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Neurological Research

Meghan E Murphy, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Brandon A McCutcheon, Patrick R Maloney, Lorenzo Rinaldo, Daniel Shepherd, Daniel S Ubl, William E Krauss, Elizabeth B Habermann, Mohamad Bydon
OBJECTIVE: This study moves beyond previous cohort studies and benchmark data by studying a population of elective spine surgery from a multicenter registry in an effort to validate, disprove, and/or identify novel risk factors for dural tears. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis queried a multicenter registry for patients with degenerative spinal diagnoses undergoing elective spinal surgery from 2010-2014. Multivariable logistic regression analysis interrogated for independent risk factors of dural tears...
December 2, 2016: Neurological Research
Hussein Algahtani, Saeed Ghamdi, Bader Shirah, Bader Alharbi, Raghad Algahtani, Abdulrahman Bazaid
BACKGROUND: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. The disease is characterized by subacute encephalopathy with confusion, dysphagia, dysarthria, and seizures. METHODS: We diagnosed a family affected by BTBGD and studied them including prognosis of cases when diagnosed and treated early in the disease process. We also review the literature comprehensively and summarize all published data about this disorder...
December 1, 2016: Neurological Research
C Bernal-Mondragón, V Arriaga-Avila, E Martínez-Abundis, B Barrera-Mera, O Mercado-Gómez, R Guevara-Guzmán
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the short- and long-term effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on social recognition behavior and expression of α- and β-estrogen receptors (ER). METHODS: Rats were exposed to 60-Hz electromagnetic fields for 9 or 30 days and tested for social recognition behavior. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assays were performed to evaluate α- and β-ER expression in the olfactory bulb of intact, ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized+estradiol (E2) replacement (OVX+E2)...
November 28, 2016: Neurological Research
Oytun Erbas, Dilek Taşkıran, Fatih Oltulu, Altuğ Yavaşoğlu, Saylav Bora, Okan Bilge, Bilge Piri Çınar, Gönül Peker
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects of oxytocin (OT) on diabetic neuropathy (DNP) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen rats were used to induce diabetes using single dose streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Diabetic DNP was verified by electromyography (EMG) and motor function test on 21st day following STZ injection. Six rats served as naïve control group and received no drug (n = 6). Following EMG, diabetic rats were randomly divided into three groups and administered with either 1 ml/kg saline or 80 μg/kg OT or 160 μg/kg OT intraperitoneally for four weeks...
November 24, 2016: Neurological Research
Jing Wang, Peng Yu, Ming Zeng, Xudong Gu, Yan Liu, Mingyue Xiao
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to confirm whether paraffin therapy offer clinical value in the treatment of spasticity due to stroke. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with spasticity in the upper limb were included. The patients were randomized into the experimental group with paraffin therapy (n = 27) and the control group with placebo therapy (n = 25). The outcome measures besides temperature examination were undertaken at time points of 0 (T0), 2 (T1) and 4 weeks (T2) following therapy treatment...
November 23, 2016: Neurological Research
Manisha Kak, Naoum P Issa, Raymond P Roos, Bobbie Jean Sweitzer, Ori Gottlieb, Amy Guralnick, Steven R White, Carol E Semrad, Betty Soliven, Joumana Baroody, Kourosh Rezania
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and effect on survival of insertion of a gastrostomy tube (G-tube) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who have upright forced vital capacity (uFVC) ≤ 50% predicted. Current guidelines, which are based on higher rates of post-procedure complications in ALS patients with advanced respiratory dysfunction, have led to a recommendation to perform G-tube insertion before the FVC drops to <50% predicted, even when the patient has no significant dysphagia...
November 23, 2016: Neurological Research
Yuqiao Zhang, Yukai Liu, Jing Hang, Cong Geng, Guomei Shi, Junshan Zhou, Jie Yang
The ideal target blood pressure(BP) has remaining controversial for patients with cerebral haemorrhage, so we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of intensive BP lowering therapy. Clinical trials in which acute-phase patients were randomly assigned to an intensive BP lowering group or a standard BP lowering group were included. The primary outcome was mortality and dependency at 90 days. The secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, the proportion of cases involving haematoma extension during the acute phase and early neurological deterioration...
November 22, 2016: Neurological Research
Sophia F Shakur, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Mohamed Abouelleil, Victor A Aletich, Fady T Charbel, Ali Alaraj
OBJECTIVES: Embolization reduces flow in cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) before surgical resection, but changes in pulsatility and resistance indices (PI, RI) are unknown. Here, we measure PI, RI in AVM arterial feeders before and after embolization/surgery. METHODS: Records of patients who underwent AVM embolization and surgical resection at our institution between 2007 and 2014 and had PI, RI, and flows obtained using quantitative magnetic resonance angiography were retrospectively reviewed...
November 21, 2016: Neurological Research
Zeinab Vahidinia, Nasim Alipour, Mohammad Ali Atlasi, Homayoun Naderian, Cordian Beyer, Abolfazl Azami Tameh
OBJECTIVES: Apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of the ischemic penumbra after reperfusion. Estrogen and progesterone have neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain damage, however the exact mechanisms of neuroprotection and signaling pathways is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the possible regulatory effects of a combined steroid treatment on extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways after cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) using an intraluminal filament technique for 1 h followed by 23 h reperfusion...
November 11, 2016: Neurological Research
Serafeim Katsavos, Artemios K Artemiadis, Markos Zacharis, Paraskevi Argyrou, Ilia Theotoka, Chrysa Chrysovitsanou, Maria Anagnostouli
OBJECTIVES: Predicting caregiving status (CS) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is of both clinical and health policy-making value. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the clinical predictors of CS, along with factors related to caregivers' stress. METHODS: A sample of 342 clinically definite MS patients (67.5% females, 67.8% relapsing MS, mean age 43.1 ± 11.4 year-old, mean disease duration 147 ± 105.4 months, median Expanded Disability Status Scale -EDSS-3...
November 9, 2016: Neurological Research
Bin Liu, Yanhong Zhang, Ying Jiang, Longling Li, Changqing Li, Jinfang Li
OBJECTIVE: Cerebellar fastigial nucleus stimulation (FNS) has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemic injury. Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARγ) has been reported to cause neuroprotection in animal models of stroke. The present study was performed to explore the neuroprotective mechanisms of FNS treatment in experimental stroke. METHODOLOGY: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats preconditioned through transfection with either PPARγ-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or lentiviral vector without shRNA and surgically subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion subsequently received FNS treatment...
November 7, 2016: Neurological Research
Daniel J Hellenbrand, Katie E Kaeppler, Mark E Ehlers, Colton D Thompson, Joanna C Zurko, Morgan M Buchholz, Alexandra R Springer, Daniel L Thompson, Rami K Ibrahim, Amgad Hanna
OBJECTIVE: Autologous peripheral nerve grafts are commonly used clinically as a treatment for peripheral nerve injuries. However, in research using an autologous graft is not always feasible due to loss of function, which in many cases is assessed to determine the efficacy of the peripheral nerve graft. In addition, using allografts for research require the use of an immunosuppressant, which creates unwanted side effects and another variable within the experiment that can affect regeneration...
November 4, 2016: Neurological Research
Qinghe Yang, Wei Pan, Liwei Qian
OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the common neurological disorders in young adults, which affects the central nervous system myelin or oligodendrocytes and results in disability. This study aimed to identify the key miRNAs in blood of patients in MS for better understanding the underlying mechanisms of MS. METHODS: The publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus data-sets of MS were performed to integrated analysis. miRNA expression and mRNA expression were analyzed in whole blood samples from patients with MS and healthy controls by microarray analysis, Gene Ontology enrichment analyses, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses, construction of miRNA-mRNA interaction network, and quantitative real-time polymerase reaction...
November 4, 2016: Neurological Research
Hae Jeong Park, Su Kang Kim, Hyun-Kyung Park, Joo-Ho Chung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic stroke, having deleterious effects on cerebral arteries by promoting inflammation and apoptosis in vascular and immune cells. In this study, we investigated genetic association between TNF gene and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a Korean population. METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TNF gene [-857C/T (rs1799724) and -308G/A (rs1800629)] were selected and genotyped using direct sequencing in 144 ICH patients and 455 control subjects...
November 4, 2016: Neurological Research
Md Torequl Islam
Reactive species play an important role in physiological functions. Overproduction of reactive species, notably reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species along with the failure of balance by the body's antioxidant enzyme systems results in destruction of cellular structures, lipids, proteins, and genetic materials such as DNA and RNA. Moreover, the effects of reactive species on mitochondria and their metabolic processes eventually cause a rise in ROS/RNS levels, leading to oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, lipids, and DNA...
November 3, 2016: Neurological Research
Rishi Pal, Prafulla Chandra Tiwari, Rajendra Nath, Kamlesh Kumar Pant
Parkinson's disease (PD) the second most common age-associated progressive neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons, cytoplasmic inclusions of aggregated proteins (Lewy bodies), and neuroinflammation. The inflammation of neurons causes release of various inflammatory mediators (IFNs, EGF, IL5, IL6, HGF, LIF and BMP2). The hallmarks of neuroinflammation are the presence of activated microglia and reactive astrocytes in the parenchyma of the CNS and increased production of cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, complement cascade proteins, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) which in some cases can result in disruption of the blood brain barrier and direct participation of the adaptive immune system...
November 3, 2016: Neurological Research
Xing Tian, Lingyue Gao, Li An, Xiaowen Jiang, Junpeng Bai, Jian Huang, Weihong Meng, Qingchun Zhao
OBJECTIVES: Compound MQA (1,5-O-dicaffeoyl-3-O-[4-malic acid methyl ester]-quinic acid) is a natural caffeoylquinic acid derivative isolated from Arctium lappa L. roots. This study aims to explore the neuroprotective effects of MQA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. METHODS: The SH-SY5Y cells were divided into four groups, including control, 20 μM MQA, 200 μM H2O2, 200 μM H2O2 + 20 μM MQA groups. The effects of MQA on H2O2-induced cell death were measured by MTT and LDH assays...
November 1, 2016: Neurological Research
Dan Lu, Yingxi Wu, Yan Qu, Fei Shi, Jun Hu, Bo Gao, Bao Wang, Guodong Gao, Shiming He, Tianzhi Zhao
OBJECTIVES: Rat models of global cerebral ischemia (GCI) are essential to study potential treatment strategies against stroke in humans. However, nonvisual electrocoagulation of vertebral arteries often leads to incomplete occlusion that may prevent the creation of a successful model. METHODS: Therefore, we used a modified method in which the vertebral arteries were safely visualized and electrocauterized between the first and second transverse processes through a dorsal incision...
October 31, 2016: Neurological Research
Yan Li, Yefeng Cai, Min Zhao, Jingbo Sun
OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is an important cause of stroke and remains a challenge for stroke prevention. Risk factors involved in atherosclerotic stroke and anterior and posterior circulation strokes (ACS and PCS, respectively) are different. The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in risk factors between intracranial and extracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS and ECAS), ACS and PCS, and ICAS/ECAS with ACS/PCS in a Chinese acute ischaemic stroke population. METHODS: We analysed 551 ischaemic stroke patients who had been enrolled between August 2005 and July 2008...
October 31, 2016: Neurological Research
Hayden White, Balasubramanian Venkatesh, Mark Jones, Hesly Fuentes
Objective Acute brain injury (ABI) is a catastrophic event, leading to disruption of the normal cerebral metabolic pathways and a subsequent cerebral energy deficit. Ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate) may represent an alternative metabolic substrate with the potential to improve cerebral energy supply and decrease injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate baseline ketone concentrations in the ABI population. Methods Thirty-eight patients with ABI were enrolled into the study and followed for up to 7 days...
October 27, 2016: Neurological Research
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