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Calcified Tissue International

A L J J Bronckers, R Jalali, J Lytton
Exposure of forming enamel to fluoride results into formation of hypomineralized enamel. We tested whether enamel hypomineralization was caused by lower expression of the NCKX4/SLC24A4 Ca(2+)-transporter by ameloblasts. Three commercial antibodies against NCKX4 were tested on enamel organs of wild-type and Nckx4-null mice, one of which (a mouse monoclonal) was specific. This antibody gave a prominent staining of the apical plasma membranes of maturation ameloblasts, starting at early maturation. The layer of immuno-positive ameloblasts contained narrow gaps without immunostaining or with reduced staining...
October 17, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
A Artuso, C Caimmi, G Tripi, O Viapiana, M Bonifacio, L Idolazzi, I Gavioli, D Gatti, R Zanotti, M Rossini
Systemic Mastocytosis has been long identified as a potential cause of osteoporosis; nevertheless, data regarding longitudinal variation of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) are missing . We studied BMD variation at lumbar spine and proximal hip after 30-month (±6 months) follow-up in a large cohort of patients (83) with ISM without osteoporosis, supplementated with vitamin D and/or calcium when needed. We also analyzed the correlation between variation of BMD, basal serum tryptase levels and bone turnover markers (BTM)...
October 14, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Jose Ramón Caeiro, Agustí Bartra, Manuel Mesa-Ramos, Íñigo Etxebarría, Jorge Montejo, Pedro Carpintero, Francesc Sorio, Sonia Gatell, Andrea Farré, Laura Canals
The purpose of this study was to estimate the burden of osteoporotic fractures beyond the hospitalization period covering up to the first year after the fracture. This was a prospective, 12-month, observational study including patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized due to a first low-trauma hip fracture, in six Spanish regions. Health resource utilization (HRU), quality of life (QoL) and autonomy were collected and total costs calculated. Four hundred and eighty seven patients (mean ± SD age 83 ± 7 years, 77 % women) were included...
October 14, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Lan T Ho-Pham, Thai Q Lai, Uyen D T Nguyen, Quoc V Bui, Tuan V Nguyen
To test the hypothesis that the relationship between fat mass (FM) and bone mineral density (BMD) is mediated by leptin. The study involved 611 individuals aged 20-89 years who were randomly sampled from Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). BMD at the femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS), and whole body (WB) was measured by DXA. Lean mass and FM were derived from the WB DXA scan. Leptin was measured by ELISA (DRG Diagnostics, Germany). The regression method was used to partition the variance of leptin and FM on BMD...
October 8, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Geetha Mohan, Evan Yu-An Lay, Haley Berka, Lorna Ringwood, Alexander Kot, Haiyan Chen, Wei Yao, Nancy E Lane
Prolonged glucocorticoid (GC) administration causes secondary osteoporosis (GIOP) and non-traumatic osteonecrosis. LLP2A-Ale is a novel bone-seeking compound that recruits mesenchymal stem cells to the bone surface, stimulates bone formation, and increases bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine if treatment with LLP2A-Ale alone or in combination with parathyroid hormone (PTH) could prevent or treat GIOP in a mouse model. Four-month-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomized to a prevention study with placebo, GC (day 1-28), and GC + LLP2A-Ale (IV, day 1) or a treatment study with placebo, GC (days 1-56), GC + LLP2A-Ale (IV, day 28), GC + PTH, and GC + LLP2A-Ale + PTH (days 28-56)...
September 27, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Breiffni Leavy, Karl Michaëlsson, Anna Cristina Åberg, Håkan Melhus, Liisa Byberg
We report the risks of a comprehensive range of disease and drug categories on hip fracture occurrence using a strict population-based cohort design. Participants included the source population of a Swedish county, aged ≥50 years (n = 117,494) including all incident hip fractures during 1 year (n = 477). The outcome was hospitalization for hip fracture (ICD-10 codes S72.0-S72.2) during 1 year (2009-2010). Exposures included: prevalence of (1) inpatient diseases [International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes A00-T98 in the National Patient Register 1987-2010] and (2) prescribed drugs dispensed in 2010 or the year prior to fracture...
September 26, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Iwona Krela-Kaźmierczak, Marta Kaczmarek-Ryś, Aleksandra Szymczak, Michał Michalak, Marzena Skrzypczak-Zielińska, Natalia Drwęska-Matelska, Michalina Marcinkowska, Piotr Eder, Lilianna Łykowska-Szuber, Ewa Wysocka, Krzysztof Linke, Ryszard Słomski
Osteoporosis is more frequent in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. A reduction in bone mineral mass in these individuals is caused not only by inflammatory processes in the bowel, because osteoporosis occurs already in very young IBD patients and in newly diagnosed individuals who have not yet undergone any pharmacological treatment. One of individual determinants of the bone turnover parameters is osteoprotegerin (OPG) encoded by the TNFRSF11B gene. The c.-223C > T polymorphism in this gene has been extensively studied in post-menopausal osteoporosis patients...
September 17, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
G Isanne Schacter, William D Leslie
In the absence of a fragility fracture, osteoporosis is usually diagnosed from bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osteoporosis is an increasingly prevalent disease, as is diabetes [in particular type 2 diabetes (T2D)], in part due to aging populations worldwide. It has been suggested that an increased risk of fracture may be another complication ensuing from longstanding diabetes. The purpose of this review is to concentrate on skeletal parameters and techniques readily available from DXA scanning, and their utility in routine clinical practice for predicting fracture risk...
September 3, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Seong Rae Kim, Kyung-Hyun Choi, Go-Un Jung, Doosup Shin, Kyuwoong Kim, Sang Min Park
As little is known about the associations between body composition (fat mass and lean mass) and knee OA, especially regarding body parts (upper body and lower limbs), the purpose of this study was to identify the association between the former and the prevalence of the latter according to body parts. This study was designed as a cross-sectional analysis, with 4194 people (1801 men and 2393 women) from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010-2011) included. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and knee OA was diagnosed based on the level of Kellgren-Lawrence grade...
September 2, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
A Spangenberg, N Maghsoodi, D Dulnoan, A E Moore, S Edwards, M L Frost, G Hampson
Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) are closely related to bone mass (BM) in post-menopausal women, although their relative importance is unclear. Angiogenic factors which control angiogenesis may influence BM, LM and FM. The aim of the study was to compare the contribution of LM and FM to bone mineral density (BMD) and the association between these tissues and circulating angiogenic factors. The study population comprised of 392 post-menopausal women aged mean [SD] 61.8 [6.4] years. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), neck of femur and total hip (TH) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
August 30, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Lukas Kamer, Hansrudi Noser, Michael Blauth, Mark Lenz, Markus Windolf, Albrecht W Popp
Osteoporosis leads to bone loss and structural deterioration, which increase the risk of fractures. The aim of this study was to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) bone mass distributions of the distal tibia in normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic conditions. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) of the 33 % of the distal tibia and local dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were applied to 53 intact, fresh-frozen tibiae. The HR-pQCTs were graded to assign local T-scores and merged into three equally sized average normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic surface models...
August 30, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Christian Schneider Thudium, Ilana Moscatelli, Henrik Löfvall, Zsuzsanna Kertész, Carmen Montano, Carmen Flores Bjurström, Morten Asser Karsdal, Ansgar Schulz, Johan Richter, Kim Henriksen
Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is a rare, recessive disorder characterized by increased bone mass caused by dysfunctional osteoclasts. The disease is most often caused by mutations in the TCIRG1 gene encoding a subunit of the V-ATPase involved in the osteoclasts capacity to resorb bone. We previously showed that osteoclast function can be restored by lentiviral vector-mediated expression of TCIRG1, but the exact threshold for restoration of resorption as well as the cellular response to vector-mediated TCIRG1 expression is unknown...
August 19, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Zhongrong Zhang, Wing Nang Leung, Gang Li, Yau Ming Lai, Chun Wai Chan
Osthole has been found to restore bone mass in preclinical osteoporotic models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of osthole on bone fracture repair in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse femoral fractures and administrated orally with 20 mg/kg osthole and vehicle solvent daily from week 1 post-operation. Fracture callus were analyzed by plain radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, molecular imaging and immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining...
August 18, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Evgenia A Kochetkova, Vera A Nevzorova, Ludmila G Ugai, Yulia V Maistrovskaia, Gilbert Massard
A disequilibrium of tumor necrosis superfamily (TNF) members, including the serum osteoprotegerin, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and TNF-α, was associated with the occurrence of a reduced skeletal mass and osteoporosis in male patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between serum biomarkers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and body and bone compositions in end-stage COPD males...
August 8, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Paul Dimitri, Cliff Rosen
Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function...
August 8, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Alice Cheng, David J Cohen, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz
Direct metal laser sintering can produce porous Ti-6Al-4V orthopedic and dental implants. The process requires reduced resources and time and can provide greater structural control than machine manufacturing. Implants in bone are colonized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into osteoblasts and contribute to osseointegration. This study examined osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization of human MSCs cultured on laser-sintered Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity and at different time scales...
August 8, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
I Sioen, E Lust, S De Henauw, L A Moreno, D Jiménez-Pavón
More clarification on the associations between children's and adolescents' lean and fat mass (LM and FM) on the one hand and their bone health on the other hand is needed, given the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population. This systematic literature review aimed to describe the current evidence on these associations. Data sources were Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library (up to November 2014). Search items included LM, FM, children and adolescents (0-18 years), bone health measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and search items concerning study design: observational and longitudinal studies...
August 2, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Ann V Schwartz
Diabetes is characterized by increased fracture risk and by reduced bone strength for a given density. Contributing factors may include lower bone turnover and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts. There are concerns that the pharmacological therapies for osteoporosis, particularly anti-resorptive therapies that suppress bone turnover, may not be as effective in the setting of diabetes. This review considers clinical trials and observational studies that have assessed the efficacy of anti-resorptive and anabolic therapies in diabetic patients...
July 26, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Patricia Clark, Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Regina Ambrosi, Pawel Szulc, Rodolfo Rivas-Ruiz, Jorge Salmerón
The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific reference values of total lean body mass (LBM), appendicular lean body mass (ALBM), and fat mass (FM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data in a healthy Mexican population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 9518 healthy subjects 7-89 years of age participating in the baseline measurement of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Using DXA, LBM, ALBM, and FM were measured. Using these data, LBM index (LBMI), ALBM index (ALBMI), and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated...
November 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Yaorong Liu, Lin Zhang, Zhaohui Ni, Jiaqi Qian, Wei Fang
Recent study demonstrated that calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals isolated from high phosphate medium were a key contributor to arterial calcification. The present study further investigated the effects of CaP crystals induced by uremic serum on calcification of human aortic smooth muscle cells. This may provide a new insight for the development of uremic cardiovascular calcification. We tested the effects of uremic serum or normal serum on cell calcification. Calcification was visualized by staining and calcium deposition quantified...
November 2016: Calcified Tissue International
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