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European Journal of Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633918/traction-force-and-its-regulation-during-cytokinesis-in-dictyostelium-cells
#1
Md Golam Sarowar Jahan, Shigehiko Yumura
Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division. Dictyostelium cells have multiple modes of cytokinesis, including cytokinesis A, B and C. Cytokinesis A is a conventional mode, which depends on myosin II in the contractile ring. Myosin II null cells divide depending on substratum-attachment (cytokinesis B) or in a multi-polar fashion independent of the cell cycle (cytokinesis C). We investigated the traction stress exerted by dividing cells in the three different modes using traction force microscopy. In all cases, the traction forces were directed inward from both poles...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624236/regulation-of-the-proprotein-convertases-expression-and-activity-during-regenerative-angiogenesis-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif
#2
Jia Ma, Serge Evrard, Iker Badiola, Geraldine Siegfried, Abdel-Majid Khatib
Proprotein convertases (PCs) are involved in various physiological and pathological processes ranging from embryogenesis to carcinogenesis. Here, using the zebrafish fin regeneration model, we report induced expression of furin and PC5 but not PACE4 and PC7 during fin regeneration that is associated with increased PC activity. Stabilization of HIF by cobalt chloride (CoCl2) further increases these processes. The use of the general PC-inhibitor decanoyl-RVKR-cholromethyl ketone (CMK) inhibited control and CoCl2-induced PC activity...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624237/identification-of-syntaxin-4-as-an-essential-factor-for-the-hepatitis-c-virus-life-cycle
#3
Huimei Ren, Fabian Elgner, Kiyoshi Himmelsbach, Sami Akhras, Bingfu Jiang, Regina Medvedev, Daniela Ploen, Eberhard Hildt
Although there is evidence that multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are involved in the release of hepatitis C virus (HCV), many aspects of HCV release are still not fully understood. The amount of α-taxilin that prevents SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimidesensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complex formation by binding to free syntaxin 4 is reduced in HCV-positive cells. Therefore, it was analyzed whether the t-SNARE protein syntaxin 4 which mediates vesicles fusion is involved in the HCV life cycle. HCV-positive cells possess an increased amount of syntaxin 4 protein, although the amount of syntaxin 4-specific transcripts is decreased in HCV-positive Huh7...
June 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595776/filamin-a-promotes-efficient-migration-and-phagocytosis-of-neutrophil-like-hl-60-cells
#4
Heike Roth, Matthias Samereier, Daniela Begandt, Robert Pick, Melanie Salvermoser, Doris Brechtefeld, Michael Schleicher, Barbara Walzog, Annette Müller-Taubenberger
The primary defense machinery to combat inflammation involves neutrophil granulocytes which in order to execute their functions rely on the efficiency of different cellular mechanisms including adhesion, spreading, migration in different environments, and phagocytosis. These functions require an accurately regulated actin network as well as the activation and adjustment of various signaling pathways. Mammalian filamins (FLNs) comprise three highly homologous large actin-binding proteins that are obvious candidates to control these processes as FLNs have been described to play a role in migration, spreading and adhesion in a variety of different cell types...
May 27, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539232/adipose-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-associated-protein-ameliorates-metabolic-disorders-via-promoting-adipose-tissue-adipogenesis-and-browning
#5
Chengting Luo, Na Lv, Zai Chang, Qiannuo Qu, Jianzhen Huang
Adipose tissue is a complicated organ that not only stores excess energy, but also secrets many adipokines regulating whole-body energy hemostasis. Dysfunction of adipose tissue leads to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we generated a mouse model with overexpression of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein (ATRAP) in adipose tissue specifically. Under a normal diet, ATRAP transgene (TgATRAP) mice showed similar bodyweight, fat mass and insulin sensitivity with wild-type controls (WT)...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521959/cancer-cell-death-induced-by-nanomagnetolectin
#6
Dina M M AlSadek, Haitham A Badr, Tamer A Al-Shafie, Sabry M El-Bahr, Motawa E El-Houseini, Leyla B Djansugurova, Chen-Zhong Li, Hafiz Ahmed
Magnetic nanoparticles represent a new paradigm for molecular targeting therapy in cancer. However, the transformative targeting potential of magnetic nanoparticles has been stymied by a key obstacle-safe delivery to specified target cells in vivo. As cancer cells grow under nutrient deprivation and hypoxic conditions and decorate cell surface with excessive sialoglycans, sialic acid binding lectins might be suitable for targeting cancer cells in vivo. Here we explore the potential of magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with wheat germ lectin (WGA) conjugate, so-called nanomagnetolectin, as apoptotic targetable agents for prostate cancer...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521960/yeast-dynamin-associates-with-the-garp-tethering-complex-for-endosome-to-golgi-traffic
#7
Uma Saimani, Jared Smothers, Hyoeun McDermott, Pelin Makaraci, Kyoungtae Kim
Yeast dynamin, Vacuolar Protein Sorting 1 (Vps1), has been implicated in recycling traffic from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Previous research showed a genetic interaction of Vps1 with all components of the GARP tethering complex, which anchors vesicles at the late Golgi membrane. We used the yeast two-hybrid system and have identified a 33 amino acid segment of Vps51, a GARP subunit, that interacts with Vps1. Based on sequence homology between Vps51 and its mammalian homolog Ang2 in the 33 amino acids stretch, we identified two key residues of Vps51, E127 and Y129, that bind Vps1...
May 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501103/mrna-decay-is-regulated-via-sequestration-of-the-conserved-5-3-exoribonuclease-xrn1-at-eisosome-in-yeast
#8
Katarína Vaškovičová, Thuraya Awadová, Petra Veselá, Mária Balážová, Miroslava Opekarová, Jan Malinsky
We describe a novel mechanism of mRNA decay regulation, which takes place under the conditions of glucose deprivation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The regulation is based on temporally stable sequestration of the main 5'-3' mRNA exoribonuclease Xrn1 at the eisosome, a plasma membrane-associated protein complex organizing a specialized membrane microdomain. As documented by monitoring the decay of a specific mRNA substrate in time, Xrn1-mediated mRNA degradation ceases during the accumulation of Xrn1 at eisosome, but the eisosome-associated Xrn1 retains its functionality and can be re-activated when released to cytoplasm following the addition of glucose...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483278/specific-visible-radiation-facilitates-lipolysis-in-mature-3t3-l1-adipocytes-via-rhodopsin-dependent-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-signaling
#9
Phil June Park, Jae Youl Cho, Eun-Gyung Cho
The regulation of fat metabolism is important for maintaining functional and structural tissue homeostasis in biological systems. Reducing excessive lipids has been an important concern due to the concomitant health risks caused by metabolic disorders such as obesity, adiposity and dyslipidemia. A recent study revealed that unlike conventional care regimens (e.g., diet or medicine), low-energy visible radiation (VR) regulates lipid levels via autophagy-dependent hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation in differentiated human adipose-derived stem cells...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495172/cysteine-cathepsins-b-and-x-promote-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-tumor-cells
#10
Ana Mitrović, Urša Pečar Fonović, Janko Kos
Cathepsins B and X are lysosomal cysteine carboxypeptidases suggested as having a redundant role in cancer. They are involved in a number of processes leading to tumor progression but their role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unknown. We have investigated the contribution of both cathepsins B and X in EMT using tumor cell lines differing in their expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers and cell morphology. Higher levels of both cathepsins are shown to promote EMT and are associated with the mesenchymal-like cell phenotype...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487031/hmec-1-adopt-the-mixed-amoeboid-mesenchymal-migration-type-during-endmt
#11
Jakub Kryczka, Patrycja Przygodzka, Helena Bogusz, Joanna Boncela
The contribution of endothelial cells to scar and fibrotic tissue formation is undisputedly connected to their ability to undergo the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) towards fibroblast phenotype-resembling cells. The migration model of fibroblasts and fibroblast-resembling cells is still not fully understood. It may be either a Rho/ROCK-independent, an integrin- and MMP-correlated ECM degradation-dependent, a mesenchymal model or Rho/ROCK-dependent, integrin adhesion- and MMP activity-independent, an amoeboid model...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483279/macrocyclization-of-a-potent-pace4-inhibitor-benefits-and-limitations
#12
Teresa Łepek, Anna Kwiatkowska, Frédéric Couture, Kévin Ly, Roxane Desjardins, Yves Dory, Adam Prahl, Robert Day
PACE4, one of the seven members of the proprotein convertase family, plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. Therefore, its inhibition has become an attractive target to develop new therapies against this disease. Recently, we have developed a highly potent and selective PACE4 inhibitor, known as the multi-Leu peptide with the following sequence Ac-LLLLRVKR-NH2. Herein, with the aim of improving the stability profile of this inhibitor for potential in vivo application, we investigated the impact of different cyclization strategies...
April 23, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476334/novel-spliced-variants-of-oct4-oct4c-and-oct4c1-with-distinct-expression-patterns-and-functions-in-pluripotent-and-tumor-cell-lines
#13
Mahshid Malakootian, Fatemeh Mirzadeh Azad, Parisa Naeli, Mohammad Pakzad, Youssef Fouani, Elham Taheri Bajgan, Hossein Baharvand, Seyed Javad Mowla
OCT4 is a major regulator of pluripotency which has several spliced variants and expressed pseudogenes. Here, we are reporting the existence of two additional novel spliced variants of OCT4, OCT4C and OCT4C1, which lack Exon1 (E1) but start at a novel exon (E0) located ∼14kb upstream of E2. OCT4C/C1 is highly expressed in ES and iPS cells, and their expression was sharply turned off, upon the induction of neural differentiation. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) PSORS1C3, is located ∼9kb downstream of the E0 of OCT4C/C1...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427795/reappraisal-to-the-study-of-4e-bp1-as-an-mtor-substrate-a-normative-critique
#14
REVIEW
Asiya Batool, Sabreena Aashaq, Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi
mTOR-4E-BP1 axis is regarded as the best oncogenic circuitry impinging on translational control whereby mTORC1 dictates post-translational regulation of 4E-BP1. This review provides new insights into the molecular network of signalling pathways highlighting the recent explosion of studies in respect to the deviant behaviour of 4E-BP1 towards mTORC1. Despite the striking conservation of mTOR nexus, the eccentric phosphorylation dynamics of 4E-BP1 negate the apparent linear architecture of mTORC1 attesting the importance of other kinases that may evoke cross-talks with the conventional frame, most of which are enlisted in the manuscript...
April 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413120/endosome-to-trans-golgi-network-transport-of-proprotein-convertase-7-is-mediated-by-a-cluster-of-basic-amino-acids-and-palmitoylated-cysteines
#15
Jeroen Declercq, Bruno Ramos-Molina, Ragna Sannerud, Bas Brouwers, Vincent P E G Pruniau, Sandra Meulemans, Evelyn Plets, Wim Annaert, John W M Creemers
Proprotein Convertase 7 (PC7) is a Furin-like endoprotease that cleaves precursor proteins at basic amino acids. PC7 is concentrated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but it shuttles between the plasma membrane and the TGN depending on sequences in the cytoplasmic tail. A short region containing a three amino acids motif, P(724)-L(725)-C(726), is essential and sufficient for internalization of PC7 but not for TGN localization, which requires the additional presence of the juxtamembrane region. In this study we have investigated the contribution of a cluster of basic amino acids and two reversibly palmitoylated cysteine residues to endocytic trafficking...
April 7, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413119/the-two-dictyostelium-discoideum-autophagy-8-proteins-have-distinct-autophagic-functions
#16
Susanne Meßling, Jan Matthias, Qiuhong Xiong, Sarah Fischer, Ludwig Eichinger
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular degradation pathway which is crucial for various cellular processes. The autophagic process is subdivided in the initiation, autophagosome maturation and lysosomal degradation phases and involves more than forty core and accessory autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. Autophagy 8 (ATG8, in mammals LC3) is a well-established marker of autophagy and is linked to the autophagic membrane from initiation until fusion with the lysosome. We generated single and double knock-out mutants of the two Dictyostelium paralogues, ATG8a and ATG8b, as well as strains that expressed RFP-ATG8a and/or GFP-ATG8b, RFP-ATG8b, RFP-GFP-ATG8a or RFP-GFP-ATG8b in different knock-out mutants...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413121/characterisation-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-terminal-differentiation-in-a-maximally-proliferative-human-epithelial-tissue-lessons-from-the-human-hair-follicle-matrix
#17
Talveen S Purba, Lars Brunken, Michael Peake, Asim Shahmalak, Asuncion Chaves, Enrique Poblet, Ralf Paus
Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2)) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression...
April 2, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396058/connexin43-high-prostate-cancer-cells-induce-endothelial-connexin43-up-regulation-through-the-activation-of-intercellular-erk1-2-dependent-signaling-axis
#18
Katarzyna Piwowarczyk, Milena Paw, Damian Ryszawy, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Zbigniew Madeja, Maciej Siedlar, Jarosław Czyż
Connexin(Cx)43 regulates the invasive potential of prostate cancer cells and participates in their extravasation. To address the role of endothelial Cx43 in this process, we analyzed Cx43 regulation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in the proximity of Cx43(high) (DU-145 and MAT-LyLu) and Cx43(low) prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and AT-2). Endothelial Cx43 up-regulation was observed during the diapedesis of DU-145 and MAT-LyLu cells. This process was attenuated by transient Cx43 silencing in cancer cells and by chemical inhibition of ERK1/2-dependent signaling in endothelial cells...
April 1, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377049/the-endocytic-pathways-of-a-secretory-granule-membrane-protein-in-hek293-cells-pam-and-egf-traverse-a-dynamic-multivesicular-body-network-together
#19
Nils Bäck, Kristiina Kanerva, Vishwanatha Kurutihalli, Andrew Yanik, Elina Ikonen, Richard E Mains, Betty A Eipper
Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs)...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372831/%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-1ap-1-complexes-different-essential-functions-and-regulatory-mechanisms-in-clathrin-dependent-protein-sorting
#20
Daniela Zizioli, Constanze Geumann, Manuel Kratzke, Ratnakar Mishra, Guiseppe Borsani, Dario Finazzi, Ermes Candiello, Peter Schu
γ2 adaptin is homologous to γ1, but is only expressed in vertebrates while γ1 is found in all eukaryotes. We know little about γ2 functions and their relation to γ1. γ1 is an adaptin of the heterotetrameric AP-1 complexes, which sort proteins in and do form clathrin-coated transport vesicles and they also regulate maturation of early endosomes. γ1 knockout mice develop only to blastocysts and thus γ2 does not compensate γ1-deficiency in development. γ2 has not been classified as a clathrin-coated vesicle adaptor protein in proteome analyses and functions for monomeric γ2 in endosomal protein sorting have been proposed, but adaptin interaction studies suggested formation of heterotetrameric AP-1/γ2 complexes...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
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