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Journal of Neuroscience Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527623/automated-gold-particle-quantification-of-immunogold-labeled-micrographs
#1
Rune Enger
BACKGROUND: Immunogold cytochemistry is the method of choice for precise localization of antigens on a subcellular scale. The process of immunogold quantification in electron micrographs is laborious, especially for proteins with a dense distribution pattern. NEW METHODS: Here I present a MATLAB based toolbox that is optimized for a typical immunogold analysis workflow. It combines automatic detection of gold particles through a multi-threshold algorithm with manual segmentation of cell membranes and regions of interests...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522210/novel-trigeminal-slice-preparation-method-for-studying-mechanisms-of-nociception-transmission
#2
Mikiko Hirahara, Naoshi Fujiwara, Kenji Seo
BACKGROUND: The trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) plays a critical role in transmission and modulation of nociceptive afferent inputs, and exhibits a similar layer construction to the spinal dorsal horn. However, afferent inputs enter the brainstem and project to a separately located nucleus. It has previously been difficult to record responses of the Vc to afferent fiber activation in a brainstem slice preparation. The aim of the present study was to establish a novel brainstem slice preparation method to study trigeminal nociceptive transmission mechanisms...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512008/3d-printing-and-modelling-of-customized-implants-and-surgical-guides-for-non-human-primates
#3
Xing Chen, Jessy K Possel, Catherine Wacongne, Anne F van Ham, P Christiaan Klink, Pieter R Roelfsema
BACKGROUND: Primate neurobiologists use chronically implanted devices such as pedestals for head stabilization and chambers to gain access to the brain and study its activity. Such implants are skull-mounted, and made from a hard, durable material, such as titanium. NEW METHOD: Here we present a low-cost method of creating customized 3D-printed cranial implants that are tailored to the anatomy of individual animals. We performed pre-surgical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans to generate three-dimensional (3D) models of the skull and brain...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506880/advanced-correlation-grid-analysis-and-visualisation-of-functional-connectivity-among-multiple-spike-trains
#4
Mohammad Shahed Masud, Roman Borisyuk, Liz Stuart
BACKGROUND: This study analyses multiple spike trains (MST) data, defines its functional connectivity and subsequently visualises an accurate diagram of connections. This is a challenging problem. For example, it is difficult to distinguish the common input and the direct functional connection of two spike trains. NEW METHOD: The new method presented in this paper is based on the traditional pairwise cross-correlation function (CCF) and a new combination of statistical techniques...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506879/a-new-platform-for-long-term-tracking-and-recording-of-neural-activity-and-simultaneous-optogenetic-control-in-freely-behaving-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Yuko Kagawa-Nagamura, Masamichi Ohkura, Xianfeng Fei, Min Chen, Koichi Hashimoto, Junichi Nakai
BACKGROUND: Real-time recording and manipulation of neural activity in freely behaving animals can greatly advance our understanding of how neural circuits regulate behavior. Ca(2+) imaging and optogenetic manipulation with optical probes are key technologies for this purpose. However, integrating the two optical approaches with behavioral analysis has been technically challenging. NEW METHOD: Here, we developed a new imaging system, ICaST (Integrated platform for Ca(2+) imaging, Stimulation, and Tracking), which combines an automatic worm tracking system and a fast-scanning laser confocal microscope, to image neurons of interest in freely behaving C...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502554/the-9-to-5-rodent-time-for-change-scientific-and-welfare-implications-of-circadian-and-light-effects-on-laboratory-mice-and-rats
#6
Penny Hawkins, Huw D R Golledge
Rodents, particularly rats and mice, are the most commonly used laboratory animals and are extensively used in neuroscience research, including as translational models for human disorders. It is common practice to carry out scientific procedures on rats and mice during the daytime, which is the inactive period for these nocturnal species. However, there is increasing evidence for circadian and light-induced effects on rodent physiology and behaviour which may affect the validity of results obtained from mice and rats in neuroscience studies...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502553/a-shortened-protocol-for-assessing-cognitive-bias-in-rats
#7
Nichola M Brydges, Lynsey Hall
BACKGROUND: Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499842/establishing-the-ferret-as-a-gyrencephalic-animal-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-optimization-of-controlled-cortical-impact-procedures
#8
Susan C Schwerin, Elizabeth B Hutchinson, Kryslaine L Radomski, Kapinga P Ngalula, Carlo M Pierpaoli, Sharon L Juliano
BACKGROUND: Although rodent TBI studies provide valuable information regarding the effects of injury and recovery, an animal model with neuroanatomical characteristics closer to humans may provide a more meaningful basis for clinical translation. The ferret has a high white/gray matter ratio, gyrencephalic neocortex, and ventral hippocampal location. Furthermore, ferrets are amenable to behavioral training, have a body size compatible with pre-clinical MRI, and are cost-effective. NEW METHODS: We optimized the surgical procedure for controlled cortical impact (CCI) using 9 adult male ferrets...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499841/effect-of-administration-method-animal-weight-and-age-on-the-intranasal-delivery-of-drugs-to-the-brain
#9
Jishnu K S Krishnan, Peethambaran Arun, Bhadra Chembukave, Abhilash P Appu, Nivetha Vijayakumar, John R Moffett, Narayanan Puthillathu, Aryan M A Namboodiri
BACKGROUND: The intranasal route of administration has proven to be an effective method for bypassing the blood brain barrier and avoiding first pass hepatic metabolism when targeting drugs to the brain. Most small molecules gain rapid access to CNS parenchyma when administered intranasally. However, bioavailability is affected by various factors ranging from the molecular weight of the drug to the mode of intranasal delivery. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We examined the effects of animal posture, intranasal application method and animal weight and age on the delivery of radiolabeled pralidoxime ((3)H-2-PAM) to the brain of rats...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495372/learning-to-recognize-rat-social-behavior-novel-dataset-and-cross-dataset-application
#10
Malte Lorbach, Elisavet I Kyriakou, Ronald Poppe, Elsbeth A van Dam, Lucas P J J Noldus, Remco C Veltkamp
BACKGROUND: Social behavior is an important aspect of rodent models. Automated measuring tools that make use of video analysis and machine learning are an increasingly attractive alternative to manual annotation. Because machine learning-based methods need to be trained, it is important that they are validated using data from different experiment settings. NEW METHOD: To develop and validate automated measuring tools, there is a need for annotated rodent interaction datasets...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495371/detecting-joint-pausiness-in-parallel-spike-trains
#11
Matthias Gärtner, Sevil Duvarci, Jochen Roeper, Gaby Schneider
BACKGROUND: Transient periods with reduced neuronal discharge - called 'pauses' - have recently gained increasing attention. In dopamine neurons, pauses are considered important teaching signals, encoding negative reward prediction errors. Particularly simultaneous pauses are likely to have increased impact on information processing. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Available methods for detecting joint pausing analyze temporal overlap of pauses across spike trains...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495370/an-optimized-method-for-enumerating-cns-derived-memory-b-cells-during-viral-induced-inflammation
#12
Krista D DiSano, Stephen A Stohlman, Cornelia C Bergmann
BACKGROUND: CNS inflammation resulting from infection, injury, or neurodegeneration leads to accumulation of diverse B cell subsets. Although antibody secreting cells (ASC) within the inflamed CNS have been extensively examined, memory B cell (Bmem) characterization has been limited as they do not secrete antibody without stimulation. Moreover, unlike human Bmem, reliable surface markers for murine Bmem remain elusive. NEW METHOD: Using a viral encephalomyelitis model we developed a modified limiting dilution in vitro stimulation assay to convert CNS-derived virus specific Bmem into ASC...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495369/group-level-spatio-temporal-pattern-recovery-in-meg-decoding-using-multi-task-joint-feature-learning
#13
Seyed Mostafa Kia, Fabian Pedregosa, Anna Blumenthal, Andrea Passerini
BACKGROUND: The use of machine learning models to discriminate between patterns of neural activity has become in recent years a standard analysis approach in neuroimaging studies. Whenever these models are linear, the estimated parameters can be visualized in the form of brain maps which can aid in understanding how brain activity in space and time underlies a cognitive function. However, the recovered brain maps often suffer from lack of interpretability, especially in group analysis of multi-subject data...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495368/the-dynamic-programming-high-order-dynamic-bayesian-networks-learning-for-identifying-effective-connectivity-in-human-brain-from-fmri
#14
Shilpa Dang, Santanu Chaudhury, Brejesh Lall, Prasun Kumar Roy
BACKGROUND: Determination of effective connectivity (EC) among brain regions using fMRI is helpful in understanding the underlying neural mechanisms. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) are an appropriate class of probabilistic graphical temporal-models that have been used in past to model EC from fMRI, specifically order-one. NEW-METHOD: High-order DBNs (HO-DBNs) have still not been explored for fMRI data. A fundamental problem faced in the structure-learning of HO-DBN is high computational-burden and low accuracy by the existing heuristic search techniques used for EC detection from fMRI...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483715/analysis-of-locomotor-behavior-in-the-german-mouse-clinic
#15
Annemarie Zimprich, Manuela A Östereicher, Lore Becker, Petra Dirscherl, Luise Ernst, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Lillian Garrett, Florian Giesert, Lisa Glasl, Angelika Hummel, Jan Rozman, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Daniela Vogt-Weisenhorn, Wolfgang Wurst, Sabine M Hölter
BACKGROUND: Generation and phenotyping of mutant mouse models continues to increase along with the search for the most efficient phenotyping tests. Here we asked if a combination of different locomotor tests is necessary for comprehensive locomotor phenotyping, or if a large data set from an automated gait analysis with the CatWalk system would suffice. NEW METHOD: First we endeavored to meaningfully reduce the large CatWalk data set by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to decide on the most relevant parameters...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483714/purposeless-oral-activity-induced-by-meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-m-cpp-undefined-tic-like-behaviors
#16
Deborah S Kreiss, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological hypothesis underlying tic disorders in Tourette syndrome (TS) is that basal ganglia are not capable of properly filtering cortical information, leading patients with difficulties in inhibiting unwanted behaviors or impulses. One of the main challenges for furthering such a hypothesis is to find appropriate animal models summarizing some aspects of the disease. METHODS: It has been established for more than 25 years in rodents that the prototypical serotonin (5-HT) agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) elicits purposeless oral movements including chewing behavior...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478074/optimisation-of-murine-organotypic-slice-culture-preparation-for-a-novel-sagittal-frontal-co-culture-system
#17
Sarah Joost, Kazuto Kobayashi, Andreas Wree, Stefan Jean-Pierre Haas
BACKGROUND: The nigrostriatal pathway is of great importance for the execution of movements, especially in the context of Parkinson's disease. In research, analysis of this pathway often requires the application of severe animal experiments. Organotypic nigrostriatal slice cultures offer a resource-saving alternative to animal experiments for research on the nigrostriatal system. NEW METHOD: We have established a time-saving protocol for the preparation of murine sagittal nigrostriatal slice cultures by using a tissue chopper and agarose embedding instead of a vibratome...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476590/automating-mouse-weighing-in-group-homecages-with-raspberry-pi-micro-computers
#18
Omid Noorshams, Jamie D Boyd, Timothy H Murphy
BACKGROUND: Operant training systems make use of water or food restriction and make it necessary to weigh animals to ensure compliance with experimental endpoints. In other applications periodic weighing is necessary to assess drug side-effects, or as an endpoint in feeding experiments. Periodic weighing while essential can disrupt animal circadian rhythms and social structure. NEW METHOD: Automatic weighing system within paired mouse homecages. Up to 10 mice freely move between two cages (28×18×9cm) which were connected by a weighing chamber mounted on a load cell...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476589/in-vivo-stimulus-presentation-to-the-mouse-vomeronasal-system-surgery-experiment-setup-and-software
#19
Michal Yoles-Frenkel, Oksana Cohen, Rohini Bansal, Noa Horesh, Yoram Ben-Shaul
BACKGROUND: Achieving controlled stimulus delivery is a major challenge in the physiological analysis of the vomeronasal system (VNS). NEW METHOD: We provide a comprehensive description of a setup allowing controlled stimulus delivery into the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of anesthetized mice. VNO suction is achieved via electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve trunk (SNT) using cuff electrodes, followed by flushing of the nasal cavity. Successful application of this methodology depends on several aspects including the surgical preparation, fabrication of cuff electrodes, experimental setup modifications, and the stimulus delivery and flushing...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472680/novel-model-of-orthotopic-u-87-mg-glioblastoma-resection-in-athymic-nude-mice
#20
John Bianco, Chiara Bastiancich, Nicolas Joudiou, Bernard Gallez, Anne des Rieux, Fabienne Danhier
In vitro and in vivo models of experimental glioma are useful tools to gain a better understanding of glioblastoma (GBM) and to investigate novel treatment strategies. However, the majority of preclinical models focus on treating solid intracranial tumours, despite surgical resection being the mainstay in the standard care of patients with GBM today. The lack of resection and recurrence models therefore has undermined efforts in finding a treatment for this disease. Here we present a novel orthotopic tumour resection and recurrence model that has potential for the investigation of local delivery strategies in the treatment of GBM...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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