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European Journal of Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776664/rhod-localization-and-function-is-dependent-on-its-gtp-gdp-bound-state-and-unique-n-terminal-motif
#1
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Pontus Aspenström
The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD has previously been shown to have a major impact on the organization and function of the actin filament system. However, when first discovered, RhoD was found to regulate endosome trafficking and dynamics and we therefore sought to investigate this regulation in more detail. We found that exogenously expressed RhoD in human fibroblasts localized to vesicles and the plasma membrane and that the active GTP-bound conformation was required for the plasma membrane localization but not for vesicle localization...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773345/t-cells-and-their-immunometabolism-a-novel-way-to-understanding-sepsis-immunopathogenesis-and-future-therapeutics
#2
REVIEW
V Kumar
Sepsis has always been considered as a big challenge for pharmaceutical companies in terms of discovering and designing new therapeutics. The pathogenesis of sepsis involves aberrant activation of innate immune cells (i.e. macrophages, neutrophils etc.) at early stages. However, a stage of immunosuppression is also observed during sepsis even in the patients who have recovered from it. This stage of immunosuppression is observed due to the loss of conventional (i.e. CD4+ , CD8+ ) T cells, Th17 cells and an upregulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747876/the-unknown-face-of-ire1%C3%AE-beyond-er-stress
#3
REVIEW
Ahmad Abdullah, Palaniyandi Ravanan
IRE1α (Inositol Requiring kinase Enzyme 1 alpha), a transmembrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a master regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. The fate determining steps during ER stress-induced apoptosis are greatly attributed to IRE1α's endoribonuclease and kinase activities. Apart from its role as a chief executioner in ER stress, recent studies have shown that upon activation in the presence or absence of ER stress, IRE1α executes multiple cellular processes such as differentiation, immune response, progression and repression of the cell cycle...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735293/anchor-negatively-regulates-bmp-signalling-to-control-drosophila-wing-development
#4
Xiao Chun Wang, Ziguang Liu, Li Hua Jin
G protein-coupled receptors play particularly important roles in many organisms. The novel Drosophila gene anchor is an orthologue of vertebrate GPR155. However, the roles of anchor in molecular functions and biological processes, especially in wing development, remain unknown. Knockdown of anchor resulted in an increased wing size and additional and thickened veins. These abnormal wing phenotypes were similar to those observed in BMP signalling gain-of-function experiments. We observed that the BMP signalling indicator p-Mad was significantly increased in wing discs in which anchor RNAi was induced in larvae and accumulated abnormally in intervein regions in pupae...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699848/phosphorylation-of-wat1-human-lst8-homolog-is-critical-for-the-regulation-of-torc2-gad8-dependent-pathway-in-fission-yeast-schizosacchromyces-pombe
#5
Nafees Ahamad, Tanuj Sharma, Saman Khan, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Shakil Ahmed
Mammalian Lst8 interacts with the kinase domain of mTOR and stabilizes its interaction with Raptor regulating cell growth through the mTOR-S6K1 signalling pathway. Fission yeast Wat1, an ortholog of mammalian Lst8 is also an essential component of TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR Complex 2 (TORC2) that control protein kinases essential for metabolic pathways. Here, we show that in response to osmotic stress, the Wat1 protein undergoes hyper-phosphorylation at S116 position. Wat1 interacts with the C-terminal region of Tor1 that also contain kinase domain...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773344/lncrna-oip5-as1-regulates-radioresistance-by-targeting-dyrk1a-through-mir-369-3p-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#6
Yanmei Zou, Shuo Yao, Xiuqiong Chen, Dian Liu, Jianhua Wang, Xun Yuan, Jie Rao, Huihua Xiong, Shiying Yu, Xianglin Yuan, Feng Zhu, Guohong Hu, Yihua Wang, Hua Xiong
OBJECT: This study aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA OIP5-AS1 in regulating radioresistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to screen out lncRNAs differentially expressed in radio-resistant CRC cell lines. Expression levels of OIP5-AS1, miR-369-3p and DYRK1A in CRC cell lines were measured by qRT-PCR. Protein expression of DYRK1A was determined by western blot. The target relationships among OIP5-AS1, miR-369-3p and DYRK1A were validated by dual luciferase reporter assay...
April 14, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661512/organelle-survival-in-a-foreign-organism-hydra-nematocysts-in-the-flatworm-microstomum-lineare
#7
Georg Krohne
Nematocysts are characteristic organelles of the phylum cnidaria. They are designated kleptocnidae when sequestered in animals that feed on cnidaria. Kleptocnidae are known for more than a century. Nevertheless it is still enigmatic how selected nematocyst types survive in the predator and how they reach their final destination in the foreign body. In the free-living Platyhelminth Microstomum lineare the fate of nematocysts of the prey Hydra oligactis was analyzed at the ultrastructural level and by fluorescence microscopy using hydra polyps that had been stained in vivo with the fluorescent dyes TROMI and TRITC...
April 8, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656793/long-noncoding-rna-vim-as1-promotes-colorectal-cancer-progression-and-metastasis-by-inducing-emt
#8
Hajar Rezanejad Bardaji, Malek Hossein Asadi, Mohammad Mehdi Yaghoobi
Emerging evidence indicates that lncRNAs play crucial roles in the initiation and progression of various malignant tumors. VIM-AS1 RNA is an lncRNA that transcribes from a shared bidirectional promoter with vimentin mRNA and its function in cancer cells is largely unknown. This study assessed the clinical significance of VIM-AS1 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC). We found that the VIM-AS1 transcript was significantly upregulated in high-grade, lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion tumors. Loss-of-function experiments revealed that the downregulation of VIM-AS1 could inhibit tumor cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis, cellular senescence and arresting the cell cycle...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650257/neuropeptide-y-mitigates-er-stress-induced-neuronal-cell-death-by-activating-the-pi3k-xbp1-pathway
#9
Do Yeon Lee, Seung Hyun Hong, Bokyung Kim, Dong-Seok Lee, Kweon Yu, Kyu-Sun Lee
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved adaptive reaction that increases cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. ER stress-associated neuronal cell death pathways play roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has an important role in neuroprotection against neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated whether NPY has a protective role in ER stress-induced neuronal cell death in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665971/dissecting-the-signaling-features-of-the-multi-protein-complex-gpcr-%C3%AE-arrestin-erk1-2
#10
REVIEW
Gabriel Carmona-Rosas, Rocío Alcántara-Hernández, David Alejandro Hernández-Espinosa
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as key biological entities that regulate a plethora of physiological processes and participate in the onset and development of many diseases. Moreover, these receptors are important targets of almost 25% of the current therapeutic drugs in the market. Upon agonist binding, GPCRs activate a great number of signaling pathways, resulting in important cellular events like gene transcription, survival, proliferation and differentiation. In order to activate such events, GPCRs interact with a variety of scaffold and molecular entities, particularly with G proteins, but also with β-arrestins and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway, forming unique signaling modules...
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609807/nanoscale-domain-formation-of-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-in-the-plasma-and-vacuolar-membranes-of-living-yeast-cells
#11
Kan-Na Tomioku, Mikiko Shigekuni, Hiroki Hayashi, Akane Yoshida, Taiki Futagami, Hisanori Tamaki, Kenji Tanabe, Akikazu Fujita
In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PtdIns(4)P serves as an essential signalling molecule in the Golgi complex, endosomal system, and plasma membrane, where it is involved in the control of multiple cellular functions via direct interactions with PtdIns(4)P-binding proteins. To analyse the distribution of PtdIns(4)P in yeast cells at a nanoscale level, we employed an electron microscopy technique that specifically labels PtdIns(4)P on the freeze-fracture replica of the yeast membrane. This method minimizes the possibility of artificial perturbation, because molecules in the membrane are physically immobilised in situ...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602512/emerging-roles-of-dhhc-mediated-protein-s-palmitoylation-in-physiological-and-pathophysiological-context
#12
REVIEW
Indranil De, Sushabhan Sadhukhan
Protein S-palmitoylation refers to a post-translational modification (PTM) wherein palmitic acid, a 16-carbon long saturated fatty acid gets covalently attached to Cys sidechain of a protein. It has been known to the literature for almost 50 years and in general, this PTM is believed to facilitate membrane attachments of proteins for the obvious hydrophobicity of the palmitoyl group. But after the discovery of the protein palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs, also known as DHHC-PATs), a major paradigm shift has been observed in the field of protein S-palmitoylation...
March 22, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588073/mir-22-regulates-c2c12-myoblast-proliferation-and-differentiation-by-targeting-tgfbr1
#13
Han Wang, Qian Zhang, BinBin Wang, WangJun Wu, Julong Wei, Pinghua Li, Ruihua Huang
Recently, miR-22 was found to be differentially expressed in different skeletal muscle growth period, indicated that it might have function in skeletal muscle myogenesis. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-22 was the most in skeletal muscle and was gradually up-regulated during mouse myoblast cell (C2C12 myoblast cell line) differentiation. Overexpression of miR-22 repressed C2C12 myoblast proliferation and promoted myoblast differentiation into myotubes, whereas inhibition of miR-22 showed the opposite results...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573831/morphogenetic-movements-affect-local-tissue-organisation-during-embryonic-drosophila-morphogenesis
#14
Annalisa Letizia, Sebastien Tosi, Marta Llimargas
Tissues and organs undergo extensive remodelling to reach their final morphology and physiological activity. The genetic programs underlying tissue formation are well studied, but less is known about how this formation is influenced by extrinsic forces derived from other concomitant morphogenetic events. Here we address this question in Drosophila melanogaster. We analyse tissue organisation in the embryonic epidermis at stage 10 by computational tissue segmentation methods to provide a quantitative description of packing...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555102/exploring-the-multifaceted-roles-of-heat-shock-protein-b8-hspb8-in-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Fazhao Li, Han Xiao, Zhiping Hu, Fangfang Zhou, Binbin Yang
HSPB8 is a member of ubiquitous small heat shock protein (sHSP) family, whose expression is induced in response to a wide variety of unfavorable physiological and environmental conditions. Investigation of HSPB8 structure indicated that HSPB8 belongs to the group of so-called intrinsically disordered proteins and possesses a highly flexible structure. Unlike most other sHSPs, HSPB8 tends to form small-molecular-mass oligomers and exhibits substrate-dependent chaperone activity. In cooperation with BAG3, the chaperone activity of HSPB8 was reported to be involved in the delivery of misfolded proteins to the autophagy machinery...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555101/gaec1-mutations-and-copy-number-aberration-is-associated-with-biological-aggressiveness-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Katherine Ting-Wei Lee, Vinod Gopalan, Farhadul Islam, Riajul Wahab, Afraa Mamoori, Cu-Tai Lu, Robert Anthony Smith, Alfred King-Yin Lam
GAEC1 (gene amplified in oesophageal cancer 1) is a transforming oncogene with tumorigenic potential observed in both oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, there has been a lack of study done on this gene to understand how this gene exert its oncogenic properties in cancer. This study aims to identify novel mutation sites in GAEC1. To do so, seventy-nine matched colorectal cancers were tested for GAEC1 mutation via Sanger sequencing. The mutations noted were investigated for the correlations with the clinicopathological parameters of the patients with the cancer...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550264/insulin-downregulates-c3-gene-expression-in-human-hepg2-cells-through-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE
#17
Vladimir S Shavva, Alexandra M Bogomolova, Alexander M Efremov, Alexander N Trofimov, Artemy A Nikitin, Anna V Babina, Ekaterina V Nekrasova, Ella B Dizhe, Galina N Oleinikova, Boris V Missyul, Sergey V Orlov
C3 is an acute phase protein, and thus its plasma concentration increases quickly and drastically during the onset of inflammation. Insulin plays a complex role in inflammation. Elevated level of plasma C3 was shown to correlate with heightened fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance and appears to be a risk factor for the cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The main source of plasma C3 is liver. Nothing is known about effects of insulin on C3 gene expression and protein secretion by hepatocytes...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526322/glycosylation-controls-sodium-calcium-exchanger-3-sub-cellular-localization-during-cell-cycle
#18
Tong Liu, Jian Zhao, Cristian Ibarra, Maxime U Garcia, Per Uhlén, Monica Nistér
The Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) is a membrane antiporter that has been identified in the plasma membrane, the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In humans, three genes have been identified, encoding unique NCX proteins. Although extensively studied, the NCX's sub-cellular localization and mechanisms regulating the activity of different subtypes are still ambiguous. Here we investigated the subcellular localization of the NCX subtype 3 (NCX3) and its impact on the cell cycle...
April 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486902/lncrna-miat-facilitated-bm-mscs-differentiation-into-endothelial-cells-and-restored-erectile-dysfunction-via-targeting-mir-200a-in-a-rat-model-of-erectile-dysfunction
#19
Hui Wang, Xie-Gang Ding, Jin-Jian Yang, Shi-Wen Li, Hang Zheng, Chao-Hui Gu, Zhan-Kui Jia, Lu Li
BACKGROUND: Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) implantation effectively restored rats' erectile dysfunction (ED). Long noncoding RNA (LncRNA)-myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) has been reported to play an important role in regulating endothelial cells (ECs) function via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that induced BM-MSCs differentiation into ECs. However, the molecular functions and biological roles of lncRNA MIAT in ED remained unclear. METHODS: The rat model of ED was established...
April 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482850/a-heterogeneous-trna-granule-structure-exhibiting-rapid-bi-directional-neuritic-transport
#20
Julie Pilotte, See-Wing Chan, John B Farnum, William M Thomas, Zeev Smilansky, Peter W Vanderklish
mRNA translation is regulated by diverse mechanisms that converge at the initiation and elongation steps to determine the rate, profile, and localization of proteins synthesized. A consistently relevant feature of these mechanisms is the spatial re-distribution of translation machinery, a process of particular importance in neural cells. This process has, however, been largely overlooked with respect to its potential role in regulating the local concentration of cytoplasmic tRNAs, even as a multitude of data suggest that spatial regulation of the tRNA pool may help explain the remarkably high rates of peptide elongation...
April 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
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