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Journal of Neuroscience Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772269/a-new-method-for-determining-levels-of-sedation-in-dogs-a-pilot-study-with-propofol-and-a-novel-neuroactive-steroid-anesthetic
#1
B L Youngblood, Y Ueyama, W W Muir, G M Belfort, R H Hammond, J Dai, F G Salituro, A J Robichaud, J J Doherty
BACKGROUND: Different levels of consciousness are required in order to perform different medical procedures. Sedation scales established to objectively define various levels of sedation in humans have not been thoroughly characterized in non-human species. Postural changes in rats or dogs are useful as gross measures of sedation but are inadequate for quantitative assessment since graded levels of sedation are difficult to delineate and obscured by movement abnormalities. NEW METHOD: A new canine sedation scoring (CSS) method was developed based on the modified observer's assessment of alertness and sedation score (MOAA/S) used in humans...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768185/a-simple-inexpensive-method-for-subcortical-stereotactic-targeting-in-nonhuman-primates
#2
J Nicole Bentley, Siri S S Khalsa, Michael Kobylarek, Karen E Schroeder, Kevin Chen, Ingrid L Bergin, Derek M Tat, Cynthia A Chestek, Parag G Patil
BACKGROUND: Many current neuroscience studies in large animal models have focused on recordings from cortical structures. While sufficient for analyzing sensorimotor systems, many processes are modulated by subcortical nuclei. Large animal models, such as nonhuman primates (NHP), provide an optimal model for studying these circuits, but the ability to target subcortical structures has been hampered by lack of a straightforward approach to targeting. NEW METHOD: Here we present a method of subcortical targeting in NHP that uses MRI-compatible titanium screws as fiducials...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758234/a-validation-of-dynamic-causal-modelling-for-7t-fmri
#3
S Tak, J Noh, C Cheong, P Zeidman, A Razi, W D Penny, K J Friston
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cognitive and clinical neuroscience studies. However, the benefits offered by higher field strength have not been evaluated in terms of effective connectivity and dynamic causal modelling (DCM). NEW METHOD: In this study, we address the validity of DCM for 7T functional MRI data at two levels. First, we evaluate the predictive validity of DCM estimates based upon 3T and 7T in terms of reproducibility...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753683/evaluating-resective-surgery-targets-in-epilepsy-patients-a-comparison-of-quantitative-eeg-methods
#4
Michael Müller, Kaspar Schindler, Marc Goodfellow, Claudio Pollo, Christian Rummel, Andreas Steimer
BACKGROUND: Quantitative analysis of intracranial EEG is a promising tool to assist clinicians in the planning of resective brain surgery in patients suffering from pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Quantifying the accuracy of such tools, however, is nontrivial as a ground truth to verify predictions about hypothetical resections is missing. NEW METHOD: As one possibility to address this, we use customized hypotheses tests to examine the agreement of the methods on a common set of patients...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746890/use-of-a-capillary-alginate-gel-capgel%C3%A2-to-study-the-three-dimensional-development-of-sensory-nerves-reveals-the-formation-of-a-rudimentary-perineurium
#5
Wesley A Anderson, Alicia R Willenberg, Alexander J Bosak, Bradley J Willenberg, Stephen Lambert
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathies affect approximately 20 million people in the United States and often stem from other chronic conditions, such as diabetes. In vitro methodologies to facilitate the understanding and treatment of these disorders often lack the cellular and functional complexity required to accurately model peripheral neuropathies. In particular, they are often 2D and fail to faithfully reproduce the 3D in vivo microenvironment. NEW METHOD: Embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants were inserted into laminin derivatized capillary alginate gel (Capgel™), a bioabsorbable, self-assembling biomaterial, possessing parallel microchannel architecture, and cultured to mimic normal nerve development, including Schwann cell myelination...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746889/modular-auditory-decision-making-behavioral-task-designed-for-intraoperative-use-in-humans
#6
Anand Tekriwal, Gidon Felsen, John A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical interventions that require active patient feedback, such as deep brain stimulation surgery, create an opportunity to conduct cognitive or behavioral experiments during the acquisition of invasive neurophysiology. Optimal design and implementation of intraoperative behavioral experiments require consideration of stimulus presentation, time and surgical constraints. We describe the use of a modular, inexpensive system that implements a decision-making paradigm, designed to overcome challenges associated with the operative environment...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738806/an-embedded-implementation-based-on-adaptive-filter-bank-for-brain-computer-interface-systems
#7
Kais Belwafi, Olivier Romain, Sofien Gannouni, Fakhreddine Ghaffari, Ridha Djemal, Bouraoui Ouni
BACKGROUND: Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a new communication pathway for users with neurological deficiencies. The implementation of a BCI system requires complex electroencephalography (EEG) signal processing including filtering, feature extraction and classification algorithms. Most of current BCI systems are implemented on personal computers. Therefore, there is a great interest in implementing BCI on embedded platforms to meet system specifications in terms of time response, cost effectiveness, power consumption, and accuracy...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738805/simple-and-efficient-rat-model-for-studying-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#8
Le Yang, Wen Tao Lai, Yuan Shui Wu, Jin An Zhang, Xin Hui Zhou, Jian Yan, Chao Fang, Er Ming Zeng, Bin Tang, Chang Long Peng, Yue Zhao, Tao Hong
BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a late phase of consequences of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that causes poor outcome and has become the focus of current research. The aim of this study was to characterize an experimental SAH technique for studying DCI after SAH. NEW METHOD: A double injection SAH rat model with a tiny incision was introduced. At 7 days post-SAH induction, the diameter and luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) of the basilar artery (BA) were measured...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733940/a-fresh-look-at-functional-link-neural-network-for-motor-imagery-based-brain-computer-interface
#9
Imali T Hettiarachchi, Toktam Babaei, Thanh Nguyen, Chee P Lim, Saeid Nahavandi
BACKGROUND: Artificial neural networks (ANN) is one of the widely used classifiers in the brain computer interface (BCI) systems-based on noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Among the different ANN architectures, the most commonly applied for BCI classifiers is the multilayer perceptron (MLP). When appropriately designed with optimal number of neuron layers and number of neurons per layer, the ANN can act as a universal approximator. However, due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG signal data, overtraining problem may become an inherent issue, causing these universal approximators to fail in real-time applications...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727612/electrocorticographic-telemetric-recording-in-unrestrained-mouse-pups
#10
Nicole Chemaly, Astrid Nehlig, Catherine Chiron, Rima Nabbout
BACKGROUND: Early onset epileptic encephalopathies are rare paediatric diseases, with seizures resistant to drugs and impacting development of cognitive and motor functions. Many of them show monogenic aetiology and engineered animal models are crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms and propose treatment trials. These models have mostly been explored in vitro or in vivo under anaesthesia. This may affect the occurrence of epileptic activities and their clinical expression. These study conditions perturb social skills and are limited in time...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715481/mapping-of-neuron-soma-size-as-an-effective-approach-to-delineate-differences-between-neural-populations
#11
Alexander J Lingley, Joshua C Bowdridge, Reza Farivar, Kevin R Duffy
BACKGROUND: A single histological marker applied to a slice of tissue often reveals myriad cytoarchitectonic characteristics that can obscure differences between neuron populations targeted for study. Isolation and measurement of a single feature from the tissue is possible through a variety of approaches, however, visualizing the data numerically or through graphs alone can preclude being able to identify important features and effects that are not obvious from direct observation of the tissue...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715480/a-novel-assay-to-evaluate-action-selection-in-escape-behavior
#12
David P Goodman, Abby Eldredge, Catherine R von Reyn
BACKGROUND: How experience and individuality shape action selection remains a major question in neuroscience. Visually-evoked escape behavior within Drosophila melanogaster provides a robust model to study these mechanisms within neural circuits but requires novel assays to circumvent limitations of current behavior assays. METHOD: Here we describe and characterize a simple, low to moderate cost, and flexible assay for studying visually-evoked escape responses in tethered flies...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709657/recovery-of-early-neural-spikes-from-stimulation-electrodes-using-a-dc-coupled-low-gain-high-resolution-data-acquisition-system
#13
Hyunjun Jung, Jintae Kim, Yoonkey Nam
BACKGROUND: Neural responses to electrical stimulation provide valuable information to probe and study the network function. Especially, recording neural responses from the stimulated site provides improved neural interfacing method. However, it is difficult to measure short-delayed responses at the stimulated electrode due to the saturation of the amplifier after stimulation which is called "stimulus artifact". Despite the advances in handling stimulation artifacts, it is still very challenging to deal with the artifacts if one tries to stimulate and recording from the same electrode...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705403/a-refined-rat-primary-neonatal-microglial-culture-method-that-reduces-time-cost-and-animal-use
#14
Marieta Georgieva, Alasdair Leeson-Payne, Maria Dumitrascuta, Ann Rajnicek, Marzia Malcangio, Wenlong Huang
BACKGROUND: Primary microglial cultures have been used extensively to facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for a variety of CNS disorders including neurodegeneration and neuropathic pain. However, existing techniques for culturing these cells are slow and costly. NEW METHOD: Here, we report a refined protocol based on our previously published methods described by Clark et al., which reduces in the time, reagents and the number of animals used for each culture whilst yielding high number and excellent quality microglial cells...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698630/an-integrated-system-for-synchronous-detection-of-neuron-spikes-and-dopamine-activities-in-the-striatum-of-parkinson-monkey-brain
#15
Shengwei Xu, Yu Zhang, Song Zhang, Guihua Xiao, Mixia Wang, Yilin Song, Fei Gao, Ziyue Li, Ping Zhuang, Piu Chan, Guoxian Tao, Feng Yue, Xinxia Cai
BACKGROUND: Synchronous detecting neuron spikes and dopamine (DA) activities in the non-human primate brain play an important role in understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD). At present, most experiments are carried out by combing of electrodes and commercial instruments, which are inconvenient, time-consuming and inefficient. NEW METHOD: Herein, this study describes a novel integrated system for monitoring neuron spikes and DA activities in non-human primate brain synchronously...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694848/customizable-cap-implants-for-neurophysiological-experimentation
#16
Jackson D Blonde, Megan Roussy, Rogelio Luna, Borna Mahmoudian, Roberto A Gulli, Kevin C Barker, Jonathan C Lau, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
BACKGROUND: Several primate neurophysiology laboratories have adopted acrylic-free, custom-fit cranial implants. These implants are often comprised of titanium or plastic polymers, such as polyether ether ketone (PEEK). Titanium is favored for its mechanical strength and osseointegrative properties whereas PEEK is notable for its lightweight, machinability, and MRI compatibility. Recent titanium/PEEK implants have proven to be effective in minimizing infection and implant failure, thereby prolonging experiments and optimizing the scientific contribution of a single primate...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689283/geometry-processing-of-conventionally-produced-mouse-brain-slice-images
#17
Nitin Agarwal, Xiangmin Xu, M Gopi
BACKGROUND: Brain mapping research in most neuroanatomical laboratories relies on conventional processing techniques, which often introduce histological artifacts such as tissue tears and tissue loss. NEW METHOD: In this paper we present techniques and algorithms for automatic registration and 3D reconstruction of conventionally produced mouse brain slices in a standardized atlas space. This is achieved first by constructing a virtual 3D mouse brain model from annotated slices of Allen Reference Atlas (ARA)...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684465/an-asymptotic-theory-for-cross-correlation-between-auto-correlated-sequences-and-its-application-on-neuroimaging-data
#18
Yunyi Zhou, Chenyang Tao, Wenlian Lu, Jianfeng Feng
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity is among the most important tools to study brain. The correlation coefficient, between time series of different brain areas, is the most popular method to quantify functional connectivity. Correlation coefficient in practical use assumes the data to be temporally independent. However, the time series data of brain can manifest significant temporal auto-correlation. NEW METHOD: A widely applicable method is proposed for correcting temporal auto-correlation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684464/tracking-single-membrane-targets-of-human-autoantibodies-using-single-nanoparticle-imaging
#19
Julie Jézéquel, Julien P Dupuis, François Maingret, Laurent Groc
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, an increasing number of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases have been associated with the expression of autoantibodies directed against neuronal targets, including neurotransmitter receptors. Although cell-based assays are routinely used in clinics to detect the presence of immunoglobulins, such tests often provide heterogeneous outcomes due to their limited sensitivity, especially at low titers. Thus, there is an urging need for new methods allowing the detection of autoantibodies in seropositive patients that cannot always be clinically distinguished from seronegative ones...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684463/non-imaged-based-method-for-matching-brains-in-a-common-anatomical-space-for-cellular-imagery
#20
Maëllie Midroit, Marc Thevenet, Arnaud Fournel, Joelle Sacquet, Moustafa Bensafi, Marine Breton, Laura Chalençon, Matthias Cavelius, Anne Didier, Nathalie Mandairon
BACKGROUND: Cellular imagery using histology sections is one of the most common techniques used in Neuroscience. However, this inescapable technique has severe limitations due to the need to delineate regions of interest on each brain, which is time consuming and variable across experimenters. NEW METHOD: We developed algorithms based on a vectors field elastic registration allowing fast, automatic realignment of experimental brain sections and associated labeling in a brain atlas with high accuracy and in a streamlined way...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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