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European Journal of Cell Biology

Ruchi Jain, Uchenna Watson, Deepak Kumar Saini
Histamine, a primary mediator of allergic responses, elicits its effects by activating specific receptors belonging to the GPCR family in target cells. Activation of histamine receptor can activate MAP kinases as recorded by monitoring the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Despite this, ERK phosphorylation does not translate into pro-proliferative changes after histamine stimulation in HeLa cells. Here we show that histamine H1 receptor activation mediates MAPK activation through PLCβ, Src, PKCδ and MEK pathway, but does not lead to nuclear relocalization of phospho-ERK (pERK), classically associated with pro-proliferative changes...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Anna Chan, Andreas Schummer, Sven Fischer, Thomas Schröter, Luis Daniel Cruz-Zaragoza, Julian Bender, Friedel Drepper, Silke Oeljeklaus, Wolf-H Kunau, Wolfgang Girzalsky, Bettina Warscheid, Ralf Erdmann
Peroxisomal matrix protein import is facilitated by cycling receptors that recognize their cargo proteins in the cytosol by peroxisomal targeting sequences (PTS). In the following, the assembled receptor-cargo complex is targeted to the peroxisomal membrane where it docks to the docking-complex as part of the peroxisomal translocation machinery. The docking-complex is composed of Pex13p, Pex14p and in yeast also Pex17p, whose function is still elusive. In order to characterize the function of Pex17p, we compared the composition and size of peroxisomal receptor-docking complexes from wild-type and pex17Δ cells...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Irene Ylivinkka, Jorma Keski-Oja, Marko Hyytiäinen
Netrins form a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins, netrin-1 being the prototype and most investigated member of the family. The major physiological functions of netrin-1 lie in the regulation of axonal development as well as morphogenesis of different branched organs, by promoting the polarity of migratory/invasive front of the cell. On the other hand, netrin-1 acts as a factor preventing cell apoptosis. These events are mediated via a range of different receptors, including UNC5 and DCC-families...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Jolanda van Hengel, Celine Van den Broeke, Tim Pieters, Louis Libbrecht, Ilse Hofmann, Frans van Roy
p120 catenin (p120ctn) is required for the stability of classic cadherins at the cell surface and is thought to play a central role in modulating cell-cell adhesion. Cytoplasmic p120ctn promotes cell motility, and probably other activities, by modulating the activities of RhoA, Rac and Cdc42. E-cadherin is expressed in periportal but not in perivenous hepatocytes. In contrast, all hepatocytes of normal mouse liver express N-cadherin. Cholangiocytes express exclusively E-cadherin. Mice with p120ctn ablation in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (p120LiKO mice) were generated by Cre-loxP technology...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Mayu Horie, Tomoya Kotani
Many translationally repressed mRNAs are deposited in the oocyte cytoplasm for progression of the meiotic cell cycle and early development. mos and cyclin B1 mRNAs encode proteins promoting oocyte meiosis, and translational control of these mRNAs is important for normal progression of meiotic cell division. We previously demonstrated that cyclin B1 mRNA forms RNA granules in the zebrafish and mouse oocyte cytoplasm and that the formation of RNA granules is crucial for regulating the timing of translational activation of the mRNA...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Zakaria Ezzoukhry, Elodie Henriet, Léo Piquet, Kevin Boyé, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Charles Balabaud, Gabrielle Couchy, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Violaine Moreau, Frédéric Saltel
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important player in chronic liver diseases inducing fibrogenesis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. TGF-β1 promotes pleiotropic modifications at the cellular and matrix microenvironment levels. TGF-β1 was described to enhance production of type I collagen and its associated cross-linking enzyme, the lysyl oxidase-like2 (LOXL2). In addition, TGF-β1 and type I collagen are potent inducers of invadosomes. Indeed, type I collagen fibers induce the formation of active linear invadosomes through the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1)...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Francesca Zito, Nadia Lampiasi, Igor Kireev, Roberta Russo
Cell-cell fusion is a physiological process playing an essential role for fertilization, shaping organs, tissue repair and immune defense in multicellular organisms. Recent research in the field aims to understand why two or more cells fuse each other and to decipher the general mechanisms regulating this process. Few basic and general steps can be identified, i.e. migration, adhesion and fusion, which are common to different types of cells. As pre-fused and fused cells undergo dramatic changes in their ultrastructure and behavior, the coordinated action of multiple factors is required, including adhesion molecules, cell surface receptors, intracellular kinases, transcription factors, and miRNAs...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ewa Kosicka, Daria Grobys, Hanna Kmita, Andrzej Lesicki, Joanna R Pieńkowska
Water channel proteins, classified as a family of Membrane Intrinsic Proteins (MIPs) superfamily, enable rapid movement of water and small uncharged molecules through biological membranes. Although water channel proteins are required in several important processes characteristic for the animals, such as osmoregulation, mucus secretion, or defense against desiccation, molluscs, until now, have been very poorly explored in this aspect. Therefore, we decided to study MIPs in Helix pomatia L. applied as a model in studies on terrestrial snail physiology...
September 14, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Eric L Hastie, David R Sherwood
Invadopodia are F-actin-rich membrane protrusions that breach basement membrane barriers during cell invasion. Since their discovery more than 30 years ago, invadopodia have been extensively investigated in cancer cells in vitro, where great advances in understanding their composition, formation, cytoskeletal regulation, and control of the matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP trafficking have been made. In contrast, few studies examining invadopodia have been conducted in vivo, leaving their physiological regulation unclear...
November 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Emily S Bell, Jan Lammerding
Morphological changes in the size and shape of the nucleus are highly prevalent in cancer, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and the functional relevance remain poorly understood. Nuclear envelope proteins, which can modulate nuclear shape and organization, have emerged as key components in a variety of signalling pathways long implicated in tumourigenesis and metastasis. The expression of nuclear envelope proteins is altered in many cancers, and changes in levels of nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C are associated with poor prognosis in multiple human cancers...
November 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Valentina Galimberti, Noa Kinor, Yaron Shav-Tal, Marco Biggiogera, Ansgar Brüning
Functional protein homeostasis is essential for the maintenance of normal cellular physiology, cell growth, and cell survival. Proteasome inhibition in cancer cells can disturb protein homeostasis in such a way that synthetic proteasome inhibitors like bortezomib may selectively kill myeloma cells. Solid cancer cells appear to respond less to bortezomib which may in part be due to a rescue mechanism of the unfolded protein response/endoplasmic reticulum stress mechanism which leads to a temporary shutdown of protein biosynthesis at the translational level...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Maneet Bhatia, Carrie J Lovitt, Prahlad V Raninga, Vicky M Avery, Giovanna Di Trapani, Kathryn F Tonissen
As essential elements of the tumor microenvironment, the variable oxygenation state of the tumor tissue, the extracellular matrix (ECM) and different cell types are important determinants of carcinogenesis. These elements may also influence how tumor cells respond to therapeutic treatments. In the present study, we assessed the anti-cancer activity of auranofin and its effect on the thioredoxin (Trx) system under conditions that closely resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment with respect to the oxygen levels and tissue architecture...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
María Macarena Massip Copiz, Tomás Antonio Santa Coloma
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal inherited disease produced by mutations in the gene encoding the CFTR chloride channel. Loss of function in the CFTR gene is associated with a not much noticed increased expression and activity of the non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase c-Src. CF is therefore the result from the loss of CFTR chloride transport function and its consequences, including a chronic and excessive c-Src signaling. On the other hand, c-Src, encoded by the SRC gene, is involved in diverse signaling mechanisms that regulate key cellular functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and innate immunity...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Jingyi Li, Qian Zeng, Yixin Zhang, Xiaofang Li, Hui Hu, Xiaokang Miao, Wenle Yang, Wei Zhang, Xiaoyun Song, Lingyun Mou, Rui Wang
Breast cancer (BC) is a common reason of cancer-associated death in female. To develop novel strategy of therapeutics, it is crucial to comprehensively understand the receptor status of BC cells on the surface and inner, because chemical messengers can bind the receptors and promote tumorigenesis. Compared with normal and benign samples, BC cell lines and malignant biopsies showed higher expression of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1). In current work, we examined the role and mechanism of NK1 receptor signaling in BC cell migration...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Kristyna Markova, Magdalena Uzlikova, Pavla Tumova, Klara Jirakova, Guy Hagen, Jaroslav Kulda, Eva Nohynkova
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) joins the machinery of chromosome-to-spindle microtubule attachment with that of the cell cycle to prevent missegregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Although a functioning SAC has been verified in a limited number of organisms, it is regarded as an evolutionarily conserved safeguard mechanism. In this report, we focus on the existence of the SAC in a single-celled parasitic eukaryote, Giardia intestinalis. Giardia belongs to Excavata, a large and diverse supergroup of unicellular eukaryotes in which SAC control has been nearly unexplored...
October 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Qing Yue, Yu Zhang, Xianyang Li, Lihong He, Ya'nan Hu, Xianyao Wang, Xiaojing Xu, Yixin Shen, Huanxiang Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit the potential to repair a wide variety of injured adult tissues. The migration capability of MSCs is an important determinant of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in regulating the migration of MSCs. Herein, we show that the expression of miR-124 was downregulated in rat MSCs (rMSCs) treated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Overexpression of miR-124 significantly reduced the chemotactic migration of rMSCs toward HGF, while inhibition of endogenous miR-124 promoted the chemotactic migration...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Amel Chebel, Régine Catallo, Céline Mabon, Emmanuel Bachy, Thomas Wenner, Gilles Salles, Claire Pouteil-Noble, Martine Ffrench
Several studies reported the benefits of switching from anticalcineurins to mTOR inhibitors to avoid cancer occurrence after organ transplantation. The purpose of our study was to determine in vivo biological markers to explain these benefits. Cellular changes related to cellular senescence and DNA damage were analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Thirty-five kidney transplanted patients receiving anticalcineurins were investigated: 17 patients were proposed to switch to rapamycin and 18 patients with similar age and transplantation duration, continued anticalcineurins...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Christopher Dowson, Steven O'Reilly
Fibrosis is characterised by an exuberant wound healing response and the major cell type responsible is the myofibroblast. The myofibroblast is typified by excessive ECM production and contractile activity and is demarcated by alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. What has recently come to light is that the activation of the fibroblast to myofibroblast may be under epigenetic control, specifically methylation. Methylation of DNA is a conserved mechanism to precisely regulate gene expression in a specific context...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ekaterina Semina, Kseniya Rubina, Veronika Sysoeva, Karina Rysenkova, Polina Klimovich, Olga Plekhanova, Vsevolod Tkachuk
PURPOSE: Recent findings indicate the significant contribution of urokinase and urokinase receptor (uPA and uPAR) in the processes of nerve regeneration, however, their role in axonal growth and branching is unclear. Using a 3D model of mouse Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) explants, differentiated into neurons Neuro 2a cells and transgenic mice lacking the urokinase gene, we studied the involvement of the uPA/uPAR system in the neural cell migration, neurite outgrowth, elongation and branching...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Sergei S Ryazansky, Alexei A Kotov, Mikhail V Kibanov, Natalia V Akulenko, Alina P Korbut, Sergei A Lavrov, Vladimir A Gvozdev, Ludmila V Olenina
Germline-specific RNA helicase Spindle-E (Spn-E) is known to be essential for piRNA silencing in Drosophila that takes place mainly in the perinuclear nuage granules. Loss-of-function spn-E mutations lead to tandem Stellate genes derepression in the testes and retrotransposon mobilization in the ovaries. However, Spn-E functions in the piRNA pathway are still obscure. Analysis of total library of short RNAs from the testes of spn-E heterozygous flies revealed the presence of abundant piRNA ping-pong pairs originating from Su(Ste) transcripts...
September 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
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