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Clinical Science (1979-)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006483/ltbp2-is-secreted-from-lung-myofibroblasts-and-is-a-potential-biomarker-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#1
Yasunori Enomoto, Sayomi Matsushima, Kiyoshi Shibata, Yoichiro Aoshima, Haruna Yagi, Shiori Meguro, Hideya Kawasaki, Isao Kosugi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Naoki Inui, Yutaro Nakamura, Takafumi Suda, Toshihide Iwashita
Although differentiation of lung fibroblasts into α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive myofibroblasts is important in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), few biomarkers reflecting the fibrotic process have been discovered. We performed microarray analyses between FACS-sorted steady-state fibroblasts (lineage [CD45, TER-119, CD324, CD31, LYVE-1, and CD146]-negative and PDGFRα-positive cells) from untreated mouse lungs and myofibroblasts (lineage-negative, Sca-1-negative, and CD49e-positive cells) from bleomycin-treated mouse lungs...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006482/a-preventive-injection-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-prolongs-lifespan-in-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#2
Cheng Peng, Xiao-Hui Dong, Jia-Lin Liu, Yu-Long Tao, Chun-Fang Xu, Li-Ping Wang, Chun-Long Liu, Ding-Feng Su, Xia Tao, Chuan Zhang, Alex F Chen, He-Hui Xie
There is a pressing need for new approaches to preventing stroke. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote vascular repair and revascularization in the ischemic brain. This study sought to evaluate whether preventive delivery of EPCs could prevent or protect against stroke. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) received a single injection of EPCs, and their survival time was monitored. In addition, at 28 and/or 42 days after a single injection of EPCs, SHR-SP and mice were subjected to cerebral ischemia, and cerebral ischemic injury, local angiogenesis and in vivo EPC integration were determined...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006481/apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-ask1-inhibition-attenuates-human-airway-smooth-muscle-growth-and-migration-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#3
Mathew S Eapen, Anudeep Kota, Howard Vindin, Kielan D McAlinden, Dia Xenaki, Brian G Oliver, Deepak A Deshpande, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Pawan Sharma
Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is observed in COPD which is correlated with disease severity and negatively impact lung function. Thus, there is clear unmet clinical need for finding new therapies which can target airway remodeling and disease progression in COPD. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a ubiquitously expressed mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase  activated by various stress stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-α, and lipopolysaccharide and is known to regulate cell proliferation...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997237/differential-long-noncoding-rna-expressions-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-for-detection-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#4
Qi-Wen Deng, Shuo Li, Huan Wang, Hui-Ling Sun, Lei Zuo, Zheng-Tian Gu, Guo Lu, Cai-Zhi Sun, Han-Qing Zhang, Fu-Ling Yan
Background and Purpose Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been highlighted to be involved in the pathological process of ischemic stroke (IS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression profile of lncRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of acute IS patients and to explore their utility as biomarkers of IS. Methods Distinctive expression patterns of PBMC lncRNAs were identified by a lncRNA microarray and individual quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in four independent sets for 206 IS, 179 healthy controls (HCs), and 55 patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA)...
July 11, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980605/adrenergic-and-non-adrenergically-mediated-human-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-during-acute-exercise-and-exercise-training
#5
Kenneth Verboven, Rudi Stinkens, Dominique Hansen, Inez Wens, Ines Frederix, Bert O Eijnde, Johan We Jocken, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak
Obesity-related adipose tissue dysfunction, in particular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) lipolysis, is characterized by catecholamine resistance and impaired ANP responsiveness. It remains unknown whether exercise training improves (non-)adrenergically-mediated lipolysis in metabolically compromised conditions. We investigated the effect of local combined α-/β-adrenoceptor blockade on abdominal SCAT lipolysis in lean insulin sensitive (IS, n=10), obese IS (n=10) and obese insulin resistant (IR, n=10) men...
July 6, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980604/immunoproteasomes-as-a-novel-antiviral-mechanism-in-rhinovirus-infected-airways
#6
Kris Genelyn Dimasuay, Amelia Sanchez, Niccolette Schaefer, Jorge Polanco, Deborah A Ferrington, Hong Wei Chu
Rhinovirus (RV) infection is involved in acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. RV primarily infects upper and lower airway epithelium. Immunoproteasomes (IP) are proteolytic machineries with multiple functions including the regulation of MHC class I antigen processing during viral infection. However, the role of IP in RV infection has not been explored. We sought to investigate the expression and function of IP during airway RV infection. Primary human tracheobronchial epithelial (HTBE) cells were cultured at air-liquid interface and treated with RV16, RV1B or IFN-l in the absence or presence of an IP inhibitor (ONX-0914)...
July 6, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980603/probiotic-lactobacillus-paracasei-hii01-protects-rats-against-obese-insulin-resistance-induced-kidney-injury-and-impaired-renal-organic-anion-transporter-3-oat3-function
#7
Keerati Wanchai, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Wannipa Tunapong, Titikorn Chunchai, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Siriporn Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
The relationship between gut dysbiosis and obesity is currently acknowledged to be a health topic which causes low-grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance and may damage the kidney.  Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) has been shown as a transporter responsible for renal handling of gut microbiota products which involved in the progression of metabolic disorder.  This study investigated the effect of probiotic supplementation on kidney function, renal Oat3 function, inflammation, ER stress and apoptosis in obese insulin-resistant rats...
July 6, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967004/validity-of-predictive-equations-for-resting-metabolic-rate-in-healthy-humans
#8
Jose E Galgani, Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda, Cristian Perez-Luco, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo
There are several predictive equations for estimating resting metabolic rate (RMR) in healthy humans. Concordance of these equations against measured RMR is variable, and often dependent on the extent of RMR. Part of the discrepancy may lie on an insufficient accuracy of metabolic carts, but this accuracy can be improved through a correction procedure. Objective: To determine the validity of predictive RMR equations by comparing them against measured and corrected (i.e. the reference) RMR. Methods: In 69 healthy volunteers (29 males/40 females; 32±8 y old; BMI 25...
July 2, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959186/the-renal-protect-function-of-erythropoietin-after-releasing-of-bilateral-ureteral-obstruction-in-a-rat-model
#9
Chuan Chuan Ren, Qing Wei Wang, Yu Tao Lu, Yan Wang, Wen Zhu, Guo Xian Zhang, Jia Feng Xie, Tao Zhang, Jun Wei Wu, Zhi Ming Jia, Zhi Qiang Su, Jian Guo Wen
Congenital urinary tract obstruction is one of the most frequent malformations in fetuses or neonates which usually causes profound impairment of renal function including reductions in both glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and tubular handling of water and solutes. Although obstruction can be released by surgical operation, the child will suffer from diuresis for some time. It has been reported that erythropoietin (EPO) could prevent the down-regulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and urinary-concentrating defects induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
June 29, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941522/adenylyl-cyclase-6-is-required-for-maintaining-acid-base-homeostasis
#10
Søren Brandt Poulsen, Caralina Marin De Evsikova, Sathish Kumar Murali, Jeppe Praetorius, Yijuang Chern, Robert A Fenton, Timo Rieg
Adenylyl cyclase isoform 6 (AC6) is highly expressed throughout the renal tubule and collecting duct, catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and contributes to various aspects of renal transport. Several proteins involved in acid-base homeostasis are regulated by cAMP. In this study we assess the relative contribution of AC6 to overall acid-base regulation using mice with global deletion of AC6 (AC6-/- ), or newly generated mice lacking AC6 in the renal tubule and collecting duct (AC6loxloxPax8Cre )...
June 25, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914938/amino-acid-and-lipid-associated-plasma-metabolomic-patterns-are-related-to-healthspan-indicators-with-aging-in-humans
#11
Lawrence C Johnson, Christopher R Martens, Jessica R Santos-Parker, Candace J Bassett, Talia R Strahler, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Nichole Reisdorph, Matthew B McQueen, Douglas R Seals
Advancing age is associated with impairments in numerous physiological systems, leading to an increased risk of chronic disease and disability, and reduced healthspan (the period of high functioning healthy life). The plasma metabolome is thought to reflect changes in the activity of physiological systems that influence healthspan. Accordingly, we utilized an LC-MS metabolomics analysis of plasma collected from healthy young and older individuals to characterize global changes in small molecule abundances with age...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907694/hmgb1-induced-autophagy-facilitates-hepatic-stellate-cells-activation-a-new-pathway-in-liver-fibrosis
#12
Jing Li, Chuxiong Zeng, Beishi Zheng, Chun Liu, Min Tang, Yan Jiang, Yizhong Chang, Weiping Song, Yingxin Wang, Changqing Yang
High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays a context-dependent role in autophagy, which is required for hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. However, the significance of HMGB1-induced HSCs autophagy in liver fibrosis has not been elucidated. Here, we first documented an enrichment of peripheral and intra-hepatic HMGB1 signal in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver fibrosis progression, and presented the direct evidence of anatomic proximity of HMGB1 with a-SMA (a marker for HSCs activation) in cirrhotic liver specimens...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903768/central-administration-of-trv027-improves-baroreflex-sensitivity-and-vascular-reactivity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#13
Alynne Carvalho-Galvão, Blessing Ogunlade, Jiaxi Xu, Cristiane R A Silva-Alves, Leônidas G Mendes-Júnior, Drielle D Guimarães, Josiane C Cruz, Thyago M Queiroz, Camille M Balarini, Valdir A Braga, Catalin M Filipeanu, Eric Lazartigues, Maria S França-Silva
TRV027 is a biased agonist for the Angiotensin (Ang)-II type 1 receptor (AT1 R), able to recruit ß-arrestin 2 independently of G-proteins activation. ß-arrestin activation in the central nervous system (CNS) was suggested to oppose the effects of Ang-II. This study evaluates the effect of central infusion of TRV027 on arterial pressure (AP), autonomic function, baroreflex sensitivity and peripheral vascular reactivity. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with TRV027 for 14 days (20 ng/hour) delivered to the lateral ventricle via osmotic minipumps...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871879/impact-of-pegylation-on-the-mucolytic-activity-of-recombinant-human-deoxyribonuclease-i-in-cystic-fibrosis-sputum
#14
Marie-Julie Guichard, David Kinoo, Anne-Sophie Aubriot, Nathalie Bauwens, Jordane Gougué, François Vermeulen, Patrick Lebecque, Teresinha Leal, Rita Vanbever
Highly viscous mucus and its impaired clearance characterize the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary secretions of patients with CF display increased concentrations of high molecular weight components such as DNA and actin. Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (rhDNase) delivered by inhalation cleaves DNA filaments contained in respiratory secretions and thins them. However, rapid clearance of rhDNase from the lungs implies a daily administration and thereby a high therapy burden and a reduced patient compliance...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773671/targeted-inhibition-of-cd74-attenuates-adipose-cox-2-mif-mediated-m1-macrophage-polarization-and-retards-obesity-related-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#15
Pei-Chi Chan, Ting-Ni Wu, Ying-Chuan Chen, Chieh-Hua Lu, Martin Wabitsch, Yu-Feng Tian, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is crucial to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of COX-2/MIF-mediated crosstalk between hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages to the etiology of AT inflammation and involvement of CD74 using human SGBS adipocytes, THP-1 macrophages and mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The MIF and CD74 mRNA levels in the adipocytes and SVCs (stromal vascular cells) of white fat were highly correlated with body weight, HOMA-IR and adipose macrophage marker expression levels, especially those in SVCs...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739827/hyperfiltration-in-ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-deleted-mice
#16
Naomi C Boisvert, Chet E Holterman, Jean-François Thibodeau, Rania Nasrallah, Eldjonai Kamto, Cesar H Comin, Luciano da F Costa, Anthony Carter, Richard L Hébert, Alexey Gutsol, Gregory O Cron, Baptiste Lacoste, Douglas A Gray, Chris R Kennedy
Neuronal ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that maintains intracellular ubiquitin pools and promotes axonal transport. Uchl1 deletion in mice leads to progressive axonal degeneration, affecting the dorsal root ganglion that harbours axons emanating to the kidney. Innervation is a crucial regulator of renal hemodynamics, though the contribution of neuronal UCHL1 to this is unclear. Immunofluorescence revealed significant neuronal UCHL1 expression in mouse kidney, including periglomerular axons...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695588/mindin-deficiency-in-macrophages-protects-against-foam-cell-formation-and-atherosclerosis-by-targeting-lxr-%C3%AE
#17
Cheng Zhang, Juan-Juan Qin, Fu-Han Gong, Jing-Jing Tong, Wen-Lin Cheng, Haiping Wang, Yan Zhang, Xueyong Zhu, Zhi-Gang She, Hao Xia, Li-Hua Zhu
Abstract Background - Mindin, which is a highly conserved ECM protein, has been documented to play pivotal roles in regulating angiogenesis, inflammatory processes and immune responses. The aim of this study was to assess whether mindin contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results - A significant upregulation of Mindin expression was observed in the serum, arteries and atheromatous plaques of ApoE-/-  mice after HFD treatment. Mindin-/- ApoE-/- mice and macrophage-specific mindin overexpression in ApoE-/- mice (Lyz2-mindin-TG) were generated to evaluate the effect of mindin on the development of atherosclerosis...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674526/galectin-3-downregulates-antioxidant-peroxiredoxin-4-in-human-cardiac-fibroblasts-a-new-pathway-to-induce-cardiac-damage
#18
Jaime Ibarrola, Vanessa Arrieta, Rafael Sádaba, Ernesto Martínez-Martínez, Amaia García-Peña, Virginia Alvarez, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Alicia Gainza, Enrique Santamaría, Joaquin Fernández-Irigoyen, Victoria Cachofeiro, Guillermo Zalba, Renaud Fay, Patrick Rossignol, Natalia López-Andrés
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is increased in heart failure (HF) and promotes cardiac fibrosis and inflammation. We investigated whether Gal-3 modulates oxidative stress in human cardiac fibroblasts, in experimental animal models and in human aortic stenosis (AS). Using proteomics and immunodetection approaches, we have identified that Gal-3 down-regulated the anti-oxidant peroxiredoxin-4 (Prx-4) in cardiac fibroblasts. In parallel, Gal-3 increased peroxide, nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde and N-carboxymethyl-lysine levels and decreased total antioxidant capacity...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986878/intratubular-and-intracellular-renin-angiotensin-system-in-the-kidney-a-unifying-perspective-in-blood-pressure-control
#19
REVIEW
Xiao C Li, Dongmin Zhu, Xiaowen Zheng, Jiangfeng Zhang, Jia L Zhuo
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is widely recognized as one of the most important vasoactive hormonal systems in the physiological regulation of blood pressure and the development of hypertension. This recognition is derived from, and supported by, extensive molecular, cellular, genetic, and pharmacological studies on the circulating (tissue-to-tissue), paracrine (cell-to-cell), and intracrine (intracellular, mitochondrial, nuclear) RAS during last several decades. Now, it is widely accepted that circulating and local RAS may act independently or interactively, to regulate sympathetic activity, systemic and renal hemodynamics, body salt and fluid balance, and blood pressure homeostasis...
July 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986877/the-aging-heart
#20
REVIEW
Vanessa Obas, Ramachandran S Vasan
As the elderly segment of the world population increases, it is critical to understand the changes in cardiac structure and function during the normal aging process. In this review, we outline the key molecular pathways and cellular processes that underlie the phenotypic changes in the heart and vasculature that accompany aging. Reduced autophagy, increased mitochondrial oxidative stress, telomere attrition, altered signaling in insulin-like growth factor, growth differentiation factor 11, and 5'- AMP-activated protein kinase pathways are among the key molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac aging...
July 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
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