup of unicellular eukaryotes in which SAC control has been nearly unexplored...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Qing Yue, Yu Zhang, Xianyang Li, Lihong He, Ya'nan Hu, Xianyao Wang, Xiaojing Xu, Yixin Shen, Huanxiang Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit the potential to repair a wide variety of injured adult tissues. The migration capability of MSCs is an important determinant of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in regulating the migration of MSCs. Herein, we show that the expression of miR-124 was downregulated in rat MSCs (rMSCs) treated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Overexpression of miR-124 significantly reduced the chemotactic migration of rMSCs toward HGF, while inhibition of endogenous miR-124 promoted the chemotactic migration...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Amel Chebel, Régine Catallo, Céline Mabon, Emmanuel Bachy, Thomas Wenner, Gilles Salles, Claire Pouteil-Noble, Martine Ffrench
Several studies reported the benefits of switching from anticalcineurins to mTOR inhibitors to avoid cancer occurrence after organ transplantation. The purpose of our study was to determine in vivo biological markers to explain these benefits. Cellular changes related to cellular senescence and DNA damage were analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Thirty-five kidney transplanted patients receiving anticalcineurins were investigated: 17 patients were proposed to switch to rapamycin and 18 patients with similar age and transplantation duration, continued anticalcineurins...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Christopher Dowson, Steven O'Reilly
Fibrosis is characterised by an exuberant wound healing response and the major cell type responsible is the myofibroblast. The myofibroblast is typified by excessive ECM production and contractile activity and is demarcated by alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. What has recently come to light is that the activation of the fibroblast to myofibroblast may be under epigenetic control, specifically methylation. Methylation of DNA is a conserved mechanism to precisely regulate gene expression in a specific context...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ekaterina Semina, Kseniya Rubina, Veronika Sysoeva, Karina Rysenkova, Polina Klimovich, Olga Plekhanova, Vsevolod Tkachuk
PURPOSE: Recent findings indicate the significant contribution of urokinase and urokinase receptor (uPA and uPAR) in the processes of nerve regeneration, however, their role in axonal growth and branching is unclear. Using a 3D model of mouse Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) explants, differentiated into neurons Neuro 2a cells and transgenic mice lacking the urokinase gene, we studied the involvement of the uPA/uPAR system in the neural cell migration, neurite outgrowth, elongation and branching...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Sergei S Ryazansky, Alexei A Kotov, Mikhail V Kibanov, Natalia V Akulenko, Alina P Korbut, Sergei A Lavrov, Vladimir A Gvozdev, Ludmila V Olenina
Germline-specific RNA helicase Spindle-E (Spn-E) is known to be essential for piRNA silencing in Drosophila that takes place mainly in the perinuclear nuage granules. Loss-of-function spn-E mutations lead to tandem Stellate genes derepression in the testes and retrotransposon mobilization in the ovaries. However, Spn-E functions in the piRNA pathway are still obscure. Analysis of total library of short RNAs from the testes of spn-E heterozygous flies revealed the presence of abundant piRNA ping-pong pairs originating from Su(Ste) transcripts...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ilaria Ferrari, Arianna Crespi, Diego Fornasari, Grazia Pietrini
By means of immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation experiments, we here demonstrate mitochondrial distribution of LIN7 and IRSp53 in HeLa cells. These peripheral proteins displayed a tight association with mitochondria and coimmunoprecipitated from mitochondrial fractions. In line with a role for LIN7 in the regulation of IRSp53 activity on actin dynamics, the morphology of mitochondria was similarly altered by changing the expression levels of either each protein or both, whereas mitochondrial morphology was preserved in cells overexpressing IRSp53 deleted of its binding domains for LIN7 (IRSp53Δ5) or for actin polymerisation modulators (IRSp53ΔSH3)...
August 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Angélica Horrillo, Gracia Porras, Matilde S Ayuso, Consuelo González-Manchón
Podocalyxin (Podxl) has an essential role in the development and function of the kidney glomerular filtration barrier. It is also expressed by vascular endothelia but perinatal lethality of podxl(-/-) mice has precluded understanding of its function in adult vascular endothelial cells (ECs). In this work, we show that conditional knockout mice with deletion of Podxl restricted to the vascular endothelium grow normally but most die spontaneously around three months of age. Histological analysis showed a nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate within the vessel wall frequently associated with degenerative changes, and involving vessels of different caliber in one or more organs...
August 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
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