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Christen L Mumaw, Michael Surace, Shannon Levesque, Urmila P Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S Kodavanti, Joyce E Royland, Michelle L Block
Accumulating evidence suggests a deleterious role for urban air pollution in central nervous system (CNS) diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. Microglia, the resident innate immune cells and sentinels in the brain, are a common source of neuroinflammation and are implicated in air pollution-induced CNS effects. While renewable energy, such as soy-based biofuel, is of increasing public interest, there is little information on how soy biofuel may affect the brain, especially in people with preexisting disease conditions...
October 21, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Courtney L Huff, Rachel L Morano, James P Herman, Bryan K Yamamoto, Gary A Gudelsky
3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation...
October 20, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Sunyoung Park, Andrew B C Nevin, Fernando Cardozo-Pelaez, Diana I Lurie
Pb exposure is associated with cognitive deficits including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and alters auditory temporal processing in humans and animals. Serotonin has been implicated in auditory temporal processing and previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that developmental Pb decreases expression of serotonin (5-HT) in the adult murine lateral superior olive (LSO). During development, certain non-serotonergic sensory neurons, including auditory LSO neurons, transiently take up 5-HT through the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT)...
October 19, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Moslem Mohammadi, Zohreh Zare, Esmaeil Allah-Moradi, Narges Vaezi, Reza Valadan, Mohsen Tehrani
Organophosphates affect brain function through a variety of mechanisms beyond their shared role as cholinesterase inhibitors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the changes in the expression of glial (GLAST and GLT-1) and neuronal (EAAC1) glutamate transporters at mRNA and protein levels in paraoxon-treated rat hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with either vehicle (corn oil) or one of three dosages of paraoxon (0.3, 0.7 or 1mg/kg). After 4 or 18h, both hippocampi of each rat were collected to detect mRNA and protein expression of glutamate transporters using the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively...
October 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Juliana Sorraila de Oliveira, Fátima Husein Abdalla, Guilherme Lopes Dornelles, Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha, Taís Vidal Palma, Cristiane Signor, Jamile da Silva Bernardi, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Luana Suéling Lenz, Luana Pereira Magni, Maribel Antonello Rubin, Micheli Mainardi Pillat, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of berberine (BRB) on spatial and learning memory, anxiety, acetylcholinesterase activity and cell death in an experimental model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced sporadic Alzheimer's-like dementia. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: control (CTR), BRB 50mg/kg (BRB 50), BRB 100mg/kg (BRB 100), streptozotocin (STZ), streptozotocin plus BRB 50mg/kg (STZ+BRB 50), and streptozotocin plus BRB 100mg/kg (STZ+BRB 100)...
October 13, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Mohana Krishnan Baskar, Prakhya Balakrishna Murthy
Effects of pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin) on the burst parameters (mean burst rate [MBR], percent spikes in burst [PSB], mean burst duration [MBD], mean spikes in burst [MSB], mean interspike interval in burst [MISIB], and mean interburst interval [MIBI]) have been investigated using the microelectrode array technique. Rat cortical neuronal networks (between 24 and 35 DIV) were exposed to the five accumulative concentrations of pyrethroids (0...
October 13, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Samuel Keer, Bill Glass, Bradley Prezant, David McLean, Neil Pearce, Elizabeth Harding, Diana Echeverria, James McGlothlin, Duncan R Babbage, Jeroen Douwes
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether solvent use and workplace practices in the vehicle collision repair industry are associated with symptoms of neurotoxicity in spray painters and panel beaters (auto body repair workers). METHODS: Neurobehavioural symptoms were assessed using a cross-sectional study design in 370 vehicle collision repair and 211 reference workers using the EUROQUEST questionnaire. Full-shift airborne solvent levels were measured in a subset (n=92) of collision repair workers...
October 11, 2016: Neurotoxicology
D Hernández-Bonilla, C Escamilla-Núñez, D Mergler, S Rodríguez-Dozal, M Cortez-Lugo, S Montes, L A Tristán-López, M Catalán-Vázquez, A Schilmann, Horacio Riojas-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal involved in multiple physiological functions. Environmental exposure to airborne Mn is associated with neurocognitive deficits in humans. Children, whose nervous system is in development, are particularly susceptible to Mn neurotoxicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the association between Mn environmental exposure, and effects on visuoperception and visual memory in schoolchildren. METHODS: We assessed schoolchildren between 7 and 11 years old, with similar socioeconomic status, from the mining district of Molango (n=148) and Agua Blanca (n=119, non-mining area) in Hidalgo state, Mexico...
October 11, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Fang Ye, Xiaoyi Li, Fen Li, Jianxin Li, Wei Chang, Jing Yuan, Jun Chen
Mitochondria play a key role in the process of lead (Pb)-induced impairment in nervous system. To further clarify the underlying mechanism of Pb neurotoxicity, this study was designed to investigate the role of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and cyclophilin D (CyPD), a component of MPT pore (MPTP), in Pb-induced mitochondrial apoptosis in nerve cells. In SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells, Cyclosporin A (CSA), a special inhibitor of CyPD, could alleviate cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and adenosine 5 triphosphate (ATP) decrease caused by PbAc...
October 7, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Tidao Tsai, Yukun Yuan, Ravindra K Hajela, Shuan W Philips, William D Atchison
Early onset effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on recombinant α1β2γ2S or α6β2γ2S subunit-containing GABAA receptors were examined. These are two of the most prevalent receptor types found in cerebellum-a consistent target of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. Heterologously expressed receptors were used in order to: 1) isolate receptor-mediated events from extraneous effects of MeHg due to stimulation of the receptor secondary to increased release of GABA seen with MeHg in neurons in situ and 2) limit the phenotypes of GABAA receptors present at one time...
October 6, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Brittany Milton, Daniel Krewski, Donald R Mattison, Nicholas Birkett, Patrick J Farrell, Doreen McGough
INTRODUCTION: Manganese is an essential nutrient which can cause adverse effects if ingested to excess or in insufficient amounts, leading to a U-shaped exposure-response relationship. Methods have recently been developed to describe such relationships by simultaneously modeling the exposure-response curves for excess and deficiency. These methods incorporate information from studies with diverse adverse health outcomes within the same analysis by assigning severity scores to achieve a common response metric for exposure-response modeling...
October 5, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Milou M L Dingemans, Marijke G Schütte, Daphne M M Wiersma, Aart de Groot, Regina G D M van Kleef, Fiona M J Wijnolts, Remco H S Westerink
There is an increasing demand for in vitro test systems to detect neurotoxicity for use in chemical risk assessment. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of rat primary cortical cultures grown on multi-well micro-electrode arrays (mwMEAs) to detect effects of chronic 14-day exposure to structurally different insecticides or methylmercury on neuronal activity (mean spike rate; MSR). Effects of chronic exposure to α-cypermethrin, endosulfan, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos(-oxon), methylmercury or solvent control [14days exposure, initiated after baseline recording at day in vitro (DIV)7] were studied in five successive recordings between DIV10 and DIV21...
October 5, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Julian Little, Caroline Barakat-Haddad, Rosemary Martino, Tamara Pringsheim, Helen Tremlett, Kyla A McKay, Pascal van Lieshout, Stephanie J Walsh, James Gomes, Daniel Krewski
This paper presents an overview of genetic variation associated with the onset and progression of 14 neurological disorders, focusing primarily on association studies. The 14 disorders are heterogeneous in terms of their frequency, age of onset, etiology and progression. There is substantially less evidence on progression than onset. With regard to onset, the conditions are diverse in terms of their epidemiology and patterns of familial aggregation. While the muscular dystrophies and Huntington's disease are monogenic diseases, for the other 12 conditions only a small proportion of cases is associated with specific genetic syndromes or mutations...
October 3, 2016: Neurotoxicology
T Inagaki, N L Smith, K M Sherva, S Ramakrishnan
Growing evidence indicates that chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) may disrupt normal brain function and behavior mediated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pathways. Previous studies have shown that low dose BPA (200ng/ml) exposure during embryogenesis altered development of extra-hypothalamic GnRH3 systems and non-reproductive locomotor behavior in medaka. Effects of parental low-dose BPA exposure on the development of GnRH3 systems and locomotor behavior of offspring are not well known. This study examines whether the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of BPA in parents (F0 generation) are carried over to their offspring (F1 generation) using stable transgenic medaka embryos/larvae with GnRH3 neurons tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
October 3, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Chun Teng Zhang, Jing Ran Lin, Feng Wu, Arijit Ghosh, Su Su Tang, Mei Hu, Yan Long, Hong Bin Sun, Hao Hong
Extensive studies have demonstrated that neuroinflammation is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1R) was involved in neuroinflammation. Montelukast, a highly selective CysLT1R antagonist, has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the amyloid-β-induced mouse model of AD. However, whether montelukast also exerts beneficial effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory deficits in mice is not well known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of montelukast on STZ-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation and apoptosis in mice...
October 1, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Leonardo Lara-Valderrábano, Luisa Rocha, Emilio J Galván
Propylparaben (PPB) is an antimicrobial preservative widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. Virtual screening methodologies predicted anticonvulsant activity of PPB that was confirmed in vivo. Thus, we explored the effects of PPB on the excitability of hippocampal neurons by using standard patch clamp techniques. Bath perfusion of PPB reduced the fast-inactivating sodium current (INa) amplitude, causing a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of the INa, and markedly delayed the sodium channel recovery from the inactivation state...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
James Winter, Alexandra R Cook, Dawn H Patient, Stevan R Emmett, John Tattersall, Michael J Shattock
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Julia Davourie, Luke Westfall, Mohammed Ali, Doreen McGough
Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) provide a wealth of industry data to assist in evaluating the environmental impacts of industrial processes and product supply chains. In this investigation, data from a recent LCA covering global manganese alloy production was used to evaluate sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions associated with the manganese alloy supply chain. The analysis is aimed at providing an empirical, industry-averaged breakdown of the contribution that processes and emissions controls have on total emissions, manganese releases and occupational exposure...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Steven R Boomhower, M Christopher Newland
The developing fetus is vulnerable to low-level exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental neurotoxicant, but the consequences of exposure during the adolescent period remain virtually unknown. The current experiments were designed to assess the effects of low-level MeHg exposure during adolescence on delay discounting, preference for small, immediate reinforcers over large, delayed ones, using a mouse model. Thirty-six male C57BL/6n mice were exposed to 0, 0.3, or 3.0ppm mercury (as MeHg) via drinking water from postnatal day 21 through 59, encompassing the murine adolescent period...
September 24, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Doreen McGough, Lynne Jardine
A number of published studies have suggested that high levels of exposure to manganese, especially those found in occupational settings, can adversely affect the reproductive system. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate if these findings can be replicated using the Sprague Dawley rat and, if so, to identify those parts of the reproductive system are more susceptible. Male and female rats were exposed to manganese dichloride (MnCl2) via inhalation at concentrations of 0 (air-control); 5, 10 and 20μg/L air over 10 weeks (F0) and over 11 weeks (F1) prior to mating, and then throughout mating, gestation and lactation until termination after the F1 and F2 generation had reached Day 21 of lactation respectively...
September 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology
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