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Neurotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309796/prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid-alters-the-development-of-excitability-in-the-postnatal-rat-hippocampus
#1
Yukiko Fueta, Yuko Sekino, Sachiko Yoshida, Yasunari Kanda, Susumu Ueno
Prenatal valproic acid (VPA) exposure is a well-known animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that produces alterations in embryonic and adult neurogenesis as well as adolescent/adulthood neurobehavioral phenotypes. However, the effects of prenatal VPA exposure on neural network excitability, especially during the synaptogenic period around eye opening, are not fully understood. In this study, we orally administered VPA (300 mg/kg) to pregnant Wistar rats on gestation day 15 and subsequently performed field potential recording in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from control (saline-exposed) and VPA-exposed rat pups between postnatal day (PND) 13 and PND18...
January 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278690/occupational-exposure-to-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-field-and-risk-of-alzheimer-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Hamed Jalilian, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Martin Röösli, Masoud Neghab
INTRODUCTION: Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) occurs in many occupations such as welders, electric utility workers, train drivers and sewing machine operators. There is some evidence suggesting ELF-MF exposure to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study aims at systematically reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of AD amongst workers exposed to ELF-MF. METHODS: Bibliographic databases were searched including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science in November 2017...
December 23, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248512/the-brains-of-bats-foraging-at-wastewater-treatment-works-accumulate-arsenic-and-have-low-non-enzymatic-antioxidant-capacities
#3
Kate Hill, M Corrie Schoeman, Dalene Vosloo
Increasing rates of urbanisation cause ubiquitous infrastructures that remove anthropogenic contaminants - particularly Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTW) - to become stressed, and hence pollute surrounding water systems. Neoromicia nana bats are suitable models to study the effects of pollution in these environments because they exploit abundant pollutant-tolerant chironomid midges that breed at WWTW, and consequently accumulate metals such as iron, copper and zinc in their livers and kidneys. If these metals persist in their circulatory systems, and cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) they can have adverse effects on critical functions such as flight and echolocation...
December 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247674/developmental-exposure-to-low-level-ambient-ultrafine-particle-air-pollution-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#4
D A Cory-Slechta, J L Allen, K Conrad, E Marvin, M Sobolewski
Developmental exposures to ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) can produce multiple neuropathological and neurochemical changes that might contribute to persistent alterations in cognitive-type functions. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that developmental UFP exposure produced impairments in learning, memory and impulsive-like behaivors and to determine whether these were selective and thus independent of deficits in other behavioral domains such as motor activity or motivation...
December 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217407/can-we-predict-intermediate-syndrome-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Chanika Alahakoon, Tharaka Lagath Dassanayake, Indika Bandara Gawarammana, Vajira Senaka Weerasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) is a common method of deliberate self harm in the developing world. Deaths mainly follow as a result of the respiratory failure associated with both cholinergic crisis and the intermediate syndrome. Even though death can be prevented by early mechanical ventilation of these patients, limited studies are available regarding the prediction of intermediate syndrome and subsequent respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review articles that are published with regard to possible prediction of intermediate syndrome using clinical, biochemical and electrophysiological parameters...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217406/lncrna-snhg1-promotes-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-and-toxicity-by-targeting-mir-15b-5p-to-activate-siah1-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#6
Yuan Chen, Ya-Jun Lian, Yun-Qing Ma, Chuan-Jie Wu, Ya-Ke Zheng, Nan-Chang Xie
Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as aberrantly expressed in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, limited knowledge is available concerning the roles of dysregulated lncRNAs and the underlying molecular regulatory mechanism in the pathological process of PD. In this study, we found that lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) and seven in absentia homolog 1 (SIAH1) were upregulated, but microRNA-15b-5p (miR-15b-5p) was downregulated in SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with MPP+, as well as in MPTP-induced mouse model of PD...
December 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208536/hek-293-secretome-attenuates-kainic-acid-neurotoxicity-through-insulin-like-growth-factor-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases-pathway-and-by-temporal-regulation-of-antioxidant-defense-machineries
#7
Chaitra Venugopal, Y S Harish Chandra Prasad, K Shobha, Venkata Bharatkumar Pinnelli, Anandh Dhanushkodi
A major impediment in the success of cell therapy for neurodegenerative diseases is the poor survival of grafted cells in the in vivo milieu, predominantly due to accumulated reactive oxygen species, thus prompting the search for suitable alternatives. Accumulating evidence suggests that the therapeutic potential of transplanted cells is partially attributed to the secretome released by them into the extracellular milieu. Studies that investigated the neuroprotective potential of the secretome attributes to the mere presence of growth factors without addressing other underlying cellular/molecular changes that occur upon post-secretome intervention like re-establishing the host cell's free radical scavenging machineries...
December 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203293/association-between-prenatal-exposure-to-organochlorine-pesticides-and-the-mental-and-psychomotor-development-of-infants-at-ages-6-and-18-months-the-hokkaido-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health
#8
Keiko Yamazaki, Atsuko Araki, Sonomi Nakajima, Chihiro Miyashita, Tamiko Ikeno, Sachiko Itoh, Machiko Minatoya, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Futoshi Mizutani, Yoichi Chisaki, Reiko Kishi
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are environmental contaminants that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate through the food chain in humans and animals. Although previous studies have shown an association between prenatal OCP exposure and subsequent neurodevelopment, the levels of OCPs included in these studies were inconsistent. A hospital-based prospective birth cohort study was conducted to examine the associations between prenatal exposure to relatively low levels of OCPs and neurodevelopment in infants at 6 (n=164) and 18 (n=115)months of age...
December 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183790/17%C3%AE-estradiol-and-tamoxifen-protect-mice-from-manganese-induced-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity
#9
Edward Pajarillo, James Johnson, Judong Kim, Pratap Karki, Deok-Soo Son, Michael Aschner, Eunsook Lee
Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) causes neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, with common clinical features of parkinsonism. 17β-estradiol (E2) and tamoxifen (TX), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), afford neuroprotection in several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we tested if E2 and TX attenuate Mn-induced neurotoxicity in mice, assessing motor deficit and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. We implanted E2 and TX pellets in the back of the neck of ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice two weeks prior to a single injection of Mn into the striatum...
November 26, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183789/a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-early-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-dfp-intoxication
#10
Brad A Hobson, Douglas R Rowland, Suangsuda Supasai, Danielle J Harvey, Pamela J Lein, Joel R Garbow
Current treatments for seizures induced by organophosphates do not protect sufficiently against progressive neurodegeneration or delayed cognitive impairment. Developing more effective therapeutic approaches has been challenging because the pathogenesis of these delayed consequences is poorly defined. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we previously reported brain lesions that persist for months in a rat model of acute intoxication with the OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). However, the early spatiotemporal progression of these lesions remains unknown...
November 25, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174112/mechanism-of-rhinella-icterica-spix-1824-toad-poisoning-using-in-vitro-neurobiological-preparations
#11
Raquel Soares Oliveira, Allan Pinto Leal, Barbara Ogata, Carlos Gabriel Moreira de Almeida, Douglas Silva Dos Santos, Leandro Homrich Lorentz, Cleci Menezes Moreira, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Eliane Candiani Arantes, Tiago Gomes Dos Santos, Cháriston André Dal Belo, Lúcia Vinadé
The biological activity of Rhinella icterica toxic secretion (RITS) was evaluated on chick neuromuscular junctions, rat heart́s tissue and mice hippocampal slices. At chick biventer cervicis preparation, RITS (5, 10 and 20μg/mL) produced a concentration-independent irreversible neuromuscular blockade, which was preceded by a transitory increase of muscle twitch tension with the lowest concentration, in 120minutes recordings. In this set of experiments, RITS incubation partially prevented the curare neuromuscular blockade...
November 23, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173994/neurotoxicity-of-carbon-monoxide-targets-caudate-mediated-dopaminergic-system
#12
Tzu-Kuan Sun, Yen-Yu Chen, Shu-Hua Huang, Shih-Wei Hsu, Chen-Chang Lee, Wen-Neng Chang, Chi-Wei Huang, Chun-Chung Lui, Chia-Yi Lien, Ju-Ling Cheng, Chiung-Chih Chang
The clinical features of parkinsonism in carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication have been associated with striatal-related neuronal networks. As parkinsonian and neuropsychiatric features are both related to presynaptic dopaminergic integrity, the aim of this study was to explore the clinical significance of 99mTcTRODAT-1 in grading neurobehavioral scores and parkinsonian severity in CO intoxication. We enrolled 64 patients with CO intoxication, including 29 with parkinsonism (parkinsonism[+] group) and 35 without (parkinsonism[-] group)...
November 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173993/letter-to-the-editor-regarding-foster-et-al-neonatal-c57bl-6j-and-parkin-mice-respond-differently-following-developmental-manganese-exposure-result-of-a-high-dose-pilot-study
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162469/response-to-editor-regarding-foster-et-al-neonatal-c57bl-6j-and-parkin-mice-respond-differently-following-developmental-manganese-exposure-result-of-a-high-dose-pilot-study-neurotoxicology
#14
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155171/manganese-chloride-induces-histone-acetylation-changes-in-neuronal-cells-its-role-in-manganese-induced-damage
#15
Zhenkun Guo, Zhipeng Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Jie Zhang, Lijin Wang, Qunwei Zhang, Huangyuan Li, Siying Wu
Manganese neurotoxicity presents with Parkinson-like symptoms, with degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia as the principal pathological feature. Manganese neurotoxicity studies may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of Parkinson's disease. Here, we examined the effects of manganese on histone acetylation, a major epigenetic change in chromatin that can regulate gene expression, chromatin remodelling, cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis. In this study, we found that manganese chloride (MnCl2) may significantly suppress the acetylation of histone H3 and H4 in PC12 cells and SHSY5Y cells in a time-dependent manner...
November 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128314/early-changes-in-m2-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-machrs-induced-by-sarin-intoxication-may-be-linked-to-long-lasting-neurological-effects
#16
Zipora Pittel, Shlomi Lazar, Rellie Gez, Shira Chapman
The effect of sarin on the binding parameters (KD & Bmax) of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) was studied 24h and 1 week post exposure. Male & female Sprague-Daweley rats were poisoned with 1XLD50 sarin (80μg/kg, im) followed by treatment of trimedoxime bromide and atropine (7.5:5mg/kg, im) 1min later. Brains were removed and analyzed for M2 mAChR binding, using [(3)H]AFDX384, an M2 selective antagonist. A significant increase in KD of M2 mAChR was found in the cortex 24h post poisoning, displaying elevation from 4...
November 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128313/reducing-occupational-lead-exposures-strengthened-standards-for-a-healthy-workforce
#17
REVIEW
Rachel M Shaffer, Steven G Gilbert
Outdated federal and state occupational lead standards leave workers and their families vulnerable to the adverse effects of lead. Standards should be updated to reflect the best available scientific and medical evidence, which documents harm to multiple organ systems even at low levels of exposure. This commentary will review the inadequacies of existing policies, highlight susceptible populations, and summarize state revision efforts to date. Federal policies must be strengthened to protect our workers and their families from this well-documented hazard...
November 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113734/cellular-responses-of-human-astrocytoma-cells-to-dust-from-the-acheson-process-an-in-vitro-study
#18
Yke Jildouw Arnoldussen, Torunn Kringlen Ervik, Balazs Berlinger, Ida Kero, Sergey Shaposhnikov, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Silicon carbide (SiC) is largely used in various products such as diesel particulate filters and solar panels. It is produced through the Acheson process where aerosolized fractions of SiC and other by-products are generated in the work environment and may potentially affect the workers' health. In this study, dust was collected directly on a filter in a furnace hall over a time period of 24h. The collected dust was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and found to contain a high content of graphite particles, and carbon and silicon containing particles...
November 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104007/perinatal-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-particulates-results-in-autism-like-behavioral-deficits-in-adult-mice
#19
Jamie S Church, Pamella B Tijerina, Felicity J Emerson, Morgan A Coburn, Jason L Blum, Judith T Zelikoff, Jared J Schwartzer
Exposure to fine ambient particulates (PM2.5) during gestation or neonatally has potent neurotoxic effects. While biological and behavioral data indicate a vulnerability to environmental pollutants across distinct neurodevelopmental windows, the behavioral consequences following exposure across the entire developmental period remain unknown. Moreover, several epidemiological studies support a link between developmental exposure to air pollution and an increased risk of later receiving a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that persists throughout life...
November 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102646/the-importance-of-controlling-in-vitro-oxygen-tension-to-accurately-model-in-vivo-neurophysiology
#20
REVIEW
Evan A Bordt
The majority of in vitro studies modeling in vivo conditions are performed on the lab bench in atmospheric air. However, the oxygen tension (pO2) present in atmospheric air (160mm Hg, ∼21% O2) is in great excess to the pO2 that permeates tissues within the brain (5-45mm Hg, ∼1-6% O2). This review will discuss the differentiation between pO2 in the in vivo environment and the pO2 commonly used during in vitro experiments, and how this could affect assay outcomes. Also highlighted are studies linking changes in pO2 to changes in cellular function, particularly the role of pO2 in mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species production, and cellular growth and differentiation...
November 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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