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Calcified Tissue International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097375/hypoxia-induced-fibroblast-growth-factor-11-stimulates-osteoclast-mediated-resorption-of-bone
#1
Helen J Knowles
Over-activation of osteoclasts is directly responsible for pathological bone loss in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer metastasis to bone. Hypoxia is a common feature of these conditions, associated with poor prognosis, which also stimulates osteoclast-mediated bone resorption via induction of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1α. Here, we investigate the effects of fibroblast growth factor 11 (FGF11) on osteoclast function. FGF11 is an intracellular FGF that was induced both by hypoxia (2% O2, p < 0...
January 18, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083636/content-validity-of-a-short-calcium-intake-list-to-estimate-daily-dietary-calcium-intake-of-patients-with-osteoporosis
#2
L A Rasch, M A E de van der Schueren, L H D van Tuyl, I E M Bultink, J H M de Vries, W F Lems
PURPOSE: Calcium supplements are prescribed for prevention of osteoporotic fractures, but there is controversy whether excess of calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular events. While an accurate estimation of dietary calcium intake is a prerequisite to prescribe the adequate amount of supplementation, the most adequate tools for estimating intake are time-consuming. The aim of this study is to validate a short calcium intake list (SCaIL) that is feasible in daily clinical practice...
January 12, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078366/genetic-screening-of-wnt4-and-wnt5b-in-two-populations-with-deviating-bone-mineral-densities
#3
Gretl Hendrickx, Eveline Boudin, Ellen Steenackers, Torben Leo Nielsen, Marianne Andersen, Kim Brixen, Wim Van Hul
A role for WNT4 and WNT5B in bone metabolism was indicated by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a Wnt4 knockout mouse model. The aim of this study was therefore to replicate and further investigate the causality between genetic variation in WNT4 and WNT5B and deviating bone mineral density (BMD) values. A WNT4 and WNT5B mutation screening was performed in patients with craniotubular hyperostosis using Sanger sequencing. Here, no putative causal mutations were detected. Moreover, a high and low BMD cohort was selected from the Odense Androgen Study population for re-sequencing...
January 12, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039519/adipokines-a-possible-contribution-to-vascular-and-bone-remodeling-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#4
Evgenia A Kochetkova, Ludmila G Ugai, Yuliya V Maistrovskaia, Vera A Nevzorova
Osteoporosis is a major comorbidity of cardio-respiratory diseases, but the mechanistic links between pulmonary arterial hypertension and bone remain elusive. The purpose of the stud was to evaluate serum adipokines and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) NYHA class III-IV and to determine its associations with bone mineral density (BMD). Pulmonary and hemodynamic parameters, BMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), serum leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and endothelin-1 (ET-1), were evaluated in 32 patients with IPAH NYHA class III-IV and 30 healthy volunteers...
December 30, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013363/bone-structure-and-turnover-status-in-postmenopausal-women-with-atypical-femur-fracture-after-prolonged-bisphosphonate-therapy
#5
Shijing Qiu, George W Divine, Saroj Palnitkar, Pooja Kulkarni, Trent S Guthrie, Mahalakshmi Honasoge, Sudhaker D Rao
Atypical femur fracture (AFF), a serious complication of long-term bisphosphonate therapy, is usually preceded by an incomplete fracture appearing on the lateral femur. AFF is most likely the result of severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT). However, the differences in bone structure and turnover between patients with incomplete and complete AFF remain unknown. We examined trans-iliac bone biopsies from 12 white postmenopausal women with AFF (incomplete = 5; complete = 7) on BP therapy of >5 years and 43 healthy white premenopausal women...
December 24, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013362/the-impact-of-fat-and-obesity-on-bone-microarchitecture-and-strength-in-children
#6
Joshua N Farr, Paul Dimitri
A complex interplay of genetic, environmental, hormonal, and behavioral factors affect skeletal development, several of which are associated with childhood fractures. Given the rise in obesity worldwide, it is of particular concern that excess fat accumulation during childhood appears to be a risk factor for fractures. Plausible explanations for this higher fracture risk include a greater propensity for falls, greater force generation upon fall impact, unhealthy lifestyle habits, and excessive adipose tissue that may have direct or indirect detrimental effects on skeletal development...
December 24, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013361/bone-mass-and-strength-are-significantly-improved-in-mice-overexpressing-human-wnt16-in-osteocytes
#7
Imranul Alam, Austin M Reilly, Mohammed Alkhouli, Rita L Gerard-O'Riley, Charishma Kasipathi, Dana K Oakes, Weston B Wright, Dena Acton, Amie K McQueen, Bhavmik Patel, Kyung-Eun Lim, Alexander G Robling, Michael J Econs
Recently, we demonstrated that osteoblast-specific overexpression of human WNT16 increased both cortical and trabecular bone mass and structure in mice. To further identify the cell-specific role of Wnt16 in bone homeostasis, we created transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human WNT16 in osteocytes using Dmp1 promoter (Dmp1-hWNT16 TG) on C57BL/6 (B6) background. We analyzed bone phenotypes and serum bone biomarkers, performed gene expression analysis and measured dynamic bone histomorphometry in Dmp1-hWNT16 TG and wild-type (WT) mice...
December 24, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012107/the-future-prevalence-of-sarcopenia-in-europe-a-claim-for-public-health-action
#8
O Ethgen, C Beaudart, F Buckinx, O Bruyère, J Y Reginster
Sarcopenia is a major public health issue. To convince health policy makers of the emergency to invest in the sarcopenia field, it is of critical importance to produce reliable figures of the expected burden of sarcopenia in the coming years. Age- and gender-specific population projections were retrieved until 2045 from the Eurostat online database (28 European countries). Age- and gender-specific prevalences of sarcopenia were interpolated from a study that compared prevalence estimates according to the different diagnostic cutoffs of the EWGSOP proposed definition...
December 24, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012106/osteogenic-potential-of-the-transcription-factor-c-myb
#9
V Oralova, E Matalova, M Killinger, L Knopfova, J Smarda, M Buchtova
The transcription factor c-MYB is a well-known marker of undifferentiated cells such as haematopoietic cell precursors, but recently it has also been observed in differentiated cells that produce hard tissues. Our previous findings showed the presence of c-MYB in intramembranous bones and its involvement in the chondrogenic steps of endochondral ossification, where the up-regulation of early chondrogenic markers after c-myb overexpression was observed. Since we previously detected c-MYB in osteoblasts, we aimed to analyse the localisation of c-MYB during later stages of endochondral bone formation and address its function during bone matrix production...
December 24, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012105/the-epidemiology-of-hypoparathyroidism-in-italy-an-8-year-register-based-study
#10
Cristiana Cipriani, Jessica Pepe, Federica Biamonte, Rizieri Manai, Piergianni Biondi, Luciano Nieddu, Luisella Cianferotti, Maria Luisa Brandi, Salvatore Minisola
Hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrine disorder, but few studies have focused on the epidemiology and hospital management of the disease and none has been performed in Italy. We investigated the prevalence of different forms of hypoparathyroidism among hospitalized patients in Italy during an 8-year period. This study is designed as a retrospective register-based study. We retrieved data from the "Record of Hospital Discharge" (SDO) of the Italian Health Ministry, from the year 2006 to 2013 and analyzed the codes corresponding to hypoparathyroidism-related diagnoses...
December 24, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999894/tomography-based-quantification-of-regional-differences-in-cortical-bone-surface-remodeling-and-mechano-response
#11
Annette I Birkhold, Hajar Razi, Georg N Duda, Sara Checa, Bettina M Willie
Bone has an adaptive capacity to maintain structural integrity. However, there seems to be a heterogeneous cortical (re)modeling response to loading at different regions within the same bone, which may lead to inconsistent findings since most studies analyze only one region. It remains unclear if the local mechanical environment is responsible for this heterogeneous response and whether both formation and resorption are affected. Thus, we compared the formation and resorptive response to in vivo loading and the strain environment at two commonly analyzed regions in the mouse tibia, the mid-diaphysis and proximal metaphysis...
December 20, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928591/the-activity-of-adiponectin-in-bone
#12
Dorit Naot, David S Musson, Jillian Cornish
The adipokine adiponectin affects multiple target tissues and plays important roles in glucose metabolism and whole-body energy homeostasis. Circulating adiponectin levels in obese people are lower than in non-obese, and increased serum adiponectin is associated with weight loss. Numerous clinical studies have established that fat mass is positively related to bone mass, a relationship that is maintained by communication between the two tissues through hormones and cytokines. Since adiponectin levels inversely correspond to fat mass, its bone effects and its potential contribution to the relationship between fat and bone have been investigated...
December 7, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913821/theobromine-upregulates-osteogenesis-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-accelerates-bone-development-in-rats
#13
Bret H Clough, Joni Ylostalo, Elizabeth Browder, Eoin P McNeill, Thomas J Bartosh, H Ralph Rawls, Tetsuo Nakamoto, Carl A Gregory
Theobromine (THB) is one of the major xanthine-like alkaloids found in cacao plant and a variety of other foodstuffs such as tea leaves, guarana and cola nuts. Historically, THB and its derivatives have been utilized to treat cardiac and circulatory disorders, drug-induced nephrotoxicity, proteinuria and as an immune-modulator. Our previous work demonstrated that THB has the capacity to improve the formation of hydroxyl-apatite during tooth development, suggesting that it may also enhance skeletal development...
December 2, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866237/long-term-effects-of-intravenous-ibandronate-in-paget-s-disease-of-bone
#14
Ian R Reid, Diana Wattie, Gregory D Gamble, Ramanamma Kalluru, Tim Cundy
We have previously demonstrated that intravenous ibandronate produces high initial response rates in Paget's disease, but the durability of this effect is unknown. It might be expected to be short lived because ibandronate has a low affinity for bone. Here we report long-term follow-up (up to 14 years) of patients from that trial. Twenty-five patients with active Paget's disease [baseline serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ~3 times the upper limit of normal] received either 6 or 12 mg intravenous ibandronate at baseline...
November 19, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866236/effects-of-physical-exercise-on-markers-of-cellular-immunosenescence-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
H Cao Dinh, I Beyer, T Mets, O O Onyema, R Njemini, W Renmans, M De Waele, K Jochmans, S Vander Meeren, I Bautmans
Aging affects negatively the immune system, defined as immunosenescence, which increases the susceptibility of elderly persons to infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. There are strong indications that physical exercise in elderly persons may prevent the age-related decline in immune response without significant side effects. Consequently, exercise is being considered as a safe mode of intervention to reduce immunosenescence. The aim of this review was to appraise the existing evidence regarding the impact of exercise on surface markers of cellular immunosenescence in either young and old humans or animals...
November 19, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832316/bone-derived-factors-a-new-gateway-to-regulate-glycemia
#16
Nicolas Bonnet
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis are two major disorders which prevalence increases with aging and is predicted to worsen in the coming years. Preclinical investigations suggest common mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of both disorders. Recent evidence has established that there is a clear link between glucose and bone metabolism. The emergence of bone as an endocrine regulator through FGF23 and osteocalcin has led to the re-evaluation of the role of bone cells and bone-derived factors in the development of metabolic diseases such as T2DM...
November 10, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832315/bazedoxifene-ameliorates-homocysteine-induced-apoptosis-and-accumulation-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-in-mc3t3-e1-cells
#17
Ippei Kanazawa, Tsutomu Tomita, Shun Miyazaki, Eiji Ozawa, Luis A Yamamoto, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level increases the risk of osteoporotic fracture by deteriorating bone quality. However, little is known about the effects of Hcy on osteoblast and collagen cross-links. This study aimed to investigate whether Hcy induces apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as well as affects enzymatic and nonenzymatic collagen cross-links and to determine the effects of bazedoxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, on the Hcy-induced apoptosis and deterioration of collagen cross-links in the cells...
November 10, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830280/erratum-to-reference-values-of-total-lean-mass-appendicular-lean-mass-and-fat-mass-measured-with-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-a-healthy-mexican-population
#18
Patricia Clark, Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Regina Ambrosi, Pawel Szulc, Rodolfo Rivas-Ruiz, Jorge Salmerón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830279/letter-to-the-editor
#19
LETTER
Patricia Clark, Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Regina Ambrosi, Pawel Szulc, Rodolfo Rivas-Ruiz, Jorge Salmerón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830278/molecular-communication-from-skeletal-muscle-to-bone-a-review-for-muscle-derived-myokines-regulating-bone-metabolism
#20
REVIEW
Baosheng Guo, Zong-Kang Zhang, Chao Liang, Jie Li, Jin Liu, Aiping Lu, Bao-Ting Zhang, Ge Zhang
Besides the mechanical loading-dependent paradigm, skeletal muscle also serves as an endocrine organ capable of secreting cytokines to modulate bone metabolism. In this review, we focused on reviewing the myokines involved in communication from skeletal muscle to bone, i.e. (1) myostatin and myostatin-binding proteins including follistatin and decorin, (2) interleukins including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-7 (IL-7) and interleukin-15 (IL-15), (3) insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its binding proteins, (4) other myokines including PGC-1α-irisin system and osteoglycin (OGN)...
November 9, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
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