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Clinical Science (1979-)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082516/hmgb1-induced-autophagy-a-new-pathway-to-maintain-treg-cell-function-during-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#1
Li-Sha Cheng, Jing Li, Yun Liu, Fu-Ping Wang, Si-Qi Wang, Wei-Min She, Sheng-di Wu, Xiao-Long Qi, Yong-Ping Zhou, Wei Jiang
High-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), as one of the well-known damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), is enriched in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and has a context-dependent role in autophagy, a highly-conserved self-digestive process in response to environmental stress. Recent mouse studies indicate autophagy is highly active in regulatory T cells (Treg). Here, we evaluated spontaneous and induced autophagy of peripheral Treg cells from 98 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), by measuring levels of lipidated form of microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3-II, marker for closed autophagosomes) and observing autophagic vacuoles with transmission electron microscope...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053239/microrna-378-reduces-mesangial-hypertrophy-and-kidney-tubular-fibrosis-via-mapk-signaling
#2
Bo Wang, Kevin Yao, Andrea F Wise, Ricky Lau, Hsin-Hui Shen, Greg H Tesch, Sharon D Ricardo
AIMS: To determine the regulatory role of a novel miRNA, miR-378, in the development of fibrosis through repression of the MAPK1 (ERK2) pathway. METHODS: miR-378 and fibrotic gene expression was examined in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice at 18 weeks or in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice at 7 days. miR-378 transfection of proximal tubular epithelial cells, NRK52E, and mesangial cells was assessed with/without endogenous miR-378 knockdown using the locked nucleic acid (LNA) inhibitor...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049736/glp-1-analogue-induced-weight-loss-does-not-improve-obesity-induced-at-dysfunction
#3
Emilie Pastel, Laura J McCulloch, Rebecca Ward, Shivam Joshi, Kim M Gooding, Angela C Shore, Katarina Kos
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues aid weight loss which improves obesity-associated adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. GLP-1 treatment may however also directly influence AT which expresses GLP-1 receptors. This study aimed to assess the impact of GLP-1 analogue treatment on subcutaneous AT inflammatory and fibrotic responses, compared to weight loss by calorie reduction (control). Among the 39 participants with type 2 diabetes recruited, 30 age-matched participants were randomised to 4 months treatment with Liraglutide (n=22) or calorie restriction-based on dietetic counselling (n=8)...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007970/dual-effects-of-fructose-on-chrebp-and-foxo1-3%C3%AE-are-responsible-for-aldob-upregulation-and-vascular-remodeling
#4
Wei Cao, Tuanjie Chang, Xiao-Qiang Li, Rui Wang, Lingyun Wu
Increased production of methylglyoxal (MG) in vascular tissues is one of the causative factors for vascular remodeling in different subtypes of metabolic syndrome, including hypertension and insulin resistance. Fructose-induced upregulation of aldolase B (AldoB) contributes to increased vascular MG production but the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. Serum levels of MG and fructose were determined in diabetic patients with hypertension. MG level had significant positive correlations with blood pressure and fructose level respectively...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980130/insulinotropic-effects-of-gpr120-agonists-are-altered-in-obese-non-diabetic-and-diabetic-states
#5
Dan Zhang, Wing Yan So, Yi Wang, Shang Ying Wu, Qianni Cheng, Po Sing Leung
G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is a putative target for obesity and diabetes therapies. However, it remains controversial whether resident GPR120 plays a direct regulatory role in islet β-cell insulin secretion. This study examined this issue in isolated rodent islets and rat β-cell line INS-1E, and assessed the role of GPR120 in islet insulin secretion in obese non-diabetic (OND) and diabetic states. GPR120 expression was detected in rodent islet β cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and synthetic GPR120 agonist GSK137647 (GSK) augmented insulin release from rat/mouse islets and INS-1E; DHA effects were partially mediated by GPR40...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940998/decreased-circulating-bmp-9-levels-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes%C3%A2-is-a-signature-of%C3%A2-ir
#6
Yong Luo, Ling Li, Xiaohuei Xu, Tong Wu, Mengliu Yang, Cheng Zhang, Huaming Mou, Tingting Zhou, Yanjun Jia, Chenrongrong Cai, Hua Liu, Gangyi Yang, Xianxiang Zhang
Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) has been demonstrated to improve glucose homeostasis in diabetic mice. However, no report has demonstrated the relationship of circulating BMP-9 levels with insulin resistance (IR) or T2DM in humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between BMP-9 and IR in cross-sectional and interventional studies. Circulating BMP-9 levels were analyzed by ELISA in 280 well-characterized individuals. 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed in 20 healthy subjects...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923881/the-ligands-of-translocator-protein-inhibit-human-th1-responses-and-the-rejection-of-murine-skin-allografts
#7
Yannan Zhang, Sifei Yu, Xiaomin Li, Binyan Yang, Changyou Wu
The translocator protein (TSPO) ligands impacted inflammatory and immune responses. However, the exact effects of TSPO ligands on Th1 responses in vitro and in vivo are still unclear. In the current study, we found that TSPO ligands, FGIN1-27 and Ro5-4864, suppressed the cytokine production in a dose- dependent manner by purified human CD4(+) T cells from PBMCs after stimulation. TSPO ligands inhibited the production of IFN-γ by memory CD4(+) T cells and the differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into Th1 cells via  suppressing the activity of the corresponding transcription factors as indicated by reduced expression of T-bet and downregulation of STAT1, STAT4 and STAT5 phosphorylation...
December 6, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895148/trpc5-regulates-differentiation-through-the-ca2-wnt5a-signal-pathway-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
Zhen Chen, Chunlei Tang, Yaodan Zhu, Mingxu Xie, Dongxu He, Qiongxi Pan, Peng Zhang, Dong Hua, Teng Wang, Linfang Jin, Xiaowei Qi, Yifei Zhu, Xiaoqiang Yao, Jian Jin, Xin Ma
Transient receptor potential channel 5 (TrpC5) is member of the TrpC subgroup, and it forms a receptor-activated non-selective Ca(2+) channel. The architecture of the TrpC5 channel is poorly understood. Here, we report that TrpC5 is a key factor in regulating differentiation in colorectal cancer. Through a study of specimens from a large cohort of patients with colorectal cancer, we found that TrpC5 was highly expressed and its cellular level correlated with tumor grade. We further showed that up-regulated TrpC5 caused a robust [Ca(2+)]i rise, increased Wnt5a expression, and the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, leading to a reduction of cancer differentiation and an increase of cancer cell stemness...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803297/defective-adaptive-thermogenesis-contributes-to-metabolic-syndrome-and-liver-steatosis-in-obese-mice
#9
Laurence Poekes, Vanessa Legry, Olivier Schakman, Christine Detrembleur, Anne Bol, Yves Horsmans, Geoffrey C Farrell, Isabelle A Leclercq
Fatty liver diseases are complications of the metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, insulin resistance and low grade inflammation. Our aim was to uncover mechanisms contributing to hepatic complications in this setting. We used foz/foz mice prone to obesity, insulin resistance and progressive fibrosing NASH. Foz/foz mice are hyperphagic but WT-matched calorie intake failed to protect against obesity, adipose inflammation and glucose intolerance. Obese foz/foz mice had similar physical activity level but reduced energy expenditure...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057893/chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Christian Delles, Raymond Vanholder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057892/hypothalamic-and-inflammatory-basis-of-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Sinan Khor, Dongsheng Cai
Hypertension is a major health problem with great consequences for public health. Despite its role as the primary cause of significant morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, the pathogenesis of essential hypertension remains largely unknown. The central nervous system (CNS) in general, and the hypothalamus in particular, are intricately involved in the development and maintenance of hypertension. Over the last several decades, the understanding of the brain's role in the development of hypertension has dramatically increased...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057891/prostate-cancer-pi3k-pten-and-prognosis
#12
REVIEW
Helen M Wise, Miguel A Hermida, Nicholas R Leslie
Loss of function of the PTEN tumour suppressor, resulting in dysregulated activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling network, is recognized as one of the most common driving events in prostate cancer development. The observed mechanisms of PTEN loss are diverse, but both homozygous and heterozygous genomic deletions including PTEN are frequent, and often accompanied by loss of detectable protein as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The occurrence of PTEN loss is highest in aggressive metastatic disease and this has driven the development of PTEN as a prognostic biomarker, either alone or in combination with other factors, to distinguish indolent tumours from those likely to progress...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057890/in-vitro-3d-model-and-mirna-drug-delivery-to-target-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#13
REVIEW
Casper F T van der Ven, Pin-Jou Wu, Mark W Tibbitt, Alain van Mil, Joost P G Sluijter, Robert Langer, Elena Aikawa
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in the Western population, claiming 17000 deaths per year in the United States and affecting 25% of people older than 65 years of age. Contrary to traditional belief, CAVD is not a passive, degenerative disease but rather a dynamic disease, where initial cellular changes in the valve leaflets progress into fibrotic lesions that induce valve thickening and calcification. Advanced thickening and calcification impair valve function and lead to aortic stenosis (AS)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011900/dusps-as-critical-regulators-of-cardiac-hypertrophy
#14
Douglas G Tilley, Abdelkarim Sabri
This commentary highlights the research presented by Li et al. [15]. In this issue of Clinical Science, which demonstrates that dual specific phosphatase 12 (DUSP12), through JNK1/2 inhibition, alleviates cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload, making it a potential therapeutic target.
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011899/oxidative-stress-call-for-papers
#15
Michael J Ryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011898/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#16
REVIEW
Veronica Begni, Marco Andrea Riva, Annamaria Cattaneo
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a key role in the central nervous system, promoting synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and neuroprotection. The BDNF gene structure is very complex and consists of multiple 5'-non-coding exons, which give rise to differently spliced transcripts, and one coding exon at the 3'-end. These multiple transcripts, together with the complex transcriptional regulatory machinery, lead to a complex and fine regulation of BDNF expression that can be tissue and stimulus specific...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974396/an-emerging-epidemic-cancer-and-heart-failure
#17
REVIEW
Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Mark T Nolan
Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of mortality globally. Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy significantly contribute to the global burden of cardiovascular disease. Heart failure (HF) in particular is a relatively common and life-threatening complication. The increased risk is driven by the shared risk factors for cancer and HF, the direct impact of cancer therapy on the heart, an existing care gap in the cardiac care of patients with cancer and the increasing population of adult cancer survivors...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974395/lamins-and-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Chayki Charar, Yosef Gruenbaum
Lamins are nuclear intermediate filaments (IFs) with important roles in most nuclear activities, including nuclear organization and cell-cycle progression. Mutations in human lamins cause over 17 different diseases, termed laminopathies. Most of these diseases are autosomal dominant and can be roughly divided into four major groups: muscle diseases, peripheral neuronal diseases, accelerated aging disorders and metabolic diseases including Dunnigan type familial partial lipodystrophy (FLPD), acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL) and autosomal dominant leucodystrophy...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941161/angiopoietin-tie-signalling-in-the-cardiovascular-and-lymphatic-systems
#19
REVIEW
Lauri Eklund, Jaakko Kangas, Pipsa Saharinen
Endothelial cells that form the inner layer of blood and lymphatic vessels are important regulators of vascular functions and centrally involved in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In addition to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor pathway, the angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie system is a second endothelial cell specific ligand-receptor signalling system necessary for embryonic cardiovascular and lymphatic development. The Ang-Tie system also regulates postnatal angiogenesis, vessel remodelling, vascular permeability and inflammation to maintain vascular homoeostasis in adult physiology...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908982/retraction-transgenic-expression-of-human-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-attenuates-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-mice
#20
Joseph George, Jie Sun, Jeanine D'Armiento
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
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