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Journal of Neuroscience Methods

Chenju Yi, Jérémy Theillon, Annette Koulakoff, Hugues Berry, Christian Giaume
Intercellular communication through gap junction channels plays a key role in cellular homeostasis and in synchronizing physiological functions, a feature that is modified in number of pathological situations. In the brain, astrocytes are the cell population that expresses the highest amount of gap junction proteins, named connexins. Several techniques have been used to assess the level of gap junctional communication in astrocytes, but so far they remain very difficult to apply in adult brain tissue. Here, using specific loading of astrocytes with sulforhodamine 101, we adapted the gap-FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) to acute hippocampal slices from 9 month-old adult mice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Wing-Kin Tam, Yang Zhi
BACKGROUND: Large-scale neural recordings provide detailed information on neuronal activities and can help elicit the underlying neural mechanisms of the brain. However, the computational burden is also formidable when we try to process the huge data stream generated by such recordings. NEW METHOD: In this study, we report the development of Neural Parallel Engine (NPE), a toolbox for massively parallel neural signal processing on graphical processing units (GPUs)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
S J Feldman, L A Boyd, J L Neva, S Peters, K S Hayward
BACKGROUND: Information about the structural integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST) from diffusion-weighted imaging can improve our ability to understand motor outcomes in people with upper limb impairment after stroke, especially those with severe impairment. Yet, there is no consensus on which method of CST generation most accurately represents function and impairment in individuals with chronic stroke. NEW METHOD: The aim of the study was to compare different methods of CST reconstruction and resulting microstructural properties, as well as the relationship between these properties and motor function and impairment...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Peter J Steenbergen
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish larvae have a high potential as model system to replace rodents, especially in screening and drug discovery applications. However, an experimental setup to deliver mild electrical stimuli with simultaneous high throughput behavioural tracking has not yet been described. NEW METHOD: A new tool was designed, making the delivery of electrical stimuli in a 96-well plate format possible. Using custom made electrode clips that can be slid over the walls of a square 96-well plate, 80 larvae could be tested simultaneously and behavioural responses recorded...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
K Mutlu, J Esquivelzeta Rabell, P Martin Del Olmo, S Haesler
BACKGROUND: Respiratory rate is an essential parameter in biomedical research and clinical applications. Most respiration measurement techniques in preclinical animal models require surgical implantation of sensors. Current clinical measurement modalities typically involve attachment of sensors to the patient, causing discomfort. We have previously developed a non-contact approach to measuring respiration phase in head-restrained rodents using infrared (IR) thermography. While the non-invasive nature of IR thermography offers many advantages, it also bears the complexity of extracting respiration signals from videos...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Konstantina Kalogianni, Jan C de Munck, Guido Nolte, Alistair N Vardy, Frans C T van der Helm, Andreas Daffertshofer
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of source reconstruction depends on the spatial configuration of the neural sources underlying encephalographic signals, the temporal distance of the source activity, the level and structure of noise in the recordings, and - of course - on the employed inverse method. This plenitude of factors renders a definition of 'spatial resolution' of the electro-encephalogram (EEG) a challenge. NEW METHOD: A proper definition of spatial resolution requires a ground truth...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Mingwu Jin, Weishu Deng
BACKGROUND: There is a spectrum of the progression from healthy control (HC) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) without conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD), to MCI with conversion to AD (cMCI), and to AD. This study aims to predict the different disease stages using brain structural information provided by MRI data. NEW METHOD: The neighborhood component analysis (NCA) is applied to select most powerful features for prediction. The ensemble decision tree classifier is built to predict which group the subject belongs to...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Roberto López-Blanco, Miguel A Velasco, Antonio Méndez-Guerrero, Juan Pablo Romero, María Dolores Del Castillo, J Ignacio Serrano, Julián Benito-León, Félix Bermejo-Pareja, Eduardo Rocon
BACKGROUND: The use of wearable technology is an emerging field of research in movement disorders. This paper introduces a clinical study to evaluate the feasibility, clinical correlation and reliability of using a system based in smartwatches to quantify tremor in essential tremor (ET) patients and check its acceptance as clinical monitoring tool. NEW METHOD: The system is based on a commercial smartwatch and an Android smartphone. An investigational Android application controls the process of recording raw data from the smartwatch three-dimensional gyroscopes...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Mark Mikkelsen, Rachelle S Loo, Nicolaas A J Puts, Richard A E Edden, Ashley D Harris
BACKGROUND: The relationships between scan duration, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sample size must be considered and understood to design optimal GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. NEW METHOD: Simulations investigated the effects of signal averaging on SNR, measurement error and group-level variance against a known ground truth. Relative root mean square errors (measurement error) and coefficients of variation (group-level variance) were calculated...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Maxime Lévesque, Siyan Wang, Jean Gotman, Massimo Avoli
BACKGROUND: The detection of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs, ripples: 80-200 Hz, fast ripples: 250-500 Hz) is often based on considering ripples or fast ripples in isolation; overlapping ripples and fast ripples are excluded from further analysis. Here, we studied overlapping HFOs during spontaneous seizures in pilocarpine-treated animals. NEW METHOD: Spontaneous seizures (n = 6 animals) presented with either hypersynchronous- (HYP, n = 18) or low-voltage fast-onset (LVF, n = 21) pattern...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Lijun Fang, Tianwen Huang, Catherine Tsilfidis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Hadeel K Aljobouri, Hussain A Jaber, Orhan M Koçak, Oktay Algin, Ilyas Çankaya
BACKGROUND: Clustering approaches used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research use brain activity to divide the brain into various parcels with some degree of homogeneous characteristics, but choosing the appropriate clustering algorithms remains a problem. NEW METHOD: A novel application of the robust unsupervised learning approach is proposed in the current study. Robust growing neural gas (RGNG) algorithm was fed into fMRI data and compared with growing neural gas (GNG) algorithm, which has not been used for this purpose or any other medical application...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Lotte Meteyard, Nicholas Holmes
BACKGROUND: The magnetic pulse generated during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) also stimulates cutaneous nerves and muscle fibres, with the most commonly reported side effect being muscle twitches and sometimes painful sensations. These sensations affect behaviour during experimental tasks, presenting a potential confound for 'online' TMS studies. NEW METHOD: Our objective was to systematically map the degree of disturbance (ratings of annoyance, pain, and muscle twitches) caused by TMS at 43 locations across the scalp...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Eero Satuvuori, Thomas Kreuz
BACKGROUND: It is commonly assumed in neuronal coding that repeated presentations of a stimulus to a coding neuron elicit similar responses. One common way to assess similarity are spike train distances. These can be divided into spike-resolved, such as the Victor-Purpura and the van Rossum distance, and time-resolved, e.g. the ISI-, the SPIKE- and the RI-SPIKE-distance. NEW METHOD: We use independent steady-rate Poisson processes as surrogates for spike trains with fixed rate and no timing information to address two basic questions: How does the sensitivity of the different spike train distances to temporal coding depend on the rates of the two processes and how do the distances deal with very low rates? RESULTS: Spike-resolved distances always contain rate information even for parameters indicating time coding...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Matthew J Gluck, Surabhi Vijayaraghavan, Elaine B Sinclair, Asad Ashraf, Michael R Hausman, Paul J Cagle
BACKGROUND: Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising method for visualizing the collagenous structure of peripheral nerves. Assessing collagen continuity and damage after a stretch injury provides inferential insight into the level of axonal damage present. NEW METHODS: This study utilizes SHG microscopy after a calibrated in vivo stretch injury of rat median nerves to evaluate collagen continuity at several time points throughout the recovery process...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Rimenez R Souza, Nicole M Robertson, David T Pruitt, Lindsey Noble, Eric C Meyers, Phillip A Gonzales, Nathaniel P Bleker, Holle L Carey, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Christa K McIntyre, Robert L Rennaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning (FC) in rodents is the most used animal model to investigate the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although research using FC has generated a better understanding of fear memories, studies often rely on mild or moderate FC training and behavioral analysis generally focuses on measuring freezing responses within few test sessions. NEW METHOD: We introduce the M-Maze task, a system to measures extinction of conditioned fear using suppression of operant behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Michele Perni, Pavan K Challa, Julius B Kirkegaard, Ryan Limbocker, Mandy Koopman, Maarten C Hardenberg, Pietro Sormanni, Thomas Müller, Kadi L Saar, Lianne W Y Roode, Johnny Habchi, Giulia Vecchi, Nilumi W Fernando, Samuel Casford, Ellen A A Nollen, Michele Vendruscolo, Christopher M Dobson, Tuomas P J Knowles
BACKGROUND: The nematode worm C. elegans is a model organism widely used for studies of genetics and of human disease. The health and fitness of the worms can be quantified in different ways, such as by measuring their bending frequency, speed or lifespan. Manual assays, however, are time consuming and limited in their scope providing a strong motivation for automation. NEW METHOD: We describe the development and application of an advanced machine vision system for characterizing the behaviour of C...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
James Howells, Hugh Bostock, Susanna B Park, Matthew C Kiernan, David Burke
BACKGROUND: Excitability studies on normal and diseased human axons in vivo have been greatly enhanced by fast non-invasive threshold-tracking techniques, using surface stimulation and recording. Although sensory axons are often more affected in disease, most studies to date have focussed on motor axons, because of technical difficulties in resolving pathologically small nerve volleys in the presence of noise and stimulus artefact. NEW METHODS: This paper describes techniques for tracking low-amplitude compound action potentials, using a battery-powered, isolated preamplifier of simple construction with high common mode rejection (>125 dB [balanced inputs]) and low noise (<0...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Caroline Le Duigou, Etienne Savary, Mélanie Morin-Brureau, Daniel Gomez-Dominguez, André Sobczyk, Farah Chali, Giampaolo Milior, Larissa Kraus, Jochen C Meier, Dimitri M Kullmann, Bertrand Mathon, Liset Menendez de la Prida, Georg Dorfmuller, Johan Pallud, Emmanuel Eugène, Stéphane Clemenceau, Richard Miles
BACKGROUND: Insights into human brain diseases may emerge from tissue obtained after operations on patients. However techniques requiring transduction of transgenes carried by viral vectors cannot be applied to acute human tissue. NEW METHOD: We show that organotypic culture techniques can be used to maintain tissue from patients with three different neurological syndromes for several weeks in vitro. Optimized viral vector techniques and promoters for transgene expression are described...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Zhiqun Wu, Makoto Nakamura, Joachim K Krauss, Kerstin Schwabe, Nadine John
BACKGROUND: Although tumor resection is among the most important prognostic factors, high grade gliomas regrow in most cases. Also, resection of glial tumors in eloquent brain regions is not or only partially possible. Despite these severe restraints, however, only a few in-vivo models have been established to investigate tumor recurrence and local treatment. Here we characterize the intracranial BT4Ca rat glioma as a model for these aspects. NEW METHOD: BT4Ca cells were stereotaxically implanted into the frontal cortex of BDIX rats...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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