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Journal of Neuroscience Methods

Srinivas Ayyadevara, Akshatha Ganne, Rachel D Hendrix, Meenakshisundaram Balasubramaniam, Robert J Shmookler Reis, Steven W Barger
BACKGROUND: Events that instigate disease may involve biochemical events distinct from changes in the steady-state levels of proteins. Even chronic degenerative disorders appear to involve changes such as post-translational modifications. NEW METHOD: We have begun a series of proteomics analyses on proteins that have been fractionated by functional status. Because Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with metabolic perturbations such as Type-2 diabetes, fractionation hinged on binding to phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3), key to insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
C Di Scala, M Tessier, C Sapet, F Poulhes, F Sicard, O Zelphati, C Pellegrino
BACKGROUND: Gene delivery within the central nervous system at postnatal age is one of the most challenging tasks in neuroscience and currently only a few effective methods are available. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: For postnatal central nervous system cells, viral approaches are commonly used for genetic engineering but they face several biosafety requirements for production and use making them less accessible to the community. Conversely, lipid-based methods are widely used in cell culture but face limitation in vivo mainly due to the inflammatory responses they induce...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Dimitris F Sakellariou, Michalis Koutroumanidis, Mark P Richardson, George K Kostopoulos
BACKGROUND: The microstructural EEG elements and their functional networks relate to many neurophysiological functions of the brain and can reveal abnormalities. Despite the blooming variety of methods for estimating connectivity in the EEG of a single subject, a common pitfall is seen in relevant studies; grand averaging is used for estimating the characteristic connectivity patterns of a group of subjects. This averaging may distort results and fail to account for the internal variability of connectivity results across the subjects of a group...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
V Pinzi, I Bisogno, E Ciusani, A Canazza, C Calatozzolo, I G Vetrano, F Pasi, E De Martin, M L Fumagalli, R Nano, L Fariselli
BACKGROUND: Meningioma are the second most common brain tumors in adults and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The scarcity of in vitro and in vivo models represents the major obstacle to understand the molecular basis of meningioma tumorigenesis. The main aim of this study was to assess a method for radiobiology of meningioma cells colture by means of well-known meningioma lines. NEW METHOD: We carried out a protocol of cells culture for irradiation of meningioma cells...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Laura Clara Grandi, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Salvatore Galati
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a widely variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. While the motor deficits are only visible following a severe dopamine depletion, neurodegenerative process and some non-motor symptoms are manifested years before the motor deficits. Importantly, chronic degeneration of dopaminergic neurons leads to the development of compensatory mechanisms that play roles in the progression of the disease and the response to anti-parkinsonian therapies...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Jincheol Seo, Youngjeon Lee, Bom Sahn Kim, Junghyung Park, Sejung Yang, Hai-Jeon Yoon, Jang Yoo, Hyun Soo Park, Jung-Joo Hong, Bon-Sang Koo, Seung Ho Baek, Chang-Yeop Jeon, Jae-Won Huh, Young-Hyun Kim, Sang Je Park, Jinyoung Won, Yu-Jin Ahn, Keonwoo Kim, Kang Jin Jeong, Philyong Kang, Dong-Seok Lee, Soo Mee Lim, Yeung Bae Jin, Sang-Rae Lee
BACKGROUND: The guidelines for applying individual adjustments to macaques according to the severity of behavioral symptoms during 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment were provided to reproduce stable chronic Parkinsonism in a recent study (Potts et al., 2014). But, since there are insufficient guidelines regarding objective severity criteria of individual symptoms for adjustments of MPTP treatment, it is difficult to develop MPTP-induced chronic non-human primate (NHP) models with stable symptoms...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Antonio Merolli, Pedro Louro, Joachim Kohn
BACKGROUND: Objective of our work was to develop a sequential double nonfluorescent immunostaining method which allows the selective identification of myelinated motor fibers in paraffin-embedded samples of peripheral nerves. Motor recovery after a nerve gap-lesion repaired by artificial nerve-guides ("conduits") is often less complete and slower than sensory recovery. The mechanism for this is not fully understood. NEW METHOD: Incubation in sheep polyclonal choline acetyltransferase antibody (Abcam 18,736) at dilution of 1:150 was followed by incubation in mouse monoclonal anti-myelin basic protein antibody (Abcam 62,631) at a dilution of 1:5000...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Ivar Dehnisch Ellström, Stefan Spulber, Sara Hultin, Nils Norlin, Sandra Ceccatelli, Claes Hultling, Per Uhlén
BACKGROUND: The spinal cord is composed of a large number of cells that interact to allow the organism to function. To perform detail studies of cellular processes involved in spinal cord injury (SCI), one must use repeatable and specific methods to target and injure restricted areas of the spinal cord. NEW METHOD: We propose a robust method to induce SCI in zebrafish by laser light. With a 2-photon microscope equipped with a femtosecond near-infrared pump laser, we explored the effects of laser beam exposure time, area, and intensity to induce precise and repeatable SCI with minimized collateral damage to neighboring cells...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Youngmin Na, Inyong Choi, Dong Pyo Jang, Joong Koo Kang, Jihwan Woo
Classification of spoken word-evoked potentials is useful for both neuroscientific and clinical applications including brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). By evaluating whether adopting a biology-based structure improves a classifier's accuracy, we can investigate the importance of such structure in human brain circuitry, and advance BCI performance. In this study, we propose a semantic-hierarchical structure for classifying spoken word-evoked cortical responses. The proposed structure decodes the semantic grouping of the words first (e...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Yuri Levin-Schwartz, Vince D Calhoun, Tülay Adalı
BACKGROUND: The widespread application of data-driven factorization-based methods, such as independent component analysis (ICA), to functional magnetic resonance imaging data facilitates the study of neural function and how it is disrupted by psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. While the increasing number of these methods motivates a comparison of their relative performance, such a comparison is difficult to perform on real fMRI data, since the ground truth is, relatively, unknown and the alignment of factors across different methods is impractical and imprecise...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Louise A Mesentier-Louro, Robert Dodd, Pablo Domizi, Hiroko Nobuta, Marius Wernig, Gerlinde Wernig, Yaping Joyce Liao
BACKGROUND: Animal models of optic nerve injury are often used to study central nervous system (CNS) degeneration and regeneration, and targeting the optic nerve is a powerful approach for axon-protective or remyelination therapy. However, the experimental delivery of drugs or cells to the optic nerve is rarely performed because injections into this structure are difficult in small animals, especially in mice. NEW METHOD: We investigated and developed methods to deliver drugs or cells to the mouse optic nerve through 3 different routes: a) intraorbital, b) through the optic foramen and c) transcranial...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
C Russell, R W P Kissane, D P Steenson, S Chakrabarty
BACKGROUND: The demand for neuromodulatory and recording tools has resulted in a surge of publications describing techniques for fabricating devices and accessories in-house suitable for neurological recordings. However, many of these fabrication protocols use equipment which are not common to biological laboratories, thus limiting researchers to the use of commercial alternatives. New method:We have developed a simple yet robust implantable stimulating surface electrode which can be fabricated in all wet-bench laboratories...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Bruno Hebling Vieira, Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon
Background Generalized Partial Directed Coherence (GPDC) is a multivariate measure of predictability between functional timeseries defined in the frequency domain. However, analysis has often been constrained by its compositional nature. Specifically, the squared GPDC from a node region to all nodes in any given frequency must sum to one. New method When analyzing GPDC spectra, it is imperative to consider that squared GPDC from a source timeseries sums to one over its target timeseries. Dirichlet Regression allows the modeling of compositional data and, therefore, becomes a principled choice for the multivariate analysis of GPDC on arbitrary subject-level variables...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
V P Baklaushev, O V Durov, S V Kim, E V Gulaev, I L Gubskiy, M A Konoplyannikov, F G Zabozlaev, C Zhang, V Z Agrba, S V Orlov, B A Lapin, A V Troitskiy, A V Averyanov, J-E Ahlfors
Background Nonhuman primates (NHP) may provide the most adequate (in terms of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology) model of spinal cord injury (SCI) for testing regenerative therapies, but bioethical considerations exclude their use in severe SCI. New Method A reproducible model of SCI at the lower thoracic level has been developed in Rhesus macaques. The model comprises surgical resection of 25% of the spinal cord in the projection of the dorsal funiculus and dorsolateral corticospinal pathways, controlled via registration of intraoperative evoked potentials (EPs)...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
J A Ross, P M Mathews, E J Van Bockstaele
It is now widely recognized that endogenous, picomolar concentrations of the 42 amino acid long peptide, amyloid-β (Aβ42 ) is secreted under normal physiological conditions and exerts important functional activity throughout neuronal intracellular compartments. Transgenic animal models that overexpress Aβ42 and its precursor, amyloid precursor protein (APP), have not provided predictive value in testing new treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulting in failed clinical trials. While these results are discouraging, they underscore the need to understand the physiological roles of Aβ42 and APP under normal conditions as well as at early pre- symptomatic stages of AD...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Teryn D Johnson, Todd P Coleman, Lara M Rangel
BACKGROUND: The synchronous ionic currents that give rise to neural oscillations have complex influences on neuronal spiking activity that are challenging to characterize. NEW METHOD: Here we present a method to estimate probabilistic relationships between neural spiking activity and the phase of field oscillations using a generalized linear model (GLM) with an overcomplete basis of circular functions. We first use an L1-regularized maximum likelihood procedure to select an active set of regressors from the overcomplete set and perform model fitting using standard maximum likelihood estimation...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Thomas Roetzer, Konrad Leskovar, Nadine Peter, Julia Furtner, Martina Muck, Marco Augustin, Antonia Lichtenegger, Martha Nowosielski, Johannes A Hainfellner, Bernhard Baumann, Adelheid Woehrer
AIMS: In brain research, the histopathological examination of coronar whole-brain slides provides important insights into spatial disease characteristics. Regarding brain tumor research, this enables visualization of tumor heterogeneity, infiltration patterns and the relationship with the surrounding brain parenchyma. The precise correlation between radiological imaging and post-mortem brains is of special interest. NEW METHOD: We developed a wide-field slide scanner, comprising a microscope, a high-precision remotely controllable x-y-stage, a camera and a computer workstation, for automatically scanning uncommonly large formats...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Thomas Pomberger, Steffen R Hage
BACKGROUND: Chronic recordings with multi-electrode arrays are widely used to study neural networks underlying complex primate behaviors. Most of these systems are designed for studying neural activity in the cortical hemispheres resulting in a lack of devices being capable of simultaneously recording from ensembles of neurons in deep brainstem structures. However, to fully understand complex behavior, it is fundamental to also decipher the intrinsic mechanisms of the underlying motor pattern generating circuits in the brainstem...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Henrik Zetterberg
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are in clinical use in many parts of the world and show good to excellent diagnostic accuracy in regards to identifying cerebral amyloid β (Aβ) and tau pathology irrespective of the clinical stage of the disease. However, CSF sampling is more difficult than a blood draw and a procedure only rarely performed by general practitioners. Since AD is such a common disease and since intense research on novel treatments that hopefully will be directed against underlying pathologies is moving forward, it would be excellent if the CSF tests for AD could be transformed into blood tests, as well as if novel blood biomarkers could be discovered...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Shigeki Kato, Masateru Sugawara, Kenta Kobayashi, Kei Kimura, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Masahiko Takada, Kazuto Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Pseudotyping of a lentiviral vector with fusion glycoproteins composed of rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) segments achieves high gene transfer efficiency through retrograde transport in the nervous system. In our previous study, we determined the junction of RVG/VSVG segments of glycoproteins that enhances the transduction efficiency of the neuron-specific retrograde gene transfer (NeuRet) vector (termed fusion glycoprotein type E or FuG-E)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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