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Michael B Gatch, Michael J Forster
A new generation of novel cannabinoid compounds have been developed as marijuana substitutes to avoid drug control laws and cannabinoid blood tests. 5F-MDMB-PINACA (also known as 5F-ADB, 5F-ADB-PINACA), MDMB-CHIMICA, MDMB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, and AMB-FUBINACA (also known as FUB-AMB, MMB-FUBINACA) were tested for in vivo cannabinoid-like effects to assess their abuse liability. Locomotor activity in mice was tested to screen for locomotor depressant effects and to identify behaviorally-active dose ranges and times of peak effect...
November 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Remco H S Westerink, Christoph van Thriel, Edward D Levin, Timothy J Shafer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Elaine Wan Ling Chan, Sangeetha Krishnansamy, Cindy Wong, Sook Yee Gan
The cognitive impairment caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau proteins, and is accompanied by inflammation. Recently, a novel inflammasome signaling pathway has been uncovered. Inflammasomes are implicated in the execution of inflammatory responses and pyroptotic death leading to neurodegeneration. Thus, the inflammasome signaling pathway could be a potential therapeutic target for AD. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent cells that can self-renew and differentiate into distinct neural cells...
November 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Gunnar F Kwakye, Jessica A Jiménez, Morgan G Thomas, Brett A Kingsley, Matthew McIIvin, Mak A Saito, Edmund M Korley
Huntington's disease (HD) is functionally linked to environmental factors including cigarette use and dyshomeostasis in the levels of metals. Interestingly, one of the most abundant heavy metals in cigarettes is cadmium (Cd), which also accumulates in the striatum and causes neurotoxicity upon exposure. Thus, we hypothesized that heterozygous huntingtin (HTT), responsible for the majority of cases of HD in patients, in combination with Cd exposure would cause neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration via increased intracellular accumulation of Cd and activation of oxidative stress signaling mechanisms in a mouse striatal cell line model of HD...
November 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Miaojing Wu, Linlin Xu, Chaxiang Teng, Xiao Xiao, Weihua Hu, Jiaxiang Chen, Wei Tu
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) has been widely used as a plasticizer in industry and can cause neurotoxicity; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the study, we found that DEHP significantly inhibited viability of mouse NE-4C neural stem cells and caused lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from the cells. DEHP dramatically increased the levels of apoptosis-related proteins such as cleaved Caspase-8, cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax, as well as decreased Bcl-2 protein level. DEHP could also significantly increase the total numbers of AnnexinV-positive/PI-negative and AnnexinV-positive/PI-positive staining cells...
November 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
M S Mattalloni, Paula A Albrecht, C Salinas-Luypaert, Romina Deza-Ponzio, M E Quintanilla, M Herrera-Marschitz, L M Cancela, M Rivera-Meza, M B Virgolini
Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant. We have demonstrated that perinatally Pb-exposed rats consume more ethanol than their control counterparts, a response that seems to be mediated by catalase (CAT) and centrally-formed acetaldehyde, ethanol's first metabolite with attributed reinforcing effects in the brain. The present study sought to disrupt ethanol intake (2-10% ethanol v/v) in rats exposed to 220 ppm Pb or filtered water during gestation and lactation. Thus, to block brain CAT expression, a lentiviral vector coding for a shRNA against CAT (LV-antiCAT vector) was microinfused in the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) either at the onset or towards the end of a chronic voluntary ethanol consumption test...
October 29, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Lidawani Lambuk, Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Nor Salmah Bakar, Puneet Agarwal, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
OBJECTIVE: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) excitotoxicity has been proposed to mediate apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. Taurine (TAU) has been shown to have neuroprotective properties, thus we examined anti-apoptotic effect of TAU against retinal damage after NMDA exposure. METHODOLOGY: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 33 each. Group 1 was administered intravitreally with vehicle and group 2 was similarly injected with NMDA (160 nmol)...
October 29, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Steven R Boomhower, M Christopher Newland
Methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental neurotoxicant primarily found in fish, produces neurobehavioral impairment when exposure occurs during gestation. Whether other developmental periods, such as adolescence, display enhanced vulnerability to the behavioral effects of MeHg exposure is only beginning to be explored. Further, little is known about the effects of repeated administration of lysine deacetylase inhibitors, such as sodium butyrate (NaB), on operant behavior. In Experiment 1, male C57BL6/n mice were exposed to 0, 0...
October 29, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Mohamed A Elhady, Abdel Azeim A Khalaf, Mervat M Kamel, Peter A Noshy
Propiconazole (PCZ) is an ergosterol biosynthesis inhibiting fungicide. Carvacrol (CAR) is a monoterpenoid phenol that has various beneficial health effects. The current research was designed to study the impact of PCZ on the behavior of rats and its ability to induce DNA damage in neurons as well as to clarify the ameliorative effect of CAR against these toxic impacts. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided into 4 experimental groups and treated daily by oral gavage for 2 months as follows: Group 1 (control); group 2 treated with PCZ (75 mg/kg); group 3 treated with CAR (50 mg/kg) and group 4 treated with both PCZ and CAR...
October 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Sungjin Park, Sung-Kyung Kim, Jae-Yeop Kim, Kyungsuk Lee, Jung Ran Choi, Sei-Jin Chang, Choon Hee Chung, Kyu-Sang Park, Sung-Soo Oh, Sang-Baek Koh
BACKGROUND: Among the adverse health effects of exposure to pesticides, an association with diabetes has been reported. However, there is a lack of epidemiologic studies on the health effects of exposure to pesticides, particularly investigating the association between occupational pesticide exposure and diabetes prevalence. PURPOSE: The present study examined the association between pesticide exposure and prevalence of diabetes in a rural population in Korea. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea Farmers Cohort study, and included 2559 participants in the baseline survey between November 2005 and January 2008...
October 24, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Débora F Gonçalves, Aline A Courtes, Diane D Hartmann, Pamela C da Rosa, Débora M Oliveira, Félix A A Soares, Cristiane L Dalla Corte
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated to have a central role in Parkinson Disease (PD) pathophysiology. Some studies have indicated that PD causes an impairment in mitochondrial bioenergetics; however, the effects of PD on brain-region specific bioenergetics was never investigated before. This study aimed to evaluate mitochondrial bioenergetics in different rat brain structures in an in vitro model of PD using 6-OHDA. Rat brain slices of hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were exposed to 6-OHDA (100 μM) for 1 h and mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters, peroxide production, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and citrate synthase (CS) activities were analyzed...
October 22, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Lindsay T Michalovicz, Alicia R Locker, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Zachary Barnes, Mary Ann Fletcher, Diane B Miller, Nancy G Klimas, Mariana Morris, Stephen M Lasley, James P O'Callaghan
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder experienced by as many as a third of the veterans of the 1991 Gulf War; the constellation of "sickness behavior" symptoms observed in ill veterans is suggestive of a neuroimmune involvement. Various chemical exposures and conditions in theater have been implicated in the etiology of the illness. Previously, we found that GW-related organophosphates (OPs), such as the sarin surrogate, DFP, and chlorpyrifos, cause neuroinflammation. The combination of these exposures with exogenous corticosterone (CORT), mimicking high physiological stress, exacerbates the observed neuroinflammation...
October 16, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Pedro Espitia-Pérez, Suelen Marin Albino, Lyda Espitia-Pérez, Hugo Brango, Helen da Rosa, Alexandre Kleber Silveira, Diogo Pompéu Moraes, Camila Cerveira, Moara Mingori, Camila Tiefensee Ribeiro, Daniel Pens Gelain, Carlos Eduardo Schnorr, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
Fish consumption and ubiquitous methylmercury (MeHg) exposure represent a public health problem globally. Micronutrients presented in fish affects MeHg uptake/distribution. Vitamin A (VitA), another fish micronutrient is used in nutritional supplementation, especially during pregnancy. However, there is no information about the health effects arising from their combined exposure. The present study aimed to examine the effects of both MeHg and retinyl palmitate administered to pregnant and lactating rats. Thirty Wistar female rats were orally supplemented with MeHg (0,5 mg/Kg/day) and retinyl palmitate (7500 μg RAE1 /Kg/day), either individually or in combination from the gestational day 0 to weaning...
October 11, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Justyne Feat-Vetel, Vanessa Larrigaldie, Géraldine Meyer-Dilhet, Ameziane Herzine, Camille Mougin, Anthony Laugeray, Thierry Gefflaut, Olivier Richard, Valérie Quesniaux, Céline Montécot-Dubourg, Stéphane Mortaud
The globally used herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) is structurally analogous to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and is known to interfere with cellular mechanisms involved in the glutamatergic system. In this report, we used an in vitro model of murine primary neural stem cell culture to investigate the neurotoxicity of GLA and its main metabolite, 4-methylphosphinico-2-oxobutanoic acid (PPO). We demonstrated that GLA and PPO disturb ependymal wall integrity in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and alter the neuro-glial differentiation of neural stem cells...
October 10, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Zuha Jeddy, Katarzyna Kordas, Kristen Allen, Ethel V Taylor, Kate Northstone, W Dana Flanders, Gonza Namulanda, Andreas Sjodin, Terryl J Hartman
BACKGROUND: The developing brain is susceptible to exposure to neurodevelopmental toxicants such as pesticides. AIMS: We explored associations of prenatal serum concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,1,1-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) with maternal-reported measures of verbal and non-verbal communication in young girls. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied a sample of 400 singleton girls and their mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) using multivariable linear regression models adjusting for parity, Home Observation Measurement of the Environment (HOME) score, maternal age and education status, and maternal tobacco use during the first trimester of pregnancy...
October 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Shu-Shong Hsu, Chung-Ren Jan, Wei-Zhe Liang
Exposure to insecticides has been found to have deleterious effects on human health. Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT), a mixture of isomers of cyhalothrin, is a pyrethroid insecticide routinely used in pest control programs. LCT was reported to cause neurotoxic effects in various models. However, the mechanism of underlying effect of LCT on cytotoxicity in normal human brain cells is still elusive. This study examined whether LCT affected Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+ -related physiology in Gibco® Human Astrocytes (GHA cells), and explored whether BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid), a selective Ca2+ chelator, has protective effects on LCT-treated GHA cells...
October 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Eva Y Ma, Kevin Heffern, Julia Cheresh, Evan P Gallagher
Fish rely heavily on their sense of smell to maintain behaviors essential for survival, such as predator detection and avoidance, prey selection, social behavior, imprinting, and homing to natal streams and spawning sites. Due to its direct contact with the outside environment, the peripheral olfactory system of fish is particularly susceptible to dissolved contaminants. In particular, environmental exposures to copper (Cu) can cause a rapid loss of olfactory function. In this study, confocal imaging of double-transgenic zebrafish larvae with differentially labeled ciliated and microvillous olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) were used to examine cell death and regeneration following Cu exposure...
October 4, 2018: Neurotoxicology
John F Bowyer, Karen M Tranter, Bonnie L Robinson, Joseph P Hanig, Madeline G Faubion, Sumit Sarkar
The initial goals of these experiments were to determine: 1) if blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown was a cause or an effect of METH-induced seizures; 2) all the brain regions where BBB is disrupted as seizures progress; and 3) the correlations between body temperature and vascular leakage and neurodegeneration. A fourth objective was added after initial experimentation to determine if sub-strain differences existed in adult male C57 B6 J (Jackson laboratories, JAX) versus C57 B6N (Charles River, CR) mice involving their susceptibility to BBB breakdown and seizure severity...
September 30, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Damir Nizamutdinov, Sanjib Mukherjee, Chenghao Deng, Harald M Stauss, Lee A Shapiro
Gulf war illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disease that afflicts 25-33% of troops that were deployed in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. GWI symptoms include cognitive, behavioral and emotional deficits, as well as migraines and pain. It is possible that exposure to Gulf War agents and prophylactics contributed to the reported symptomology. Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and permethrin (PER) were given to protect from nerve gas attacks and insect vector born disease, respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that 10 days of exposure to these chemicals can cause symptoms analogous to those observed in GWI, including impairment of long-term memory in mice...
September 29, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Li Yang, Peiyu Jin, Xiaoyan Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaoli Lin, Shuhua Xi
Epidemiological studies have reported that highly fluoridated drinking water may significantly decrease the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of exposed children. It is thought that synaptic plasticity is the basis of learning and memory skills in developing children. However, the effect on synaptic plasticity by activated microglia induced via fluoride treatment is less clear. Our previous research showed that fluoride ions activated microglia which then released pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, hippocampal-dependent memory status was evaluated in rat models sub-chronically exposed to fluoride in their drinking water...
September 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology
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