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Journal of Neuroscience Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155038/a-novel-modernized-golgi-cox-stain-optimized-for-clarity-cleared-tissue
#1
Mustafa S Kassem, Sandra Y Y Fok, Kristie L Smith, Michael Kuligowski, Bernard W Balleine
BACKGROUND: High resolution neuronal information is extraordinarily useful in understanding the brain's functionality. The development of the Golgi-Cox stain allowed observation of the neuron in its entirety with unrivalled detail. Recently tissue clearing techniques, e.g., CLARITY and CUBIC, provide the potential to observe entire neuronal circuits intact within tissue and without previous restrictions with regard to section thickness. NEW METHOD: Here we describe an improved Golgi-Cox stain method, optimized for use with CLARITY and CUBIC, that stains within 48hrs and that can be used in both fresh and fixed tissue...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146193/detection-of-relationships-among-multi-modal-brain-imaging-meta-features-via-information-flow
#2
Robyn L Miller, Victor M Vergara, Vince D Calhoun
BACKGROUND: Neuroscientists and clinical researchers are awash in data from an ever-growing number of imaging and other bio-behavioral modalities. This flow of brain imaging data, taken under resting and various task conditions, combines with available cognitive measures, behavioral information, genetic data plus other potentially salient biomedical and environmental information to create a rich but diffuse data landscape. The conditions being studied with brain imaging data are often extremely complex and it is common for researchers to employ more than one imaging, behavioral or biological data modality (e...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146192/calcium-imaging-method-to-visualize-the-spatial-patterns-of-neural-responses-in-the-pygmy-squid-idiosepius-paradoxus-central-nervous-system
#3
Motoki Koizumi, Shuichi Shigeno, Makoto Mizunami, Nobuaki K Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods exhibit unique behaviors such as camouflage and tactile learning. The brain functions correlated to these behaviors have long been analyzed through behavioral observations of animals subject to surgical manipulation or electrical stimulation of brain lobes. However, physiological methods have rarely been introduced to investigate the functions of each individual lobe, though physiological work on giant axons and slices of the vertical lobe system of the cephalopods have provided deep insights into ion conductance of nerves and long-term synaptic plasticity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146191/automatic-delineation-of-brain-regions-on-mri-and-pet-images-from-the-pig
#4
Jonas Villadsen, Hanne D Hansen, Louise M Jørgensen, Sune H Keller, Flemming L Andersen, Ida N Petersen, Gitte M Knudsen, Claus Svarer
BACKGROUND: The increasing use of the pig as a research model in neuroimaging requires standardized processing tools. For example, extraction of regional dynamic time series from brain PET images requires parcellation procedures that benefit from being automated. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Manual inter-modality spatial normalization to a MRI atlas is operator-dependent, time-consuming, and can be inaccurate with lack of cortical radiotracer binding or skull uptake...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132810/medium-retaining-petri-dish-insert-to-grow-and-image-cultured-cells
#5
Lech Kiedrowski, Alan Feinerman
BACKGROUND: Microscope chambers that accept glass coverslips with cultured cells are often used to monitor intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) during cell superfusion. Unfortunately, the experimental maneuvers associated with the coverslip installation in these chambers (medium removal and re-application) trigger unintended [Ca(2+)]i elevations. NEW METHOD: To prevent these [Ca(2+)]i elevations, a Petri dish insert has been constructed. The insert features a superfusion-optimized well to grow cell cultures...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129635/three-dimensional-and-non-destructive-characterization-of-nerves-inside-conduits-using-laboratory-based-micro-computed-tomography
#6
Christos Bikis, Peter Thalmann, Lucas Degrugillier, Georg Schulz, Bert Müller, Daniel F Kalbermatten, Srinivas Madduri, Simone E Hieber
BACKGROUND: Histological assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration in animals is tedious, time-consuming and challenging for three-dimensional analysis. NEW METHOD: The present study reports on how and to what extent micro computed tomography of paraffin-embedded samples can provide a reliable three-dimensional approach for quantitative analysis of peripheral nerves. RESULTS: Rat sciatic nerves were harvested, formalin-fixated, positioned into nerve conduits (NC), paraffin-embedded, and imaged using a laboratory-based X-ray microtomography system with an isotropic voxel length of 4μm...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126813/automated-immunohistochemical-method-to-analyze-large-areas-of-the-human-cortex
#7
Mohamad Abbass, Kathleen Trought, David Long, Anton Semechko, Albert H C Wong
BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistencies in the histological abnormalities found in the cerebral cortex from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Discrepancies in previously published reports may arise from small sample sizes, inconsistent methodology and biased cell counting. METHODS: We applied automated quantification of neuron density, neuron size and cortical layer thickness in large regions of the cerebral cortex in psychiatric patients...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122318/corrigendum-to-quantitative-models-of-feline-lumbosacral-dorsal-root-ganglia-neuronal-cell-density-j-neurosci-methods-290-2017-116-124
#8
Anastasia K Ostrowski, Zachariah J Sperry, Grant Kulik, Tim M Bruns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103999/improving-the-quality-of-combined-eeg-tms-neural-recordings-introducing-the-coil-spacer
#9
K L Ruddy, D G Woolley, D Mantini, J H Balsters, N Enz, N Wenderoth
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, interest in combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) approaches has grown substantially. Aside from the obvious artifacts induced by the magnetic pulses themselves, separate and more sinister signal disturbances arise as a result of contact between the TMS coil and EEG electrodes. NEW METHOD: Here we profile the characteristics of these artifacts and introduce a simple device - the coil spacer - to provide a platform allowing physical separation between the coil and electrodes during stimulation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113795/a-novel-rat-model-of-brachial-plexus-injury-with-nerve-root-stumps
#10
Jintao Fang, Jiantao Yang, Yi Yang, Liang Li, Bengang Qin, Wenting He, Liwei Yan, Gang Chen, Zhehui Tu, Xiaolin Liu, Liqiang Gu
BACKGROUND: The C5-C6 nerve roots are usually spared from avulsion after brachial plexus injury (BPI) and thus can be used as donors for nerve grafting. To date, there are no appropriate animal models to evaluate spared nerve root stumps. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a rat model with spared nerve root stumps in BPI. NEW METHOD: In rupture group, the proximal parts of C5-T1 nerve roots were held with the surrounding muscles and the distal parts were pulled by a sudden force after the brachial plexus was fully exposed, and the results were compared with those of sham group...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113794/a-new-rat-compatible-robotic-framework-for-spatial-navigation-behavioral-experiments
#11
Sam Gianelli, Bruce Harland, Jean-Marc Fellous
BACKGROUND: Understanding the neural substrate of information encoding and processing requires a precise control of the animal's behavior. Most of what has been learned from the rodent navigational system results from relatively simple tasks in which the movements of the animal is controlled by corridors or walkways, passive movements, treadmills or virtual reality environments. While a lot has been and continues to be learned from these types of experiments, recent evidence has shown that such artificial constraints may have significant consequences on the functioning of the neural circuits of spatial navigation...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104000/ensemble-based-on-static-classifier-selection-for-automated-diagnosis-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Loris Nanni, Alessandra Lumini, Nicolò Zaffonato
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia in the elderly population. Scientific research is very active in the challenge of designing automated approaches to achieve an early and certain diagnosis. Recently an international competition among AD predictors has been organized: "A Machine learning neuroimaging challenge for automated diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment" (MLNeCh). This competition is based on pre-processed sets of T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) to be classified in four categories: stable AD, individuals with MCI who converted to AD, individuals with MCI who did not convert to AD and healthy controls...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100837/finer-parcellation-reveals-detailed-correlational-structure-of-resting-state-fmri-signals
#13
João V Dornas, Jochen Braun
BACKGROUND: Even in resting state, the human brain generates functional signals (fMRI) with complex correlational structure. To simplify this structure, it is common to parcellate a standard brain into coarse chunks. Finer parcellations are considered less reproducible and informative, due to anatomical and functional variability of individual brains. NEW METHODS: Grouping signals with similar local correlation profiles, restricted to each anatomical region (Tzourio-Mazoyer et al...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080669/personality-biomarkers-of-pathological-gambling-a-machine-learning-study
#14
Antonio Cerasa, Danilo Lofaro, Paolo Cavedini, Iolanda Martino, Antonella Bruni, Alessia Sarica, Domenico Mauro, Giuseppe Merante, Ilaria Rossomanno, Maria Rizzuto, Antonio Palmacci, Benedetta Aquino, Pasquale De Fazio, Giampaolo R Perna, Elena Vanni, Giuseppe Olivadese, Domenico Conforti, Gennarina Arabia, Aldo Quattrone
BACKGROUND: The application of artificial intelligence to extract predictors of Gambling disorder (GD) is a new field of study. A plethora of studies have suggested that maladaptive personality dispositions may serve as risk factors for GD. NEW METHOD: Here, we used Classification and Regression Trees algorithm to identify multivariate predictive patterns of personality profiles that could identify GD patients from healthy controls at an individual level. Forty psychiatric patients, recruited from specialized gambling clinics, without any additional comorbidity and 160 matched healthy controls completed the Five-Factor model of personality as measured by the NEO-PI-R, which were used to build the classification model...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100838/alice-a-tool-for-automatic-localization-of-intra-cranial-electrodes-for-clinical-and-high-density-grids
#15
Mariana P Branco, Anna Gaglianese, Daniel Glen, Dora Hermes, Ziad S Saad, Natalia Petridou, Nick F Ramsey
BACKGROUND: Electrocorticographic (ECoG) measurements require the accurate localization of implanted electrodes with respect to the subject's neuroanatomy. Electrode localization is particularly relevant to associate structure with function. Several procedures have attempted to solve this problem, namely by co-registering a post-operative computed tomography (CT) scan, with a pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy scan. However, this type of procedure requires a manual and time-consuming detection and transcription of the electrode coordinates from the CT volume scan and restricts the extraction of smaller high-resolution ECoG grid electrodes due to the downsampling of the CT...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107620/lacking-quality-in-research-is-behavioral-neuroscience-affected-more-than-other-areas-of-biomedical-science
#16
Anton Bespalov, Thomas Steckler
There are many reasons why novel therapeutics fail in clinical trials but these failures are often attributed to lacking quality of preclinical data. These problems are not limited to any specific therapeutic area, academic or industrial research and are due in large part to several generic factors influencing research quality (e.g., related to definition of pre-specified endpoints, principles of study design and analysis, biased reporting, and lack of proper training). Yet, Neuroscience drug discovery is often said to be affected more than the other fields...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061345/branchanalysis2d-3d-automates-morphometry-analyses-of-branching-structures
#17
Aditya Srinivasan, Jesús Muñoz-Estrada, Justin R Bourgeois, Julia W Nalwalk, Kevin M Pumiglia, Volney L Sheen, Russell J Ferland
BACKGROUND: Morphometric analyses of biological features have become increasingly common in recent years with such analyses being subject to a large degree of observer bias, variability, and time consumption. While commercial software packages exist to perform these analyses, they are expensive, require extensive user training, and are usually dependent on the observer tracing the morphology. NEW METHOD: To address these issues, we have developed a broadly applicable, no-cost ImageJ plugin we call 'BranchAnalysis2D/3D', to perform morphometric analyses of structures with branching morphologies, such as neuronal dendritic spines, vascular morphology, and primary cilia...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061344/a-matched-filter-algorithm-to-detect-amperometric-spikes-resulting-from-quantal-secretion
#18
Supriya Balaji Ramachandran, Kevin D Gillis
BACKGROUND: Electrochemical microelectrodes located immediately adjacent to the cell surface can detect spikes of amperometric current during exocytosis as the transmitter released from a single vesicle is oxidized on the electrode surface. Automated techniques to detect spikes are needed in order to quantify the spike rate as a measure of the rate of exocytosis. NEW METHOD: We have developed a Matched Filter (MF) detection algorithm that scans the data set with a library of prototype spike templates while performing a least-squares fit to determine the amplitude and standard error...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061343/eeg-annotate-automated-identification-and-labeling-of-events-in-continuous-signals-with-applications-to-eeg
#19
Kyung-Min Su, W David Hairston, Kay Robbins
BACKGROUND: In controlled laboratory EEG experiments, researchers carefully mark events and analyze subject responses time-locked to these events. Unfortunately, such markers may not be available or may come with poor timing resolution for experiments conducted in less-controlled naturalistic environments. NEW METHOD: We present an integrated event-identification method for identifying particular responses that occur in unlabeled continuously recorded EEG signals based on information from recordings of other subjects potentially performing related tasks...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055718/online-detection-of-amplitude-modulation-of-motor-related-eeg-desynchronization-using-a-lock-in-amplifier-comparison-with-a-fast-fourier-transform-a-continuous-wavelet-transform-and-an-autoregressive-algorithm
#20
Kenji Kato, Kensho Takahashi, Nobuaki Mizuguchi, Junichi Ushiba
BACKGROUND: Neurofeedback of event-related desynchronization (ERD) in electroencephalograms (EEG) of the sensorimotor cortex (SM1) using a brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm is a powerful tool to promote motor recovery from post-stroke hemiplegia. However, the feedback delay attenuates the degree of motor learning and neural plasticity. NEW METHOD: The present study aimed to shorten the delay time to estimate amplitude modulation of the motor-imagery-related alpha and beta SM1-ERD using a lock-in amplifier (LIA) algorithm...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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