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European Journal of Cell Biology

Felix Tönisen, Louisiane Perrin, Battuya Bayarmagnai, Koen van den Dries, Alessandra Cambi, Bojana Gligorijevic
The production of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is elevated in human breast cancer cells. The abnormal expression of COX-2, which is involved in the synthesis of PGE2, was recently reported as a critical determinant for invasiveness of human breast cancer cells. Autocrine and paracrine PGE2-mediated stimulation of the PGE2 receptor EP4 transduces multiple signaling pathways leading to diverse patho-physiological effects, including tumor cell invasion and metastasis. It is known that PGE2-induced EP4 activation can transactivate the intracellular signaling pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
Dorthe Rippert, Katja Backhaus, Rosaura Rodicio, Jürgen J Heinisch
The trimeric AMP-activated kinase complex (AMPK) is conserved from yeast to humans and is best known for its role in balancing energy metabolism. Additional functions, including the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis, have been proposed for the SNF1 complex, the baker's yeast homolog of AMPK. We here demonstrate that this function is conserved in the Crabtree-negative milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Deletion mutants in the genes encoding the subunits of the trimeric complex (Klsnf1, Klgal83, Klsnf4) displayed increased sensitivities towards cell wall stress agents and a mutant lacking the kinase subunit had a thinner cell wall in transmission electron micrographs as compared to wild type...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Patrizia Gena, Nicoletta Del Buono, Marcello D'Abbicco, Maria Mastrodonato, Marco Berardi, Maria Svelto, Luciano Lopez, Giuseppe Calamita
Liver is crucial in the homeostasis of glycerol, an important metabolic intermediate. Plasma glycerol is imported by hepatocytes mainly through Aquaporin-9 (AQP9), an aquaglyceroporin channel negatively regulated by insulin in rodents. AQP9 is of critical importance in glycerol metabolism since hepatic glycerol utilization is rate-limited at the hepatocyte membrane permeation step. Glycerol kinase catalyzes the initial step for the conversion of the imported glycerol into glycerol-3-phosphate, a major substrate for de novo synthesis of glucose (gluconeogenesis) and/or triacyglycerols (lipogenesis)...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Anita Helinska, Maciej Krupa, Karolina Archacka, Areta M Czerwinska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Maria A Ciemerych, Iwona Grabowska
Regeneration of skeletal muscle relies on the presence of satellite cells. Satellite cells deficiency accompanying some degenerative diseases is the reason for the search for the "replacement cells" that can be used in the muscle therapies. Due to their unique properties embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as well as myogenic cells derived from them, are considered as a promising source of therapeutic cells. Among the factors crucial for the specification of myogenic precursor cells is Pax7 that sustains proper function of satellite cells...
December 15, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Krystina Schopf, Armin Huber
Membrane protein trafficking occurs throughout the lifetime of neurons and includes the initial protein synthesis and anterograde transport to the plasma membrane as well as internalization, degradation, and recycling of plasma membrane proteins. Defects in protein trafficking can result in neuronal degeneration and underlie blinding diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa as well as other neuronal disorders. Drosophila photoreceptor cells have emerged as a model system for identifying the components and mechanisms involved in membrane protein trafficking in neurons...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad, Elham Alimoradi, Hassan Akrami
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have extensive potentials, which make them attractive candidates for the developmental biology, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, the use of MSCs is limited by their scarceness in tissues and in culture conditions. They also exhibit various degrees of potency which subsequently influencing their applications. Nowadays, questions remain about how self-renewal and differentiation of MSCs can be controlled in vitro and in vivo, how they will behave and migrate to the right place and how they modulate the immune system...
December 5, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Benjamin Kalbe, Viola Maria Schulz, Marian Schlimm, Stathis Philippou, Nikolina Jovancevic, Fabian Jansen, Paul Scholz, Hermann Lübbert, Marvin Jarocki, Andreas Faissner, Erich Hecker, Sophie Veitinger, Teresa Tsai, Sabrina Osterloh, Hanns Hatt
Studies within the last decade have localized the functional expression of olfactory receptors (ORs) to cells outside of the olfactory epithelium. In human hepatocarcinoma and prostate cancer cells, the activation of ORs by odors modulates elementary physiological processes and leads to an inhibitory effect on proliferation. Cells of the respiratory tract are in direct contact with the surrounding air, in which a myriad of volatile molecules, especially odors, are present. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a high prevalence, a high mortality rate and is difficult to treat...
December 5, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Boris Castillo, Seon-Hee Kim, Mujataba Sharief, Tong Sun, Lou W Kim
We have previously reported that the basal RasG activity is aberrantly high in cells lacking Superoxide dismutase C (SodC). Here we report that other Ras proteins such as RasC and RasD activities are not affected in sodC(-) cells and mutagenesis studies showed that the presence of the Cys(118) in the Ras proteins is essential for the superoxide-mediated activation of Ras proteins in Dictyostelium. In addition to the loss of SodC, lack of extracellular magnesium ions increased the level of intracellular superoxide and active RasG proteins...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Timothy E Audas, Philip W Hardy-Smith, Jenna Penney, Tiegh Taylor, Ray Lu
The recently identified Luman/CREB3-binding partner LRF (Luman/CREB3 recruitment factor) was shown to localize to discrete sub-nuclear foci. Luman is implicated in herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) latency/reactivation and the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway; therefore, we sought to characterize the formation of the LRF nuclear foci in the context of cellular signaling and HSV-1 replication. Here, we mapped the nuclear foci-targeting sequence to the central region containing the first leucine zipper (a...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ruchi Jain, Uchenna Watson, Deepak Kumar Saini
Histamine, a primary mediator of allergic responses, elicits its effects by activating specific receptors belonging to the GPCR family in target cells. Activation of histamine receptor can activate MAP kinases as recorded by monitoring the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Despite this, ERK phosphorylation does not translate into pro-proliferative changes after histamine stimulation in HeLa cells. Here we show that histamine H1 receptor activation mediates MAPK activation through PLCβ, Src, PKCδ and MEK pathway, but does not lead to nuclear relocalization of phospho-ERK (pERK), classically associated with pro-proliferative changes...
December 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Anna Chan, Andreas Schummer, Sven Fischer, Thomas Schröter, Luis Daniel Cruz-Zaragoza, Julian Bender, Friedel Drepper, Silke Oeljeklaus, Wolf-H Kunau, Wolfgang Girzalsky, Bettina Warscheid, Ralf Erdmann
Peroxisomal matrix protein import is facilitated by cycling receptors that recognize their cargo proteins in the cytosol by peroxisomal targeting sequences (PTS). In the following, the assembled receptor-cargo complex is targeted to the peroxisomal membrane where it docks to the docking-complex as part of the peroxisomal translocation machinery. The docking-complex is composed of Pex13p, Pex14p and in yeast also Pex17p, whose function is still elusive. In order to characterize the function of Pex17p, we compared the composition and size of peroxisomal receptor-docking complexes from wild-type and pex17Δ cells...
December 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Jolanda van Hengel, Celine Van den Broeke, Tim Pieters, Louis Libbrecht, Ilse Hofmann, Frans van Roy
p120 catenin (p120ctn) is required for the stability of classic cadherins at the cell surface and is thought to play a central role in modulating cell-cell adhesion. Cytoplasmic p120ctn promotes cell motility, and probably other activities, by modulating the activities of RhoA, Rac and Cdc42. E-cadherin is expressed in periportal but not in perivenous hepatocytes. In contrast, all hepatocytes of normal mouse liver express N-cadherin. Cholangiocytes express exclusively E-cadherin. Mice with p120ctn ablation in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (p120LiKO mice) were generated by Cre-loxP technology...
December 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Mayu Horie, Tomoya Kotani
Many translationally repressed mRNAs are deposited in the oocyte cytoplasm for progression of the meiotic cell cycle and early development. mos and cyclin B1 mRNAs encode proteins promoting oocyte meiosis, and translational control of these mRNAs is important for normal progression of meiotic cell division. We previously demonstrated that cyclin B1 mRNA forms RNA granules in the zebrafish and mouse oocyte cytoplasm and that the formation of RNA granules is crucial for regulating the timing of translational activation of the mRNA...
December 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Francesca Zito, Nadia Lampiasi, Igor Kireev, Roberta Russo
Cell-cell fusion is a physiological process playing an essential role for fertilization, shaping organs, tissue repair and immune defense in multicellular organisms. Recent research in the field aims to understand why two or more cells fuse each other and to decipher the general mechanisms regulating this process. Few basic and general steps can be identified, i.e. migration, adhesion and fusion, which are common to different types of cells. As pre-fused and fused cells undergo dramatic changes in their ultrastructure and behavior, the coordinated action of multiple factors is required, including adhesion molecules, cell surface receptors, intracellular kinases, transcription factors, and miRNAs...
December 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ewa Kosicka, Daria Grobys, Hanna Kmita, Andrzej Lesicki, Joanna R Pieńkowska
Water channel proteins, classified as a family of Membrane Intrinsic Proteins (MIPs) superfamily, enable rapid movement of water and small uncharged molecules through biological membranes. Although water channel proteins are required in several important processes characteristic for the animals, such as osmoregulation, mucus secretion, or defense against desiccation, molluscs, until now, have been very poorly explored in this aspect. Therefore, we decided to study MIPs in Helix pomatia L. applied as a model in studies on terrestrial snail physiology...
December 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ewa Szczęsna, Andrzej A Kasprzak
End-binding proteins are capable of tracking the plus-ends of growing microtubules (MTs). The motor protein Ncd, a member of the kinesin-14 family, interacts with EB1 protein and becomes a non-autonomous tip-tracker. Here, we attempted to find out whether at least for Ncd, the efficient EB1-mediated tip-tracking involves the interaction of the kinesin with the MT surface. We prepared a series of Ncd tail mutants in which the MT-binding sites were altered or eliminated. Using TIRF microscopy, we characterized their behavior as tip-trackers and measured the dwell times of single molecules of EB1 and Ncd tail or its mutated forms...
December 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Victor Midlej, Luciana Penha, Rosane Silva, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol
The mitosome is a double-membrane enveloped organelle that is found in few unicellular eukaryotes, one of which is the human intestinal parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis, which also lacks mitochondria and peroxisomes. This flagellated protist grows in vitro as trophozoites and under some conditions, differentiates into cysts, which are characterized by the absence of externalized flagella, a round shape, and the presence of a cyst wall. The presence and distribution of mitosomal proteins, such as giardial iron-sulfur cluster protein (GiIscU), heat-shock protein 70 (mit-HSP70) and giardial chaperonin 60 (GiCpn60), during the process of trophozoite-to-cyst transformation was tracked using confocal laser scanning microscopy and western blotting...
December 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Irene Ylivinkka, Jorma Keski-Oja, Marko Hyytiäinen
Netrins form a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins, netrin-1 being the prototype and most investigated member of the family. The major physiological functions of netrin-1 lie in the regulation of axonal development as well as morphogenesis of different branched organs, by promoting the polarity of migratory/invasive front of the cell. On the other hand, netrin-1 acts as a factor preventing cell apoptosis. These events are mediated via a range of different receptors, including UNC5 and DCC-families...
November 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Zakaria Ezzoukhry, Elodie Henriet, Léo Piquet, Kevin Boyé, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Charles Balabaud, Gabrielle Couchy, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Violaine Moreau, Frédéric Saltel
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important player in chronic liver diseases inducing fibrogenesis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. TGF-β1 promotes pleiotropic modifications at the cellular and matrix microenvironment levels. TGF-β1 was described to enhance production of type I collagen and its associated cross-linking enzyme, the lysyl oxidase-like2 (LOXL2). In addition, TGF-β1 and type I collagen are potent inducers of invadosomes. Indeed, type I collagen fibers induce the formation of active linear invadosomes through the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1)...
November 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Youmna Attieh, Danijela Matic Vignjevic
The ability of cancer cells to move out of the primary tumor and disseminate through the circulation to form metastases is one of the main contributors to poor patient outcome. The tumor microenvironment provides a niche that supports cancer cell invasion and proliferation. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a highly enriched cell population in the tumor microenvironment that plays an important role in cancer invasion. However, it remains unclear whether CAFs directly stimulate cancer cell invasion or they remodel the extracellular matrix to make it more permissive for invasion...
November 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
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