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Calcified Tissue International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151126/nutritional-programming-of-bone-structure-in-male-offspring-by-maternal-consumption-of-citrus-flavanones
#1
Sandra M Sacco, Caitlin Saint, Paul J LeBlanc, Wendy E Ward
Maternal exposure to hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR) during pregnancy and lactation transiently compromised bone mineral density (BMD) and bone structure at the proximal tibia in female CD-1 offspring. We examined whether maternal consumption of HSP + NAR during pregnancy and lactation compromises BMD, bone structure, and bone strength in male CD-1 offspring. Male CD-1 offspring, from mothers fed a control diet (CON, n = 10) or a 0.5% HSP + 0.25% NAR diet (HSP + NAR, n = 8) for 5 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation, were weaned and fed CON until 6 months of age...
November 18, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147721/osteomimicry-how-the-seed-grows-in-the-soil
#2
REVIEW
Nadia Rucci, Anna Teti
Metastasis is defined as a very inefficient process, since less than 0.01% of cancer cells injected into the circulation will engraft in a distant organ, where they must acquire the ability to survive and proliferate inside a "foreign" environment. In bone metastases, the interaction with the host organ is much more favoured if tumour cells gain "osteomimicry", that is the ability to resemble a resident bone cell (i.e. the osteoblast), thus intruding in the physiology of the bone. This is accomplished by the expression of osteoblast markers (e...
November 16, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143140/impact-of-conventional-medical-therapy-on-bone-mineral-density-and-bone-turnover-in-adult-patients-with-x-linked-hypophosphatemia-a-6-year-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Vikram Vinod Shanbhogue, Stinus Hansen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Signe Sparre Beck-Nielsen
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare, inheritable disorder manifesting as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. While conventional medical treatment with oral phosphate and alfacalcidol is recommended in childhood, it is undecided whether adults should continue therapy. The aim of this 6-year prospective study was to determine the impact of conventional medical treatment on areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone turnover markers (BTMs) and measures of calcium homeostasis in 27 adult patients with XLH, 11 of whom received medical treatment...
November 15, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138883/hallmarks-of-bone-metastasis
#4
REVIEW
Rachelle W Johnson, Larry J Suva
Breast cancer bone metastasis develops as the result of a series of complex interactions between tumor cells, bone marrow cells, and resident bone cells. The net effect of these interactions are the disruption of normal bone homeostasis, often with significantly increased osteoclast and osteoblast activity, which has provided a rational target for controlling tumor progression, with little or no emphasis on tumor eradication. Indeed, the clinical course of metastatic breast cancer is relatively long, with patients likely to experience sequential skeletal-related events (SREs), often over lengthy periods of time, even up to decades...
November 14, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134237/neuronal-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-regulates-leptin-sensitivity-and-bone-mass
#5
Xin Yan, Natalia L Kononenko, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Matthew N Poy
The central nervous system is widely known to exert control over our systemic physiology via several mechanisms including the regulation of skeletal metabolism. Neuronal circuits within the hypothalamus have been shown to impact bone mass via leptin-dependent and independent mechanisms; however, the full extent to which the brain controls bone homeostasis is not known. We previously identified cell adhesion molecule1 (Cadm1) as a regulator of body weight and energy homeostasis via its expression in multiple regions of the brain...
November 13, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105022/homozygous-dkk1-knockout-mice-exhibit-high-bone-mass-phenotype-due-to-increased-bone-formation
#6
Michelle M McDonald, Alyson Morse, Aaron Schindeler, Kathy Mikulec, Lauren Peacock, Tegan Cheng, Justin Bobyn, Lucinda Lee, Paul A Baldock, Peter I Croucher, Patrick P L Tam, David G Little
Wnt antagonist Dkk1 is a negative regulator of bone formation and Dkk1 (+/-) heterozygous mice display a high bone mass phenotype. Complete loss of Dkk1 function disrupts embryonic head development. Homozygous Dkk1 (-/-) mice that were heterozygous for Wnt3 loss of function mutation (termed Dkk1 KO) are viable and allowed studying the effects of homozygous inactivation of Dkk1 on bone formation. Dkk1 KO mice showed a high bone mass phenotype exceeding that of heterozygous mice as well as a high incidence of polydactyly and kinky tails...
November 6, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103161/multiple-vertebral-osteonecroses-k%C3%A3-mmell-s-disease-after-10%C3%A2-years-on-denosumab-is-osteocyte-apoptosis-to-blame
#7
Yves Maugars, Géraldine Bart, Pascale Guillot, Marguerite Chemel-Mary, Joëlle Glémarec, Mélanie Gahier-Penhoat, Benoit Le Goff, Christelle Darrieutort-Laffite
We report here a case of multiple vertebral osteonecroses with intrasomatic gaseous dissection (Kümmell's disease) occurring 1 year after the end of a 10-year course of denosumab treatment for osteoporosis without fractures. Histomorphometry and bone remodeling markers revealed major bone resorption and the persistence of an inhibition of bone formation. The presence of multiple empty lacunae in the bone provided evidence for high levels of osteocyte apoptosis. Osteocytes direct bone resorption (via the RANK/RANK-L/osteoprotegerin system) and formation (Wnt system, with SOST and DKK1) pathways...
November 4, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103160/long-term-intake-of-green-tea-extract-causes-mal-conformation-of-trabecular-bone-microarchitecture-in-growing-rats
#8
Akira Minematsu, Yasue Nishii, Hidetaka Imagita, Susumu Sakata
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE) intake on bone structural and physiological properties, such as bone mass, trabecular bone microarchitecture, cortical bone geometry, and bone mechanical strength, in growing rats. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into the following four groups: standard diet feeding for 85 days (S-CON) or 170 days (L-CON), and GTE diet feeding for 85 days (S-GTE) or 170 days (L-GTE). At the end of the experiment, in addition to measurement of circulating bone formation/resorption markers, bone mass, trabecular bone microarchitecture, and cortical bone geometry were analyzed in the left femur, and bone mechanical strength of the right femur was measured...
November 4, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101476/relationships-between-markers-of-inflammation-and-muscle-mass-strength-and-function-findings-from-the-hertfordshire-cohort-study
#9
L D Westbury, N R Fuggle, H E Syddall, N A Duggal, S C Shaw, K Maslin, E M Dennison, J M Lord, C Cooper
We investigated the longitudinal relationships between inflammation markers and the following outcomes in a UK cohort study: appendicular lean mass (ALM); walking speed; level and change in grip strength; and sarcopenia defined by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were based on 336 community-dwelling older men and women (aged 59-70 years) who participated in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS). Inflammation markers were ascertained at baseline using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques and Bio-Plex Pro Assays...
November 3, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101475/insight-into-the-pathology-of-a-col1a1-signal-peptide-heterozygous-mutation-leading-to-severe-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#10
U Lindert, M Gnoli, M Maioli, M F Bedeschi, L Sangiorgi, M Rohrbach, C Giunta
Osteogenesis imperfecta or "brittle bone disease" is a congenital disorder of connective tissue causing the bone to break easily. Around 85-90% of cases are due to autosomal dominant mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen, the major organic component of bone. Genotype-phenotype correlations have shown that quantitative defects of collagen type I lead to mild OI, whereas structural defects show a wide clinical range from mild to perinatal lethal. This may partially be explained by the type of amino acid substitution and the relative location in the domain structure...
November 3, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098361/new-agents-in-the-treatment-of-myeloma-bone-disease
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth S Ring, Michelle A Lawson, John A Snowden, Ingrid Jolley, Andrew D Chantry
Patients with multiple myeloma develop a devastating bone disease driven by the uncoupling of bone remodelling, excess osteoclastic bone resorption and diminished osteoblastic bone formation. The bone phenotype is typified by focal osteolytic lesions leading to pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and other catastrophic bone events such as spinal cord compression. This causes bone pain, impaired functional status, decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Early in the disease, malignant plasma cells occupy a niche environment that encompasses their interaction with other key cellular components of the bone marrow microenvironment...
November 2, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098360/established-models-and-new-paradigms-for-hypoxia-driven-cancer-associated-bone-disease
#12
REVIEW
Thomas R Cox, Janine T Erler, Robin M H Rumney
The five-year survival rate for primary bone cancers is ~ 70% while almost all cases of secondary metastatic bone cancer are terminal. Hypoxia, the deficiency of oxygen which occurs as the rate of tumour growth exceeds the supply of vascularisation, is a key promoter of tumour progression. Hypoxia-driven effects in the primary tumour are wide ranging including changes in gene expression, dysregulation of signalling pathways, resistance to chemotherapy, neovascularisation, increased tumour cell proliferation and migration...
November 2, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098359/a-murine-model-for-human-eco-syndrome-reveals-a-critical-role-of-intestinal-cell-kinase-in-skeletal-development
#13
Mengmeng Ding, Li Jin, Lin Xie, So Hyun Park, Yixin Tong, Di Wu, A Bobby Chhabra, Zheng Fu, Xudong Li
An autosomal-recessive inactivating mutation R272Q in the human intestinal cell kinase (ICK) gene caused profound multiplex developmental defects in human endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome. ECO patients exhibited a wide variety of skeletal abnormalities, yet the underlying mechanisms by which ICK regulates skeletal development remained largely unknown. The goal of this study was to understand the structural and mechanistic basis underlying skeletal anomalies caused by ICK dysfunction. Ick R272Q knock-in transgenic mouse model not only recapitulated major ECO skeletal defects such as short limbs and polydactyly but also revealed a deformed spine with defective intervertebral disk...
November 2, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094177/bone-marrow-microenvironment-as-a-regulator-and-therapeutic-target-for-prostate-cancer-bone-metastasis
#14
REVIEW
Sun H Park, Evan T Keller, Yusuke Shiozawa
Bone is the most common site of prostate cancer metastasis. Once prostate cancer cells metastasize to bone, the mortality rate of prostate cancer patients increases significantly. Furthermore, bone metastases produce multiple skeletal complications, including bone pain that impairs the patients' quality of life. Effective therapies for bone metastatic disease are underdeveloped with most current therapies being primarily palliative with modest survival benefit. Although the exact mechanisms through which prostate cancer metastasizes to bone are unclear, growing evidence suggests that the bone marrow microenvironment, particularly its hematopoietic activity, is a significant mediator of prostate cancer bone tropism...
November 1, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090349/bone-disease-in-axial-spondyloarthritis
#15
REVIEW
Margot Van Mechelen, Giulia Rossana Gulino, Kurt de Vlam, Rik Lories
Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory skeletal disorder with an important burden of disease, affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints and typically presenting in young adults. Ankylosing spondylitis, diagnosed by the presence of structural changes to the skeleton, is the prototype of this disease group. Bone disease in axial spondyloarthritis is a complex phenomenon with the coexistence of bone loss and new bone formation, both contributing to the morbidity of the disease, in addition to pain caused by inflammation...
October 31, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080972/the-proteasome-and-myeloma-associated-bone-disease
#16
REVIEW
Fabrizio Accardi, Denise Toscani, Federica Costa, Franco Aversa, Nicola Giuliani
Bone disease is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM), a hematological malignancy characterized by osteolytic lesions due to a severe uncoupled and unbalanced bone remodeling with pronounced osteoblast suppression. Bone metastasis is also a frequent complication of solid tumors including advanced breast or prostate cancer. In the past years, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been proved critical in regulating the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) are a new class of drugs, currently used in the treatment of MM, that affect both tumor cells and bone microenvironment...
October 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079996/prebiotics-bone-and-mineral-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Corrie M Whisner, Luisa F Castillo
Increasing interest in functional foods has driven discovery in the area of bioactive compounds. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate compounds that, when consumed, elicit health benefits and aid in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. While prebiotics have been shown to improve a number of chronic, inflammatory conditions, growing evidence exists for prebiotic effects on calcium metabolism and bone health. These novel dietary fibers have been shown to increase calcium absorption in the lower intestines of both preclinical and human models...
October 27, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079995/bone-targeted-therapies-in-cancer-induced-bone-disease
#18
REVIEW
Sofia Sousa, Philippe Clézardin
Cancer-induced bone disease is a major source of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Thus, effective bone-targeted therapies are essential to improve disease-free, overall survival and quality of life of cancer patients with bone metastases. Depending of the cancer-type, bone metastases mainly involve the modulation of osteoclast and/or osteoblast activity by tumour cells. To inhibit metastatic bone disease effectively, it is imperative to understand its underlying mechanisms and identify the target cells for therapy...
October 27, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079994/osteomicrobiology-a-new-cross-disciplinary-research-field
#19
REVIEW
Claes Ohlsson, Klara Sjögren
The mutualistic interaction between the gut microbiota (GM) and its host profoundly shapes many aspects of our physiology. The composition and activity of the gut microbiota is modulated by environmental factors such as dietary habits and antibiotic treatments. In rodents, studies demonstrate that the GM is a crucial regulator of bone metabolism and that modulation of the GM composition by probiotic interventions can prevent castration-induced bone loss. Short-term colonization of germ-free mice with GM results in an activation of CD4+T cells, resulting in increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone and thereby activation of osteoclastic bone resorption...
October 27, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071362/sclerostin-and-energy-metabolism-during-physical-activity
#20
LETTER
Cyrille B Confavreux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
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