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Calcified Tissue International

Liu Shi, Lu Feng, Yang Liu, Ji-Qiang Duan, Wei-Ping Lin, Jin-Fang Zhang, Gang Li
As a regulator of osteogenesis, microRNA-218 (miR-218) is reported to promote osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the in vivo osteogenic effect of miR-218 remains elusive. In this study, miR-218 was confirmed to promote osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by stimulating the alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium nodule formation, and osteogenic marker gene expression. For in vivo study, the miR-218-overexpressing BMSCs were locally administrated into the fracture sites in a femur fracture mouse model...
March 9, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Luisella Cianferotti, Simone Parri, Giorgio Gronchi, Gemma Marcucci, Cristiana Cipriani, Jessica Pepe, Marco Raglianti, Salvatore Minisola, Maria Luisa Brandi
Epidemiological data on prevalence and incidence of chronic hypoparathyroidism are still scarce. This study aimed to establish prevalence of chronic hypoparathyroidism and incidence of surgical hypoparathyroidism using the analysis of electronic anonymous public health care database. Data referred to a 5-year period (2009-2013, Region of Tuscany, Italy, as a sample representative of the whole Mediterranean/European population, estimated mean population: 3,750,000 inhabitants) were retrieved by the analysis of pharmaceutical distribution dataset, containing data related to drugs reimbursed by public health system, hospital discharge and procedures codes, and ICD9 exemption codes for chronic diseases...
March 8, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Gemma Marcucci, Luisella Cianferotti, Simone Parri, Paola Altieri, Emanuela Arvat, Salvatore Benvenga, Corrado Betterle, Marta Bondanelli, Marco Boscaro, Valentina Camozzi, Grazia Maria Centaro, Filomena Cetani, Iacopo Chiodini, Anna Ciampolillo, Annamaria Colao, Sabrina Corbetta, Maria Laura De Feo, Ettore Degli Uberti, Antongiulio Faggiano, Rachele Fornari, Achille Lucio Gaspari, Francesco Giorgino, Valeria Giuliani, Maurizio Iacobone, Nadia Innaro, Olga Lamacchia, Andrea Lenzi, Giovanna Mantovani, Claudio Marcocci, Laura Masi, Silvia Migliaccio, Serena Palmieri, Renato Pasquali, Giuliano Perigli, Valentina Piccini, Elisabetta Romagnoli, Rosaria Maddalena Ruggeri, Francesco Rulli, Maria Teresa Samà, Giuseppe Tomaino, Francesco Trimarchi, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Maria Luisa Brandi
Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disease characterized by low serum calcium levels and absent or deficient parathyroid hormone level. Regarding the epidemiology of chronic hypoparathyroidism, there are limited data in Italy and worldwide. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to build a unique database of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism, derived from the databases of 16 referral centers for endocrinological diseases, affiliated with the Italian Society of Endocrinology, and four centers for endocrine surgery with expertise in hypoparathyroidism, to conduct an epidemiological analysis of chronic hypoparathyroidism in Italy...
March 6, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
S Chauhan, S A Khan, A Prasad
The present study investigates Raman scattering of human bone irradiated with 50 Gy single dose during therapeutic treatment of Ewing and Osteosarcoma. Bone quality was evaluated via mineral-to-matrix ratio, degree of crystallinity, change in amount of calcium, and carbonate substitution. Alteration in collagen and its cross-links was quantified through second-derivative deconvolution of Amide I peak. A dose of 50 Gy radiation leads to almost 50% loss of mineral content, while maintaining mineral crystallinity, and small changes in carbonate substitution...
March 2, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Symeon Tournis, Maria P Yavropoulou, Stergios A Polyzos, Polyzois Makras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Alanna M Dubrovsky, Mie Jin Lim, Nancy E Lane
Osteoporosis in rheumatic diseases is a very well-known complication. Systemic inflammation results in both generalized and localized bone loss and erosions. Recently, increased knowledge of inflammatory process in rheumatic diseases has resulted in the development of potent inhibitors of the cytokines, the biologic DMARDs. These treatments reduce systemic inflammation and have some effect on the generalized and localized bone loss. Progression of bone erosion was slowed by TNF, IL-6 and IL-1 inhibitors, a JAK inhibitor, a CTLA4 agonist, and rituximab...
February 22, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Kyunghwa Baek, Jiho Kang, Jinu Lee, Min Kim, Jeong-Hwa Baek
We aimed to clarify the key factor determining the effect of beta blocker attenuating high fat diet- induced obesity and bone loss. Six-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were assigned to groups reflecting different relative onset of obesity and beta blocker administration, different diet (control vs. high fat), and treatment (vehicle vs. beta blocker: propranolol). Mice in Group 1 were fed a control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HIGH) with vehicle or propranolol for 12 weeks. Mice in Group 2 were fed a CON or HIGH without pharmaceutical treatment for the first 12 weeks, followed by another 12 weeks of treatment with vehicle or propranolol...
February 19, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Silvia Marino, Ryan T Bishop, Patrick Mollat, Aymen I Idris
IKKβ has previously been implicated in breast cancer bone metastasis and bone remodelling. However, the contribution of IKKβ expressed by bone cells of the tumour microenvironment to breast cancer-induced osteolysis has yet to be investigated. Here, we studied the effects of the verified selective IKKβ inhibitors IKKβIII or IKKβV on osteoclast formation and osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo, human and mouse breast cancer cells' support for osteoclast formation and signalling in vitro and osteolysis ex vivo and in immunocompetent mice after supracalvarial injection of human MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium or intra-cardiac injection of syngeneic 4T1 breast cancer cells...
February 17, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Laura R McCabe, Narayanan Parameswaran
Probiotics have been consumed by humans for thousands of years because they are beneficial for long-term storage of foods and promote the health of their host. Ingested probiotics reside in the gastrointestinal tract where they have many effects including modifying the microbiota composition, intestinal barrier function, and the immune system which result in systemic benefits to the host, including bone health. Probiotics benefit bone growth, density, and structure under conditions of dysbiosis, intestinal permeability, and inflammation (recognized mediators of bone loss and osteoporosis)...
February 16, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Jordi Bover, Pablo Ureña, Armando Aguilar, Sandro Mazzaferro, Silvia Benito, Víctor López-Báez, Alejandra Ramos, Iara daSilva, Mario Cozzolino
Alkaline phosphatases (APs) remove the phosphate (dephosphorylation) needed in multiple metabolic processes (from many molecules such as proteins, nucleotides, or pyrophosphate). Therefore, APs are important for bone mineralization but paradoxically they can also be deleterious for other processes, such as vascular calcification and the increasingly known cross-talk between bone and vessels. A proper balance between beneficial and harmful activities is further complicated in the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
February 14, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Anne M Horne, Borislav Mihov, Ian R Reid
Romosozumab and denosumab are monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of osteoporosis. Both have a rapid offset of effect resulting in loss of bone density (BMD) gained on-treatment and, in some cases, multiple vertebral fractures following treatment cessation. We recently reported disappointing results from transitioning patients from denosumab to intravenous zoledronate at the time the next denosumab injection is due. The present report re-assesses the role of bisphosphonates following the use of denosumab...
February 14, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Lana J Williams, Michael Berk, Jason M Hodge, Mark A Kotowicz, Amanda L Stuart, Vinoomika Chandrasekaran, Jasmine Cleminson, Julie A Pasco
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to have a clinically significant impact on bone metabolism. To explore this further, we aimed to determine whether these agents are associated with serum markers of bone turnover utilising a population-based sample of men (n = 1138; 20-96 year) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Blood samples were obtained and the bone resorption marker, C-telopeptide (CTx) and formation marker, type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide (PINP) were measured...
February 13, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Siti Maisarah Mattap, Dawn Aitken, Karen Wills, Laura Laslett, Changhai Ding, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Stephen E Graves, Michelle Lorimer, Flavia Cicuttini, Graeme Jones
The aim of this study is to describe the association of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) present on two different MRI sequences with clinical outcomes, cartilage defect progression, cartilage volume loss over 2.7 years, and total knee replacement (TKR) over 13.3 years. 394 participants (50-80 years) were assessed at baseline and 2.7 years. BML presence at baseline was scored on T1-weighted fat-suppressed 3D gradient-recalled acquisition (T1) and T2-weighted fat-suppressed 2D fast spin-echo (T2) sequences. Knee pain, function, and stiffness were assessed using WOMAC...
February 13, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
René Rizzoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Xuzhu Lin, Lewan Parker, Emma Mclennan, Xinmei Zhang, Alan Hayes, Glenn McConell, Tara C Brennan-Speranza, Itamar Levinger
Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) stimulates muscle glucose uptake in mice EDL and soleus muscles. However, whether ucOC also exerts a similar effect in insulin-stimulated muscles in a muscle type-specific manner is currently unclear. We aimed to test the hypothesis that, with insulin stimulation, ucOC per se has a greater effect on oxidative muscle compared with glycolytic muscle, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Mouse (C57BL6, male 9-12 weeks) extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles were isolated and longitudinally split into halves...
February 9, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Liana Tripto-Shkolnik, Vanessa Rouach, Yonit Marcus, Pnina Rotman-Pikielny, Carlos Benbassat, Iris Vered
Denosumab (DMAB) efficacy for treatment of osteoporosis was demonstrated in a pivotal trial with a reduction in vertebral and hip fractures during 3 years, and fracture risk reduction was sustained up to 10 years in an extension study. DMAB causes potent yet reversible inhibition of bone resorption. Bone density declines rapidly upon discontinuation and bone turnover markers increase above baseline in a rebound fashion. Spontaneous multiple vertebral fractures after DMAB discontinuation were recently reported...
February 2, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Michael R McClung, Gregory C Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Paul D Miller
The article Geography of Fracture Incidence in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis Treated with Abaloparatide, written by Michael R. McClung, Gregory C. Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Paul D. Miller, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 28 December 2017 without open access.
January 31, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Rebecca Sullivan, Alice Abraham, Christine Simpson, Elizabeth Olear, Thomas Carpenter, Yanhong Deng, Chuqing Chen, Karl L Insogna
Previous work has demonstrated that a single subcutaneous dose of salmon calcitonin leads to a transient decline in circulating levels of FGF23 in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Since the calcitonin receptor is expressed on osteocytes, this raises the possibility that interdicting signals through that receptor could modulate circulating levels of FGF23 in XLH. In the present study, 21 subjects with XLH were randomly assigned to receive either placebo nasal spray or 400 IU of nasal salmon calcitonin daily for three months...
January 30, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Xavier Coutel, Cécile Olejnik, Pierre Marchandise, Jérôme Delattre, Hélène Béhal, Greet Kerckhofs, Guillaume Penel
Bone homeostasis is influenced by the bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). BMAT distribution varies from one anatomical location in the skeleton to another. We developed an advanced microfocus computed tomography imaging and analysis protocol that allows accurate alignment of both the BMAT distribution and bone micro-architecture as well as calculation of the distance of the BMAT adipocytes from the bone surface. Using this protocol, we detected a different spatial BMAT distribution between the rat tibia and mandible: in the proximal metaphysis of the tibia a large amount of BMAT (~ 20% of the total BMAT) was located close to the bone surface (< 20 µm), whereas in the alveolar ridge ~ 30% of the total BMAT was located between 40 and 60 µm from the bone surface...
January 30, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Albrecht Werner Popp, Nadshathra Varathan, Helene Buffat, Christoph Senn, Romain Perrelet, Kurt Lippuner
The aim of the present study was to document the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) 1 year after denosumab loss-of-effect following long-term treatment with subcutaneous denosumab 60 mg Q6M during 7 or 10 years and in the absence of any treatment with a bone active substance. All postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who participated to the randomized placebo-controlled FREEDOM core trial and its open-label extension at the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, and who accepted to undergo off-treatment follow-up during 1 year after discontinuation, were included (N = 12)...
January 29, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
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