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European Journal of Cell Biology

Ruth Brennan, Antje Haap-Hoff, Lili Gu, Virginie Gautier, Aideen Long, Martina Schröder
The human DEAD-box helicase DDX3 is a multi-functional protein involved in the regulation of gene expression and additional non-conventional roles as signalling adaptor molecule that are independent of its enzymatic RNA remodeling activity. It is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and it has previously been suggested that dysregulation of its subcellular localization could contribute to tumourigenesis. Indeed, both tumour suppressor and oncogenic functions have been attributed to DDX3. In this study, we investigated the regulation of DDX3's nucleocytoplasmic shuttling...
August 4, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Lei Hong, Xiaolong Du, Wendong Li, Youjun Mao, Lili Sun, Xiaoqiang Li
The endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is the process by which endothelial cells lose a portion of their cellular features and obtain certain characteristics of mesenchymal cells, including loss of tight junctions, increased motility, and increased secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. EndMT is involved in cardiac development and a variety of diseases processes, such as vascular or tissue fibrosis and tumor. However, its role in specific diseases remains under debate. This review summarizes EndMT-related diseases, existing controversies, different types of EndMT, and molecules and signaling pathways associated with the process...
July 29, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Sushri Priyadarshini, Biswaranjan Pradhan, Philip Griebel, Palok Aich
Epidemiological studies implicate stress as an important factor contributing to the increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders. Studies have correlated visceral obesity and atherosclerosis with hyper-cortisolemia, a sequela of chronic psychological stress in humans and animals. Although several hormonal markers of stress have been associated with various metabolic disorders, the mechanism by which these hormones alter metabolic functions have not been established. We used an in vitro model system, culturing 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and RAW 264...
July 27, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Fei Yu, Tao Xu, Man Wang, Wenguang Chang, Peifeng Li, Jianxun Wang
Mitochondrial dynamics with constant fusion and fission plays vital roles in regulating cellular biological processes. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is dynamin-related protein whose activity promotes mitochondrial fusion and maintains the homeostasis of mitochondrial dynamics. Advanced studies have demonstrated that Mfn2 is a multifunctional protein with signaling roles beyond fusion. Mfn2 is actively involved in various biological processes under both physical and pathological conditions, including mitochondrial transport and the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum/sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as well as cell metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Esmeralda Dautović, Milica Perišić Nanut, Adaleta Softić, Janko Kos
Cystatin F is an inhibitor of cysteine peptidases expressed solely in immune cells. It is the only type II cystatin able to enter endosomal/lysosomal vesicles and to regulate directly the activity of intracellular cysteine cathepsins. Its expression in promonocytic U937 and promyeloblastic HL-60 cells is highly upregulated but, after differentiation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate - PMA, its levels drop significantly. In contrast, the activities of intracellular cysteine cathepsins C, L and S are higher in differentiated cells than in non-differentiated ones due, presumably, to the lower inhibitory capacity of cystatin F...
July 17, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Laura Cristina Ceafalan, Ana-Maria Enciu, Tudor Emanuel Fertig, Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu, Mihaela Gherghiceanu, Mihail Eugen Hinescu, Eugen Radu
Adult tissue homeostasis and repair relies on prompt and appropriate intervention by tissue-specific adult stem cells (SCs). SCs have the ability to self-renew; upon appropriate stimulation, they proliferate and give rise to specialized cells. An array of environmental signals is important for maintenance of the SC pool and SC survival, behavior, and fate. Within this special microenvironment, commonly known as the stem cell niche (SCN), SC behavior and fate are regulated by soluble molecules and direct molecular contacts via adhesion molecules providing connections to local supporting cells and the extracellular matrix...
August 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Hajar Owji, Navid Nezafat, Manica Negahdaripour, Ali Hajiebrahimi, Younes Ghasemi
Signal peptides (SP) are short peptides located in the N-terminal of proteins, carrying information for protein secretion. They are ubiquitous to all prokaryotes and eukaryotes. SPs have been of special interest in several scientific and industrial fields, including recombinant protein production, disease diagnosis, immunization, and laboratory techniques. Recently, the role of SPs in recombinant protein production has gained too much attention. Herein, several studies have been reviewed to elucidate the precise structure and function of SPs, particularly the optimized ones for recombinant protein production...
August 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Romina E Maltaneri, Agustina Schiappacasse, María E Chamorro, Alcira B Nesse, Daniela C Vittori
Calcium (Ca2+ ) plays an important role in angiogenesis, as it activates the cell migration machinery. Different proangiogenic factors have been demonstrated to induce transient Ca2+ increases in endothelial cells. This has raised interest in the contribution of Ca2+ channels to cell migration, and in a possible use of channel-blocking compounds in angiogenesis-related pathologies. We have investigated the ability of erythropoietin (Epo), a cytokine recently involved in angiogenesis, to induce Ca2+ influx through different types of membrane channels in EA...
August 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
María Macarena Massip-Copiz, Tomás Antonio Santa-Coloma
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by CFTR mutations. It is characterized by high NaCl concentration in sweat and the production of a thick and sticky mucus, occluding secretory ducts, intestine and airways, accompanied by chronic inflammation and infections of the lungs. This causes a progressive and lethal decline in lung function. Therefore, finding the mechanisms driving the high susceptibility to lung infections has been a key issue. For decades the prevalent hypothesis was that a reduced airway surface liquid (ASL) volume and composition, and the consequent increased mucus concentration (dehydration), create an environment favoring infections...
August 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Pontus Aspenström
The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD has previously been shown to have a major impact on the organization and function of the actin filament system. However, when first discovered, RhoD was found to regulate endosome trafficking and dynamics and we therefore sought to investigate this regulation in more detail. We found that exogenously expressed RhoD in human fibroblasts localized to vesicles and the plasma membrane and that the active GTP-bound conformation was required for the plasma membrane localization but not for vesicle localization...
August 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
V Kumar
Sepsis has always been considered as a big challenge for pharmaceutical companies in terms of discovering and designing new therapeutics. The pathogenesis of sepsis involves aberrant activation of innate immune cells (i.e. macrophages, neutrophils etc.) at early stages. However, a stage of immunosuppression is also observed during sepsis even in the patients who have recovered from it. This stage of immunosuppression is observed due to the loss of conventional (i.e. CD4+ , CD8+ ) T cells, Th17 cells and an upregulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
August 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Yanmei Zou, Shuo Yao, Xiuqiong Chen, Dian Liu, Jianhua Wang, Xun Yuan, Jie Rao, Huihua Xiong, Shiying Yu, Xianglin Yuan, Feng Zhu, Guohong Hu, Yihua Wang, Hua Xiong
OBJECT: This study aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA OIP5-AS1 in regulating radioresistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to screen out lncRNAs differentially expressed in radio-resistant CRC cell lines. Expression levels of OIP5-AS1, miR-369-3p and DYRK1A in CRC cell lines were measured by qRT-PCR. Protein expression of DYRK1A was determined by western blot. The target relationships among OIP5-AS1, miR-369-3p and DYRK1A were validated by dual luciferase reporter assay...
June 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ahmad Abdullah, Palaniyandi Ravanan
IRE1α (Inositol Requiring kinase Enzyme 1 alpha), a transmembrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a master regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. The fate determining steps during ER stress-induced apoptosis are greatly attributed to IRE1α's endoribonuclease and kinase activities. Apart from its role as a chief executioner in ER stress, recent studies have shown that upon activation in the presence or absence of ER stress, IRE1α executes multiple cellular processes such as differentiation, immune response, progression and repression of the cell cycle...
June 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Gabriel Carmona-Rosas, Rocío Alcántara-Hernández, David Alejandro Hernández-Espinosa
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as key biological entities that regulate a plethora of physiological processes and participate in the onset and development of many diseases. Moreover, these receptors are important targets of almost 25% of the current therapeutic drugs in the market. Upon agonist binding, GPCRs activate a great number of signaling pathways, resulting in important cellular events like gene transcription, survival, proliferation and differentiation. In order to activate such events, GPCRs interact with a variety of scaffold and molecular entities, particularly with G proteins, but also with β-arrestins and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway, forming unique signaling modules...
June 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Do Yeon Lee, Seung Hyun Hong, Bokyung Kim, Dong-Seok Lee, Kweon Yu, Kyu-Sun Lee
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved adaptive reaction that increases cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. ER stress-associated neuronal cell death pathways play roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has an important role in neuroprotection against neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated whether NPY has a protective role in ER stress-induced neuronal cell death in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells...
June 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Indranil De, Sushabhan Sadhukhan
Protein S-palmitoylation refers to a post-translational modification (PTM) wherein palmitic acid, a 16-carbon long saturated fatty acid gets covalently attached to Cys sidechain of a protein. It has been known to the literature for almost 50 years and in general, this PTM is believed to facilitate membrane attachments of proteins for the obvious hydrophobicity of the palmitoyl group. But after the discovery of the protein palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs, also known as DHHC-PATs), a major paradigm shift has been observed in the field of protein S-palmitoylation...
June 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Xiao Chun Wang, Ziguang Liu, Li Hua Jin
G protein-coupled receptors play particularly important roles in many organisms. The novel Drosophila gene anchor is an orthologue of vertebrate GPR155. However, the roles of anchor in molecular functions and biological processes, especially in wing development, remain unknown. Knockdown of anchor resulted in an increased wing size and additional and thickened veins. These abnormal wing phenotypes were similar to those observed in BMP signalling gain-of-function experiments. We observed that the BMP signalling indicator p-Mad was significantly increased in wing discs in which anchor RNAi was induced in larvae and accumulated abnormally in intervein regions in pupae...
May 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Nafees Ahamad, Tanuj Sharma, Saman Khan, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Shakil Ahmed
Mammalian Lst8 interacts with the kinase domain of mTOR and stabilizes its interaction with Raptor regulating cell growth through the mTOR-S6K1 signalling pathway. Fission yeast Wat1, an ortholog of mammalian Lst8 is also an essential component of TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR Complex 2 (TORC2) that control protein kinases essential for metabolic pathways. Here, we show that in response to osmotic stress, the Wat1 protein undergoes hyper-phosphorylation at S116 position. Wat1 interacts with the C-terminal region of Tor1 that also contain kinase domain...
May 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Georg Krohne
Nematocysts are characteristic organelles of the phylum cnidaria. They are designated kleptocnidae when sequestered in animals that feed on cnidaria. Kleptocnidae are known for more than a century. Nevertheless it is still enigmatic how selected nematocyst types survive in the predator and how they reach their final destination in the foreign body. In the free-living Platyhelminth Microstomum lineare the fate of nematocysts of the prey Hydra oligactis was analyzed at the ultrastructural level and by fluorescence microscopy using hydra polyps that had been stained in vivo with the fluorescent dyes TROMI and TRITC...
May 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Hajar Rezanejad Bardaji, Malek Hossein Asadi, Mohammad Mehdi Yaghoobi
Emerging evidence indicates that lncRNAs play crucial roles in the initiation and progression of various malignant tumors. VIM-AS1 RNA is an lncRNA that transcribes from a shared bidirectional promoter with vimentin mRNA and its function in cancer cells is largely unknown. This study assessed the clinical significance of VIM-AS1 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC). We found that the VIM-AS1 transcript was significantly upregulated in high-grade, lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion tumors. Loss-of-function experiments revealed that the downregulation of VIM-AS1 could inhibit tumor cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis, cellular senescence and arresting the cell cycle...
May 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
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