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Neurotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162469/response-to-editor-regarding-foster-et-al-neonatal-c57bl-6j-and-parkin-mice-respond-differently-following-developmental-manganese-exposure-result-of-a-high-dose-pilot-study-neurotoxicology
#1
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155171/manganese-chloride-induces-histone-acetylation-changes-in-neuronal-cells-its-role-in-manganese-induced-damage
#2
Zhenkun Guo, Zhipeng Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Jie Zhang, Lijin Wang, Qunwei Zhang, Huangyuan Li, Siying Wu
Manganese neurotoxicity presents with Parkinson-like symptoms, with degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia as the principal pathological feature. Manganese neurotoxicity studies may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of Parkinson's disease. Here, we examined the effects of manganese on histone acetylation, a major epigenetic change in chromatin that can regulate gene expression, chromatin remodelling, cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis. In this study, we found that manganese chloride (MnCl2) may significantly suppress the acetylation of histone H3 and H4 in PC12 cells and SHSY5Y cells in a time-dependent manner...
November 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128314/early-changes-in-m2-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-machrs-induced-by-sarin-intoxication-may-be-linked-to-long-lasting-neurological-effects
#3
Zipora Pittel, Shlomi Lazar, Rellie Gez, Shira Chapman
The effect of sarin on the binding parameters (KD & Bmax) of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) was studied 24h and 1 week post exposure. Male & female Sprague-Daweley rats were poisoned with 1XLD50 sarin (80μg/kg, im) followed by treatment of trimedoxime bromide and atropine (7.5:5mg/kg, im) 1min later. Brains were removed and analyzed for M2 mAChR binding, using [(3)H]AFDX384, an M2 selective antagonist. A significant increase in KD of M2 mAChR was found in the cortex 24h post poisoning, displaying elevation from 4...
November 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128313/reducing-occupational-lead-exposures-strengthened-standards-for-a-healthy-workforce
#4
REVIEW
Rachel M Shaffer, Steven G Gilbert
Outdated federal and state occupational lead standards leave workers and their families vulnerable to the adverse effects of lead. Standards should be updated to reflect the best available scientific and medical evidence, which documents harm to multiple organ systems even at low levels of exposure. This commentary will review the inadequacies of existing policies, highlight susceptible populations, and summarize state revision efforts to date. Federal policies must be strengthened to protect our workers and their families from this well-documented hazard...
November 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113734/cellular-responses-of-human-astrocytoma-cells-to-dust-from-the-acheson-process-an-in-vitro-study
#5
Yke Jildouw Arnoldussen, Torunn Kringlen Ervik, Balazs Berlinger, Ida Kero, Sergey Shaposhnikov, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Silicon carbide (SiC) is largely used in various products such as diesel particulate filters and solar panels. It is produced through the Acheson process where aerosolized fractions of SiC and other by-products are generated in the work environment and may potentially affect the workers' health. In this study, dust was collected directly on a filter in a furnace hall over a time period of 24h. The collected dust was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and found to contain a high content of graphite particles, and carbon and silicon containing particles...
November 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104007/perinatal-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-particulates-results-in-autism-like-behavioral-deficits-in-adult-mice
#6
Jamie S Church, Pamella B Tijerina, Felicity J Emerson, Morgan A Coburn, Jason L Blum, Judith T Zelikoff, Jared J Schwartzer
Exposure to fine ambient particulates (PM2.5) during gestation or neonatally has potent neurotoxic effects. While biological and behavioral data indicate a vulnerability to environmental pollutants across distinct neurodevelopmental windows, the behavioral consequences following exposure across the entire developmental period remain unknown. Moreover, several epidemiological studies support a link between developmental exposure to air pollution and an increased risk of later receiving a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that persists throughout life...
November 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102646/the-importance-of-controlling-in-vitro-oxygen-tension-to-accurately-model-in-vivo-neurophysiology
#7
REVIEW
Evan A Bordt
The majority of in vitro studies modeling in vivo conditions are performed on the lab bench in atmospheric air. However, the oxygen tension (pO2) present in atmospheric air (160mm Hg, ∼21% O2) is in great excess to the pO2 that permeates tissues within the brain (5-45mm Hg, ∼1-6% O2). This review will discuss the differentiation between pO2 in the in vivo environment and the pO2 commonly used during in vitro experiments, and how this could affect assay outcomes. Also highlighted are studies linking changes in pO2 to changes in cellular function, particularly the role of pO2 in mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species production, and cellular growth and differentiation...
November 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107683/hypoxia-regulates-the-level-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-enzymes-and-interrupts-inhibitory-synapse-stability-in-primary-cultured-neurons
#8
Seojin Hwang, Sangwoo Ham, Seong-Eun Lee, Yunjong Lee, Gum Hwa Lee
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neurotransmitter of inhibitory synaptic transmission, which is critical for oscillatory activity and synchronization of neurons in neural networks. GABA is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) enzymes in the inhibitory neuron and, thus, the deregulation of GAD enzymes and subsequent change of GABAergic activity are involved in various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. Under hypoxic conditions, neurons undergo neuropathological alterations which can be subtle or severe...
October 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097150/prenatal-bisphenol-a-bpa-exposure-alters-the-transcriptome-of-the-neonate-rat-amygdala-in-a-sex-specific-manner-a-clarity-bpa-consortium-study
#9
Sheryl E Arambula, Dereje Jima, Heather B Patisaul
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely recognized endocrine disruptor prevalent in many household items. Because experimental and epidemiological data suggest links between prenatal BPA exposure and altered affective behaviors in children, even at levels below the current US FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, there is concern that early life exposure may alter neurodevelopment. The current study was conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and examined the full amygdalar transcriptome on postnatal day (PND) 1, with the hypothesis that prenatal BPA exposure would alter the expression of genes and pathways fundamental to sex-specific affective behaviors...
October 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107071/role-of-tlr4-in-olfactory-based-spatial-learning-activity-of-neonatal-mice-after-developmental-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-origin-secondary-organic-aerosol
#10
Nay Chi Nway, Yuji Fujitani, Seishiro Hirano, Ohn Mar, Tin-Tin Win-Shwe
Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been reported to have various adverse health impacts. Ambient particulate matter comprises primary particles released directly via engine exhaust and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from oxidative reactions of the ultrafine particle fraction of diesel exhaust (DE). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known to initiate the inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. However, whether and how DE and DE-SOA exposure influences TLR4 signaling in the immature brain remains unclear...
October 26, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079486/exposure-to-fine-and-ultrafine-particulate-matter-during-gestation-alters-postnatal-oligodendrocyte-maturation-proliferation-capacity-and-myelination
#11
Carolyn Klocke, Joshua L Allen, Marissa Sobolewski, Jason L Blum, Judith T Zelikoff, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Accumulating studies indicate that the brain is a direct target of air pollution exposure during the fetal period. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) during gestation produces ventriculomegaly, periventricular hypermyelination, and enlargement of the corpus callosum (CC) during postnatal development in mice. This study aimed to further characterize the cellular basis of the observed hypermyelination and determine if this outcome, among other effects, persisted as the brain matured...
October 24, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031576/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-trophic-exposure-to-silver-nanospheres-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-a-neotropical-fish-hoplias-intermedius
#12
T Klingelfus, J R Lirola, L F Oya Silva, G R Disner, M Vicentini, M J B Nadaline, J C Z Robles, L M Trein, C L Voigt, H C Silva de Assis, M Mela, D M Leme, M M Cestari
Nanotechnologies are at the center of societal interest, due to their broad spectrum of application in different industrial products. The current concern about nanomaterials (NMs) is the potential risks they carry for human health and the environment. Considering that NMs can reach bodies of water, there is a need for studying the toxic effects of NMs on aquatic organisms. Among the NMs' toxic effects on fish, the interactions between NMs and the nervous system are yet to be understood. For this reason, our goal was to assess the neurotoxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone coated silver nanospheres [AgNS (PVP coated)] and compare their effects in relation to silver ions (Ag(+)) in carnivorous Hoplias intermedius fish after acute and subchronic trophic exposure through the analysis of morphological (retina), biochemical (brain) and genetic biomarkers (brain and blood)...
October 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020610/neonatal-c57bl-6j-and-parkin-mice-respond-differently-following-developmental-manganese-exposure-result-of-a-high-dose-pilot-study
#13
Melanie L Foster, Thomas B Bartnikas, Hailey C Maresca-Fichter, Courtney Mercadante, Miriam Dash, Chelsea Miller, David C Dorman
It has been suggested that childhood exposure to neurotoxicants may increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) or other neurodegenerative disease in adults. Some recessive forms of PD have been linked to loss-of-function mutations in the Park2 gene that encodes for parkin. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate whether responses to neonatal manganese (Mn) exposure differ in mice with a Park2 gene defect (parkin mice) when compared with a wildtype strain (C57BL/6J). Neonatal parkin and C57BL/6J littermates were randomly assigned to 0, 11, or 25mg Mn/kg-day dose groups with oral exposures occurring from postnatal day (PND) 1 through PND 28...
October 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986232/rifampicin-inhibits-rotenone-induced-microglial-inflammation-via-enhancement-of-autophagy
#14
Yanran Liang, Tianen Zhou, Ying Chen, Danyu Lin, Xiuna Jing, Sudan Peng, Dezhi Zheng, Zhifen Zeng, Ming Lei, Xia Wu, Kaixun Huang, Lianhong Yang, Songhua Xiao, Jun Liu, Enxiang Tao
Mitochondrial and autophagic dysfunction, as well as neuroinflammation, are associated with the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, has been associated as an environmental neurotoxin related to PD. Our previous studies reported that rifampicin inhibited microglia activation and production of proinflammatory mediators induced by rotenone, but the precise mechanism has not been completely elucidated. BV2 cells were pretreated for 2h with rifampicin followed by 0...
October 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970181/altered-expression-of-genes-involved-in-programmed-cell-death-in-primary-cultured-rat-cerebellar-granule-cells-acutely-challenged-with-tetrabromobisphenol-a
#15
Jacek Lenart, Elzbieta Zieminska, Dominik Diamandakis, Jerzy W Lazarewicz
In the present study, primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) and the RT(2) Profiler PCR array were used to examine the effect of acutely applied brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) on the expression of 84 genes related to the main modes of programmed cell death. CGC, at the 7th day of culture, were exposed to 10 or 25μM TBBPA for 30min. Then, 3, 6, and 24h later, the viability of the cells was examined by the staining with propidium iodide (PI) or using the calcein/ethidium homodimer (CA/ET) live/dead kit, and RNA was extracted for the evaluation of gene expression by RT-PCR...
September 29, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965701/environmental-exposure-to-manganese-in-air-tremor-motor-and-cognitive-symptom-profiles
#16
E S Kornblith, S L Casey, D T Lobdell, M A Colledge, R M Bowler
BACKGROUND: Excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause parkinsonian-like motor and tremor symptoms and adverse cognitive effects, including problems with executive functioning (EF), resembling those found in later-stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies seeking to differentiate PD patients into subgroups with associated cognitive and functional outcomes using motor and tremor symptoms identified tremor-dominant (TD) and non-tremor dominant (NTD) subtypes. It is unclear whether differing patterns of pathophysiology and symptoms exist in Mn neurotoxicity, as they do in PD...
September 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965700/resistance-of-mouse-primary-microglia-and-astrocytes-to-acrylonitrile-induced-oxidative-stress
#17
Samuel Caito, Marion Park, Michael Aschner
Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used chemical in the production of plastics, resin, nitrile, acrylic fibers, synthetic rubber, and acrylamide. ACN is considered a Group 2B possible carcinogen in humans and is known to cause gliomas in rats. These gliomas are predominantly composed of microglia and not astrocytes. Interestingly, ACN treatment does not cause gliomas in mice, suggesting that mouse astrocytes and microglia may be resistant to ACN. We investigated the effects of ACN treatment on primary mouse microglia and astrocytes to investigate their sensitivity to the chemical...
September 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947237/neuropsychological-effects-of-occupational-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#18
B Fimm, W Sturm, A Esser, T Schettgen, K Willmes, J Lang, P M Gaum, T Kraus
In the context of a health surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a transformer and capacitor recycling company in Germany, their family members, employees of surrounding companies and area residents a broad range of cognitive functions covering attention, executive processing, reasoning, memory and motor performance was examined. The study aimed at identifying potential adverse effects of PCB load on cognitive functions. Detailed analysis of PCB burden of the participants revealed rather high correlations of lower and higher chlorinated as well as dioxin-like PCBs...
September 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947236/toluene-exposure-enhances-acute-and-chronic-formalin-induced-nociception-in-rats-participation-of-5-ht3-receptors
#19
Claudia Cervantes-Durán, Luis Fernando Ortega-Varela, Daniel Godínez-Hernández, Vinicio Granados-Soto, Marcia Yvette Gauthereau-Torres
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute toluene exposure on formalin (0.5% and 1%)-induced acute and long-lasting nociceptive hypersensitivity in rats. In addition, we sought to investigate the role of peripheral 5-HT3 receptors in the pronociceptive effect of toluene. Toluene exposure (6000ppm) for 30min enhanced 0.5% or 1% formalin-induced acute nociception and long-lasting secondary allodynia and hyperalgesia. In contrast, exposition to toluene for 30min in rats previously injected (six days before) with 1% formalin did not affect long-lasting hypersensitivy...
September 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939238/bisphenol-a-glucuronidation-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Annamaria Landolfi, Jacopo Troisi, Maria Cristina Savanelli, Carmine Vitale, Paolo Barone, Marianna Amboni
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely distributed estrogen-mimetic molecule, with well-established effects on the dopaminergic system. It can be found in canned food, dental sealants, thermal paper, etc. BPA undergoes liver conjugation with glucuronic acid and is subsequently excreted in the urine. OBJECTIVES: In the present study we quantified the concentration of free and conjugated Bisphenol A in blood of patients affected by Parkinson Disease, using their spouses as controls...
September 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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