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Calcified Tissue International

Zhenjun Weng, Chunyang Wang, Cheng Zhang, Jia Xu, Yimin Chai, Yachao Jia, Pei Han, Gen Wen
Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is used to treat specific disorders associated with growth abnormalities and/or loss of bone stock secondary to trauma or disease. However, a high rate of complications and discomfort hamper its further application in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) and bone consolidation in a rat DO model. Different doses of ATRA were used to treat rBMSCs...
January 11, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Danying Chen, Yi Liu, Zongxiang Liu, Penglai Wang
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is one of the protective factors of bony tissue. However, the function of OPG in cartilage tissues remains elusive. The aim of this study is to explore the function of OPG in the postnatal maintenance and the occurring of osteoarthritis (OA) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the rodent models. We found that OPG expressed in the hypertrophic layer of the condylar cartilage and upregulated in the hyperocclusion-induced-TMJ-trauma rat. In the absence of OPG, the cartilage degradation occurred prior to that in WT mice, and the 3-month-old OPG-Knockout (OPG-KO) condyle showed decreased chondrocyte proliferation and increased chondrocyte apoptosis, whereas the number of chondroclasts was comparable to WT condyle...
January 8, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Ryosuke Ozasa, Takuya Ishimoto, Sayaka Miyabe, Jun Hashimoto, Makoto Hirao, Hideki Yoshikawa, Takayoshi Nakano
This study revealed the distinguished changes of preferential orientation of collagen and apatite and Young's modulus in two different types of osteoporotic bones compared with the normal bone. Little is known about the bone material properties of osteoporotic bones; therefore, we aimed to assess material properties in osteoporotic bones. 66 female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. We analyzed the volumetric bone mineral density, collagen/apatite orientation, and Young's modulus of fifth lumbar vertebral cortex for osteoporotic rats caused by ovariectomy (OVX), administration of low calcium and phosphate content (LCaP) diet, and their combination (OVX + LCaP), as well as sham-operated control...
December 26, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Julie A Pasco, Kara L Holloway-Kew, Monica C Tembo, Sophia X Sui, Kara B Anderson, Pamela Rufus-Membere, Natalie K Hyde, Lana J Williams, Mark A Kotowicz
Recommendations from the FNIH Sarcopenia Project are that appendicular lean mass (ALM, kg) adjusted for body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 ) be used for identifying low lean mass, with ALM/BMI cutpoints of < 0.789 m2 for men and < 0.512 m2 for women. We report normative ALM/BMI values for Australian adults, and compare the performance of cutpoints derived from reference values for this population with FNIH values for identifying low lean mass. Body composition was measured by DXA (Lunar) for 1411 men and 960 women, aged 20-93 years, from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, a population-based study in Australia...
December 20, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Shingo Yoshitake, Tasuku Mashiba, Mitsuru Saito, Ryuji Fujihara, Ken Iwata, Ryoko Takao-Kawabata, Tetsuji Yamamoto
The effect of teriparatide treatment on microdamage accumulation has yet to be examined in animal studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of once-weekly teriparatide treatment on bone microdamage accumulation and the relationship between microdamage parameters and bone mass, architecture, turnover, and collagen cross-linking in the lumbar vertebral trabecular bone of ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Female monkeys were divided into four groups (n = 18-20 per group): (1) SHAM group, (2) OVX group, (3) OVX with 1...
December 18, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Sity Aishah Mansur, Aleksandra Mieczkowska, Peter R Flatt, Daniel Chappard, Nigel Irwin, Guillaume Mabilleau
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is recognized as a significant risk factor for fragility of bone. Among the newer anti-diabetic agents, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) have been reported to decrease the occurrence of bone fractures although the reason is unclear. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sitagliptin treatment on tissue bone strength and compositional parameters in the high-fat-fed mouse model. Male NIH swiss mice were allowed free access to high-fat diet for 150 days to induce chronic hyperglycemia and insulin resistance...
December 18, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Arnaud Wiedemann, Emeline Renard, Magali Hernandez, Brigitte Dousset, François Brezin, Laetitia Lambert, Georges Weryha, François Feillet
Osteoporosis is a common complication of cerebral palsy and Rett's syndrome. It is responsible for multiple fractures, bone pain, and impaired quality of life. In case of Rett's syndrome, a specific dysfunction of osteoblasts causes bone fragility. We observed the effects of annual zoledronic acid (ZA) infusion in a cohort of children with cerebral palsy and Rett's syndrome. 27 children under 18 years (19 with cerebral palsy and 8 girls with Rett syndrome confirmed by MCEP2 mutation) were treated with an annual injection of 0...
December 15, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Lucinda R Lee, Lauren Peacock, Samantha L Ginn, Laurence C Cantrill, Tegan L Cheng, David G Little, Craig F Munns, Aaron Schindeler
Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) of healthy donor cells has been postulated as a strategy for treating osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and other bone fragility disorders. The effect of engraftment by tail vein injection and/or marrow ablation by 6 Gy whole body irradiation were tested in Col1a2+/G610C (OI) mice as a model of mild-moderate OI. Dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, and 4-point bending were used to measure bone volume (BV), bone mineral density (BMD), and biomechanical strength. BV, BMD, and mechanical strength were reduced in OI mice compared to wild type (WT) controls...
December 8, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Stephanie N Moore-Lotridge, Qiaoli Li, Breanne H Y Gibson, Joseph T Martin, Gregory D Hawley, Thomas H Arnold, Masanori Saito, Sami Tannouri, Herbert S Schwartz, Richard J Gumina, Justin M M Cates, Jouni Uitto, Jonathan G Schoenecker
Heterotopic ossification (HO), or the pathologic formation of bone within soft tissues, is a significant complication following severe injuries as it impairs joint motion and function leading to loss of the ability to perform activities of daily living and pain. While soft tissue injury is a prerequisite of developing HO, the exact molecular pathology leading to trauma-induced HO remains unknown. Through prior investigations aimed at identifying the causative factors of HO, it has been suggested that additional predisposing factors that favor ossification within the injured soft tissues environment are required...
December 4, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Médéa Locquet, Charlotte Beaudart, Jean-Yves Reginster, Olivier Bruyère
The longitudinal relationship between bone health and muscle health is scarcely explored. We aimed to explore the relationship between bone decline and muscle decline over 1 year in older individuals. We used data from the SarcoPhAge cohort, which aims to identify the consequences of sarcopenia. In this way, this study also highlights the yearly changes in muscle mass (by dual-energy absorptiometry), muscle weakness (by grip strength), and/or physical performance (by the short physical performance battery test)...
December 3, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Yanxin Shen, Shujuan Guo, Guoqing Chen, Yi Ding, Yafei Wu, Weidong Tian
Hyperglycemia induces osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption through complicated, undefined mechanisms. Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) promotes osteoclastogenesis, and could be activated by hyperglycemia. Here, we investigated whether CaMKII is involved in hyperglycemia-induced osteoclastogenesis and subsequent bone resorption. Osteoclast formation, bone resorption, CaMKII expression and phosphorylation were measured under high glucose in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia rats with or without CaMKII inhibitor KN93...
December 1, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Lelia L F de Abreu, Kara L Holloway-Kew, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Muhammad A Sajjad, Mark A Kotowicz, Julie A Pasco
Although individuals with diabetes appear to have a higher fracture risk compared to those without diabetes, fracture risk in impaired fasting glucose (IFG) has not been thoroughly explored. This study determined associations between glycaemia status and fracture risk. Women (n = 575, aged 50 + years) enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, were followed from baseline (1993-1997), to date of first fracture, death or December 31, 2010, whichever occurred first (median 13.7 years, IQR 7.4-14.8). Hazard ratios (HRs) for any fracture (excluding fingers, toes, skull/face), as well as major osteoporotic fracture (MOF, clinical spine, hip, proximal humerus, wrist), in diabetes (n = 69), IFG (n = 250) and normoglycaemia (n = 256), were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model...
November 27, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Sadaoki Sakai, Hiromi Hongo, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Tomoka Hasegawa, Satoshi Takeda, Hitoshi Saito, Koichi Endo, Kenji Yogo, Norio Amizuka
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogs have a powerful anabolic effect on bone and are used in the treatment of patients with severe osteoporosis. However, there are limitations to how long they can be safely administered. Withdrawal of PTH results in the cancelation of its effects, necessitating subsequent treatment to maintain the bone quantity and quality. This study assessed the effects of Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active vitamin D3 derivative, after PTH in estrogen-deficient osteoporotic rats. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomized, and PTH administration was started 7 weeks later...
November 22, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Vimal Veeriah, Riccardo Paone, Suvro Chatterjee, Anna Teti, Mattia Capulli
During mechanical unloading, endothelial cells reduce osteogenesis and increase bone resorption. Here we describe the feedback response of endothelial cells to unloaded osteoblasts. Primary endothelial cells, ex vivo mouse aortic rings and chicken egg yolk membranes were incubated with conditioned medium from mouse primary osteoblasts (OB-CM) subjected to unit gravity or simulated microgravity, to assess its effect on angiogenesis. In vivo injection of botulin toxin A (Botox) in the quadriceps and calf muscles of C57BL/6J mice was performed to mimic disuse osteoporosis...
November 21, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Kristian Buch, Anne Cathrine Baun Thuesen, Charlotte Brøns, Peter Schwarz
Chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is a rare auto-inflammatory bone disorder, with a prevalence of around one in a million patients. In the more severe form, it is referred to as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). We present the current knowledge on epidemiology, pathophysiology as well as diagnostic options and treatment regimens. CNO/CRMO most commonly affects children and lesions are often seen in the metaphyseal plates of the long bones, but cases have been described affecting all age groups as well as lesions in almost every bone...
November 19, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Jing Rong, Bregina Pool, Mark Zhu, Jacob Munro, Jillian Cornish, Geraldine M McCarthy, Nicola Dalbeth, Raewyn Poulsen
Chondrocytes in osteoarthritis undergo a phenotype shift leading to increased production of cartilage-degrading enzymes. There are similarities between the phenotype of osteoarthritic chondrocytes and those of growth plate chondrocytes. Hydroxyapatite can promote chondrocyte differentiation in the growth plate. Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals (which consist of hydroxyapatite, octacalcium apatite and tricalcium phosphate) are frequently found in osteoarthritic joints. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCP crystals induce disease-associated changes in phenotypic marker expression in chondrocytes...
November 19, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Young-Kyun Lee, Dong Won Byun, Sung-Mok Jung, Hye-Young Kwon, Ha-Young Kim, Se Hwa Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Sunmee Jang, Yong-Chan Ha
Although Asian with bisphosphonate has been considered to have higher risk of subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femur (ST/DF) fractures, the occurrence of those fractures has been still unclear in Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence rate of ST/DF fractures among bisphosphonate users from nationwide database in South Korea. Using national health insurance claim database, we only included the bisphosphonate users who took bisphosphonate for the first time in 2008 and evaluated the incidence rate of ST/DF fracture from 2008 to 2013...
November 16, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Marcello Filopanti, Uberta Verga, Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Claudia Giavoli, Giulia Rodari, Maura Arosio, Federica Natacci, Anna Spada
In patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and low levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25OHD) have been reported. Recently, the trabecular bone score (TBS) measurement has been proposed as index of bone microarchitecture and fracture risk. In 74 NF1 patients (48 females, 26 males, age 41 ± 12), we measured TBS and investigated clinical stage, lifestyle, vitamin D, serum bone turnover markers, vertebral and femoral BMD. A homogenous cohort of 61 healthy subjects was used as control group...
November 12, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Arielle F Russell, Randall T Loder, Andrew S Gudeman, Peter Bolaji, Piiamaria Virtanen, Elizabeth C Whipple, Melissa A Kacena
This study explored changes in bibliometric variables over the last 30 years for four major musculoskeletal science journals (BONE®), Calcified Tissue International® (CTI®), Journal of Bone and Mineral Research® (JBMR®), and Journal of Orthopaedic Research® (JOR®), with a specific focus on author gender. Bibliometric data were collected for all manuscripts in 1985 (BONE®, CTI®, JOR®), 1986 (JBMR®), 1995, 2005, and 2015; 2776 manuscripts met inclusion criteria. Manuscripts from Europe were more often published in BONE® or CTI®, while those from North America in JBMR® or JOR®...
November 11, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Chwan-Li Shen, Brenda J Smith, Jiliang Li, Jay J Cao, Xiao Song, Maria F Newhardt, Kylie A Corry, Michael D Tomison, Lili Tang, Jia-Sheng Wang, Ming-Chien Chyu
We investigated the effects of 6-month green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on bone architecture, turnover, and mechanical properties in middle-aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female rats were sham-operated (n = 39, 13/group) or OVX (n = 143, 13/group). Sham-control and OVX-control rats (n = 39) receiving no GTP were assigned for sample collection at baseline, 3, or 6 months. The remaining OVX rats (n = 104) were randomized to 0.15%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% (g/dL) GTP for 3 or 6 months. Blood and bone samples were collected...
November 9, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
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