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Calcified Tissue International

E Gielen, P Bergmann, O Bruyère, E Cavalier, P Delanaye, S Goemaere, J-M Kaufman, M Locquet, J-Y Reginster, S Rozenberg, A-M Vandenbroucke, J-J Body
In this consensus paper, the Belgian Bone Club aims to provide a state of the art on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis in frail individuals, including patients with anorexia nervosa, patients on dialysis, cancer patients, persons with sarcopenia, and the oldest old. All these conditions may indeed induce bone loss that is superimposed on physiological bone loss and often remains under-recognized and under-treated. This is of particular concern because of the major burden of osteoporotic fractures in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic cost...
March 21, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Ian R Reid, Katherine Maslowski
Zoledronate produces long-term normalization of biochemical markers in Paget's disease but whether this implies the absence of active disease is unknown. We have determined whether bone scintigraphy, a more sensitive index of disease activity, is also normalized ≥5 years after treatment with zoledronate. A consecutive case series of 11 individuals with Paget's disease treated with zoledronate 5 mg ≥5 years previously is reported. Eight patients received a single zoledronate infusion and were assessed 55-120 months later...
March 21, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Jia Xu, Yuanfeng Chen, Yang Liu, Jinfang Zhang, Qinglin Kang, Kiwai Ho, Yimin Chai, Gang Li
Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a widely applied technique in orthopedics surgery, which involves rapid stem cell migration, homing, and differentiation. Interactions between the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 and its ligand, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), regulate hematopoietic stem cell trafficking to the ischemic area and induce their subsequent differentiation. Here, we examined SDF-1 expression and further investigated the role of SDF-1/Cxcr4 signaling antagonist AMD3100 during bone regeneration in rat DO model...
March 16, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Cecilia Halling Linder, Barbro Ek-Rylander, Michael Krumpel, Maria Norgård, Sonoko Narisawa, José Luis Millán, Göran Andersson, Per Magnusson
Phosphorylated osteopontin (OPN) inhibits hydroxyapatite crystal formation and growth, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) promotes extracellular mineralization via the release of inorganic phosphate from the mineralization inhibitor inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), produced by osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, exhibits potent phosphatase activity towards OPN; however, its potential capacity as a regulator of mineralization has not previously been addressed...
March 16, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Francesco Lapi, Elisa Bianchini, Raffaella Michieli, Alessandro Pasqua, Iacopo Cricelli, Giampiero Mazzaglia, Bruno Frediani, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Maria Luisa Brandi, Claudio Cricelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Guillaume Courbon, Sacha Flammier, Norbert Laroche, Laurence Vico, Hubert Marotte, Fabienne Coury
Syndesmophyte occurrence and axial bone loss were investigated in the heterozygous Tg187 tumor necrosis factor (TNF) transgenic mouse model (Tg-huTNF) of arthritis. Female and male Tg-huTNF mice were compared to wild-type mice (WT) at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks. Syndesmophytes, intervertebral disc space, osteoclasts, osteoid surface, and vertebra microarchitecture were assessed by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. No spontaneous syndesmophyte formation was detected in Tg-huTNF compared to WT mice...
March 13, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Jennifer S Walsh, Tatiane Vilaca
In an increasingly obese and ageing population, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and osteoporotic fracture are major public health concerns. Understanding how obesity and type 2 diabetes modulate fracture risk is important to identify and treat people at risk of fracture. Additionally, the study of the mechanisms of action of obesity and T2DM on bone has already offered insights that may be applicable to osteoporosis in the general population. Most available evidence indicates lower risk of proximal femur and vertebral fracture in obese adults...
March 9, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Eun Young Lee, Su Jin Lee, Kyoung Min Kim, Da Hea Seo, Seung Won Lee, Han Sol Choi, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yoosik Youm, Chang Oh Kim, Yumie Rhee
Sarcopenia is considered to be a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture, which is a major health problem in elderly women. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of sarcopenia, with regard to muscle mass and function, with prevalent vertebral fracture in community-dwelling elderly women. We recruited 1281 women aged 64 to 87 years from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study. Muscle mass and function were measured using bioimpedance analysis and jumping mechanography. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and jump power were used as an indicator of muscle mass and function, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Allahdad Zarei, Philippa A Hulley, Afsie Sabokbar, M Kassim Javaid
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressively degenerative joint disease influenced by structural and metabolic factors. There is growing evidence that subchondral bone is involved in both symptomatic and structural progression in OA. The Wnt pathway has been implicated in the progression of OA but the expression and function of the Wnt inhibitors, Dikkopf (DKK-1) and sclerostin (SOST), are unclear. METHODS: We examined the regional distribution of DKK-1 and SOST in subchondral bone of the femoral head using resection specimens following arthroplasty in patients presenting with end-stage OA...
March 9, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Lia Millucci, Giulia Bernardini, Adriano Spreafico, Maurizio Orlandini, Daniela Braconi, Marcella Laschi, Michela Geminiani, Pietro Lupetti, Giovanna Giorgetti, Cecilia Viti, Bruno Frediani, Barbara Marzocchi, Annalisa Santucci
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a hereditary disorder that results from altered structure and function of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGD). This enzyme, predominantly produced by liver and kidney, is responsible for the breakdown of homogentisic acid (HGA), an intermediate in the tyrosine degradation pathway. A deficient HGD activity causes HGA levels to rise systemically. The disease is clinically characterized by homogentisic aciduria, bluish-black discoloration of connective tissues (ochronosis) and joint arthropathy...
March 7, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Mohammed P Akhter, D B Kimmel, J M Lappe, R R Recker
This is the first study to examine clinical human bone specimens by three-dimensional imaging to characterize osteocyte lacunar properties as a function of macroanatomic bone type and estrogen loss. We applied laboratory-based instrumentation [3D X-ray microscope (3DXRM), MicroXCT-200; Carl Zeiss/Xradia, Inc.] that reaches the same resolution as synchrotron microscopy. We used serial transiliac bone biopsy specimens to examine the effect of macroanatomic bone type and estrogen status on osteocyte lacunar properties...
March 1, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Giovanni Orsolini, Cristian Caimmi, Ombretta Viapiana, Luca Idolazzi, Elena Fracassi, Davide Gatti, Giovanni Adami, Maurizio Rossini
Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a key feature both local and systemic. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) have recently been found to directly induce differentiation and activation of osteoclasts and therefore contribute to periarticular bone loss. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of ACPA on systemic bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with established RA. This is a cross-sectional study with a single-center RA population. BMD was measured with Dual X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar and femoral sites...
February 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Sonja Gamsjaeger, Simon P Robins, Dimitris N Tatakis, Klaus Klaushofer, Eleftherios P Paschalis
Intermolecular cross-linking of bone collagen is intimately related to the way collagen molecules are arranged in a fibril, imparts certain mechanical properties to the fibril, and may be involved in the initiation of mineralization. Raman microspectroscopy allows the analysis of minimally processed bone blocks and provides simultaneous information on both the mineral and organic matrix (mainly type I collagen) components, with a spatial resolution of ~1 μm. The aim of the present study was to validate Raman spectroscopic parameters describing one of the major mineralizing type I trivalent cross-links, namely pyridinoline (PYD)...
February 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Jian Zou, Wei Zhang, Xiao-Lin Li
Our study explored the effects of SOST gene silencing on the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration of human osteosarcoma cells through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Fresh tissues were obtained from 108 patients with osteosarcoma and 46 patients with osteochondroma. Human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63, U2-OS, HOS, and Saos-2) and normal osteoblast (hFoB1.19) were selected and cultured. Osteosarcoma cells were grouped randomly into the blank group, the scrambled control group, and the SOST-siRNA group...
February 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Laura D Carbone, Petra Bůžková, Howard A Fink, John A Robbins, Monique Bethel, Mark W Hamrick, William D Hill
Aging is associated with an increase in circulating inflammatory factors. One, the cytokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12), is critical to stem cell mobilization, migration, and homing as well as to bone marrow stem cell (BMSC), osteoblast, and osteoclast function. SDF-1 has pleiotropic roles in bone formation and BMSC differentiation into osteoblasts/osteocytes, and in osteoprogenitor cell survival. The objective of this study was to examine the association of plasma SDF-1 in participants in the cardiovascular health study (CHS) with bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and incident hip fractures...
February 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Daysi Duarte Sosa, Erik Fink Eriksen
The aim of the study was to test, whether bone material strength differs between different subtypes of osteoporotic fracture and assess whether it relates to vertebral fracture severity. Cortical bone material strength index (BMSi) was measured by impact microindentation in 66 women with osteoporotic fracture and 66 age- and sex-matched controls without fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers were also assessed. Vertebral fracture severity was graded by semiquantitative (SQ) grading. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the ability of BMSi to discriminate fractures...
February 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Cory N Meixner, Mohammad W Aref, Aryaman Gupta, Erin M B McNerny, Drew Brown, Joseph M Wallace, Matthew R Allen
Bisphosphonates represent the gold-standard pharmaceutical agent for reducing fracture risk. Long-term treatment with bisphosphonates can result in tissue brittleness which in rare clinical cases manifests as atypical femoral fracture. Although this has led to an increasing call for bisphosphonate cessation, few studies have investigated therapeutic options for follow-up treatment. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that treatment with raloxifene, a drug that has cell-independent effects on bone mechanical material properties, could reverse the compromised mechanical properties that occur following zoledronate treatment...
February 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Ryotaro Bouchi, Tatsuya Fukuda, Takato Takeuchi, Yujiro Nakano, Masanori Murakami, Isao Minami, Hajime Izumiyama, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Sarcopenia is defined as an age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, and is a major cause of disability and mobility limitations. Recent studies have demonstrated that type 2 diabetes and insulin signaling deficiencies contribute to the progression of sarcopenia, suggesting that a sufficient supply of insulin to the skeletal muscles may be important for the maintenance of muscle function; however, little has been reported regarding whether insulin treatment can protect against sarcopenia. We conducted a retrospective observational study to examine the impact of insulin treatment on the muscle mass of patients with type 2 diabetes...
February 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Jonathan B Matheny, Ashley M Torres, Michael S Ominsky, Christopher J Hernandez
Treatment with sclerostin antibody (romosozumab) increases bone formation while reducing bone resorption, leading to increases in bone volume and bone mineral density. Sclerostin antibody treatment may also provide beneficial changes in trabecular microarchitecture and strength that are not reflected in bone volume and density. Here we use three-dimensional dynamic histomorphometry to determine longitudinal changes in vertebral trabecular microarchitecture in adolescent male cynomolgus monkeys (4-5 years old) treated with sclerostin antibody...
February 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Satoshi Takeda, Sadaoki Sakai, Keisuke Tanaka, Haruna Tomizawa, Kenichi Serizawa, Kenji Yogo, Koji Urayama, Junko Hashimoto, Koichi Endo, Yoshihiro Matsumoto
Although parathyroid hormone (PTH) expresses an anabolic effect on bone mass, the increased bone mass disappears once PTH treatment is withdrawn. Therefore, sequential treatment with anti-bone-resorptive agents is required to maintain bone mass after PTH treatment. We examined the effect of sequential treatment with ibandronate (IBN), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, following PTH in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Wistar-Imamichi rats (27 weeks old) were ovariectomized and treated with PTH (10 µg/kg, s.c...
February 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
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