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Journal of Neuroscience Methods

Michel Belyk, Braxton K Murphy, Deryk S Beal
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) produces magnetic pulses by passing a strong electrical current through coils of wire. Repeated stimulation accumulates heat, which places practical constraints on experimental design. NEW METHOD: We designed a condensation-free pre-chilled heat sink to extend the operational duration of transcranial magnetic stimulation coils. RESULTS: The application of a pre-chilled heat sink reduced the rate of heating across all tests and extended the duration of stimulation before coil overheating, particularly in conditions where heat management was problematic...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Hyunmi Lim, Jeonghun Ku
BACKGROUND: The number of commands in a brain-computer interface (BCI) system is important. This study proposes a new BCI technique to increase the number of commands in a single BCI system without loss of accuracy. NEW METHOD: We expected that a flickering action video with left and right elbow movements could simultaneously activate the different pattern of event-related desynchronization (ERD) according to the video contents (e.g., left or right) and steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Emmy Li, C D d'Esterre, T-Y Lee, B Menon, P Federico
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that CT perfusion (CTP) and arterial spin labelled (ASL) MRI can localize the seizure onset zone in humans via postictal perfusion patterns. As a step towards improving the feasibility/ease of collecting postictal CBF data, we determined whether EEG electrodes need to be removed for CTP data collection and whether a cross-modality comparison between baseline ASL and postictal CTP data is possible. NEW METHOD: Five patients with epilepsy underwent postictal CTP scanning...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Nora Gaspar, Ronny Eichler, Eran Stark
BACKGROUND: Modern electrophysiological experiments are moving towards closing the loop, where the extrinsic (behavioral) and intrinsic (neuronal) variables automatically affect stimulation parameters. Rodent experiments targeting spatial behavior require animal 2D kinematics to be continuously monitored in a reliable and accurate manner. Cameras provide a robust, flexible, and simple way to track kinematics on the fly. Indeed, several available camera-based systems yield high spatiotemporal resolution...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Leah Marie Roldan, Thomas E Eggers, Kevin L Kilgore, Narendra Bhadra, Tina Vrabec, Niloy Bhadra
BACKGROUND: Kilohertz frequency alternating currents (KHFAC) produce rapid nerve conduction block of mammalian peripheral nerve and have potential clinical applications in reducing peripheral nerve hyperactivity. The experimental investigation of KHFAC nerve block requires a robust output measure and this has proven to be the block threshold (BT), the lowest current or voltage at which the axons of interest are completely blocked. All significant literature in KHFAC nerve block, both simulations and experimental, were reviewed to determine the block threshold method that was used...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Lovesha Sivanantharajah, Amrit Mudher, David Shepherd
Work spanning almost two decades using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to study tau-mediated neurodegeneration has provided valuable and novel insights into the causes and mechanisms of tau-mediated toxicity and dysfunction in tauopathies such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The fly has proven to be an excellent model for human diseases because of its cost efficiency, and the availability of powerful genetic tools for use in a comparatively less-complicated, but evolutionarily conserved, in vivo system...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
David Gullotti, Antonella Mangraviti, Jiangyang Zhang, Francesco Volpin, Gabriel Fink, Roey Reiss, Shivani Ahlawat, Alessandro Olivi, Ahmet Hoke, Betty Tyler, Allan Belzberg
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by a highly variable recovery process with respect to both rapidity and efficacy. Identifying post-nerve injury phenomena is key to assessing the merit and timing of surgery as well as to tracking nerve recovery postoperatively. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has been investigated in the clinical and research settings as a noninvasive technique to both assess and monitor each patient's unique case of peripheral nerve damage.i NEW METHOD: We identify a MRI-suitable marker for tracking the exact site of either nerve injury or coaptation following surgical repair to aid with DTI analysis...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Kaname Ohyama, Yuka Ikeshita, Yuki Fuchigami, Shigeru Kawakami, Mihoko N Nakashima, Mikiro Nakashima
BACKGROUND: Microdialysis (MD) is conventionally used to measure the in vivo levels of various substances and metabolites in extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid of brain. However, insertion of the MD probe and subsequent perfusion to obtain samples cause damage in the vicinity of the insertion site, raising questions regarding the validity of the measurements. NEW METHOD: We used fluorogenic derivatization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, that quantifies both high and low abundance proteins, to differentiate the effects of perfusion from the effects of probe insertion on the proteomic profiles of expressed proteins in rat brain...
January 6, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
S L P Lippi, K M Craven, C M Hernandez, G M Grant, J M Flinn
BACKGROUND: Fixation of brain tissue is a common practice which allows preservation of tissue and aids in preventing structural and chemical abnormalities. However, fixation procedures may disrupt the levels of biometals such as zinc when compared to tissue that is fresh-frozen. Thus, we sought to determine if any differences in free-zinc levels exist between perfused and fresh-frozen tissue. Zinc is an essential biometal critical for cellular communication and memory and exists in both bound and free forms; the latter playing critical roles in synaptic communication...
December 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Parisa Forouzannezhad, Alireza Abbaspour, Chen Fang, Mercedes Cabrerizo, David Loewenstein, Ranjan Duara, Malek Adjouadi
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an MRI-based neuroimaging technique that measures brain activity basis of blood oxygenation level. This study reviews the main fMRI methods reported in the literature and their related applications in clinical and preclinical studies, focusing on relating functional brain networks in the prodromal stages of AD, with a focus on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. NEW METHOD: The purpose of this article is to present and compare different approaches of supervised and unsupervised fMRI analyses and to highlight the different applications of fMRI in the diagnosis of MCI and AD...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Aya Khalaf, Ervin Sejdic, Murat Akcakaya
BACKGROUND: Hybrid brain computer interfaces (BCIs) combining multiple brain imaging modalities have been proposed recently to boost the performance of single modality BCIs. NEW METHOD: In this paper, we propose a novel motor imagery (MI) hybrid BCI that uses electrical brain activity recorded using Electroencephalography (EEG) as well as cerebral blood flow velocity measured using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD). Features derived from the power spectrum for both EEG and fTCD signals were calculated...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Tim Cornelissen, Jona Sassenhagen, Melissa Le-Hoa Võ
BACKGROUND: In the analysis of combined ET-EEG data, there are several issues with estimating FRPs by averaging. Neural responses associated with fixations will likely overlap with one another in the EEG recording and neural responses change as a function of eye movement characteristics. Especially in tasks that do not constrain eye movements in any way, these issues can become confounds. NEW METHOD: Here, we propose the use of regression based estimates as an alternative to averaging...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Michelle Mikesh, Dale R Sengelaub, David M Jackson, Tyler Smith, Jacklyn Nguyen, Jaimie T Shores, George D Bittner
BACKGROUND: Nervous system injuries in mammals often involve transection or segmental loss of peripheral nerves. Such injuries result in functional (behavioral) deficits poorly restored by naturally occurring 1-2 mm/d axonal outgrowths aided by primary repair or reconstruction. "Neurorrhaphy" or nerve repair joins severed connective tissues, but not severed cytoplasmic/plasmalemmal extensions (axons) within the tissue. NEW METHOD: PEG-fusion consists of neurorrhaphy combined with a well-defined sequence of four pharmaceutical agents in solution, one containing polyethylene glycol (PEG), applied directly to closely apposed viable ends of severed axons...
December 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Ari P Kirshenbaum, Emily Chabot, Nick Gibney
BACKGROUND: The startle response, pre-pulse presentation of startle, and habituation in adult zebrafish (danio rerio) have not been formerly characterized using the same motion detection equipment within an integrated procedure. NEW METHOD: The methods presented in this manuscript describe the use of a video tracking software used previously in the detection of conditioned immobility in rodents, but adapted for the purposes of tracking zebrafish movement. RESULTS: The results from a series of investigations demonstrate an effective tracking and quantification of the startle response, as well as evidence that stimulus-experience history alters the startle response in adult zebrafish...
December 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Valentina Lolli, Antonin Rovaï, Nicola Trotta, Mathieu Bourguignon, Serge Goldman, Niloufar Sadeghi, Veikko Jousmäki, Xavier De Tiège
BACKGROUND: Two major concerns with respect to task-based motor functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are inadequate participants' performance and intra- and inter-subject variability in execution of the motor action. NEW METHOD: This study validates the use of an MRI-compatible stimulator based on a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) for block-design fMRI mapping of the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex in a series of fifteen right-handed healthy subjects...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Sheng Zhong, Felix Rivera-Molina, Alberto Rivetta, Derek Toomre, Joseph Santos-Sacchi, Dhasakumar Navaratnam
BACKGROUND: Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have widespread uses in cell biology. However, the practical applications of FPs are significantly limited due to their rapid photobleaching and misfolding when fused to target proteins. NEW METHOD: Using a combination of novel and known mutations to eGFP, we developed a well folded and very photostable variant, SiriusGFP. RESULTS: The fluorescence spectrum indicated that the excitation and emission peaks of SiriusGFP were red-shifted by 16 and 8 nm, respectively...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Stefan T Musolino, Erik P Schartner, Mark R Hutchinson, Abdallah Salem
BACKGROUND: The localized monitoring of brain temperature is crucial to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying brain hyperthermia, such as that caused by stimulant drugs. Many animal studies investigating brain hyperthermia have utilized thermocouple electrodes for temperature measurement, however optical fiber sensors have proven to be an attractive alternative to conventional measurement techniques. Despite their advantages, optical fiber sensors in their current form have struggled to find effective use in studies involving free-moving animals...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Sara J Aton, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Nathalie Leresche
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Zsolt I Lázár, Derk-Jan Dijk, Alpár S Lázár
BACKGROUND: It has previously been reported that EEG sigma (10-15 Hz) activity during sleep exhibits infraslow oscillations (ISO) with a period of 50 seconds. However, a detailed analysis of the ISO of individually identified sleep spindles is not available. NEW METHOD: We investigated basic properties of ISO during baseline sleep of 34 healthy young human participants using a new and established methods. The analyses focused on fast sleep spindle and sigma activity (13-15 Hz) in NREM stage 2 and slow wave sleep (SWS)...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Armand Mensen, Andrea Pigorini, Laura Facchin, Cornelia Schöne, Sasha D'Ambrosio, Jasmine Jendoubi, Valeria Jaramillo, Kathrin Studer, Aleksandra Eberhard-Moscicka, Simone Sarasso, Antoine Adamantidis, René Müri, Reto Huber, Marcello Massimini, Claudio Bassetti
Our own experiences with disturbances to sleep demonstrate its crucial role in the recovery of cognitive functions. This importance is likely enhanced in the recovery from stroke; both in terms of its physiology and cognitive abilities. Decades of experimental research have highlighted which aspects and mechanisms of sleep are likely to underlie these forms of recovery. Conversely, damage to certain areas of the brain, as well as the indirect effects of stroke, may disrupt sleep. However, only limited research has been conducted which seeks to directly explore this bidirectional link between both the macro and micro-architecture of sleep and stroke...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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