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Toxicologic Pathology

Ellen K Silbergeld
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as a critical component in human development, health, and disease. Its relevance to toxicology and pharmacology involves challenges to current concepts related to absorption, metabolism, gene:environment, and pathways of response. Framing testable hypotheses for experimental and epidemiological studies will require attention to study designs, biosampling, data analysis, and attention to confounders.
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Norimitsu Shirai, Frank J Geoly, Walter F Bobrowski, Carlin Okerberg
Drug-induced phospholipidosis is characterized by intracellular accumulation of phospholipids with lamellar bodies in cells exposed to xenobiotics. Demonstration of the lamellar bodies by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the hallmark for a definitive diagnosis of phospholipidosis. However, the preparation of tissue samples for TEM and their ultrastructural evaluation are technically challenging and time consuming. Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is essentially a fat stain, and the staining mechanism is based upon the osmication of unsaturated lipids...
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Akihisa Kangawa, Masayoshi Otake, Satoko Enya, Toshinori Yoshida, Masatoshi Shibata
Microminipigs are becoming increasingly attractive alternatives for various experimental applications, such as general toxicology studies, owing to their manageable size. However, there are limited studies on the male reproductive organs of microminipigs, particularly on the histological aspects of sexual maturity. To clarify the development of male reproductive organs, 35 male microminipigs, aged 0 to 12 months, were used in this study. Histological and histomorphological evaluation was performed based on spermatogenic development, measurement of tubular structure in testes and epididymides, and histological progress of accessory glands...
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Arun R Pandiri, Roy L Kerlin, Peter C Mann, Nancy E Everds, Alok K Sharma, L Peyton Myers, Thomas J Steinbach
One of the principal challenges facing a toxicologic pathologist is to determine and differentiate a true adverse effect from a nonadverse or an adaptive response. Recent publications from the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the European STP provide guidance for determining and communicating adversity in nonclinical toxicology studies. In order to provide a forum to inform and engage in a discussion on this important topic, a continuing education (CE) course was held during the 2016 STP Annual meeting in San Diego, CA...
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Karyn Colman
It has been long established that not only the species but also the strain and supplier of rodents used in preclinical safety studies can have a significant impact on the outcome of studies due to variability in their genetic background and thus spontaneous pathologic findings. In addition, local husbandry, housing, and other environmental conditions may have effects on the development and expression of comorbidities, particularly in longer-term or chronic studies. More recently, similar effects related to the source, including genetic and environmental variability, have been recognized in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Justin D Vidal
Evaluation of the female reproductive system in a general toxicity setting can be challenging for the toxicologic pathologist due to the cyclic nature of the estrous and menstrual cycles, timing of puberty and reproductive senescence, and species differences. Age in particular can have a significant impact on the histologic appearance of the female reproductive system and create challenges when trying to distinguish test article-related findings from normal developmental or senescent changes. This review describes the key physiologic and histologic features of immaturity, the transition through puberty, sexual maturity, and reproductive senescence in the female reproductive system, with an emphasis on practical applications for the toxicologic pathologist, and includes recommendations for distinguishing and documenting these developmental periods...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Peter Hoffmann, Lori Martin, Michael Keselica, Diane Gunson, Elizabeth Skuba, Dan Lapadula, Michael Hayes, Phil Bentley, Steve Busch
This article describes acute toxicity data in cynomolgus monkeys following oral treatment with vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. Acute toxicity symptoms in cynomolgus monkeys include edema formation of the extremities, tails, and face associated with skeletal muscle necrosis, and elevations of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the serum; hypothermia; hypotension; tachycardia; moribundity; and death in a few isolated instances...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
W Michael Peden
Revision of the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) S1 guidance for rat carcinogenicity studies to be more selective of compounds requiring a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study has been proposed following extensive evaluation of rat carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity studies by industry and drug regulatory authorities. To inform the ICH S1 expert working group in their potential revision of ICH S1, a prospective evaluation study was initiated in 2013, in which sponsors would assess the pharmacologic and toxicologic findings present in the chronic toxicity studies and predict a positive or negative carcinogenicity outcome using a weight of evidence argument (a carcinogenicity assessment document [CAD])...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Catherine A Picut, George A Parker
Toxicologic pathologists must evaluate tissues of immature animals from a number of types of nonclinical toxicity studies. The pathologist who is familiar with normal postnatal organ development is in a better position to appropriately detect and differentiate between abnormal, delayed, or precocious development. Vacuolation and apoptosis in multiple tissue types are normal components of development that could influence the interpretation of some tissues. Unique postnatal features such as the germal matrix in the brain, gonocytes in the testes, and saccules in the lung may complicate the histopathological evaluation...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Nicholas J Maness
Decades of research, including the 1996 Nobel Prize in Medicine, confirm the evolutionary and immunological importance of CD8 T lymphocytes (TCD8+) that target peptides bound by the highly variable major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins. However, their perceived importance has varied dramatically over the past decade. Regardless, there remains myriad reasons to consider the diversity of MHC-I alleles and the TCD8+ that target them as enormously important in infectious disease research. Thus, understanding these molecules in the best animal models of human disease could be a necessity for optimizing the translational potential of these models...
October 11, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Robert L Hall
Although interpretation and description of clinical pathology test results for any preclinical safety assessment study should employ a consistent standard approach, companies differ regarding that approach and the appearance of the end product. Some rely heavily on statistical analysis, others do not. Some believe reference intervals are important, most do not. Some prefer severity of effects be described by percentage differences from, or multiples of, baseline or control, others prefer only word modifiers...
October 11, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Alison H Harrill, Jonathan G Moggs, Karissa K Adkins, Hellmut G Augustin, Robert C Johnson, Michael W Leach
The overarching theme of the 2016 Society of Toxicology Pathology's Annual Symposium was "The Basis and Relevance of Variation in Toxicologic Responses." Session 4 focused on genetic variation as a potential source for variability in toxicologic responses within nonclinical toxicity studies and further explored how knowledge of genetic traits might enable targeted prospective and retrospective studies in drug development and human health risk assessment. In this session, the influence of both genetic sequence variation and epigenetic modifications on toxicologic responses and their implications for understanding risk were explored...
October 5, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Paul M D Foster
Regulatory studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) studies have remained largely unchanged for decades, with exposures occurring at various phases of the reproductive cycle and toxicity evaluations at different ages/times depending on the study purpose. The National Toxicology Program has conducted studies examining the power to detect adverse effects where there is a prenatal exposure, but evaluations occur postnatally. In these studies, examination is required of only 1 male and female pup from each litter beyond weaning...
October 5, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Sherry J Morgan, Lauren M Besenhofer, Wayne Buck, Helga Lorenz, James W Rhodes, Yi Yang
A cutaneous response (localized swelling and/or erythema of the skin) has been noted in dog toxicology studies in which multiple, unrelated compounds were administered orally with copovidone as a vehicle. The response has been noted in studies with 6 different test items that are structurally unrelated and span several different therapeutic indications spanning an approximate 6-year period (2009-2015). A factor common among the studies is the formulation-a copovidone amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). Cutaneous responses have not been observed in dogs administered non-ASD formulations of the same test items but have occasionally been noted in placebo (copovidone control) dogs...
September 20, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Kyuri Kim, Naseem Chini, David G Fairchild, Steven K Engle, William J Reagan, Sandra D Summers, Jon C Mirsalis
There is a great need for improved diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of potential cardiac toxicity in drug development. This study reports the evaluation of several commercially available biomarker kits by 3 institutions (SRI, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer) for the discrimination between myocardial degeneration/necrosis and cardiac hypertrophy as well as the assessment of the interlaboratory and interplatform variation in results. Serum concentrations of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [NT-proANP] and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), cardiac and skeletal troponins (cTnI, cTnT, and sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) were assessed in rats treated with minoxidil (MNX) and isoproterenol (ISO)...
September 16, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Rachel E Allavena, Heather West, Joanna Gale, Marie Debrue
Permanent vascular catheterization for intravascular access is one of the most commonly applied techniques used on rodents in pharmacology studies. However, use of the intravascular catheters is complicated by nontolerance due to thromboembolic disease and sepsis. We have undertaken an extensive pathologic and clinical analysis of an intravascular catheterization model in Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley rats, with a particular focus on carotid artery catheterization with or without jugular vein catheterization, in order to define the pathologic mechanisms behind nontolerance and define clinical end points to ensure maximal animal welfare...
September 14, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Marcia E Pereira Bacares
Vascular injury can be induced by different classes of drug candidates, and it can affect the mesenteric vasculature. Sampling of the mesenteric vessels in the rat is crucial for proper assessment of potential adverse or pharmacologic effects of drugs in nonclinical rodent studies. To date, several sampling and processing techniques for the histopathologic evaluation of the mesenteric artery in rodents have been described and used in studies with candidate drugs that may affect the vascular system. However, most of those techniques require a significant amount of time and effort...
September 7, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Yuval Ramot, Klaus Weber, Beatriz Moreno Lobato, Francisco Miguel Sánchez Margallo, José Francisco Guillén Caro, Luis Dávila Gómez, Roni Shabat, Abraham Nyska
Routine husbandry procedures during animal toxicity studies can result in incidental pathological changes. We report on trauma-induced hepatopathy in newborn Göttingen minipigs. Sixty-four neonatal minipigs were allocated to 13- and 26-week treatment arms. There was a 4-week recovery period for both arms. The animals were divided into 2 treatment groups and a vehicle group and were dosed 3 times daily by direct oral administration using a syringe. During the feeding procedure in the first weeks, the animals had to be handled firmly...
September 7, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Heidi Hsieh, Jeffrey Morin, Cyndi Filliettaz, Rao Varada, Shelby LaBarre, Zaher Radi
Colitis induced by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) has been used as a model for Crohn's disease (CD) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Lipocalin-2 (Lcn-2) is an emerging and clinically relevant biomarker of IBD. We investigated the performance of serum and fecal Lcn-2 in the TNBS model of colitis. Female, 7-week-old, BALB/c mice were administered intrarectally phosphate-buffered saline/water or 30% ethanol (vehicle control groups) for 5 days or TNBS for 5 days followed by a 28-day recovery phase...
September 1, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Dolores Diaz, Rama Pai, Gary Cain, Nghi La, Donna Dambach, Jacob Schwartz, Jacqueline M Tarrant
Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated (MAPK/ERK) pathway is an attractive therapeutic approach for human cancer therapy. In the course of evaluating structurally distinct small molecule inhibitors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and ERK kinases in this pathway, we observed an unusual, dose-related increase in the incidence of green serum in preclinical safety studies in rats. Having ruled out changes in bilirubin metabolism, we demonstrated a 2- to 3-fold increase in serum ceruloplasmin levels, likely accounting for the observed green color...
August 26, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
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