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Shayan Amiri, Aliakbar Yousefi-Ahmadipour, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Majid Momeny, Heshmat Hosseini-Chegeni, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Sharmin Kharrazi, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Amini, Somayeh Jafarinejad, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently used in a wide range of consumer products. Considering the small size of Ag-NPs, they are able to pass through variety of biological barriers and exert their effects. In this regard, the unique physicochemical properties of Ag-NPs along with its high application in the industry have raised concerns about their negative effects on human health. Therefore, it investigated whether prenatal exposure to low doses of Ag-NPs is able to induce any abnormality in the cognitive and behavioral performance of adult offspring...
March 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Eduardo Kalinine, Eduardo R Zimmer, Thainá Garbino Dos Santos, Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Luis Valmor Cruz Portela, Diogo Lösch de Oliveira
Several works have demonstrated that status epilepticus (SE) induced-neurodegeneration appears to involve an overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and treatment with high-affinity NMDAR antagonists is neuroprotective against this brain damage. However, these compounds display undesirable side effects for patients since they block physiological NMDA receptor dependent-activity. In this context, memantine (MN), a well tolerable low-affinity NMDAR channel blocker, will be a promising alternative, since it does not compromise the physiological role of NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Xiaoxu Chen, Xiaoke Nie, Jiamin Mao, Yan Zhang, Kaizhi Yin, Shengyang Jiang
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-containing compounds are widely used in all aspects of industrial and consumer products. Recent studies indicated that PFOS is ubiquitous in environments and is considered to be a new type of persistent organic pollutant (POP). This has raised concerns regarding its adverse effects on human health. The nervous system is regarded as a sensitive target of environmental contaminants, including PFOS. Previous findings showed that PFOS can induce neurobehavioral deficits. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PFOS neurotoxicity remains obscure...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Apichaya Niyomchan, Daranee Visitnonthachai, Sumitra Suntararuks, Pronrumpa Ngamsiri, Piyajit Watcharasit, Jutamaad Satayavivad
A strong correlation between chronic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological disorders leads to a growing concern about a potential risk of arsenic related neurodegeneration. Evidently, brain insulin signaling contributes to physiological effects, including energy homeostasis, and learning and memory. Arsenic has been shown to impair insulin signaling in adipocytes and myocytes, however, this impairment has not yet been explored in neurons. Here we showed that NaAsO2 caused significant reduction in basal levels of glucose, plasma membrane glucose transporter, GLUT 3 and Akt phosphorylation in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Harikesh Dubey, Kavita Gulati, Arunabha Ray
The present study evaluated the effects of s-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a nitrosothiol and sustained NO releaser, on experimental model of sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (sAD) in rats. Levels of Aβ40, Aβ42 and BDNF were assessed in brain hippocampal homogenates for correlative purposes. Intracerebroventricular-Streptozotocin (icv-STZ) induced increased escape latencies (acquisition) and reduced time in target quadrant (probe trial) in Morris Water Maze (MWM) test at 3 months post icv-STZ administration. These behavioural changes were associated with increased Aβ depositions and lowered BDNF levels in brain hippocampal homogenates...
March 6, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Erika A Scholl, Stephanie M Miller-Smith, Steven L Bealer, Mark J Lehmkuhle, Jeffrey J Ekstrand, F Edward Dudek, John H McDonough
Exposure to nerve agents (NAs) and other organophosphates (OPs) can initiate seizures that rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE). While the electrographic and neuropathological sequelae of SE evoked by NAs and OPs have been characterized in adult rodents, they have not been adequately investigated in immature animals. In this study postnatal day (PND) 14, 21 and 28 rat pups, along with PND70 animals as adult controls, were exposed to NAs (sarin, VX) or another OP (diisopropylfluorophosphate, DFP). We then evaluated behavioral and electrographic (EEG) correlates of seizure activity, and performed neuropathology using Fluoro-Jade B...
March 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Rita Machaalani, Hui Chen
Nicotine is the major neurotoxicant in cigarettes that affects many transmitter systems within the brain as well as other factors, including the growth factors. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is the most abundant growth factor in the brain and plays a critical role in early new neuron differentiation, development and synapsis growth, and the survival of fully developed neurons and synaptic activity. Over the past 3 decades, data has emerged on the effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke exposure on the expression of BDNF and its primary specific receptor tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB)...
March 1, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Rubén García-Cabrerizo, Cristian Bis-Humbert, M Julia García-Fuster
A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that binge methamphetamine induced hippocampal cell damage (i.e., impaired cell genesis) in rats when administered specifically during late adolescence (postnatal day, PND 54-57) and evaluated 24 h later (PND 58). The results also suggested a possible role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulating cell genesis and survival. This subsequent study evaluated whether these effects persisted in time as measured following prolonged withdrawal. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated (i...
February 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Mona Dehhaghi, Fatemeh Mohammadipanah, Gilles J Guillemin
Age-related disorders impose noticeable financial and emotional burdens on society. This impact is becoming more prevalent with the increasing incidence of neurodegenerative diseases and is causing critical concerns for treatment of patients worldwide. Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and motor neuron disease are the most prevalent and the most expensive to treat neurodegenerative diseases globally. Therefore, exploring effective therapies to overcome these disorders is a necessity...
February 27, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Shamini Vijayakumaran, Dean L Pountney
Protein homeostasis is essential for the wellbeing of several cellular systems. Post-translational modifications (PTM) coordinate various pathways in response to abnormal aggregation of proteins in neurodegenerative disease states. In the presence of accumulating misfolded proteins and toxic aggregates, the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is associated with various substrates, including chaperones and other recruited factors, for refolding and for clearance via proteolytic systems, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPS), chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and macroautophagy...
February 25, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Anand Rane, Subramanian Rajagopalan, Manuj Ahuja, Bobby Thomas, Shankar J Chinta, Julie K Andersen
The heat shock factor 90 (hsp90) complex has long been associated with neuropathological phenotypes linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) and its inhibition is neuroprotective in disease models. Hsp90 is conventionally believed to act by suppressing induction of hsp70. Here, we report a novel hsp70-independent mechanism by which Hsp90 may also contribute to PD-associated neuropathology. We previously reported that inhibition of the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) in conjunction with increases in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) results in protection of vulnerable dopaminergic substantia nigra pars compacta (DAergic SNpc) neurons in in vitro and in vivo models of PD...
February 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Michaela E Johnson, Andrea Stringer, Larisa Bobrovskaya
While people are often aware of the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), few know of the many non-motor symptoms, which patients report have a greater impact on their quality of life. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor symptoms, which can occur at any stage of PD, even years prior to diagnosis, and can affect all sections along the GI tract causing a range of symptoms including drooling, gastroparesis and constipation. We have investigated whether a neurotoxin model of PD- rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, is capable of reproducing the GI dysfunction seen clinically...
February 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Trond Myhrer, Espen Mariussen, Pål Aas
Nerve agent-induced seizures can cause varying degrees of neuropathology depending on level of poisoning and duration of seizing. The intention of this review was to validate a novel approach for establishing effective treatment regimens against soman poisoning. Identification of seizure controlling sites in the forebrain of rats poisoned by soman was made by means of lesions, and the anticonvulsive properties of a number of relevant drugs were tested by microinfusions into the identified areas. By using these procedures, procyclidine emerged as the most potent drug...
February 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Abdur Rahman, Khalid M Khan, Muddanna S Rao
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic heavy metal, but the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is not clearly understood. Expression of metallothioneins (MTs) is induced in response to heavy metal exposure as a protective mechanism against heavy metal toxicity. There are several isoforms of MTs (MT-1 to 4), of which MT-3 is the neuron specific isoform, which also has neurite growth inhibitory effects. Whereas, the induction of MT-1 and 2 in response to Pb has been reported, the effect of Pb on the expression of MT-3 in the brain has not been documented...
February 13, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Cláudia Feitosa-Santana, Givago da Silva Souza, Esaú Sirius Ventura Pupo, Anderson Raiol Rodrigues, Maria Izabel Tentes Cortes, Dora Fix Ventura
Land exploitation that follows deforestation and mining can result in soil erosion and the release of mercury to the waters of rivers in the Amazon Basin. Inorganic mercury is methylated by bacteria that are present in the environment and it serves as a source of human contamination through fish consumption in the form of methylmercury. Long-term exposure to low-level methylmercury in the riverside populations can lead to nervous system alterations, some of which are visual impairments such as loss of luminance contrast sensitivity, restricted visual fields and color vision defects...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Andrey Massarsky, Ayham Abdel, Lilah Glazer, Edward D Levin, Richard T Di Giulio
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing despite insufficient information concerning their long-term effects, including the effects of maternal e-cigarette use on pre- and postnatal development. Our previous study demonstrated that developmental exposure to 1,2-propanediol (a principal component of e-cigarette liquid) affected early development of zebrafish, causing reduced growth, deformities, and hyperactive swimming behavior in larvae. The current study extends assessment of the developmental toxicity of 1,2-propanediol by examining additional long-term behavioral effects...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Chrissie Ferreira de Carvalho, Youssef Oulhote, Marina Martorelli, Carla Oliveira de Carvalho, José Antônio Menezes-Filho, Nayara Argollo, Neander Abreu
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, however high levels of Mn have been associated with lower neuropsychological performance and behavioral problems in children. We investigated the associations between hair Mn concentrations and neuropsychological and behavioral performances among children with long-term exposure to airborne Mn aged between 7 and 12 years. Neuropsychological performance included tests of: verbal memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, and motor function. We used the Conners Abbreviated Rating Scale for teachers to assess students' behaviors of hyperactivity...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Jordi Llorens, Angela Callejo, Erin A Greguske, Alberto F Maroto, Blanca Cutillas, Vanessa Martins-Lopes
Physiological methods that can be similarly recorded in humans and animals have a major role in sensory toxicology, as they provide a bridge between human sensory perception data and the molecular and cellular data obtained in animal studies. Vestibular toxicity research lags well behind other sensory systems in many aspects, including the availability of methods for functional assessment in animals that could be robustly translated to human significance. Here we review the methods available for the assessment of vestibular function in both humans and laboratory animals, with an emphasis on their similarity or divergence, to highlight their potential utility for the predictive assessment of vestibular toxicity...
February 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
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