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Neurotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192093/the-roles-of-hippocampal-micrornas-in-response-to-acute-postnatal-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-in-female-and-male-rats
#1
Bryan E Luu, Stuart R Green, Christine L Childers, Matthew R Holahan, Kenneth B Storey
Previous studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure impairs the normal development of pre- and post-synaptic elements of the male, but not female, rat hippocampus. While males seem to be vulnerable to the neurodevelopmental deficits resulting from DEHP exposure, females appear to show a protective response. The purpose of the present study was to characterize hippocampal microRNAs in female and male rats exposed to DEHP to assess whether any patterns emerged that would be consistent with vulnerability in males and resilience in females...
February 9, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189717/carbon-disulfide-potentiates-the-effects-of-impulse-noise-on-the-organ-of-corti
#2
Maria Carreres Pons, Monique Chalansonnet, Thomas Venet, Aurélie Thomas, Hervé Nunge, Lise Merlen, Frédéric Cosnier, Jordi Llorens, Pierre Campo
Occupational noise can damage workers' hearing, and the phenomenon is even more dangerous when noise is associated with an ototoxic solvent. Aromatic solvents are known to provoke chemical-induced hearing loss, but little is known about the effects on hearing of carbon disulfide (CS2) when combined with noise. Co-exposure to CS2 and noise may have a harmful effect on hearing, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. For instance, CS2 is not thought to have a cochleotoxic effect, but rather it is thought to cause retrocochlear hearing impairment...
February 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188819/potential-short-term-neurobehavioral-alterations-in-children-associated-with-a-peak-pesticide-spray-season-the-mother-s-day-flower-harvest-in-ecuador
#3
Jose R Suarez-Lopez, Harvey Checkoway, David R Jacobs, Wael K Al-Delaimy, Sheila Gahagan
BACKGROUND: Exposures to cholinesterase inhibitor pesticides (e.g. organophosphates) have been associated with children's neurobehavioral alterations, including attention deficit and impulsivity. Animal studies have observed transient alterations in neurobehavioral performance in relation to cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide exposures; however, limited evidence exists regarding transient effects in humans. METHODS: We estimated the associations between neurobehavioral performance and time after Mother's Day flower harvest (the end of a heightened pesticide usage period) among 308 4-to 9-year-old children living in floricultural communities in Ecuador in 2008 who participated in the ESPINA study...
February 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174044/propylparaben-applied-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-modifies-hippocampal-excitability-and-glutamate-release-in-rats
#4
César Emmanuel Santana-Gómez, Sandra Adela Orozco-Suárez, Alan Talevi, Luis Bruno-Blanch, Víctor Manuel Magdaleno-Madrigal, Rodrigo Fernández-Mas, Luisa Rocha
Propylparaben (PPB) induces cardioprotection after ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting voltage-dependent Na(+) channels. The present study focuses on investigating whether the i.p. application of 178mg/kg PPB after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) reduces the acute and long-term consequences of seizure activity. Initially, we investigated the effects of a single administration of PPB after SE. Our results revealed that compared to rats receiving diazepam (DZP) plus vehicle after 2h of SE, animals receiving a single dose of PPB 1h after DZP injection presented 126% (p<0...
February 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167099/27-hydroxycholesterol-regulates-cholesterol-synthesis-and-transport-in-c6-glioma-cells
#5
Yu An, Dan-Di Zhang, Huan-Ling Yu, Wei-Wei Ma, Yan-Hui Lu, Quan-Ri Liu, Rong Xiao
The oxysterol 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) is a major cholesterol metabolite that can cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) from peripheral circulation to the brain. Currently, the role of 27-OHC on cholesterol homeostasis in astrocytes and the underlying mechanisms are not defined. Since all brain cholesterol is essentially synthesized in brain itself and astrocytes as net producers of cholesterol are essential for normal brain function, here we investigated the effects of 27-OHC on cholesterol synthesis and transport in C6 glioma cells...
February 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163087/l-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-nitrosation-generates-a-cytotoxic-dna-damaging-alkylating-agent-an-unexplored-mechanism-for-neurodegenerative-disease
#6
G Potjewyd, P J Day, S Shangula, G P Margison, A C Povey
BACKGROUND: L-β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinic amino acid, that is neurotoxic in vitro and in animals, and is implicated in the causation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS-PDC) on Guam. Given that natural amino acids can be N-nitrosated to form toxic alkylating agents and the structural similarity of BMAA to other amino acids, our hypothesis was that N-nitrosation of BMAA might result in a toxic alkylating agent, providing a novel mechanistic hypothesis for BMAA action...
February 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159619/prenatal-maternal-stress-in-relation-to-the-effects-of-prenatal-lead-exposure-on-toddler-cognitive-development
#7
Leilei Zhou, Jian Xu, Jinsong Zhang, Chonghuai Yan, Yanfen Lin, Yinan Jia, Wenjing Hu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. METHODS: We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy...
January 31, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111121/risk-factors-for-the-onset-and-progression-of-huntington-disease
#8
Ting-Kuang Chao, Jing Hu, Tamara Pringsheim
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by chorea, behavioural and psychiatric manifestations, and dementia, caused by a CAG triplet repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the risk factors for the onset and progression of HD. Multiple databases were searched, using terms specific to Huntington disease and to studies of aetiology, risk, prevention and genetics, limited to studies on human subjects published in English or French between 1950 and 2010...
January 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104350/neonatal-exposure-to-bde-209-impaired-learning-and-memory-decreased-expression-of-hippocampal-core-snares-and-synaptophysin-in-adult-rats
#9
Xiong Li, Chunmei Wang, Wen Wang, Chengwei Yue, Yan Tang
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants. While the mechanism remains unknown, the potential neurotoxic effects of PBDEs remain a relevant issue. In the present study, neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were administered BDE 209 (1, 10, or 20mg/kg body weight) or peanut oil once daily from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND 10. We examined the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze and the working and reference memory by eight-arm radial maze in the stage of adulthood...
January 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099871/fluoride-and-arsenic-exposure-affects-spatial-memory-and-activates-the-erk-creb-signaling-pathway-in-offspring-rats
#10
Yu-Peng Zhu, Shu-Hua Xi, Ming-Yan Li, Ting-Ting Ding, Nan Liu, Fu-Yuan Cao, Yang Zeng, Xiao-Jing Liu, Jun-Wang Tong, Shou-Fang Jiang
Fluoride and arsenic are inorganic contaminants that occur in the natural environment. Chronic fluoride and/or arsenic exposure can induce developmental neurotoxicity and negatively influence intelligence in children, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. This study explored the effects of fluoride and arsenic exposure in drinking water on spatial learning, memory and key protein expression in the ERK/CREB signaling pathway in hippocampal and cerebral cortex tissue in rat offspring...
January 15, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082123/nicotine-suppresses-the-neurotoxicity-by-mpp-mptp-through-activating-%C3%AE-7nachr-pi3k-trx-1-and-suppressing-er-stress
#11
Yanxue Cai, Xianwen Zhang, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Xiaoli Wu, Yanhui Li, Jianhua Yao, Jie Bai
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease. Nicotine has been reported to have the role in preventing Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism is still unclear. In present study we found that nicotine suppressed 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion(MPP(+)) toxicity in PC12 cells by MTT assay. The expression of thioredoxin-1(Trx-1) was decreased by MPP(+), which was restored by nicotine. The nicotine suppressed expressions of Glucose-regulated protein 78(GRP78/Bip) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) induced by MPP(+)...
January 9, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077305/in-utero-exposure-to-fluoride-and-cognitive-development-delay-in-infants
#12
L Valdez Jiménez, O D López Guzmán, M Cervantes Flores, R Costilla-Salazar, J Calderón Hernández, Y Alcaraz Contreras, D O Rocha-Amador
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between in utero exposure to fluoride (F) and Mental and Psychomotor Development (MDI and PDI) evaluated through the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II (BSDI-II) in infants. The sample included 65 mother-infant pairs. Environmental exposure to F was quantified in tap and bottled water samples and F in maternal urine was the biological exposure indicator; samples were collected during the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The mean values of F in tap water for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester were 2...
January 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077286/assessment-of-neuroanatomical-and-behavioural-effects-of-in-ovo-methylmercury-exposure-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#13
Maria S Yu, Margaret L Eng, Tony D Williams, Mélanie F Guigueno, John E Elliott
Methylmercury (MeHg) readily crosses the blood brain barrier and is a known neuro-toxicant. MeHg accumulation in the brain causes histopathological alterations, neurobehavioral changes, and impairments to cognitive motor functions in mammalian models. However, in birds the neurotoxic effects of MeHg on the developing pre-hatching brain and consequent behavioral alterations in adult birds have not received much attention. Moreover, passerine birds are poorly represented in MeHg neurotoxicology studies in comparison to other avian orders...
January 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069364/compact-mri-for-the-detection-of-teratoma-development-following-intrathecal-human-embryonic-stem-cell-injection-in-nod-scid-mice
#14
Yuval Ramot, Yael S Schiffenbauer, Netanel Amouyal, Nathan Ezov, Michal Steiner, Michal Izrael, Neta Lavon, Arik Hasson, Michel Revel, Abraham Nyska
Stem cells are emerging as a promising new treatment modality for a variety of central nervous system disorders. However, their use is hampered by the potential for the development of teratomas and other tumors. Therefore, there is a crucial need for the development of methods for detecting teratomas in preclinical safety studies. The aim of the current study is to assess the ability of a compact Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system to detect teratoma formation in mice. Five NOD-SCID mice were injected intrathecally with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), with two mice serving as controls...
January 6, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057462/monoamine-oxidase-inhibitory-activity-in-tobacco-particulate-matter-are-harman-and-norharman-the-only-physiologically-relevant-inhibitors
#15
Penelope Truman, Peter Grounds, Katharine A Brennan
Monoamine oxidase inhibition is significant in smokers, but it is still unclear how the inhibition that is seen in the brains and bodies of smokers is brought about. Our aim was to test the contribution of the harman and norharman in tobacco smoke to MAO-A inhibition from tobacco smoke preparations, as part of a re-examination of harman and norharman as the cause of the inhibition of MAO-A inhibition in the brain. Tobacco smoke particulate matter and cigarette smoke particulate matter were prepared and the amounts of harman and norharman measured...
January 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048979/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-is-impaired-by-transient-and-moderate-developmental-thyroid-hormone-disruption
#16
M E Gilbert, J H Goodman, J Gomez, A F M Johnstone, R L Ramos
The hippocampus maintains a capacity for neurogenesis throughout life, a capacity that is reduced in models of adult onset hypothyroidism. The effects of developmental thyroid hormone (TH) insufficiency on neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, however, has not been examined. Graded degrees of TH insufficiency were induced in pregnant rat dams by administration of 0, 3 or 10ppm of 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) in drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 until weaning. Body, brain, and hippocampal weight were reduced on postnatal day (PN) 14, 21, 78 and hippocampal volume was smaller at the 10 but not 3ppm dose level...
December 31, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043867/bont-ab-hybrid-maintains-similar-duration-of-paresis-as-bont-a-wild-type-in-murine-running-wheel-assay
#17
Anna Kutschenko, Marie-Christine Reinert, Nadja Krez, David Liebetanz, Andreas Rummel
The highly potent Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are successful drugs to treat neuromuscular disorders. Efforts are being made to further reduce the injected BoNT dose and to lengthen the interval between treatments. Detailed knowledge of the BoNT structure-activity relationship (SAR) allows combining the best features of the different BoNT serotypes. Of all seven BoNT serotypes A-G, BoNT/A displays the highest potency despite low neuronal binding affinity, while BoNT/B exhibits much higher affinity. Recently, a new BoNT/AB hybrid (AABB) was constructed comprising the catalytic and translocation domain of BoNT/A and the 50kDa cell binding domain of BoNT/B...
December 30, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041893/effects-of-methylmercury-on-spinal-cord-afferents-and-efferents-a-review
#18
Alexandra Colón-Rodríguez, Heidi E Hannon, William D Atchison
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental neurotoxicant of public health concern. It readily accumulates in exposed humans, primarily in neuronal tissue. Exposure to MeHg, either acutely or chronically, causes severe neuronal dysfunction in the central nervous system and spinal neurons; dysfunction of susceptible neuronal populations results in neurodegeneration, at least in part through Ca(2+)-mediated pathways. Biochemical and morphologic changes in peripheral neurons precede those in central brain regions, despite the fact that MeHg readily crosses the blood-brain barrier...
December 29, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011073/behavioral-effects-and-neuroanatomical-targets-of-acute-atrazine-exposure-in-the-male-sprague-dawley-rat
#19
V M Rodriguez, M S Mendoza-Trejo, I Hernandez-Plata, M Giordano
Atrazine (ATR) is an herbicide broadly used in the world to control weeds in corn and sorghum fields, and it is potentially toxic for the dopaminergic system. Alterations in dopaminergic markers after ATR administration in rats and C57BL/6 mice have been reported. Behaviorally, it has been observed that ATR exposure causes hypoactivity shortly after its administration. To understand how acute ATR administration induces hypoactivity, we set out to map the brain areas responsive to ATR using c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as a marker of dopaminergic neurons...
December 21, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007400/consequences-of-acute-nav1-1-exposure-to-deltamethrin
#20
T F James, Miroslav N Nenov, Cynthia M Tapia, Marzia Lecchi, Shyny Koshy, Thomas A Green, Fernanda Laezza
BACKGROUND: Pyrethroid insecticides are the most popular class of insecticides in the world, despite their near-ubiquity, their effects of delaying the onset of inactivation of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels have not been well-evaluated in all the mammalian Nav isoforms. OBJECTIVE: Here we compare the well-studied Nav1.6 isoforms to the less-understood Nav1.1 in their responses to acute deltamethrin exposure. METHODS: We used patch-clamp electrophysiology to record sodium currents encoded by either Nav1...
December 19, 2016: Neurotoxicology
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