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Neurotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438537/special-issue-of-neurotoxicology-dedicated-to-toshio-narahashi-a-commentary-from-the-founding-editor-editor-in-chief-of-neurotoxicology
#1
Joan M Cranmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416395/the-early-history-of-manganese-and-the-recognition-of-its-neurotoxicity-1837-1936
#2
Paul D Blanc
The history of the biomedical recognition manganese-caused neurotoxicity mirrors changing technologies as much as it does the ontology of parkinsonism. The initial 1837 report of manganese-induced neurologic injury was made by John Couper, a university-based physician in Scotland. He made clear that the outbreak occurred among workers at the Charles Tennant bleach manufactory in the environs of Glasgow. The relatively new technology of chlorine generation using manganese accounted for the novel exposure involved...
April 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410962/determinaical-disease-synthesis-of-systematic-reviews
#3
Daniel Krewski, Caroline Barakat-Haddad, Jennifer Donnan, Rosemary Martino, Tamara Pringsheim, Helen Tremlett, Pascal van Lieshout, Stephanie J Walsh, Nicholas J Birkett, James Gomes, Julian Little, Sonya Bowen, Hamilton Candundo, Ting-Kuang Chao, Kayla Collins, James A G Crispo, Tom Duggan, Reem El Sherif, Nawal Farhat, Yannick Fortin, Janet Gaskin, Pallavi Gupta, Mona Hersi, Jing Hu, Brittany Irvine, Shayesteh Jahanfar, Don MacDonald, Kyla McKay, Andrea Morrissey, Pauline Quach, Ruksana Rashid, Sabina Shin, Lindsey Sikora, Stacey Tkachuk, Mohamed K Taher, Ming-Dong Wang, Shalu Darshan, Neil R Cashman
Systematic reviews were conducted to identify risk factors associated with the onset and progression of 14 neurological conditions, prioritized as a component of the National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions. These systematic reviews provided a basis for evaluating the weight of evidence of evidence for risk factors for the onset and progression of the 14 individual neurological conditions considered. A number of risk factors associated with an increased risk of onset for more than one condition, including exposure to pesticides (associated with an increased risk of AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain tumours, and PD; smoking (AD, MS); and infection (MS, Tourette syndrome)...
April 11, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408342/chronic-ethanol-intake-induces-partial-microglial-activation-that-is-not-reversed-by-long-term-ethanol-withdrawal-in-the-rat-hippocampal-formation
#4
Catarina Cruz, Manuela Meireles, Susana M Silva
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders. Activation of microglia leads to the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial-mediated neuroinflammation has been proposed as one of the alcohol-induced neuropathological mechanisms. The present study aimed to examine the effect of chronic ethanol exposure and long-term withdrawal on microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the hippocampal formation. Male rats were submitted to 6 months of ethanol treatment followed by a 2-month withdrawal period...
April 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385490/manganese-exposure-facilitates-microglial-jak2-stat3-signaling-and-consequent-secretion-of-tnf-a-and-il-1%C3%AE-to-promote-neuronal-death
#5
Lifeng Yin, Qijun Dai, Peipei Jiang, Lin Zhu, Haifeng Dai, Zhigang Yao, Hua Liu, Xiaoping Ma, Lianxia Qu, Junkang Jiang
Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure can lead to neuroinflammation and neurological deficit, which resemble idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). However, the precise mechanisms underlying Mn exposure-induced neurotoxicity remain incompletely understood. Microglia can become hyperactivated and plays a vital role in neuroinflammation and consequent neurodegeneration in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. In the present study, we found that HAPI microglial cells exhibited increased secretion of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β following Mn exposure in dose- and time-dependent manners...
April 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377118/single-low-doses-of-mptp-decrease-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-in-the-absence-of-overt-neuron-loss
#6
Gelareh Alam, Melissa Edler, Shelbie Burchfield, Jason R Richardson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a prototypical neurotoxicant used in mice to mimic primary features of PD pathology including striatal dopamine depletion and dopamine neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In the literature, there are several experimental paradigms involving multiple doses of MPTP that are used to elicit dopamine neuron loss. However, a recent study reported that a single low dose caused significant loss of dopamine neurons...
April 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363508/risk-factors-associated-with-the-onset-and-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#7
Mona Hersi, Brittany Irvine, Pallavi Gupta, James Gomes, Nicholas Birkett, Daniel Krewski
A systematic review was conducted to identify risk factors associated with the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moderate and high quality systematic reviews were eligible for inclusion. Primary studies reporting on non-genetic risk factors associated with neuropathologically or clinically confirmed AD were considered. Eighty one systematic reviews reporting on AD onset and 12 reporting on progression satisfied the eligibility criteria. Four hundred and thirty-two relevant primary studies reporting on onset were identified; however, only those published between 2010 and 2012 (n=65) were included in the qualitative synthesis...
March 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359837/symptoms-from-masked-acrolein-exposure-suggest-altered-trigeminal-reactivity-in-chemical-intolerance
#8
Anna-Sara Claeson, Linus Andersson
BACKGROUND: Chemical intolerance (CI) is a widespread occupational and public health problem characterized by symptoms that reportedly result from low-levels of chemical exposure. The mechanisms behind CI are unknown, however modifications of the chemical senses (rather than toxic processes) have been suggested as key components. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with self-reported CI report more sensory irritation during masked acrolein exposure compared to controls without CI...
March 27, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330762/effect-of-whole-brain-irradiation-on-the-specific-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-metabolic-and-histopathological-changes
#9
Soňa Bálentová, Petra Hnilicová, Dagmar Kalenská, Peter Murín, Eva Hajtmanová, Ján Lehotský, Marian Adamkov
Effect of ionizing radiation on the brain affects neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell population and lead to significant morphological, metabolic, and functional deficits. In the present study we investigated a dose- and time-dependent correlation between radiation-induced metabolic and histopathological changes. Adult male Wistar rats received a total dose of 35Gy delivered in 7 fractions (dose 5Gy per fraction) once per week in the same weekday during 7 consecutive weeks. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to determine whether radiation-induced alteration of the brain metabolites correlates with appropriate histopathological changes of neurogenesis and glial cell response in 2 neurogenic regions: the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb axis (SVZ-OB axis)...
March 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300621/acute-exposure-to-chlorpyrifos-caused-nadph-oxidase-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-neurotoxicity-in-a-striatal-cell-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#10
Gifty A Dominah, Rachael A McMinimy, Sallay Kallon, Gunnar F Kwakye
We hypothesized that expression of mutant Huntingtin (HTT) would modulate the neurotoxicity of the commonly used organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), revealing cellular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Using a mouse striatal cell model of HD, we report that mutant HD cells are more susceptible to CPF-induced cytotoxicity as compared to wild-type. This CPF-induced cytotoxicity caused increased production of reactive oxygen species, reduced glutathione levels, decreased superoxide dismutase activity, and increased malondialdehyde levels in mutant HD cells relative to wild-type...
March 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288823/cadmium-induced-il-6-and-il-8-expression-and-release-from-astrocytes-are-mediated-by-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#11
Suttinee Phuagkhaopong, Dusadee Ospondpant, Thitima Kasemsuk, Nathawut Sibmooh, Sunhapas Soodvilai, Christopher Power, Pornpun Vivithanaporn
Chronic exposure to cadmium has been linked to brain cancers, learning disabilities and memory deficits. Previous studies of cadmium toxicity in the central nervous system report cadmium induces oxidative stress in neurons and astrocytes. In the peripheral system, cadmium promotes interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 production and release. Elevation of IL-6 expression is linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and astrogliosis. IL-8 plays a role in angiogenesis of gliomas and neurodegenerative diseases...
March 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284907/minocycline-protects-rescues-and-prevents-knockdown-transgenic-parkin-drosophila-against-paraquat-iron-toxicity-implications-for-autosomic-recessive-juvenile-parkinsonism
#12
Hector Flavio Ortega-Arellano, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, Carlos Velez-Pardo
Autosomal recessive Juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutation in the PARKIN gene, and invariably associated with dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal loss and brain iron accumulation. Since current medical therapy is symptomatic and lacks significant disease-modifying effects, other treatment approaches are urgently needed it. In the present work, we investigate the role of minocycline (MC) in paraquat (PQ)/iron-induced neurotoxicity in the Drosophila TH>parkin-RNAi/+ (w[*]; UAS-parkin-RNAi; TH-GAL4) fly and have shown the following: (i) MC increased life span and restored the locomotor activity of knockdown (KD) transgenic parkin flies in comparison with the control (vehicle) group; (ii) MC at low (0...
March 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279795/-unknown-title
#13
David M Soderlund, Ke Dong, Vincent Salgado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274800/a-screening-tool-to-detect-clinical-manganese-neurotoxicity
#14
Brad A Racette, Anat Gross, Susan R Criswell, Harvey Checkoway, Susan Searles Nielsen
Manganese (Mn) over-exposure in occupational settings is associated with basal ganglia toxicity and a movement disorder characterized by parkinsonism (i.e., the signs and symptoms of Parkinson disease). A simple test to help non-neurologists identify workers with clinical Mn neurotoxicity represents an unmet need. In a cohort of Mn-exposed workers from welding worksites, with extensive clinical data, we developed a linear regression model to predict the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) score...
March 6, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259768/-18-f-fp-cit-dopamine-transporter-pet-findings-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-parkinsonism
#15
Hui-Jun Yang, Seol Hoon Park, Minjung Seo, Young Cheol Weon, Yangho Kim
We report the clinical features and imaging findings of presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) positron emission tomography (PET) in four of patients with liver cirrhosis and concurrent parkinsonism. We also reviewed previously reported cases of cirrhosis-related parkinsonism using dopaminergic molecular imaging. Our results using (18)F-radiolabeled N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2β-carboxymethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) DAT PET in four patients with cirrhosis and parkinsonism showed two different molecular imaging patterns well related to their neurological symptoms...
March 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257918/ceftriaxone-mediated-upregulation-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-contrasts-neurotoxicity-evoked-by-kainate-in-rat-organotypic-spinal-cord-cultures
#16
Dzejla Bajrektarevic, Andrea Nistri
Excitotoxicity is a major pathological trigger of neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This process is caused by excessive release of the transmitter glutamate that overwhelms the capacity of astroglia transporters to maintain a low extracellular level of this aminoacid and strongly stimulates neurons. Using an in vitro model of rat organotypic spinal slice culture, we explored if the excitotoxicity caused by the potent glutamate analogue kainate, widely employed as a paradigm to evoke neurotoxicity in the central nervous system, was prevented by the antibiotic ceftriaxone known to enhance glutamate transporter expression...
March 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237670/commentary-toshio-narahashi-life-and-legacy-of-the-founding-father-of-cellular-neuropharmacology
#17
Vincent L Salgado, Xilong Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237669/disruption-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-on-co-exposures-to-dithiocarbamate-and-neonicotinoid-pesticides-study-in-a-wildlife-bird-amandava-amandava
#18
Surya Prakash Pandey, Banalata Mohanty
Non-target organisms, including human and wildlife, are susceptible to deleterious effects of pesticide mixtures in their environment. Present study demonstrated the disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in a seasonally breeding wildlife bird Amandava amandava on co-exposure to dithiocarbamate mancozeb/MCZ and neonicotinoid imidacloprid/IMI, at concentrations even lower than respective environmentally realistic exposure level of each of the pesticide. Adult male birds (n=8/group) were exposed individually to 0...
February 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235547/intermittent-hypercapnic-hypoxia-effects-on-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-developing-piglet-hippocampus-and-brainstem
#19
Arunnjah Vivekanandarajah, Atqiya Aishah, Karen A Waters, Rita Machaalani
This study investigated the effects of acute (1 day) vs repeated (4 days) exposure to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) on the immunohistochemical expression of α2, α3, α5, α7, α9 and β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem medulla, and how prior nicotine exposure alters the response to acute IHH. Five piglet groups included: 1day IHH (1D IHH, n=9), 4days IHH (4D IHH, n=8), controls exposed only to air cycles for 1day (1D Air, n=6) or 4days (4D Air, n=5), and pre-exposed to nicotine for 13days prior to 1day IHH (Nic+1D IHH, n=7)...
February 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223159/ambient-geothermal-hydrogen-sulfide-exposure-and-peripheral-neuropathy
#20
Karl Pope, Yuen T So, Julian Crane, Michael N Bates
The mechanism of toxicity of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is thought mainly to operate through effects on the nervous system. The gas has high acute toxicity, but whether chronic exposure causes effects, including peripheral neuropathy, is yet unclear. The city of Rotorua, New Zealand, sits on an active geothermal field and the population has some of the highest measured ambient H2S exposures. A previous study in Rotorua provided evidence that H2S is associated with peripheral neuropathy. Using clinical methods, the present study sought to investigate and possibly confirm this association in the Rotorua population...
February 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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