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European Journal of Cell Biology

Tong Liu, Jian Zhao, Cristian Ibarra, Maxime U Garcia, Per Uhlén, Monica Nistér
The Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) is a membrane antiporter that has been identified in the plasma membrane, the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In humans, three genes have been identified, encoding unique NCX proteins. Although extensively studied, the NCX's sub-cellular localization and mechanisms regulating the activity of different subtypes are still ambiguous. Here we investigated the subcellular localization of the NCX subtype 3 (NCX3) and its impact on the cell cycle...
February 28, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Padmanaban S Suresh, Rie Tsutsumi, Thejaswini Venkatesh
YBX1 (Y box binding protein 1) is an RNA-/DNA-binding multifunctional protein harboring the classical cold shock protein (CSD) domain, an A/P domain, and a long C-terminal domain with alternating positively and negatively charged amino acids. It is a well-established oncogenic transcriptional factor, and regulates apoptosis, translation, cell proliferation, mRNA splicing, repair, differentiation, and stress response. The non-coding transcriptome has added yet another layer of complexity to the YBX1-mediated master regulation of cellular functions...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Julie Pilotte, See-Wing Chan, John B Farnum, William M Thomas, Zeev Smilansky, Peter W Vanderklish
mRNA translation is regulated by diverse mechanisms that converge at the initiation and elongation steps to determine the rate, profile, and localization of proteins synthesized. A consistently relevant feature of these mechanisms is the spatial re-distribution of translation machinery, a process of particular importance in neural cells. This process has, however, been largely overlooked with respect to its potential role in regulating the local concentration of cytoplasmic tRNAs, even as a multitude of data suggest that spatial regulation of the tRNA pool may help explain the remarkably high rates of peptide elongation...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Hui Wang, Xie-Gang Ding, Jin-Jian Yang, Shi-Wen Li, Hang Zheng, Chao-Hui Gu, Zhan-Kui Jia, Lu Li
BACKGROUND: Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) implantation effectively restored rats' erectile dysfunction (ED). Long noncoding RNA (LncRNA)-myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) has been reported to play an important role in regulating endothelial cells (ECs) function via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that induced BM-MSCs differentiation into ECs. However, the molecular functions and biological roles of lncRNA MIAT in ED remained unclear. METHODS: The rat model of ED was established...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Pelin Makaraci, Kyoungtae Kim
Cargo following the retrograde trafficking are sorted at endosomes to be targeted the trans-Golgi network (TGN), a central receiving organelle. Though molecular requirements and their interaction networks have been somewhat established, the complete understanding of the intricate nature of their action mechanisms in every step of the retrograde traffic pathway remains unachieved. This review focuses on elucidating known functions of key regulators, including scission factors at the endosome and tethering/fusion mediators at the receiving dock, TGN, as well as a diverse range of cargo...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Somayeh Karimzadeh, Saman Hosseinkhani, Ali Fathi, Farangis Ataei, Hossein Baharvand
Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial apoptosis regulators and executioners may regulate differentiation, without being involved in cell death. However, the involved factors and their roles in differentiation and apoptosis are still not fully determined. In the present study, we compared mitochondrial pathway of cell death during early neural differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Our results demonstrated that ROS generation, cytosolic cytochrome c release, caspases activation and rise in p53 protein level occurred upon either neural or apoptosis induction in hESCs...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Maria Nathalia Moraes, Keila Karoline Magalhães-Marques, Ana Maria Castrucci
The mammalian skin has a photosensitive system comprised by several opsins, including rhodopsin (OPN2) and melanopsin (OPN4). Recently, our group showed that UVA (4.4 kJ/m2) leads to immediate pigment darkening (IPD) in murine normal and malignant melanocytes. We show the role of OPN2 and OPN4 as UVA sensors: UVA-induced IPD was fully abolished when OPN4 was pharmacologically inhibited by AA9253 or when OPN2 and OPN4 were knocked down by siRNA in both cell lines. Our data, however, demonstrate that phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway, a classical OPN4 pathway, is not involved in UVA-induced IPD in either cell line...
January 26, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Roman Petrovsky, Georg Krohne, Jörg Großhans
The nuclear envelope has a stereotypic morphology consisting of a flat double layer of the inner and outer nuclear membrane, with interspersed nuclear pores. Underlying and tightly linked to the inner nuclear membrane is the nuclear lamina, a proteinous layer of intermediate filament proteins and associated proteins. Physiological, experimental or pathological alterations in the constitution of the lamina lead to changes in nuclear morphology, such as blebs and lobulations. It has so far remained unclear whether the morphological changes depend on the differentiation state and the specific lamina protein...
January 24, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Richa Sharma, Mukund M D Pramanik, Balasubramanian Chandramouli, Namrata Rastogi, Niti Kumar
Dysfunctional organellar protein quality control machinery leads to protein misfolding associated cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, metabolic and secretory disorders. To understand organellar homeostasis, suitable tools are required which can sense changes in their respective protein folding capacity upon exposure to environmental and pharmacological perturbations. Herein, we have assessed protein folding capacity of cellular organelles using a metastable sensor selectively targeted to cytosol, nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi and peroxisomes...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Renata Zuber, Michaela Norum, Yiwen Wang, Kathrin Oehl, Nicole Gehring, Davide Accardi, Slawomir Bartozsewski, Jürgen Berger, Matthias Flötenmeyer, Bernard Moussian
Lipids in extracellular matrices (ECM) contribute to barrier function and stability of epithelial tissues such as the pulmonary alveoli and the skin. In insects, skin waterproofness depends on the outermost layer of the extracellular cuticle termed envelope that contains cuticulin, an unidentified water-repellent complex molecule composed of proteins, lipids and catecholamines. Based on live-imaging analyses of fruit fly larvae, we find that initially envelope units are assembled within putative vesicles harbouring the ABC transporter Snu and the extracellular protein Snsl...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
Nabanita Saha, Somnath Dutta, Shankari P Datta, Srimonti Sarkar
The ESCRT pathway functions at different subcellular membranes to induce their negative curvature, and it has been largely characterized in model eukaryotes belonging to Opisthokonta. But searches of the genomes of many nonopisthokonts belonging to various supergroups indicate that some of them may harbour fewer ESCRT components. Of the genomes explored thus far, one of the most minimal set of ESCRT components was identified in the human pathogen Giardia lamblia, which belongs to Excavata. Here we report that an ESCRT-mediated pathway most likely operates at the peripheral vesicles, which are located at the cell periphery and the bare zone of this protist...
January 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ritam Chatterjee, Sujata Law
Aplastic anemia or bone marrow failure often develops as an effect of chemotherapeutic drug application for the treatment of various pathophysiological conditions including cancer. The long-term bone marrow injury affects the basic hematopoietic population including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). The present study aimed in unearthing the underlying mechanisms of chemotherapeutics mediated bone marrow aplasia with special focus on altered redox status and associated effects on hematopoietic microenvironment and epigenetic status of hematopoietic cells...
January 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Divya Vimal, Saurabh Kumar, Ashutosh Pandey, Divya Sharma, Sanjay Saini, Snigdha Gupta, Kristipati Ravi Ram, Debapratim Kar Chowdhuri
Mismatch repair (MMR) system, a conserved DNA repair pathway, plays crucial role in DNA recombination and is involved in gametogenesis. The impact of alterations in MMR family of proteins (bacterial MutS and MutL homologues) on mammalian fertility is well documented. However, an insight to the role of MMR in reproduction of non-mammalian organisms is limited. Hence, in the present study, we analysed the impact of mlh1 (a MutL homologue) on meiotic crossing over/recombination and fertility in a genetically tractable model, Drosophila melanogaster...
December 16, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
Luc Snyers, Renate Erhart, Sylvia Laffer, Oliver Pusch, Klara Weipoltshammer, Christian Schöfer
The human LEM-domain protein family is involved in fundamental aspects of nuclear biology. The LEM-domain interacts with the barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), which itself binds DNA. LEM-domain proteins LAP2, emerin and MAN1 are proteins of the inner nuclear membrane; they have important functions: maintaining the integrity of the nuclear lamina and regulating gene expression at the nuclear periphery. LEM4/ANKLE-2 has been proposed to participate in nuclear envelope reassembly after mitosis and to mediate dephosphorylation of BAF through binding to phosphatase PP2A...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
Shatrunajay Shukla, Sugandh Saxena, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Poonam Kakkar
BH3-only proteins constitute major proportion of pro-apoptotic members of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of apoptotic regulatory proteins and participate in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and immunity. Absence of BH3-only proteins contributes to autoimmune disorders and tumorigenesis. Bim (Bcl-2 Interacting Mediator of cell death), most important member of BH3-only proteins, shares a BH3-only domain (9-16 aa) among 4 domains (BH1-BH4) of Bcl-2 family proteins and highly pro-apoptotic in nature...
December 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
Rafal Bartoszewski, Marcin Serocki, Anna Janaszak-Jasiecka, Sylwia Bartoszewska, Kinga Kochan-Jamrozy, Arkadiusz Piotrowski, Jarosław Króliczewski, James F Collawn
The role of microRNAs in controlling angiogenesis is recognized as a promising therapeutic target in both cancer and cardiovascular disorders. However, understanding a miRNA's pleiotropic effects on angiogenesis is a limiting factor for these types of therapeutic approaches. Using genome-wide next-generation sequencing, we examined the role of an antiangiogenic miRNA, miR-200b, in primary human endothelial cells. The results indicate that miR-200b has complex effects on hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in human endothelia and importantly, that many of the reported miR-200b effects using miRNA overexpression may not be representative of the physiological role of this miRNA...
December 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
Lufeng Zheng, Xiaoman Li, Jinjiang Chou, Chenxi Xiang, Qianqian Guo, Zhiting Zhang, Xinwei Guo, Lanlan Gao, Yingying Xing, Tao Xi
Competitive endogenous messenger RNA (ceRNA) affects transcription of other RNA molecules by competitively binding common microRNAs. Previous studies have shown that TP53INP1 functions as a suppressor in tumor metastasis. Our study elucidated StarD13 messenger RNA as a ceRNA in regulating migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. MicroRNA-125b was identified to induce metastasis of MCF-7 cells and bind with both StarD13 3'UTR and TP53INP1 3'UTR. Therefore, a ceRNA interaction between StarD13 and TP53INP1 mediated by competitively binding to miR-125b was indicated...
November 11, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
Anna Chruścik, Vinod Gopalan, Alfred King-Yin Lam
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multipurpose cytokine, which plays a role in many cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, cell adhesion and regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Despite many studies having observed the effect that TGF-β plays in colorectal cancer, its role in the colorectal stem cell population has not been widely observed. METHOD: This systematic review will analyse the role of TGF-β in the stem cell population of colorectal cancer...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
Deepa Indira, Shankara Narayanan Varadarajan, Santhik Subhasingh Lupitha, Asha Lekshmi, Krupa Ann Mathew, Aneesh Chandrasekharan, Prakash Rajappan Pillai, Ishaque Pulikkal Kadamberi, Indu Ramachandran, Hari Sekar, Anurup Kochucherukkan Gopalakrishnan, Santhoshkumar Tr
The selective autophagic removal of mitochondria called mitophagy is an essential physiological signaling for clearing damaged mitochondria and thus maintains the functional integrity of mitochondria and cells. Defective mitophagy is implicated in several diseases, placing mitophagy as a target for drug development. The identification of key regulators of mitophagy as well as chemical modulators of mitophagy requires sensitive and reliable quantitative approaches. Since mitophagy is a rapidly progressing event and sub-microscopic in nature, live cell image-based detection tools with high spatial and temporal resolution is preferred over end-stage assays...
October 27, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
Alix M Denoncourt, Alicia F Durocher, Valérie E Paquet, Steve J Charette
The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum produces and secretes multilamellar bodies (MLBs) mainly composed of amoebal membranes upon digestion of bacteria. After their secretion, the fate of these MLBs remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if protozoa can internalize and digest secreted D. discoideum MLBs. Our results showed that MLBs were ingested by naive axenic D. discoideum cells (i. e. cells not exposed to bacteria and consequently not producing MLBs). Only a small fraction of the ingested MLBs were found in cells' post-lysosomes compared to undigestible beads suggesting that naive amoebae digest them...
October 14, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
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