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Calcified Tissue International

Randi M H Tei, Cecilia H Ramlau-Hansen, Oleguer Plana-Ripoll, Ole Brink, Bente L Langdahl
Worldwide, a care gap has been recognized between presenting with a fracture and prevention of the next fracture. Fracture Liaison Service is the most cost-effective method to close this gap, but its implementation is sparse in the Nordic countries. To assess the need for a fracture prevention program, the primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients treated for fragility fractures at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Secondary aims were to identify clinical risk factors associated with osteoporosis and the up-take of anti-osteoporosis treatment...
September 17, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Dana M Otzel, Christine F Conover, Fan Ye, Ean G Phillips, Taylor Bassett, Russell D Wnek, Micah Flores, Andrea Catter, Payal Ghosh, Alexander Balaez, Jason Petusevsky, Cong Chen, Yongxin Gao, Yi Zhang, Jessica M Jiron, Prodip K Bose, Stephen E Borst, Thomas J Wronski, J Ignacio Aguirre, Joshua F Yarrow
To elucidate mechanisms of bone loss after spinal cord injury (SCI), we evaluated the time-course of cancellous and cortical bone microarchitectural deterioration via microcomputed tomography, measured histomorphometric and circulating bone turnover indices, and characterized the development of whole bone mechanical deficits in a clinically relevant experimental SCI model. 16-weeks-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received T9 laminectomy (SHAM, n = 50) or moderate-severe contusion SCI (n = 52). Outcomes were assessed at 2-weeks, 1-month, 2-months, and 3-months post-surgery...
September 14, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
María Elena Ceballos, Camila Carvajal, Javier Jaramillo, Angelica Dominguez, Gilberto González
Bone loss and vitamin D deficiency are common in HIV patients. However, bone health status in newly diagnosed HIV patients has not been thoroughly described. Our aim was to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), bone resorption and vitamin D status in newly diagnosed HIV patients. A prospective observational study in HIV newly diagnosed therapy-naive persons. Patients with secondary causes of osteoporosis were excluded. Bone densitometry (DXA), a bone resorption marker (CTx), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), CD4 count and HIV viral load (VL) were done in 70 patients...
September 12, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Jack Dalla Via, Rachel L Duckham, Jonathan M Peake, Sonja Kukuljan, Caryl A Nowson, Robin M Daly
Chronic, low-grade systematic inflammation has been associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. We previously reported that exercise improved femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), geometry and strength and lumbar spine trabecular BMD in middle-aged and older men, but had no effect on markers of inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the association between basal inflammatory status and the adaptive skeletal responses to exercise. Secondary analysis was completed on 91 men aged 50-79 years who participated in an 18-month program of progressive resistance training plus weight-bearing impact exercise (3 day/week) with and without additional calcium-vitamin D3 ...
September 12, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Dinisha Cyril Pirapaharan, Kent Søe, Preety Panwar, Jonna Skov Madsen, Marianne Lerbæk Bergmann, Martin Overgaard, Dieter Brömme, Jean-Marie Delaisse
Cathepsin K (CatK) inhibition allows reducing bone resorption with specific advantages compared to the existing anti-osteoporosis drugs. Its clinical use appears even more promising with the recent development of ectosteric inhibitors. A confusing observation, however, is that a low dose of the active site CatK inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) was reported to decrease bone mineral density and increase serum levels of the bone resorption marker carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX). The present study provides a possible explanation for this paradox...
September 7, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
A-Sol Kim, Hae-Jin Ko
This study assessed the effects of atrophic gastritis on bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women in their 40s. We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of premenopausal women in their 40s who underwent a health checkup, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and bone densitometry at least thrice, 24 months apart, between January 2006 and December 2016. Based on first-visit esophagogastroduodenoscopy results, patients were divided into atrophic and non-atrophic gastritis groups; BMD changes over time were analyzed...
September 6, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Yaru Zhou, Yu Yang, Yan Liu, Hengrui Chang, Kuanzhi Liu, Xiaojuan Zhang, Yanzhong Chang
It has been found that iron disorder may lead to osteoporosis. However, the mechanism has been little explored. In the present study, we try to investigate the effects of iron disorder on bone metabolism using Irp2 knockout (Irp2-/- ) mice. Female Irp2-/- mice were used in this study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by Micro-CT. Serum markers for bone turnover were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Content of iron was measured in bone and liver tissue, and Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1) content was measured in liver tissue...
September 6, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Maria Sode Rønne, Malene Heidemann, Louise Lylloff, Anders J Schou, Jakob Tarp, Jens Ole Laursen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Steffen Husby, Niels Wedderkopp, Christian Mølgaard
This longitudinal study examined associations of bone mass with physical activity and vitamin D level over more than 6 years through puberty. A total of 663 participants (320 boys) with mean age 9.6 years at baseline (10-17 years at follow-up), underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, anthropometry and blood samples for vitamin D at least twice during the study period (with three possible time-points). Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers at follow-up. A positive association was found between percent time spent at vigorous physical activity and total-body less head bone mineral content (β = 5...
September 3, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Namki Hong, Chang Oh Kim, Yoosik Youm, Jin-Young Choi, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yumie Rhee
Elevated red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a simple measure of red blood cell size heterogeneity, has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity in the elderly population, which might reflect systemic inflammation and malnutrition. However, whether elevated RDW is associated with prevalent morphometric vertebral fracture (VF) in older adults has not been investigated. We examined 2127 individuals (mean age 71.7 years; women 66%) from a community-based cohort. VF was defined as ≥ 25% reduction in vertebral column height using the Genant semiquantitative method...
August 29, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
A Magan, L K Micklesfield, S A Norris, K Thandrayen, R J Munthali, J M Pettifor
This prospective study assessed whether metacarpal indices predict fracture risk in children and adolescents. Radiogrammetry was performed at the second metacarpal midshaft on annual hand-wrist radiographs of 359 South African (SA) children aged 10-17 years. Bone length, bone width, and medullary width were measured, and the following proxies for bone strength calculated: metacarpal index (MCI), bone mineral density (BMD), section modulus (SM), stress-strain index (SSI), and slenderness index (SLI). Height and weight were measured annually...
August 22, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Qi Liu, Xiaolin Xu, Zhou Yang, Yapu Liu, Xiuhua Wu, Zhiping Huang, Junhao Liu, Zucheng Huang, Ganggang Kong, Jianyang Ding, Rong Li, Junyu Lin, Qingan Zhu
Metformin (Met), an anti-diabetes drug, has also shown therapeutic effects for ovariectomy-induced (OVX) osteoporosis. However, similar effects against bone loss induced by a ketogenic diet (KD) have not been tested. This study was aimed to evaluate the microarchitectures and biomechanics of KD-induced osteoporosis with and without administration of Met, and compare the effect of Met on bone loss induced by KD with OVX. Forty female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into Sham, OVX, OVX + Met (100 mg/kg/day), KD (3:1 ratio of fat to carbohydrate and protein), and KD + Met (100 mg/kg/day) groups...
August 22, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Xuemei Lin, Minjun Huang, Ganghui Yin, Jie Zhang, Zhongmin Zhang, Pinglin Lai, Bo Yan, Yuhui Chen, Dadi Jin, Liang Wang
Achilles tendinopathy is a significant clinical disease characterized by activity-related pain, focal movement limitation, and intratendinous imaging changes. However, treatment of Achilles tendinopathy has been based mainly on theoretical rationale and clinical experience because of its unclear underlying pathogenesis and mechanism. The purpose of the study was to develop a simple but reproducible overuse-induced animal model of Achilles tendinopathy in mice to better understand the underlying mechanism and prevent calcific Achilles tendinopathy...
August 21, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Worasit Saiworn, Arthid Thim-Uam, Peerapat Visitchanakun, Korakot Atjanasuppat, Jiratha Chantaraaumporn, Jutarat Mokdara, Sirintra Chungchatupornchai, Prapaporn Pisitkun, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Suchit Poolthong, Roland Baron, Sutada Lotinun
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by loss of T- and B-cell tolerance to autoantigens, are at increased risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Mice deficient in Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcγRIIB) exhibit spontaneous SLE and its restoration rescues the disease. To determine whether deleting FcγRIIB affects cortical bone mass and mechanical properties, we analyzed cortical bone phenotype of FcγRIIB knockouts at different ages. FACS analysis revealed that 6-month-old FcγRIIB-/- mice had increased B220low CD138+ cells, markers of plasma cells, indicating active SLE disease...
August 16, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Haniyeh Hemmatian, Rozita Jalali, Cornelis M Semeins, Jolanda M A Hogervorst, G Harry van Lenthe, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, Astrid D Bakker
Hormonal changes during lactation are associated with profound changes in bone cell biology, such as osteocytic osteolysis, resulting in larger lacunae. Larger lacuna shape theoretically enhances the transmission of mechanical signals to osteocytes. We aimed to provide experimental evidence supporting this theory by comparing the mechanoresponse of osteocytes in the bone of lactating mice, which have enlarged lacunae due to osteocytic osteolysis, with the response of osteocytes in bone from age-matched virgin mice...
August 14, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Graziana Colaianni, Luciana Lippo, Lorenzo Sanesi, Giacomina Brunetti, Monica Celi, Nunzio Cirulli, Giovanni Passeri, Janne Reseland, Ernestina Schipani, Maria Felicia Faienza, Umberto Tarantino, Silvia Colucci, Maria Grano
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC1α) is a transcription coactivator that interacts with a broad range of transcription factors involved in several biological responses. Here, we show that PGC1α plays a role in skeletal homeostasis since aged PGC1α-deficient mice (PGC1α-/- ) display impaired bone structure. Micro-CT of the tibial mid-shaft showed a marked decrease of cortical thickness in PGC1α-/- (- 11.9%, p < 0.05) mice compared to wild-type littermate. Trabecular bone was also impaired in knock out mice which displayed lower trabecular thickness (Tb...
August 9, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Roberta Besio, Silvia Maruelli, Severine Battaglia, Laura Leoni, Simona Villani, Pierre Layrolle, Antonio Rossi, Valerie Trichet, Antonella Forlino
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare heritable skeletal dysplasia mainly caused by type I collagen abnormalities and characterized by bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Over 85% of the patients carry dominant mutations in the genes encoding for the collagen type I α1 and α2 chains. Failure of bone union and/or presence of hyperplastic callus formation after fracture were described in OI patients. Here we used the Col1a2+/G610C mouse, carrying in heterozygosis the α2(I)-G610C substitution, to investigate the healing process of an OI bone...
August 3, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Ahmad Almehmadi, Yoshio Ohyama, Masaru Kaku, Ahmed Alamoudi, Dina Husein, Michitsuna Katafuchi, Yuji Mishina, Yoshiyuki Mochida
By a bioinformatics approach, we have identified a novel cysteine knot protein member, VWC2 (von Willebrand factor C domain containing 2) previously known as Brorin. Since Brorin has been proposed to function as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, we investigated the binding of Brorin/VWC2 to several BMPs; however, none of the BMPs tested were bound to VWC2. Instead, the βA subunit of activin was found as a binding partner among transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily members. Here, we show that Vwc2 gene expression is temporally upregulated early in osteoblast differentiation, VWC2 protein is present in bone matrix, and localized at osteoblasts/osteocytes...
August 3, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Yu Zhou, Wei Zhu, Lan Zhang, Yong Zeng, Chao Xu, Qing Tian, Hong-Wen Deng
Osteoporosis is a prevalent bone metabolic disease, mainly caused by excessive bone resorption (by osteoclasts) over bone formation (by osteoblasts). Identifying the key transcription factors and understanding the regulatory network influencing osteoclastogenesis will be helpful to explore the potential biological mechanism for osteoporosis. In our study, peripheral blood monocyte (PBM) was used as a cell model for bone mineral density (BMD) research. PBMs serve as progenitors of osteoclasts and produce important cytokines for osteoclastogenesis...
July 28, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Ippei Kanazawa, Sayuri Tanaka, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Osteocalcin acts as an endocrine hormone to regulate energy homeostasis. Although several in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that osteocalcin is involved in chronic inflammation, the association between osteocalcin and chronic inflammation in humans is unknown. In this cross-sectional study, 246 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited to investigate the association of bone turnover markers with chronic inflammation parameters such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), ferritin, and leukocyte subtype counts...
July 26, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Alexander J Rodríguez, Joshua R Lewis, David S Scott, Douglas P Kiel, John T Schousboe, Peter R Ebeling, Richard L Prince
The objective of the study was to determine the association between AAC and neuromuscular function over 5 years. Participants in this study were ambulant women over 70 years old residing in Perth, Western Australia who participated in the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcomes Study, a randomised controlled trial of calcium supplementation. 1046 women (mean age = 74.9 ± 2.6 years; BMI = 27.1 ± 4.4 kg/m2 ) were included. Lateral spine images captured during bone density testing were scored for AAC (AAC24; 0-24) at baseline...
July 23, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
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