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Journal of Neuroscience Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433578/a-novel-device-for-continuous-long-term-electroencephalogram-recording-and-drug-administration-in-mice-with-a-nice-powerful-and-sophisticated-wired-system
#1
Shigeru Watanabe, Masanori Saito, Masaki Soma, Hitoshi Miyaoka, Masami Takahashi
BACKGROUND: To elucidate mechanisms of epileptogenesis and epileptic maturation, and to develop new AEDs, it is indispensable to administer various drugs and to examine their effects on EEG over a long period of observation. NEW METHOD: We constructed a device for the continuous measurement of electroencephalography (EEG) and the infusion of anti-epileptic drugs over a prolonged period of time in moving mice. The system includes a slip ring and a swivel to prevent twisting of the recording cable and infusion tube, respectively...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431949/classification-of-eeg-signals-to-identify-variations-in-attention-during-motor-task-execution
#2
Susan Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako, Ning Jiang, Dario Farina, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
BACKGROUND: Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems in neuro-rehabilitation use brain signals to control external devices. User status such as attention affects BCI performance; thus detecting the user's attention drift due to internal or external factors is essential for high detection accuracy. NEW METHOD: An auditory oddball task was applied to divert the users' attention during a simple ankle dorsiflexion movement. Electroencephalogram signals were recorded from eighteen channels...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414048/light-and-the-laboratory-mouse
#3
Stuart N Peirson, Laurence A Brown, Carina A Pothecary, Lindsay A Benson, Angus S Fisk
Light exerts widespread effects on physiology and behaviour. As well as the widely-appreciated role of light in vision, light also plays a critical role in many non-visual responses, including regulating circadian rhythms, sleep, pupil constriction, heart rate, hormone release and learning and memory. In mammals, responses to light are all mediated via retinal photoreceptors, including the classical rods and cones involved in vision as well as the recently identified melanopsin-expressing photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414047/a-novel-automated-rodent-tracker-art-demonstrated-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
Brett M Hewitt, Moi Hoon Yap, Emma F Hodson-Tole, Aneurin J Kennerley, Paul S Sharp, Robyn A Grant
BACKGROUND: Generating quantitative metrics of rodent locomotion and general behaviours from video footage is important in behavioural neuroscience studies. However, there is not yet a free software system that can process large amounts of video data with minimal user interventions. NEW METHOD: Here we propose a new, automated rodent tracker (ART) that uses a simple rule-based system to quickly and robustly track rodent nose and body points, with minimal user input...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411116/global-field-synchronization-in-gamma-range-of-the-sleep-eeg-tracks-sleep-depth-artifact-introduced-by-a-rectangular-analysis-window
#5
Thomas Rusterholz, Peter Achermann, Roland Dürr, Thomas Koenig, Leila Tarokh
BACKGROUND: Investigating functional connectivity between brain networks has become an area of interest in neuroscience. Several methods for investigating connectivity have recently been developed, however, these techniques need to be applied with care. We demonstrate that global field synchronization (GFS), a global measure of phase alignment in the EEG as a function of frequency, must be applied considering signal processing principles in order to yield valid results. NEW METHOD: Multichannel EEG (27 derivations) was analyzed for GFS based on the complex spectrum derived by the fast Fourier transform (FFT)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400103/common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus-as-a-primate-model-for-behavioral-neuroscience-studies
#6
Noeline W Prins, Eric Pohlmeyer, Shubham Debnath, Ramanamurthy Mylavarapu, Shijia Geng, Justin C Sanchez, Daniel Rothen, Abhishek Prasad
BACKGROUND: The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been proposed as a suitable bridge between rodents and larger primates. They have been used in several types of research including auditory, vocal, visual, pharmacological and genetics studies. However, marmosets have not been used as much for behavioral studies. NEW METHOD: Here we present data from training 12 adult marmosets for behavioral neuroscience studies. We discuss the husbandry, food preferences, handling, acclimation to laboratory environments and neurosurgical techniques...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396177/consistent-induction-of-chronic-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-c57bl-6-mice-for-the-longitudinal-study-of-pathology-and-repair
#7
Jonathan P C Hasselmann, Hawra Karim, Anna J Khalaj, Subir Ghosh, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
BACKGROUND: While many groups use experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model to uncover therapeutic targets and understand the pathology underlying multiple sclerosis (MS), EAE protocol variability introduces discrepancies in central nervous system (CNS) pathogenesis and clinical disease, limiting the comparability between studies and slowing much-needed translational research. OPTIMIZED METHOD: Here we describe a detailed, reliable protocol for chronic EAE induction in C57BL/6 mice utilizing two injections of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55) peptide mixed with Complete Freund's Adjuvant and paired with pertussis toxin...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392415/discrepancies-in-stereotaxic-coordinate-publications-and-improving-precision-using-an-animal-specific-atlas
#8
REVIEW
Nima Azimi, Golnaz Yadollahikhales, John Paul Argenti, Miles G Cunningham
Rodent brain atlases have traditionally been used to identify brain structures in three-dimensional space for a variety of stereotaxic procedures. As neuroscience becomes increasingly sophisticated, higher levels of precision and consistency are needed. Observations of various atlases currently in use across labs reveal numerous coordinate discrepancies. Here we provide examples of inconsistencies by comparing the coordinates of the boundaries of various brain structures across six atlas publications. We conclude that the coordinates determined by any particular atlas should be considered as only a first approximation of the actual target coordinates for the experimental animal for a particular study...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390798/complete-and-irreversible-unilateral-vestibular-loss-a-novel-rat-model-of-vestibular-pathology
#9
David Péricat, Anne Farina, Emilie Agavnian-Couquiaud, Christian Chabbert, Brahim Tighilet
BACKGROUND: Both basic and applied studies on the pathophysiology of vestibular disorders are currently impaired by the lack of animal models of controlled vestibular damages. NEW METHODS: In the present study, we describe the procedure to achieve a surgical unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the rat and evaluate its functional consequences. This procedure is suitable for reproducing a unilateral, sudden and definitive vestibular areflexia. RESULTS: Proper induction of a UVN induces a severe vestibular syndrome, which mimics vestibular disorders encountered in humans...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380331/near-infrared-fluorescent-protein-irfp713-as-a-reporter-protein-for-optogenetic-vectors-a-transgenic-cre-reporter-rat-and-other-neuronal-studies
#10
Christopher T Richie, Leslie R Whitaker, Keith W Whitaker, Julie Necarsulmer, Heather A Baldwin, Yajun Zhang, Lowella Fortuno, Josh J Hinkle, Pyry Koivula, Mark J Henderson, Wenzhi Sun, Kai Wang, Jeffrey C Smith, Jim Pickel, Na Ji, Bruce T Hope, Brandon K Harvey
BACKGROUND: The use of genetically-encoded fluorescent reporters is essential for the identification and observation of cells that express transgenic modulatory proteins. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins have superior light penetration through biological tissue, but are not yet widely adopted. NEW METHOD: Using the near-infrared fluorescent protein, iRFP713, improves the imaging resolution in thick tissue sections or the intact brain due to the reduced light-scattering at the longer, NIR wavelengths used to image the protein...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363450/a-new-method-for-independent-component-analysis-with-priori-information-based-on-multi-objective-optimization
#11
Yuhu Shi, Weiming Zeng, Nizhuan Wang, Le Zhao
BACKGROUND: Currently the problem of incorporating priori information into an independent component analysis (ICA) model is often solved under the framework of constrained ICA, which utilizes the priori information as a reference signal to form a constraint condition and then introduce it into classical ICA. However, it is difficult to pre-determine a suitable threshold parameter to constrain the closeness between the output signal and the reference signal in the constraint condition...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351803/establishing-a-reliable-gait-evaluation-method-for-rodent-studies
#12
Huanwen Chen, Jian Du, Yifan Zhang, Kevin Barnes, Xiaofeng Jia
BACKGROUND: CatWalk is one of the most popular tools for evaluating gait recovery in preclinical research, however, there is currently no consensus on which of the many gait parameters captured by CatWalk can reliably model recovery. There are conflicting interpretations of results, along with many common but seldom reported problems such as heel walking and poor compliance. NEW METHOD: We developed a systematic manual classification method that overcomes common problems such as heel walking and poor compliance...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347784/a-programmable-smoke-delivery-device-for-pet-imaging-with-cigarettes-containing-11-c-nicotine
#13
Yantao Zuo, Pradeep K Garg, Rachid Nazih, Sudha Garg, Jed E Rose, Thangaraju Murugesan, Alexey G Mukhin
INTRODUCTION: PET imaging with (11)C-nicotine-loaded cigarettes is a valuable tool to directly assess fast nicotine kinetics and its neuropharmacological role in tobacco dependence. To eliminate variations among puffs inhaled by subjects, this work aimed to develop a programmable smoke delivery device (SDD) to produce highly reproducible and adjustable puffs of cigarette smoke for PET experiments. NEW METHOD: The SDD was built around a programmable syringe pump as a smoking machine to draw a puff of smoke from a (11)C-nicotine-loaded cigarette and make it available for a subject to take the smoke into the mouth and then inhale it during PET data acquisition...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342832/optimized-clarity-technique-detects-reduced-parvalbumin-density-in-a-genetic-model-of-schizophrenia
#14
Joakim Bastrup, Peter H Larsen
BACKGROUND: Novel tissue clearing technologies have, for the first time, made it possible to study intact tissue samples. This approach provides a tool for further clarifying findings from animal models of schizophrenia by studying parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneuron density from a 3D perspective. NEW METHOD: This study has developed an optimised CLARITY protocol, including an improved electrophoretic tissue clearing (ETC) chamber, an evaluation of antibody diffusion into cleared tissue slices, and a computational method for detecting PV+ interneurons in 3D...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342831/inference-of-direct-and-multistep-effective-connectivities-from-functional-connectivity-of-the-brain-and-of-relationships-to-cortical-geometry
#15
Grishma Mehta-Pandejee, P A Robinson, James A Henderson, K M Aquino, Somwrita Sarkar
BACKGROUND: The problem of inferring effective brain connectivity from functional connectivity is under active investigation, and connectivity via multistep paths is poorly understood. NEW METHOD: A method is presented to calculate the direct effective connection matrix (deCM), which embodies direct connection strengths between brain regions, from functional CMs (fCMs) by minimizing the difference between an experimental fCM and one calculated via neural field theory from an ansatz deCM based on an experimental anatomical CM...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336360/gain-a-graphical-method-to-automatically-analyze-individual-neurite-outgrowth
#16
B L Long, H Li, A Mahadevan, T Tang, K Balotin, N Grandel, J Soto, S Y Wong, A Abrego, S Li, A A Qutub
BACKGROUND: Neurite outgrowth is a metric widely used to assess the success of in vitro neural stem cell differentiation or neuron reprogramming protocols and to evaluate high-content screening assays for neural regenerative drug discovery. However, neurite measurements are tedious to perform manually, and there is a paucity of freely available, fully automated software to determine neurite measurements and neuron counting. To provide such a tool to the neurobiology, stem cell, cell engineering, and neuroregenerative communities, we developed an algorithm for performing high-throughput neurite analysis in immunofluorescent images...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336359/enrichment-and-isolation-of-neurons-from-adult-mouse-brain-for-ex-vivo-analysis
#17
Sabina Berl, Khalad Karram, Anja Scheller, Melanie Jungblut, Frank Kirchhoff, Ari Waisman
BACKGROUND: Isolation of neurons from the adult mouse CNS is important in order to study their gene expression during development or the course of different diseases. NEW METHODS: Here we present two different methods for the enrichment or isolation of neurons from adult mouse CNS. These methods: are either based on flow cytometry sorting of eYFP expressing neurons, or by depletion of non-neuronal cells by sorting with magnetic-beads. RESULTS: Enrichment by FACS sorting of eYFP positive neurons results in a population of 62...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336358/assessing-hemispheric-specialization-for-processing-arithmetic-skills-in-adults-a-functional-transcranial-doppler-ultrasonography-ftcd-study
#18
Veronica M Connaughton, Azhani Amiruddin, Karen L Clunies-Ross, Noel French, Allison M Fox
BACKGROUND: A major model of the cerebral circuits that underpin arithmetic calculation is the triple-code model of numerical processing. This model proposes that the lateralization of mathematical operations is organized across three circuits: a left-hemispheric dominant verbal code; a bilateral magnitude representation of numbers and a bilateral Arabic number code. NEW METHOD: This study simultaneously measured the blood flow of both middle cerebral arteries using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to assess hemispheric specialization during the performance of both language and arithmetic tasks...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336357/assessment-of-vestibulo-ocular-function-without-measuring-eye-movements
#19
Kara H Beaton, Michael Schubert, Mark Shelhamer
BACKGROUND: The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) maintains stable gaze during head motion. Deficiencies lead to apparent world motion due to incomplete stabilization of eyes in space. VOR measurement requires specialized apparatus, trained operators, and significant setup time. NEW METHOD: We present a system (VON: vestibulo-ocular nulling) for rapid vestibulo-ocular assessment without measuring eye movements per se. VON uses a head-mounted motion sensor, laptop computer with user input control, and laser target whose position is controlled by the computer...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300605/a-rapid-quantification-of-binocular-misalignment-without-recording-eye-movements-vertical-and-torsional-alignment-nulling
#20
Kara H Beaton, Mark J Shelhamer, Dale C Roberts, Michael C Schubert
BACKGROUND: Small, innate asymmetries between the left and right otolith organs can cause ocular misalignment with symptoms that include double vision and motion sickness. Additionally, ocular misalignment affects nearly 5% of the US population. We have developed a portable, non-invasive technology that uses subjective perception of binocular visual signals to estimate relative binocular alignment. NEW METHOD AND RESULTS: The Vertical Alignment Nulling (VAN) and Torsional Alignment Nulling (TAN) tests ask subjects to view one red and one blue line on a tablet computer while looking through color-matched red and blue filters so that each eye sees only one of the lines...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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