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Journal of Neuroscience Methods

Marko Dimiskovski, Richard Scheinfield, Dwight Higgin, Alexander Krupka, Michel A Lemay
BACKGROUND: The measurement of ground reaction forces (GRFs) in animals trained to locomote on a treadmill after spinal cord injury (SCI) could prove valuable for evaluating training outcomes; however, quantitative measures of the GRFs in spinal felines are limited. NEW METHOD: A split belt treadmill was designed and constructed to measure the GRFs of feline hindlimbs during stepping. The treadmill consists of two independent treadmill assemblies, each mounted on a force plate...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Ehud Vinepinsky, Opher Donchin, Ronen Segev
BACKGROUND: Fish are a diverse group of vertebrates with very different brain structures. The study of the neurobiology of fish can thus lead to many important insights on information processing in the brain in a variety of environments. NEW METHOD: We developed a novel wireless technique to record extracellular neural signal activity in freely behaving fish. The system is based on a data logger and enables continues recording of up to 2.5hours. RESULTS: For proof of concept we recorded from the optic tectum of goldfish...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Shilpa Dang, Santanu Chaudhury, Brejesh Lall, Prasun Kumar Roy
BACKGROUND: Effective connectivity (EC) analysis of neuronal groups using fMRI delivers insights about functional-integration. However, fMRI signal has low-temporal resolution due to down-sampling and indirectly measures underlying neuronal activity. NEW METHOD: The aim is to address above issues for more reliable EC estimates. This paper proposes use of autoregressive hidden Markov model with missing data (AR-HMM-md) in dynamically multi-linked (DML) framework for learning EC using multiple fMRI time series...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Song Xu, Yang Li, Qi Guo, Xiao-Feng Yang, Rosa H M Chan
BACKGROUND: Tracking the changes of neural dynamics based on neuronal spiking activities is a critical step to understand the neurobiological basis of learning from behaving animals. These dynamical neurobiological processes associated with learning are also time-varying, which makes the modeling problem challenging. NEW METHOD: We developed a novel multiwavelet-based time-varying generalized Laguerre-Volterra (TVGLV) modeling framework to study the time-varying neural dynamical systems using natural spike train data...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Frithjof Kruggel, Fumitaro Masaki, Ana Solodkin
BACKGROUND & NEW METHOD: The widely used framework of voxel-based morphometry for analyzing neuroimages is extended here to model longitudinal imaging data by exchanging the linear model with a linear mixed-effects model. The new approach is employed for analyzing a large longitudinal sample of 756 diffusion-weighted images acquired in 177 subjects of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging initiative (ADNI). RESULTS AND COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: While sample- and group-level results from both approaches are equivalent, the mixed-effect model yields information at the single subject level...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Soowon Shin, Jae-Hyun Kim, Joonsoo Jeong, Tae Mok Gwon, Seung-Hee Lee, Sung June Kim
BACKGROUND: Ideally, neural probes should have channels with a three-dimensional (3-D) configuration to record the activities of 3-D neural circuits. Many types of 3-D neural probes have been developed; however, most of them were designed as an array of multiple shanks with electrodes located along one side of the shanks. NEW METHOD: We developed a novel liquid crystal polymer (LCP)-based neural probe with four-sided electrodes. This probe has electrodes on four sides of the shank, i...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Michael X Cohen
BACKGROUND: Large-scale synchronous neural activity produces electrical fields that can be measured by electrodes outside the head, and volume conduction ensures that neural sources can be measured by many electrodes. However, most data analyses in M/EEG research are univariate, meaning each electrode is considered as a separate measurement. Several multivariate linear spatial filtering techniques have been introduced to the cognitive electrophysiology literature, but these techniques are not commonly used; comparisons across filters would be beneficial to the field...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Patricia M Horvath, Ege T Kavalali, Lisa M Monteggia
BACKGROUND: The use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system is becoming widespread, however current studies have predominantly focused on dividing cells. It is currently unknown if CRISPR/Cas9 can be used in a postmitotic setting to examine non-cell autonomous/presynaptic phenotypes in the resulting genetically heterogeneous cell population. NEW METHOD: A single CRISPR/Cas9 lentivirus was used to transfect a high percentage of primary cultured neurons and target synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2, also called VAMP2)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Russell Butler, Guillaume Gilbert, Maxime Descoteaux, Pierre-Michel Bernier, Kevin Whittingstall
BACKGROUND: The growing popularity of simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) opens up the possibility of imaging EEG electrodes while the subject is in the scanner. Such information could be useful for improving the fusion of EEG-fMRI datasets. NEW METHOD: Here, we report for the first time how an ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence can image the materials of an MR-compatible EEG cap, finding that electrodes and some parts of the wiring are visible in a high resolution UTE...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Minmin Miao, Hong Zeng, Aimin Wang, Changsen Zhao, Feixiang Liu
BACKGROUND: Common spatial pattern (CSP) is most widely used in motor imagery based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. In conventional CSP algorithm, pairs of the eigenvectors corresponding to both extreme eigenvalues are selected to construct the optimal spatial filter. In addition, an appropriate selection of subject-specific time segments and frequency bands plays an important role in its successful application. NEW METHOD: This study proposes to optimize spatial-frequency-temporal patterns for discriminative feature extraction...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Amy McCaughey-Chapman, Bronwen Connor
BACKGROUND: Organotypic brain slice cultures are a useful tool to study neurological function as they provide a more complex, 3-dimensional system than standard 2-dimensional in vitro cell cultures. NEW METHOD: Building on a previously developed mouse brain slice culture protocol, we have developed a rat sagittal brain slice culture system as an ex vivo model of dopamine cell loss. RESULTS: We show that rat brain organotypic slice cultures remain viable for up to 6 weeks in culture...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Hiroyuki Oya, Matthew A Howard, Vincent A Magnotta, Anton Kruger, Timothy D Griffiths, Louis Lemieux, David W Carmichael, Christopher I Petkov, Hiroto Kawasaki, Christopher K Kovach, Matthew J Sutterer, Ralph Adolphs
BACKGROUND: Understanding brain function requires knowledge of how one brain region causally influences another. This information is difficult to obtain directly in the human brain, and is instead typically inferred from resting-state fMRI. NEW METHOD: Here, we demonstrate the safety and scientific promise of a novel and complementary approach: concurrent electrical stimulation and fMRI (es-fMRI) at 3T in awake neurosurgical patients with implanted depth electrodes...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Abdul Nashirudeen Mumuni, John McLean
PURPOSE: MRS acquisition based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism was implemented at 3T to investigate the impact of a non-conventional spectral averaging scheme (determined by the number of RF excitations, NEX) on the dynamics of cerebral metabolism during neuroactivation. Using NEX=2, water and metabolite BOLD responses were compared to previous results from standard experiments. METHODS: Spectra were recorded from the visual cortex of five healthy volunteers during single and block visual stimulations...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Muhammad Usman Ghani, Fitsum Mesadi, Sümeyra Demir Kanık, Ali Özgür Argunşah, Anna Felicity Hobbiss, Inbal Israely, Devrim Ünay, Tolga Taşdizen, Müjdat Çetin
BACKGROUND: Neuronal morphology and function are highly coupled. In particular, dendritic spine morphology is strongly governed by the incoming neuronal activity. The first step towards understanding the structure-function relationships is to classify spine shapes into the main spine types suggested in the literature. Due to the lack of reliable automated analysis tools, classification is mostly performed manually, which is a time-intensive task and prone to subjectivity. NEW METHOD: We propose an automated method to classify dendritic spines using shape and appearance features based on challenging two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) data...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Donald J Noble, Camden J MacDowell, Michael L McKinnon, Tamra I Neblett, William N Goolsby, Shawn Hochman
BACKGROUND: Numerous environmental and genetic factors can contribute significantly to behavioral and cardiorespiratory variability observed experimentally. Affordable technologies that allow for noninvasive home cage capture of physio-behavioral variables should enhance understanding of inter-animal variability including after experimental interventions. NEW METHOD: We assessed whether EPIC electric field sensors (Plessey Semiconductors) embedded within or attached externally to a rodent's home cage could accurately record respiration, heart rate, and motor behaviors...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Chany Lee, Young-Jin Jung, Sang Jun Lee, Chang-Hwan Im
BACKGROUND: Since there is no way to measure electric current generated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) inside the human head through in vivo experiments, numerical analysis based on the finite element method has been widely used to estimate the electric field inside the head. In 2013, we released a MATLAB toolbox named COMETS, which has been used by a number of groups and has helped researchers to gain insight into the electric field distribution during stimulation...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Catherine J Chu, Arthur Chan, Dan Song, Kevin J Staley, Steven M Stufflebeam, Mark A Kramer
BACKGROUND: High frequency oscillations are emerging as a clinically important indicator of epileptic networks. However, manual detection of these high frequency oscillations is difficult, time consuming, and subjective, especially in the scalp EEG, thus hindering further clinical exploration and application. Semi-automated detection methods augment manual detection by reducing inspection to a subset of time intervals. We propose a new method to detect high frequency oscillations that co-occur with interictal epileptiform discharges...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
JingLe Jiang, Amar R Marathe, Jennifer C Keene, Dawn M Taylor
BACKGROUND: Custom-fitted skull replacement pieces are often used after a head injury or surgery to replace damaged bone. Chronic brain recordings are beneficial after injury/surgery for monitoring brain health and seizure development. Embedding electrodes directly in these artificial skull replacement pieces would be a novel, low-risk way to perform chronic brain monitoring in these patients. Similarly, embedding electrodes directly in healthy skull would be a viable minimally-invasive option for many other neuroscience and neurotechnology applications requiring chronic brain recordings...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Qian Yang, Yini Ke, Jianhong Luo, Yang Tang
BACKGROUND: primary hippocampal neuron cultures allow for subcellular morphological dissection, easy access to drug treatment and electrophysiology analysis of individual neurons, and is therefore an ideal model for the study of neuron physiology. While neuron and glia mixed cultures are relatively easy to prepare, pure neurons are particular hard to culture at low densities which are suitable for morphology studies. This may be due to a lack of neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Larry Schmued, James Raymick
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of fluorochromes are organic in nature and none of the few existing chelates have been applied as histological tracers for localizing brain anatomy and pathology. NEW METHOD: In this study we have developed and characterized a Europium chelate with the ability to fluorescently label normal and pathological myelin in control and toxicant-exposed rats, as well as the amyloid plaques in aged AD/Tg mice. RESULTS: This study demonstrates how Euro-Glo can be used for the detailed labeling of both normal myelination in the control rat as well as myelin pathology in the kainic acid exposed rat...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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