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European Journal of Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427795/reappraisal-to-the-study-of-4e-bp1-as-an-mtor-substrate-a-normative-critique
#1
REVIEW
Asiya Batool, Sabreena Aashaq, Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi
mTOR-4E-BP1 axis is regarded as the best oncogenic circuitry impinging on translational control whereby mTORC1 dictates post-translational regulation of 4E-BP1. This review provides new insights into the molecular network of signalling pathways highlighting the recent explosion of studies in respect to the deviant behaviour of 4E-BP1 towards mTORC1. Despite the striking conservation of mTOR nexus, the eccentric phosphorylation dynamics of 4E-BP1 negate the apparent linear architecture of mTORC1 attesting the importance of other kinases that may evoke cross-talks with the conventional frame, most of which are enlisted in the manuscript...
April 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413120/endosome-to-trans-golgi-network-transport-of-proprotein-convertase-7-is-mediated-by-a-cluster-of-basic-amino-acids-and-palmitoylated-cysteines
#2
Jeroen Declercq, Bruno Ramos-Molina, Ragna Sannerud, Bas Brouwers, Vincent P E G Pruniau, Sandra Meulemans, Evelyn Plets, Wim Annaert, John W M Creemers
Proprotein Convertase 7 (PC7) is a Furin-like endoprotease that cleaves precursor proteins at basic amino acids. PC7 is concentrated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but it shuttles between the plasma membrane and the TGN depending on sequences in the cytoplasmic tail. A short region containing a three amino acids motif, P(724)-L(725)-C(726), is essential and sufficient for internalization of PC7 but not for TGN localization, which requires the additional presence of the juxtamembrane region. In this study we have investigated the contribution of a cluster of basic amino acids and two reversibly palmitoylated cysteine residues to endocytic trafficking...
April 7, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413119/the-two-dictyostelium-discoideum-autophagy-8-proteins-have-distinct-autophagic-functions
#3
Susanne Meßling, Jan Matthias, Qiuhong Xiong, Sarah Fischer, Ludwig Eichinger
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular degradation pathway which is crucial for various cellular processes. The autophagic process is subdivided in the initiation, autophagosome maturation and lysosomal degradation phases and involves more than forty core and accessory autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. Autophagy 8 (ATG8, in mammals LC3) is a well-established marker of autophagy and is linked to the autophagic membrane from initiation until fusion with the lysosome. We generated single and double knock-out mutants of the two Dictyostelium paralogues, ATG8a and ATG8b, as well as strains that expressed RFP-ATG8a and/or GFP-ATG8b, RFP-ATG8b, RFP-GFP-ATG8a or RFP-GFP-ATG8b in different knock-out mutants...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413121/characterisation-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-terminal-differentiation-in-a-maximally-proliferative-human-epithelial-tissue-lessons-from-the-human-hair-follicle-matrix
#4
Talveen S Purba, Lars Brunken, Michael Peake, Asim Shahmalak, Asuncion Chaves, Enrique Poblet, Ralf Paus
Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2)) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression...
April 2, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396058/connexin43-high-prostate-cancer-cells-induce-endothelial-connexin43-up-regulation-through-the-activation-of-intercellular-erk1-2-dependent-signaling-axis
#5
Katarzyna Piwowarczyk, Milena Paw, Damian Ryszawy, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Zbigniew Madeja, Maciej Siedlar, Jarosław Czyż
Connexin(Cx)43 regulates the invasive potential of prostate cancer cells and participates in their extravasation. To address the role of endothelial Cx43 in this process, we analyzed Cx43 regulation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in the proximity of Cx43(high) (DU-145 and MAT-LyLu) and Cx43(low) prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and AT-2). Endothelial Cx43 up-regulation was observed during the diapedesis of DU-145 and MAT-LyLu cells. This process was attenuated by transient Cx43 silencing in cancer cells and by chemical inhibition of ERK1/2-dependent signaling in endothelial cells...
April 1, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377049/the-endocytic-pathways-of-a-secretory-granule-membrane-protein-in-hek293-cells-pam-and-egf-traverse-a-dynamic-multivesicular-body-network-together
#6
Nils Bäck, Kristiina Kanerva, Vishwanatha Kurutihalli, Andrew Yanik, Elina Ikonen, Richard E Mains, Betty A Eipper
Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs)...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372831/%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-1ap-1-complexes-different-essential-functions-and-regulatory-mechanisms-in-clathrin-dependent-protein-sorting
#7
Daniela Zizioli, Constanze Geumann, Manuel Kratzke, Ratnakar Mishra, Guiseppe Borsani, Dario Finazzi, Ermes Candiello, Peter Schu
γ2 adaptin is homologous to γ1, but is only expressed in vertebrates while γ1 is found in all eukaryotes. We know little about γ2 functions and their relation to γ1. γ1 is an adaptin of the heterotetrameric AP-1 complexes, which sort proteins in and do form clathrin-coated transport vesicles and they also regulate maturation of early endosomes. γ1 knockout mice develop only to blastocysts and thus γ2 does not compensate γ1-deficiency in development. γ2 has not been classified as a clathrin-coated vesicle adaptor protein in proteome analyses and functions for monomeric γ2 in endosomal protein sorting have been proposed, but adaptin interaction studies suggested formation of heterotetrameric AP-1/γ2 complexes...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347547/pace4-is-an-important-driver-of-zr-75-1-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-proliferation-and-tumor-progression
#8
François Panet, Frédéric Couture, Anna Kwiatkowska, Roxane Desjardins, Brigitte Guérin, Robert Day
Breast cancer is the most frequent and deadly malignancy in women worldwide. Despite national screening programs combined with new treatments relapse rate remain high and new therapies are needed. From previous work, we identified PACE4, a member of the proprotein convertase (PCs) family of endoproteases, as a novel therapeutic target in prostate cancer. In the present study we asked the question if PACE4 could also be a potential target in breast cancer. In clinical samples of breast adenocarcinoma, we observed a specific overexpression of PACE4 in the estrogen-receptor (ER) positive subtype...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372832/cab45-unraveling-key-features-of-a-novel-secretory-cargo-sorter-at-the-trans-golgi-network
#9
REVIEW
Birgit Blank, Julia von Blume
The accurate and efficient delivery of proteins to specific domains of the plasma membrane or to the extracellular space is critical for the ordered function of surface receptors and proteins such as insulin, collagens, antibodies, extracellular proteases. The trans-Golgi network is responsible for sorting proteins onto specific carriers for transport to their final destination. The role of the mannose-6-phosphate receptor in the sorting of hydrolases destined for lysosomes has been studied extensively, but the sorting mechanisms for secreted proteins remains poorly understood...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366434/latest-emerging-functions-of-spp-sppl-intramembrane-proteases
#10
REVIEW
Torben Mentrup, Regina Fluhrer, Bernd Schröder
Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) and the four related SPP-like (SPPL) proteases are homologues of the presenilins, which comprise the catalytic centre of the γ-secretase complex. SPP/SPPL proteases are GxGD-type aspartyl intramembrane proteases selective for substrates with a type II membrane topology. Subcellular localisations of SPP/SPPL proteases range from the early secretory pathway to the plasma membrane and the endocytic system. Similarly diverse are their functional roles at the cellular level covering the turnover of signal peptides and membrane proteins, a contribution to the ERAD pathway as well as the regulation of cellular protein glycosylation and certain signaling pathways...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363396/the-requirement-of-integrins-for-breast-epithelial-proliferation
#11
Paulina Moreno-Layseca, Ahmet Ucar, Heyuan Sun, Amber Wood, Safiah Olabi, Andrew P Gilmore, Keith Brennan, Charles H Streuli
Epithelial cells forming mammary gland ducts and alveoli require adhesion to the extracellular matrix for their function. Mammary epithelial cells need β1-integrins for normal cell cycle regulation. However, the role of β1-integrins in tumorigenesis has not been fully resolved. β1-integrin is necessary for tumour formation in transgenic mice expressing the Polyomavirus Middle T antigen, but it is dispensable in those overexpressing ErbB2. This suggests that some oncogenes can manage without β1-integrin to proliferate and form tumours, while others still require it...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336087/dermatopontin-augments-angiogenesis-and-modulates-the-expression-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-and-integrin-alpha-3-beta-1-in-endothelial-cells
#12
Venkat Raghavan Krishnaswamy, Uma Maheshwari Balaguru, Suvro Chatterjee, Purna Sai Korrapati
Dermatopontin (DPT) is a matricellular protein with cardinal roles in cutaneous wound healing. The protein is also reported to be altered in various anomalies including cancer. The present study is aimed to unravel the role of DPT in angiogenesis which is imperative in many physiological and pathological processes. DPT's capabilities on promoting angiogenesis were assessed using various in vitro and ex vivo systems. The results indicated that DPT enhances cell motility and induces lamellipodia formation in endothelial cells...
March 11, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325500/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-are-involved-in-chemoattractant-induced-oxidative-burst-and-degranulation-of-human-neutrophils-in-vitro
#13
Nina Vorobjeva, Anastasia Prikhodko, Ivan Galkin, Olga Pletjushkina, Roman Zinovkin, Galina Sud'ina, Boris Chernyak, Boris Pinegin
Activation of neutrophils is accompanied by the oxidative burst, exocytosis of various granule types (degranulation) and a delay in spontaneous apoptosis. The major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neutrophils is NADPH oxidase (NOX2), however, other sources of ROS also exist. Although the function of ROS is mainly defensive, they can also play a regulatory role in cell signaling. However, the contribution of various sources of ROS in these processes is not clear. We investigated a possible role of mitochondria-derived ROS (mtROS) in the regulation of neutrophil activation induced by chemoattractant fMLP in vitro...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336086/incretin-hormones-regulate-microglia-oxidative-stress-survival-and-expression-of-trophic-factors
#14
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are primarily known for their metabolic function in the periphery. GLP-1 and GIP are secreted by intestinal endocrine cells in response to ingested nutrients. Both GLP-1 and GIP stimulate the production and release of insulin from pancreatic β cells as well as exhibit several growth-regulating effects on peripheral tissues. GLP-1 and GIP are also present in the brain, where they provide modulatory and anti-apoptotic signals to neurons...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274595/interdependence-of-thyroglobulin-processing-and-thyroid-hormone-export-in-the-mouse-thyroid-gland
#15
Jonas Weber, Joseph McInnes, Cise Kizilirmak, Maren Rehders, Maria Qatato, Eva K Wirth, Ulrich Schweizer, Francois Verrey, Heike Heuer, Klaudia Brix
Thyroid hormone (TH) target cells need to adopt mechanisms to maintain sufficient levels of TH to ensure regular functions. This includes thyroid epithelial cells, which generate TH in addition to being TH-responsive. However, the cellular and molecular pathways underlying thyroid auto-regulation are insufficiently understood. In order to investigate whether thyroglobulin processing and TH export are sensed by thyrocytes, we inactivated thyroglobulin-processing cathepsins and TH-exporting monocarboxylate transporters (Mct) in the mouse...
March 5, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258766/an-account-of-fungal-14-3-3-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Ravinder Kumar
14-3-3s are a group of relatively low molecular weight, acidic, dimeric, protein(s) conserved from single-celled yeast to multicellular vertebrates including humans. Despite lacking catalytic activity, these proteins have been shown to be involved in multiple cellular processes. Apart from their role in normal cellular physiology, recently these proteins have been implicated in various medical consequences. In this present review, fungal 14-3-3 protein localization, interactions, transcription, regulation, their role in the diverse cellular process including DNA duplication, cell cycle, protein trafficking or secretion, apoptosis, autophagy, cell viability under stress, gene expression, spindle positioning, role in carbon metabolism have been discussed...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256270/yeast-dynamin-vps1-associates-with-clathrin-to-facilitate-vesicular-trafficking-and-controls-golgi-homeostasis
#17
Shiva Kumar Goud Gadila, Michelle Williams, Uma Saimani, Mariel Delgado Cruz, Pelin Makaraci, Sara Woodman, John C W Short, Hyoeun McDermott, Kyoungtae Kim
The yeast dynamin Vps1 acts cooperatively with many proteins at diverse cellular locations for endocytosis, protein sorting, and membrane fusion and fission. It has been proposed that Vps1 is functionally linked to clathrin heavy chain 1 (Chc1), but the question of how, where, and when they function together remains unknown. Here we report that Vps1 arrives at the Golgi after clathrin, and that loss of Vps1 leads to a shift in the cellular localization of clathrin to the late endosome and vacuole, not vice versa...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283191/ccdc181-is-a-microtubule-binding-protein-that-interacts-with-hook1-in-haploid-male-germ-cells-and-localizes-to-the-sperm-tail-and-motile-cilia
#18
Thomas Schwarz, Barbara Prieler, Johannes A Schmid, Pawel Grzmil, Juergen Neesen
Disruption of murine Hook1 results in a disturbed spermatogenesis and consequently leads to male infertility in mice. Within these mice abnormal sperm development starts with a disorganization of the microtubular manchette in elongating spermatids that leads to an abnormal head shape as well as to distinctive structural changes in the flagella of the sperm. To elucidate Hook1 function in male germ cell differentiation a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed using a murine testicular library, which leads to the identification of several putative Hook1 interacting proteins...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215986/the-%C3%AE-4galt1-affects-the-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-invasion-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-by-modifying-n-linked-glycosylation-of-cxcr3
#19
Chi Sun, Xinhui Zhu, Tao Tao, Dongmei Zhang, Yi Wang, Hua Xu, Yunli Ren, Youhua Wang
OBJECTIVE: The level of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (β4GalT1) is up-regulated in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. It is reported that CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) can enhance the invasiveness of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aims to investigate the specific mechanism of β4GalT1 and relationship between β4GalT1 and CXCR3 in RA. METHODS: The model of CIA mice was established to explore the role of β4GalT1...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187910/analysis-of-gap-junctional-intercellular-communications-using-a-dielectrophoresis-based-microchip
#20
Marta Tellez-Gabriel, Céline Charrier, Bénédicte Brounais-Le Royer, Mathilde Mullard, Hannah K Brown, Franck Verrecchia, Dominique Heymann
Gap junctions are transmembrane structures that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, making intercellular communications possible. It has been shown that the behaviour of several tumours - such as bone tumours - is related to gap junction intercellular communications (GJIC). Several methodologies are available for studying GJIC, based on measuring different parameters that are useful for multiple applications, such as the study of carcinogenesis for example. These methods nevertheless have several limitations...
February 6, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
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