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European Journal of Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274595/interdependence-of-thyroglobulin-processing-and-thyroid-hormone-export-in-the-mouse-thyroid-gland
#1
Jonas Weber, Joseph McInnes, Cise Kizilirmak, Maren Rehders, Maria Qatato, Eva K Wirth, Ulrich Schweizer, Francois Verrey, Heike Heuer, Klaudia Brix
Thyroid hormone (TH) target cells need to adopt mechanisms to maintain sufficient levels of TH to ensure regular functions. This includes thyroid epithelial cells, which generate TH in addition to being TH-responsive. However, the cellular and molecular pathways underlying thyroid auto-regulation are insufficiently understood. In order to investigate whether thyroglobulin processing and TH export are sensed by thyrocytes, we inactivated thyroglobulin-processing cathepsins and TH-exporting monocarboxylate transporters (Mct) in the mouse...
March 5, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258766/an-account-of-fungal-14-3-3-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Ravinder Kumar
14-3-3s are a group of relatively low molecular weight, acidic, dimeric, protein(s) conserved from single-celled yeast to multicellular vertebrates including humans. Despite lacking catalytic activity, these proteins have been shown to be involved in multiple cellular processes. Apart from their role in normal cellular physiology, recently these proteins have been implicated in various medical consequences. In this present review, fungal 14-3-3 protein localization, interactions, transcription, regulation, their role in the diverse cellular process including DNA duplication, cell cycle, protein trafficking or secretion, apoptosis, autophagy, cell viability under stress, gene expression, spindle positioning, role in carbon metabolism have been discussed...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256269/traffic-from-the-endosome-towards-trans-golgi-network
#3
REVIEW
Uma Saimani, Kyoungtae Kim
Retrograde passage of a transport carrier entails cargo sorting at the endosome, generation of a cargo-laden carrier and its movement along cytoskeletal tracks towards trans-Golgi network (TGN), tethering at the TGN, and fusion with the Golgi membrane. Significant advances have been made in understanding this traffic system, revealing molecular requirements in each step and the functional connection between them as well as biomedical implication of the dysregulation of those important traffic factors. This review focuses on describing up-to-date action mechanisms for retrograde transport from the endosomal system to the TGN...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256270/yeast-dynamin-vps1-associates-with-clathrin-to-facilitate-vesicular-trafficking-and-controls-golgi-homeostasis
#4
Shiva Kumar Goud Gadila, Michelle Williams, Uma Saimani, Mariel Delgado Cruz, Pelin Makaraci, Sara Woodman, John C W Short, Hyoeun McDermott, Kyoungtae Kim
The yeast dynamin Vps1 acts cooperatively with many proteins at diverse cellular locations for endocytosis, protein sorting, and membrane fusion and fission. It has been proposed that Vps1 is functionally linked to clathrin heavy chain 1 (Chc1), but the question of how, where, and when they function together remains unknown. Here we report that Vps1 arrives at the Golgi after clathrin, and that loss of Vps1 leads to a shift in the cellular localization of clathrin to the late endosome and vacuole, not vice versa...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283191/ccdc181-is-a-microtubule-binding-protein-that-interacts-with-hook1-in-haploid-male-germ-cells-and-localizes-to-the-sperm-tail-and-motile-cilia
#5
Thomas Schwarz, Barbara Prieler, Johannes A Schmid, Pawel Grzmil, Juergen Neesen
Disruption of murine Hook1 results in a disturbed spermatogenesis and consequently leads to male infertility in mice. Within these mice abnormal sperm development starts with a disorganization of the microtubular manchette in elongating spermatids that leads to an abnormal head shape as well as to distinctive structural changes in the flagella of the sperm. To elucidate Hook1 function in male germ cell differentiation a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed using a murine testicular library, which leads to the identification of several putative Hook1 interacting proteins...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215986/the-%C3%AE-4galt1-affects-the-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-invasion-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-by-modifying-n-linked-glycosylation-of-cxcr3
#6
Chi Sun, Xinhui Zhu, Tao Tao, Dongmei Zhang, Yi Wang, Hua Xu, Yunli Ren, Youhua Wang
OBJECTIVE: The level of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (β4GalT1) is up-regulated in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. It is reported that CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) can enhance the invasiveness of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aims to investigate the specific mechanism of β4GalT1 and relationship between β4GalT1 and CXCR3 in RA. METHODS: The model of CIA mice was established to explore the role of β4GalT1...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187910/analysis-of-gap-junctional-intercellular-communications-using-a-dielectrophoresis-based-microchip
#7
Marta Tellez-Gabriel, Céline Charrier, Bénédicte Brounais-Le Royer, Mathilde Mullard, Hannah K Brown, Franck Verrecchia, Dominique Heymann
Gap junctions are transmembrane structures that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, making intercellular communications possible. It has been shown that the behaviour of several tumours - such as bone tumours - is related to gap junction intercellular communications (GJIC). Several methodologies are available for studying GJIC, based on measuring different parameters that are useful for multiple applications, such as the study of carcinogenesis for example. These methods nevertheless have several limitations...
February 6, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216015/differential-regulation-of-nm23-h1-under-hypoxic-and-serum-starvation-conditions-in-metastatic-cancer-cells-and-its-implication-in-emt
#8
Reyaz Ur Rasool, Debasis Nayak, Souneek Chakraborty, Vijay Lakshmi Jamwal, Vidushi Mahajan, Archana Katoch, Mir Mohd Faheem, Zainab Iqra, Hina Amin, Sumit G Gandhi, Anindya Goswami
Multiple stresses are prevalent inside the tumor microenvironment rendering tumor growth, neighboring invasion and metastasis of the cancer cells to distant organs. NM23-H1 is the first metastasis suppressor gene identified and known to be implicated as an important regulator of stress-induced metastasis. Herein, we demonstrated that prototypical NM23-H1 expression diminished during hypoxia and serum starvation in Panc-1/MDA-MB-231 cells, but converse invasion patterns were obtained in these two diverse stresses...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153412/tipping-the-scales-lessons-from-simple-model-systems-on-inositol-imbalance-in-neurological-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Anna D Frej, Grant P Otto, Robin S B Williams
Inositol and inositol-containing compounds have signalling and regulatory roles in many cellular processes, suggesting that inositol imbalance may lead to wide-ranging changes in cellular functions. Indeed, changes in inositol-dependent signalling have been implicated in various diseases and cellular functions such as autophagy, and these changes have often been proposed as therapeutic targets. However, few studies have highlighted the links between inositol depletion and the downstream effects on inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides in disease states...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236495/microvesicles-released-from-giardia-intestinalis-disturb-host-pathogen-response-in-vitro
#10
Ingrid Evans-Osses, Andres Mojoli, Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Antonio Marcilla, Veronica Aran, Maria Amorim, Jameel Inal, Francesc E Borràs, Marcel I Ramirez
Giardia intestinalis (G.I), is an anaerobic protozoan and the aetiological agent of giardiasis, a diarrhoea present worldwide and associated with poverty. G.I has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Cysts are transmitted orally to the stomach and transform to trophozoites in the intestine by a multifactorial process. Recently, microvesicles (MVs) have been found to be released from a wide range of eukaryotic cells. We have observed a release of MVs during the life cycle of G.I., identifying MVs from active trophozoites and from trophozoites differentiating to the cyst form...
January 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129919/loss-of-huntingtin-stimulates-capture-of-retrograde-dense-core-vesicles-to-increase-synaptic-neuropeptide-stores
#11
Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
The Huntington's disease protein Huntingtin (Htt) regulates axonal transport of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) containing neurotrophins and neuropeptides. DCVs travel down axons to reach nerve terminals where they are either captured in synaptic boutons to support later release or reverse direction to reenter the axon as part of vesicle circulation. Currently, the impact of Htt on DCV dynamics in the terminal is unknown. Here we report that knockout of Drosophila Htt selectively reduces retrograde DCV flux at proximal boutons of motoneuron terminals...
January 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132723/eb1-contributes-to-proper-front-to-back-polarity-in-neutrophil-like-hl-60-cells
#12
Matthias Samereier, Michael Schleicher, Heike Roth, Doris Brechtefeld, Barbara Walzog, Annette Müller-Taubenberger
Directed migration of leukocytes towards a chemotactic source is largely dependent on coordinated actin cytoskeleton functions that provide the driving forces at the cell front and enable contractility at the rear. In contrast to the force-generating properties of the actin cytoskeleton, the microtubule network assumes a regulatory function in balancing front-to-back polarity. In migrating neutrophils, microtubules are mostly concentrated at the cell rear, and previously published work suggested that microtubules are stabilized and kept in place by a mechanism involving Cdc42, WASP, CD11b, and the end-binding protein 1 (EB1)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110910/acetylation-of-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-promotes-its-degradation-through-chaperone-mediated-autophagy
#13
Anne Bonhoure, Alice Vallentin, Marianne Martin, Andrea Senff-Ribeiro, Robert Amson, Adam Telerman, Michel Vidal
Translationally controlled tumor protein (Tpt1/TCTP) is a multi-functional cytosolic protein whose cellular levels are finely tuned. TCTP regulates protein behavior by favoring stabilization of protein partners or on the contrary by promoting degradation of others. TCTP has been shown to be transcriptionally and translationally regulated, but much less is known about its degradation process. In this study, we present evidence that chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) contributes to TCTP regulation. CMA allows lysosomal degradation of specific cytosolic proteins on a molecule-by-molecule basis...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109635/impact-of-high-cholesterol-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-model-prevention-of-lysosomal-leakage-versus-stimulation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation
#14
Ida Eriksson, Sangeeta Nath, Per Bornefall, Ana Maria Villamil Giraldo, Karin Öllinger
Parkinson's disease is characterized by accumulation of intraneuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, Lewy bodies, which mainly consist of aggregated α-synuclein. Controversies exist as to whether high blood cholesterol is a risk factor for the development of the disease and whether statin treatment could have a protective effect. Using a model system of BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells treated with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), we found that MPP(+)-induced cell death was accompanied by cholesterol accumulation in a lysosomal-like pattern in pre-apoptotic cells...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104305/cp39-cp75-and-cp91-are-major-structural-components-of-the-dictyostelium-centrosome-s-core-structure
#15
Irene Meyer, Tatjana Peter, Petros Batsios, Oliver Kuhnert, Anne Krüger-Genge, Carl Camurça, Ralph Gräf
The acentriolar Dictyostelium centrosome is a nucleus-associated body consisting of a core structure with three plaque-like layers, which are surrounded by a microtubule-nucleating corona. The core duplicates once per cell cycle at the G2/M transition, whereby its central layer disappears and the two outer layers form the mitotic spindle poles. Through proteomic analysis of isolated centrosomes, we have identified CP39 and CP75, two essential components of the core structure. Both proteins can be assigned to the central core layer as their centrosomal presence is correlated to the disappearance and reappearance of the central core layer in the course of centrosome duplication...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094049/ep4-receptor-promotes-invadopodia-and-invasion-in-human-breast-cancer
#16
Felix Tönisen, Louisiane Perrin, Battuya Bayarmagnai, Koen van den Dries, Alessandra Cambi, Bojana Gligorijevic
The production of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is elevated in human breast cancer cells. The abnormal expression of COX-2, which is involved in the synthesis of PGE2, was recently reported as a critical determinant for invasiveness of human breast cancer cells. Autocrine and paracrine PGE2-mediated stimulation of the PGE2 receptor EP4 transduces multiple signaling pathways leading to diverse patho-physiological effects, including tumor cell invasion and metastasis. It is known that PGE2-induced EP4 activation can transactivate the intracellular signaling pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057356/cell-wall-synthesis-and-central-carbohydrate-metabolism-are-interconnected-by-the-snf1-mig1-pathway-in-kluyveromyces-lactis
#17
Dorthe Rippert, Katja Backhaus, Rosaura Rodicio, Jürgen J Heinisch
The trimeric AMP-activated kinase complex (AMPK) is conserved from yeast to humans and is best known for its role in balancing energy metabolism. Additional functions, including the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis, have been proposed for the SNF1 complex, the baker's yeast homolog of AMPK. We here demonstrate that this function is conserved in the Crabtree-negative milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Deletion mutants in the genes encoding the subunits of the trimeric complex (Klsnf1, Klgal83, Klsnf4) displayed increased sensitivities towards cell wall stress agents and a mutant lacking the kinase subunit had a thinner cell wall in transmission electron micrographs as compared to wild type...
January 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049557/dynamical-modeling-of-liver-aquaporin-9-expression-and-glycerol-permeability-in-hepatic-glucose-metabolism
#18
Patrizia Gena, Nicoletta Del Buono, Marcello D'Abbicco, Maria Mastrodonato, Marco Berardi, Maria Svelto, Luciano Lopez, Giuseppe Calamita
Liver is crucial in the homeostasis of glycerol, an important metabolic intermediate. Plasma glycerol is imported by hepatocytes mainly through Aquaporin-9 (AQP9), an aquaglyceroporin channel negatively regulated by insulin in rodents. AQP9 is of critical importance in glycerol metabolism since hepatic glycerol utilization is rate-limited at the hepatocyte membrane permeation step. Glycerol kinase catalyzes the initial step for the conversion of the imported glycerol into glycerol-3-phosphate, a major substrate for de novo synthesis of glucose (gluconeogenesis) and/or triacyglycerols (lipogenesis)...
January 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017376/myogenic-potential-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-lacking-functional-pax7-tested-in-vitro-by-5-azacitidine-treatment-and-in-vivo-in-regenerating-skeletal-muscle
#19
Anita Helinska, Maciej Krupa, Karolina Archacka, Areta M Czerwinska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Maria A Ciemerych, Iwona Grabowska
Regeneration of skeletal muscle relies on the presence of satellite cells. Satellite cells deficiency accompanying some degenerative diseases is the reason for the search for the "replacement cells" that can be used in the muscle therapies. Due to their unique properties embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as well as myogenic cells derived from them, are considered as a promising source of therapeutic cells. Among the factors crucial for the specification of myogenic precursor cells is Pax7 that sustains proper function of satellite cells...
January 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988106/external-factors-influencing-mesenchymal-stem-cell-fate-in-vitro
#20
REVIEW
Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad, Elham Alimoradi, Hassan Akrami
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have extensive potentials, which make them attractive candidates for the developmental biology, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, the use of MSCs is limited by their scarceness in tissues and in culture conditions. They also exhibit various degrees of potency which subsequently influencing their applications. Nowadays, questions remain about how self-renewal and differentiation of MSCs can be controlled in vitro and in vivo, how they will behave and migrate to the right place and how they modulate the immune system...
January 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
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