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Journal of Neuroscience Methods

Ye Liu, Ana Antonic, Xuan Yang, Nils Korte, Katherine Lim, Anna E Michalska, Mirella Dottori, David W Howells
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of hESCs into distinct neural lineages has been widely studied. However, preparation of mixed yet neurochemically mature populations, for the study of neurological diseases involving mixed cell types has received less attention. NEW METHOD: We combined two commonly used differentiation methods to provide robust and reproducible cultures in which a mixture of primarily GABAergic and Glutamatergic neurons was obtained. Detailed characterisation by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assessed the neurochemical phenotype, and the maturation state of these neurons...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Sa Zhou, Ping Xie, Xiaoling Chen, Yibo Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yihao Du
BACKGROUND: As a non-modeled information theoretical measure, the transfer entropy (TE) could be applied to quantitatively analyze the linear and nonlinear coupling characteristics between two observations. However, the parameters selection of TE (the parameters used in state space reconstruction and estimating Shannon entropy) has a serious influence on the accuracy of its results. NEW METHOD: In this study, the hybrid particle swarm optimization (HPSO) was applied to improve the accuracy of TE by optimizing its parameters...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Arash Moshkforoush, Pedro A Valdes-Hernandez, Daniel E Rivera-Espada, Yoichiro Mori, Jorge Riera
BACKGROUND: Recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the development of methods for estimating current source densities (CSDs) in the neocortical tissue from their recorded local field potential (LFP) reflections using microelectrode arrays. Among these, methods utilizing linear arrays work under the assumption that CSDs vary as a function of cortical depth; whereas they are constant in the tangential direction, infinitely or in a confined cylinder. This assumption is violated in the analysis of neuronal activity propagating along the neocortical sheet, e...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Luca Vizioli, Alexander Bratch, Junpeng Lao, Kamil Ugurbil, Lars Muckli, Essa Yacoub
BACKGROUND: fMRI provides spatial resolution that is unmatched by non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Its temporal dynamics however are typically neglected due to the sluggishness of the hemodynamic signal. NEW METHODS: We present temporal multivariate pattern analysis (tMVPA), a method for investigating the temporal evolution of neural representations in fMRI data, computed on single-trial BOLD time-courses, leveraging both spatial and temporal components of the fMRI signal...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Matthew F Singh, Todd S Braver, ShiNung Ching
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, pattern decoding techniques have granted neuroscientists improved anatomical specificity in mapping neural representations associated with function and cognition. Dynamical patterns are of particular interest, as evidenced by the proliferation and success of frequency domain methods that reveal structured spatiotemporal rhythmic brain activity. One drawback of such approaches, however, is the need to estimate spectral power, which limits the temporal resolution of classification...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Barry Crouch, Jie Min Yeap, Bianca Pais, Gernot Riedel, Bettina Platt
BACKGROUND: Rodent electroencephalography (EEG) in preclinical research is frequently conducted in behaving animals. EEG analysis is complicated by a number of confounds, particularly 1. The close relationship between EEG power and movement speed must be controlled for prior to further analysis. 2. The difficulty inherent in identifying EEG epochs associated with a particular behaviour. NEW METHOD: We utilized infra-red event stamping to accurately synchronize EEG recorded from superficial sites above the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex with motion tracking data in a transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model (PLB1APP ) and wild-type controls (PLBWT ) performing a Y-maze spontaneous alternation task...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Hoseok Choi, Seho Lee, Jeyeon Lee, Kyungran Min, Seokbeen Lim, Jinsick Park, Kyung-Ha Ahn, In Young Kim, Kyoung-Min Lee, Dong Pyo Jang
BACKGROUND: A screw-shaped electrode can offer a compromise between signal quality and invasiveness. However, the standard screw electrode can be vulnerable to electrical noise while directly contact with the skull or skin, and the feasibility and stability for chronic implantation in primate have not been fully evaluated. NEW METHOD: We designed a novel screw electrocorticogram (ECoG) electrode composed of three parts: recording electrode, insulator, and nut. The recording electrode was made of titanium with high biocompatibility and high electrical conductivity...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Omid Haji Maghsoudi, Annie Vahedipour, Jonathan Gerstenhaber, Shaun Philip George, Thomas Hallowell, Benjamin Robertson, Matthew Short, Andrew Spence
BACKGROUND: Metal electrodes are a mainstay of neuroscience. Characterization of the electrical impedance properties of these cuffs is important to ensure successful and repeatable fabrication, achieve a target impedance, revise novel designs, and quantify the success or failure of implantation and any potential subsequent damage or encapsulation by scar tissue. NEW METHODS: Impedances are frequently characterized using lumped-parameter circuit models of the electrode-electrolyte interface...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Pengfei Yang, Zhenzhen Wang, Zhao Zhang, Dandan Liu, Emmanuel Nicholas Manolios, Chen Chen, Xu Yan, Wei Zuo, Naihong Chen
BACKGROUND: Stereotaxic procedures in rats are frequently used in neurological research. The commonly used rat brain stereotaxic atlases areThe Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates, the second most cited book in science, and Stereotaxic Atlas of Rat Brain (in Chinese) which based on Wistar rats of 290 g and SD rats of 225 g, respectively. However, rats of different weight are frequently used, while the stereotaxic coordinates of their brain regions show obvious differences with the rats on which the atlases were based...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Jipeng Jiang, Chen Dai, Xuegang Niu, Hongtao Sun, Shixiang Cheng, Zhiwen Zhang, Xu Zhu, Yuting Wang, Tongshuo Zhang, Feng Duan, Xuyi Chen, Sai Zhang
BACKGROUND: Animal models are essential in simulating clinical diseases and facilitating relevant studies. NEW METHOD: We established a precise canine model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on cerebral motor cortex injury which was confirmed by neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and a series of motor function assessment methods. Twelve beagles were divided into control, sham, and model groups. The cerebral motor cortex was identified by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a simple marker method, and intraoperative electrophysiological measurement...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Sebastian Michelmann, Matthias S Treder, Benjamin Griffiths, Casper Kerrén, Frédéric Roux, Maria Wimber, David Rollings, Vijay Sawlani, Ramesh Chelvarajah, Stephanie Gollwitzer, Gernot Kreiselmeyer, Hajo Hamer, Howard Bowman, Bernhard Staresina, Simon Hanslmayr
BACKGROUND: Intracranial recordings from patients implanted with depth electrodes are a valuable source of information in neuroscience. They allow for the unique opportunity to record brain activity with high spatial and temporal resolution. A common pre-processing choice in stereotactic EEG (S-EEG) is to re-reference the data with a bipolar montage. In this, each channel is subtracted from its neighbor, to reduce commonalities between channels and isolate activity that is spatially confined...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Bin Jing, Bo Liu, Hui Li, Jianfeng Lei, Zhanjing Wang, Yutao Yang, Phillip Zhe Sun, Bing Xue, Hesheng Liu, Zhi-Qing David Xu
BACKGROUND: Various neurological and psychological disorders are related to cortical volume changes in specific brain regions, which can be measured in vivo using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). There is an increasing interest in MRI studies using rat models, especially in longitudinal studies of brain disorders and pharmacologic interventions. However, morphometric changes observed in sMRI are only meaningful if the measurements are reliable. To date, a systematic evaluation of the test-retest reliability of the morphometric measures in the rat brain is still lacking...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Nicola Simola, Stefan M Brudzynski
BACKGROUND: Adolescent and adult rats emit 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) to communicate the appetitive arousal and the presence of positive emotional states to conspecifics. NEW METHOD: Based on its communicative function, emission of 50-kHz USVs is increasingly being evaluated in preclinical studies of affective behavior, motivation and social behavior. RESULTS: Emission of 50-kHz USVs is initiated by the activation of dopamine receptors in the shell subregion of the nucleus accumbens...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Sunwhi Kimm, June-Seek Choi
BACKGROUND: Despite the wide variations in defensive behaviors displayed by rats during predator encounters, most laboratory studies have focused on a limited number of behaviors, such as immobility in a small enclosure. Other defensive behaviors such as withdrawal and avoidance have been less investigated. NEW METHOD: Rats repeatedly encountered a fast threatening motion (snapping claws) of a robot predator. The robot was equipped with infrared sensors (millisecond resolution) to detect head entry...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Gloria Cecchini, Marco Thiel, Björn Schelter, Linda Sommerlade
BACKGROUND: A reliable inference of networks from data is of key interest in the Neurosciences. Several methods have been suggested in the literature to reliably determine links in a network. To decide about the presence of links, these techniques rely on statistical inference, typically controlling the number of false positives, paying little attention to false negatives. NEW METHOD: In this paper, by means of a comprehensive simulation study, we analyse the influence of false positive and false negative conclusions about the presence or absence of links in a network on the network topology...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Joshua Levitt, Adam Nitenson, Suguru Koyama, Lonne Heijmans, James Curry, Jason T Ross, Steven Kamerling, Carl Y Saab
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) invariably contains extra-cranial artifacts that are commonly dealt with based on qualitative and subjective criteria. Failure to account for EEG artifacts compromises data interpretation. NEW METHOD: We have developed a quantitative and automated support vector machine (SVM)-based algorithm to accurately classify artifactual EEG epochs in awake rodent, canine and humans subjects. An embodiment of this method also enables the determination of 'eyes open/closed' states in human subjects...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Heather M DelMastro, Jennifer A Ruiz, Elizabeth S Gromisch, Juan C Garbalosa, Elizabeth W Triche, Kayla M Olson, Albert C Lo
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative neurological condition causing demyelination and neuronal loss. Tremor, a symptom of MS, is prevalent in 45.0-46.8% NARCOMS registrants. Although several tools to measure tremor exist, few outcomes are quantitative or regularly utilized clinically. NEW METHOD: Introduction of a novel adaptation of the digital spiral drawing to find a quick, sensitive, and clinically useful technique, to predict tremor in persons with MS (pwMS)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Pedro Andrade, Tomi Paananen, Robert Ciszek, Niina Lapinlampi, Asla Pitkänen
BACKGROUND: Labor intensive electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis is a major bottleneck to identifying anti-epileptogenic treatments in experimental models of post-traumatic epilepsy. We aimed to develop an algorithm for automated seizure detection in experimental post-traumatic epilepsy. NEW METHOD: Continuous (24/7) 1-month-long video-EEG monitoring with three epidural screw electrodes was started 154 d after lateral fluid-percussion induced traumatic brain injury (TBI; n = 97) or sham-injury (n = 29) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Katrin Rothmaler, Galina Ivanova
BACKGROUND: Although acquisition techniques have improved tremendously, the neuroscientific understanding of complex cognitive phenomena is still incomplete. One of the reasons for this shortcoming may be the lack of sophisticated signal processing methods. Complex cognitive phenomena usually involve various mental subprocesses whose temporal occurrence varies from trial to trial. Mostly, these mental subprocesses require large-scale integration processes between multiple brain areas that are most likely mediated by complex, non-linear phase coupling mechanisms...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Bryan T C Chuang, Xiaoguang Liu, Alexander J Lundberg, Tommy J K Toung, John A Ulatowski, Raymond C Koehler
BACKGROUND: Injection of a clot into the internal carotid artery is an experimental model of ischemic stroke that is considered to closely mimic embolic stroke in humans. In this model, the common carotid artery typically remains temporarily occluded to permit time for stabilization of the clot in the middle cerebral artery. However, the associated lengthening of the anesthesia duration could affect arterial blood pressure and stroke outcome. NEW METHOD: We refined the model by examining how increasing isoflurane anesthesia duration from 30 to 60 min after clot embolization affects mortality, infarct volume, edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and the 8-h post-ischemic time course of blood pressure, which has not been reported previously in this model...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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