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Haiping Xu, Baisong Zhao, Yingjun She, Xingrong Song
Dexmedetomidine, a selective α2 adrenergic agonist, has been shown to have neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, we used a rat model of spinal neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal administration of lidocaine. Four days after intrathecal catheter implantation, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of various doses of dexmedetomidine before an intrathecal injection of 20 µL 10% lidocaine. Dexmedetomidine-pretreated rats were also exposed to a selective α2 -adrenergic antagonist (yohimbine) or a specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (Gö 6983) that selectively inhibits several PKC isoforms...
September 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Ramazan Üstün, Elif Kaval Oğuz, Ayşe Şeker, Hasan Korkaya
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a substantial, dose-limiting adverse effect that occurs in cancer patients. Cis-dichlorodiamine (II) platinum (CDDP, cisplatin) is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent that causes severe acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies in 30% of cancer patients. Thymoquinone (TQ), a leading bioactive constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic and neuroprotective properties. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) include different classes of primary sensory neurons, such as nociceptors, mechanoreceptors, and proprioceptive neurons...
September 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Selim Çomakli, Mine Köktürk, Ahmet Topal, Mustafa Özkaraca, Saltuk Buğrahan Ceyhun
In this study, we investigated the potential neuro-toxicological mechanism of the glufosinate in the brain of zebrafish larvae in terms of BDNF and c-Fos proteins by evaluating apoptosis, immunofluorescence BDNF, and c-FOS activation. We also measured survival rate, hatching rate, and body malformations during 96 h exposure time. For this purpose, zebrafish embryos were treated with graded concentrations of dosing solutions (0.5, 1, 3, and 5 ppm) of glufosinate. End of the treatment, acridine orange staining was used to detect apoptotic cells in the brain of zebrafish larvae at 96 hpf...
September 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Katarzyna Palus, Michał Bulc, Jarosław Całka
Acrylamide is one of the food toxins to which the human body is exposed. Although researchers' interest in acrylamide has been growing in recent years, the knowledge of its effect on the gastrointestinal tract, especially on intramural neurons which form the enteric nervous system is scarce. The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of acrylamide, administered at doses equivalent to the human tolerable daily intake (TDI, 0.5 μg/kg b.w./day) and ten times higher than the TDI (5 μg/kg b...
September 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Haruna Tamano, Hiroki Morioka, Ryusuke Nishio, Azusa Takeuchi, Atsushi Takeda
On the basis of the findings that the rapid influx of extracellular Zn2+ into nigral dopaminergic neurons causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration, here we report that AMPA causes movement disorder in rats. AMPA markedly increased turning behavior in response to apomorphine 1 and 2 weeks after AMPA injection into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), while AMPA-induced movement disorder was suppressed by co-injection of intracellular Zn2+ chelators, i.e., ZnAF-2DA and TPEN, suggesting that AMPA-induced movement disorder is due to intracellular Zn2+ dysregulation...
August 31, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Jeffrey David Lewine, Waylon Weber, Andrew Gigliotti, Jacob D McDonald, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, Nitin Bangera, Kim Paulson, Christy Magcalas, Derek A Hamilton, Efrain Garcia, Robert Raulli, Judith Laney
Rats poisoned with sarin enter into ahyper-cholinergic crisis characterized by excessive salivation, respiratory distress, tremors, seizures, and death. Through the use of rescue medications and an anticonvulsant, death can be avoided in many animals, with the long-term consequences of poisoning partly ameliorated, especially when countermeasures are made available immediately after exposure. However, when anticonvulsant measures are delayed by as little as 30 min, clinical, neurological, cognitive, and psychiatric abnormalities may persist long after the initial exposure...
August 30, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Mohd Ashik Shahrier, Hiromi Wada
Rat pups produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) on isolation from their dam. Ultrasonic vocalization is a sensitive tool for evaluating social behavior between pups and their dam. Prenatal ethanol-exposure leads to a reduction in USVs and have the potential of inducing difficulties in social behavior between pups and their dam. However, effects of prenatal ethanol-exposure on the acoustic characteristics of USVs remain unclear. In this study, we recorded USVs produced by rat pups that were prenatally exposed to ethanol and examined their acoustic characteristics...
August 29, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Roberta Monteiro Incrocci, Franciely Paliarin, Manoel Jorge Nobre
Ketamine (KET) is a non-competitive N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors antagonist that intensifies sensory experiences, prompts hallucinations and delusions, exacerbates previously installed psychosis and disrupts physiological evoked potentials (AEPs). Pharmacologically, KET stimulates glutamate efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex, mainly in the prelimbic (PrL) sub-region. Efferences from this region exert a top-down regulatory control of bottom-up sensory processes either directly or indirectly. In the midbrain, the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC) plays a fundamental role in the processing of auditory ascending information related to sound localization, sensorimotor gating, and preattentive event-related potentials...
August 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Aline Haab Lutte, Júlia Huppes Majolo, Luiza Reali Nazario, Rosane Souza Da Silva
Ethanol is one of the most widely consumed drugs in the world, and the effects of ethanol during early development include morphological and cognitive problems. The regulation of adenosine levels is essential for the proper function of major neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly glutamate and dopamine; thus, the investigation of the relation of adenosine and memory after early ethanol exposure becomes relevant. Embryos of zebrafish were exposed to 1% ethanol during two distinct developmental stages: gastrula/segmentation or pharyngula...
August 26, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Bjørnar Hassel, Espen Mariussen, Ane-Victoria Idland, Gry T Dahl, Johan Ræder, Frede Frihagen, Jens Petter Berg, Farrukh A Chaudhry, Torgeir B Wyller, Leiv O Watne
Delirium is an acute state of confusion and a fluctuating level of consciousness. It is precipitated by physical illness or trauma, such as pneumonia, heart infarction, or hip fracture. Delirium is common among elderly hospitalized patients, and as many as 50% of hip fracture patients may develop delirium. Delirium may precipitate dementia, but recent studies indicate that delirium is caused by unknown neurotoxic mechanisms that are different from those that are associated with dementia. Experimental studies have shown that high extracellular levels of sodium are neurotoxic...
August 24, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Marissa Sobolewski, Timothy Anderson, Katherine Conrad, Elena Marvin, Carolyn Klocke, Keith Morris-Schaffer, Joshua L Allen, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Epidemiological studies have reported associations of air pollution exposures with various neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit and schizophrenia, all of which are male-biased in prevalence. Our studies of early postnatal exposure of mice to the ultrafine particle (UFP) component of air pollution, considered the most reactive component, provide support for these epidemiological associations, demonstrating male-specific or male-biased neuropathological changes and cognitive and impulsivity deficits consistent with these disorders...
August 23, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Joanna A Ruszkiewicz, Gabriel Teixeira de Macedo, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, João B Teixeira da Rocha, Aaron B Bowman, Julia Bornhorst, Tanja Schwerdtle, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental pollutant linked to many neurological defects, especially in developing individuals. The thioredoxin (TRX) system is a key redox regulator affected by MeHg toxicity, however the mechanisms and consequences of MeHg-induced dysfunction are not completely understood. This study evaluated the role of the TRX system in C. elegans susceptibility to MeHg during development. Worms lacking or overexpressing proteins from the TRX family were exposed to MeHg for 1 h at different developmental stage: L1, L4 and adult...
August 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Gideon F Meerhoff, Stefanie M Vester, Peter Hesseling, Steven D Klaassen, Alex S Cornelissen, Paul J Lucassen, Marloes J A Joosen
Organophosphate (OP) induced seizures are commonly treated with anticholinergics, oximes and anticonvulsants. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (PgP) has been shown to enhance the efficacy of nerve agent treatment in soman exposed rats. In the present study, the promising effects of the PgP inhibitor tariquidar were investigated in more detail in rats s.c. exposed to 150 μg/kg soman. Treatment with HI-6 and atropine sulfate (125 and 3 mg/kg i.m respectively) was administered 1 min after exposure. Diazepam (0...
August 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Ye Yu, Yuan Wang, Yi Wang, Jing Dong, Hui Min, Jie Chen
During early pregnancy, iodine deficiency (ID) is linked to adverse effects on child motor and psychomotor function. Maternal marginal ID has become a common public health problem. It is unclear whether marginal ID influences the development of the cerebellum or its underlying mechanisms. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of marginal ID on the development of cerebellar Bergmann glial cells (BGs) and investigate the activation of the Notch signaling pathway, which is crucial for the development and morphology of BGs...
August 16, 2018: Neurotoxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Satoshi Shibuta, Tomotaka Morita, Jun Kosaka
Anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity in the developing brain is a concern. This neurotoxicity is closely related to anesthetic exposure time, dose, and developmental stages. Using calcium imaging and morphological examinations in vitro, we sought to determine whether intravenous anesthetic-induced direct neurotoxicity varies according to different stages of the days in vitro (DIV) of neurons in primary culture. Cortical neurons from E17 Wistar rats were prepared. On DIV 3, 7, and 13, cells were exposed to the intravenous anesthetics thiopental sodium (TPS), midazolam (MDZ), or propofol (PPF), to investigate direct neurotoxicity using morphological experiments...
August 11, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Lisa A Bailey, Ke Zu, Barbara D Beck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Tatsuya Suzuki, Seiji Yamato
Piperamides, which are secondary metabolites in the genus Piper, have potent insecticidal activity, and have thus inspired the development of novel insecticides. In this study, piperovatine, a piperamide from Piper piscatorum (Piperaceae), was investigated using a two-electrode voltage clamp to clarify its detailed mode of action against voltage-gated sodium channels, a classic target. In Xenopus oocytes expressing voltage-gated sodium channels from German cockroach (Blattella germanica), piperovatine induced inward currents depending on repetitive openings...
August 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Liana Shvachiy, Vera Geraldes, Ângela Amaro-Leal, Isabel Rocha
BACKGROUND: Exposures to lead (Pb) during developmental phases can alter the normal course of development, with lifelong health consequences. Permanent Pb exposure leads to behavioral changes, cognitive impairment, sympathoexcitation, tachycardia, hypertension and autonomic dysfunction. However, the effects of an intermittent lead exposure are not yet studied. This pattern of exposure has been recently increasing due to migrations, implementation of school exchange programs and/or residential changes...
August 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Erin N Haynes, Tim Hilbert, Heidi Sucharew, Kim N Dietrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
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