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Molecular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820969/a-disulfide-stabilized-human-vl-single-domain-antibody-library-is-a-source-of-soluble-and-highly-thermostable-binders
#1
Kevin A Henry, Hiba Kandalaft, Michael J Lowden, Martin A Rossotti, Henk van Faassen, Greg Hussack, Yves Durocher, Dae Young Kim, Jamshid Tanha
We have previously shown that incorporation of a second intradomain disulfide linkage into camelid VHH and human VH/VL single-domain antibodies confers increased thermostability. Here, we explored the effects of introducing an additional disulfide linkage, formed between Cys48 and Cys64 (Kabat numbering), into a phage-displayed synthetic human VL library. In comparison to an identical library bearing only the highly conserved Cys23-Cys88 disulfide linkage, the disulfide-stabilized VL library tolerated a similar degree of randomization but retained a higher level of functional diversity after selection with protein L...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802994/expression-and-purification-of-norovirus-virus-like-particles-in-escherichia-coli-and-their-immunogenicity-in-mice
#2
Yuqi Huo, Xin Wan, Tong Ling, Jie Wu, Wenhui Wang, Shuo Shen
Norovirus (NoV) virus like particles (VLPs) produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been tested in human volunteers as vaccine candidate and were shown to be protective against NoV induced acute gastroenteritis. In this study, prevailing Sydney-2012-like NoV major capsid protein gene with or without N-terminal deletions (N26 and N38, 26 and 38 amino acids deleted from N terminus,respectively) were sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector, pCold III and pCold IV. Soluble and insoluble proteins were detected for both vectors after induction and higher levels of protein expression were observed for constructs pCold III-N26 and pCold III-N38...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802127/investigations-on-the-molecular-mode-of-action-of-the-novel-immunostimulator-zelnate-activation-of-the-cgas-sting-pathway-in-mammalian-cells
#3
Thomas Ilg
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is usually prevented or treated with vaccines and/or antibiotics. The use of antibiotics is, however, of concern due to the potential promotion of microbial resistance and the occurrence of residues. Recently an alternative aid in the treatment of BRD, the cationic lipid/bacterial plasmid DNA liposome-based immunomodulator ZelNate, has entered the veterinary market. In the present study, we provide data on the molecular mode of action of ZelNate. Despite the presence of numerous non-methylated CpG motifs in its plasmid DNA, ZelNate proved to be inactive on human and mouse toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in cell culture, in both recombinant and natural cellular receptor settings...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802126/derp1-modified-dendritic-cells-attenuate-allergic-inflammation-by-regulating-the-development-of-t-helper-type1-th1-th2-cells-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-allergic-rhinitis
#4
Shaoqing Yu, Bing Han, Shuangxi Liu, Hong Wang, Wenjie Zhuang, Yu Huang, Ruxin Zhang
The CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to regulate Th2-induced allergic rhinitis (AR). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Derp1-modified dendritic cells (DCs) in AR immunotherapy. Derp1 was synthesized and transfected into DCs to generate Derp1-modified DCs. Phenotypes of Derp1-modified DCs were analyzed with flow cytometry using antibodies against DC markers CD11c, CD11b, CD59, CD103 and Toll-like receptor 1(TLR1). Four groups of subject mice were formed; the controls were treated with immature DCs, while the AR mice models were sensitized with Derp1(AR) and treated with DCs(DC-AR) or Derp1-modified DCs (Derp1DC-AR)...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800975/exopolysaccharides-from-lactobacillus-delbrueckii-oll1073r-1-modulate-innate-antiviral-immune-response-in-porcine-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#5
Paulraj Kanmani, Leonardo Albarracin, Hisakazu Kobayashi, Hikaru Iida, Ryoya Komatsu, A K M Humayun Kober, Wakako Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Yoshihito Suda, Hisashi Aso, Seiya Makino, Hiroshi Kano, Tadao Saito, Julio Villena, Haruki Kitazawa
Previous studies demonstrated that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLL1073R-1 (LDR-1) improve antiviral immunity, especially in the systemic and respiratory compartments. However, it was not studied before whether those EPSs are able to beneficially modulate intestinal antiviral immunity. In addition, LDR-1-host interaction has been evaluated mainly with immune cells while its interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was not addressed before. In this work, we investigated the capacity of EPSs from LDR-1 to modulate the response of porcine IECs (PIE cells) to the stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 agonist poly(I:C) and the role of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR negative regulators in the immunoregulatory effect...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800475/biological-immunological-and-functional-properties-of-two-novel-multi-variant-chimeric-recombinant-proteins-of-csp-antigens-for-vaccine-development-against-plasmodium-vivax-infection
#6
Samaneh H Shabani, Sedigheh Zakeri, Ali H Salmanian, Jafar Amani, Akram A Mehrizi, Georges Snounou, François Nosten, Chiara Andolina, Yousef Mourtazavi, Navid D Djadid
The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is a major pre-erythrocyte vaccine candidate. The protein has a central repeat region that belongs to one of repeat families (VK210, VK247, and the P. vivax-like). In the present study, computer modelling was employed to select chimeric proteins, comprising the conserved regions and different arrangements of the repeat elements (VK210 and VK247), whose structure is similar to that of the native counterparts. DNA encoding the selected chimeras (named CS127 and CS712) were synthetically constructed based on E...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800474/nps-2143-a-selective-calcium-sensing-receptor-antagonist-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-pulmonary-inflammation
#7
Jae-Won Lee, Hyun Ah Park, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Ji-Won Park, Gilhye Lee, Hee Jae Lee, Seung Jin Lee, Sei-Ryang Oh, Kyung-Seop Ahn
NPS 2143, a novel and selective antagonist of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of NPS 2143 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). NPS 2143 pretreatment significantly inhibited the influx of inflammatory cells and the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the lung of mice with LPS-induced ALI. NPS 2143 decreased the levels of neutrophil elastase (NE) and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755586/an-unusual-cysteine-vl87-affects-the-antibody-fragment-conformations-without-interfering-with-the-disulfide-bond-formation
#8
Carolina Attallah, María Fernanda Aguilar, A Sergio Garay, Fernando E Herrera, Marina Etcheverrigaray, Marcos Oggero, Daniel E Rodrigues
The Cys residues are almost perfectly conserved in all antibodies. They contribute significantly to the antibody fragment stability. The relevance of two natural contiguous Cys residues of an anti-recombinant human-follicle stimulation hormone (rhFSH) in a format of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) was studied. This scFv contains 5 Cys residues: VH22 and VH92 in the variable heavy chain (VH) and VL23, VL87 and VL88 in the variable light chain (VL). The influence of two unusual contiguous Cys at positions VL87 and VL88 was studied by considering the wild type fragment and mutant variants: VL-C88S, VL-C87S, VL-C87Y...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751109/polymorphism-and-peptide-binding-specificities-of-porcine-major-histocompatibility-complex-mhc-class-i-molecules
#9
Shuhua Fan, Yongli Wang, Song Wang, Xian Wang, Yanan Wu, Zibin Li, Nianzhi Zhang, Chun Xia
The swine lymphocyte antigen class I (SLA I) is a highly polymorphic gene superfamily that plays an important role in swine anti-viral immune responses. However, an understanding of the highly variable sites and peptide-binding specificities of SLA I molecule is limited. In this study, a total of 27 SLA I alleles were identified from 3 Tibetan wild boars and 3 Heishan pigs. The phylogenetic relationship between the Tibetan wild boar and other breeds was analyzed using bioinformatics methods, and the highly variable sites were noted in the three dimensional structures of SLA I...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750255/effect-of-anti-muscarinic-autoantibodies-on-leukocyte-function-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#10
Eun Namkoong, Sang-Woo Lee, Nahyun Kim, Youngnim Choi, Kyungpyo Park
Patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, a systemic autoimmune disease, have been shown to have serum autoantibodies that react with the muscarinic acetylcholine type 3 receptor (M3R).Primary Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease. Patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome have been shown to have serum autoantibodies that react with the muscarinic acetylcholine type 3 receptor (M3R). Leukopenia has been reported to be significantly more common in primary Sjögren's syndrome patients who have anti-M3R-autoantibodies in their sera...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715683/il-17rb-enhances-thyroid-cancer-cell-invasion-and-metastasis-via-erk1-2-pathway-mediated-mmp-9-expression
#11
Lei Ren, Yapei Xu, Cong Liu, Shoujun Wang, Guijun Qin
IL-17RB, a member of the IL-17 receptor family that can be activated by IL-17B, has been proved to be involved in inflammatory diseases and cancers. However, the function of IL-17RB in thyroid cancer is still unknown. In this study, IL-17RB expression in thyroid cancer cell lines and tissues was examined by real-time PCR and western blot. The effects of IL-17RB on cell invasion and migration were determined by in vitro invasion and migration assays, while the effects of IL-17RB on cell metastasis were analyzed by in vivo experiments...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715682/cath-2-and-ll-37-increase-mannose-receptor-expression-antigen-presentation-and-the-endocytic-capacity-of-chicken-mononuclear-phagocytes
#12
Marina D Kraaij, Albert van Dijk, Henk P Haagsman
Cathelicidins display in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities and are part of the innate immune system. Previously, we found that in ovo treatment with chicken cathelicidin CATH-2 partially protects young broilers against respiratory E. coli infection. To determine the cellular aspects of this protection, we investigated immunomodulatory effects of CATH-2 and the human cathelicidin LL-37 on primary chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of chicken PBMCs with L-CATH-2, D-CATH-2 or LL-37 increased the percentage of mononuclear phagocytes, but decreased that of B cells...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708980/cd3-cd28-dynabeads-induce-expression-of-tn-antigen-in-human-t-cells-accompanied-by-hypermethylation-of-the-cosmc-promoter
#13
Chuanqin Shi, Xue Xu, Xiaofeng Yu, Zhenzhen Du, Xiying Luan, Dachang Liu, Tao Hu
Glycosylation is an important protein post-translational modification. In this process, the intermediate product, Tn antigen, arises from somatic mutations in core1β3-galactosyltransferase-specific molecular chaperone (Cosmc), which is required for the formation of active core1β3-galactosyltransferase (T-synthase). As a type of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen, Tn antigen is mainly expressed in many human tumor cells and is absent in normal cells. Surprisingly, it is also expressed in normal activated T cells after in vitro stimulation, but the mechanism underlying its expression remains unclear...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708979/why-human-anti-gal%C3%AE-1-4gal%C3%AE-1-4glc-natural-antibodies-do-not-recognize-the-trisaccharide-on-erythrocyte-membrane-molecular-dynamics-and-immunochemical-investigation
#14
Pavel Volynsky, Roman Efremov, Ilya Mikhalev, Kira Dobrochaeva, Alexander Tuzikov, Elena Korchagina, Polina Obukhova, Evgenia Rapoport, Nicolai Bovin
BACKGROUND: Human blood contains a big variety of natural antibodies, circulating throughout life at constant concentration. Previously, we have found natural antibodies capable of binding to trisaccharide Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc (P(k)) practically in all humans. Intriguingly, the same trisaccharide is a key fragment of glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) - normal component of erythrocyte and endothelial cell membrane, i.e. the antibodies and their cognate antigen coexist without any immunological reaction...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708978/methotrexate-combined-with-cyclophosphamide-attenuates-murine-collagen-induced-arthritis-by-modulating-the-expression-level-of-breg-and-dcs
#15
Jinnan Fan, Jing Luo, Caiping Yan, Runxi Hao, Xiangcong Zhao, Ruihuan Jia, Jiaojiao He, Dan Xu, Miao Miao, Xiaofeng Li
To explore the mechanism of methotrexate (MTX) and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CTX) in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), we investigated the levels of several immune cells and cytokines in mice with different treatments. CIA was induced in DBA/1 mice at the age of 7 weeks by primary immunization with 100μl emulsion containing 2mg/ml bovine type II collagen which was mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The booster immunization was performed with 50-100μl emulsion containing 2mg/ml bovine type II collagen (CII) mixed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA)...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704709/protective-role-of-surface-toll-like-receptor-9-expressing-neutrophils-in-local-inflammation-during-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-in-mice
#16
Xiuping Meng, Wei Sun, Yunjia Ren, Yue Xiao, Peiyan Zhao, Wenting Lu, Li Hua, Luowei Wang, Liying Wang, Yongli Yu
Clinically, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) occurs after serious trauma or sepsis. In sepsis, neutrophils are the major effector cells responsible for eliminating pathogens. However, the role of neutrophils in development of SIRS, especially in local inflammatory area, is controversial. In this study, we established a SIRS mouse model characterized with cytokine-mediated lethal shock by intraperitoneal injection of oligodexynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN) in D-galactosamine (D-GalN) sensitized mice based on our previous work and found that abundant neutrophils were rapidly recruited into the peritoneal cavity, where some neutrophils expressed surface TLR9 (sTLR9), defined as sTLR9(+) neutrophils...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704708/innate-immunity-related-pathogen-recognition-receptors-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#17
REVIEW
Reza Nosratabadi, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohammad Zare-Bidaki, Vahid Mohammadi Shahrokhi, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Innate immunity consists of several kinds of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), which participate in the recognition of pathogens and consequently activation of innate immune system against pathogens. Recently, several investigations reported that PRRs may also play key roles in the induction/stimulation of immune system related complications in microbial infections. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), as the main cause of viral hepatitis in human, can induce several clinical forms of hepatitis B and also might be associated with hepatic complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704707/a-founder-mutation-underlies-a-severe-form-of-phosphoglutamase-3-pgm3-deficiency-in-tunisian-patients
#18
Leila Ben-Khemis, Najla Mekki, Imen Ben-Mustapha, Karen Rouault, Fethi Mellouli, Monia Khemiri, Mohamed Bejaoui, Leila Essaddam, Saayda Ben-Becher, Lamia Boughamoura, Saida Hassayoun, Meriem Ben-Ali, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche
Phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) protein catalyzes the conversion of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P) to N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P), which is required for the synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) an important precursor for protein glycosylation. Mutations in PGM3 gene have been recently shown to underlie a new congenital disorder of glycosylation often associated to elevated IgE. Herein, we report twelve PGM3 deficient patients. They belong to three highly consanguineous families, originating from a rural district in the west central Tunisia...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704706/il-17b-a-new-area-of-study-in-the-il-17-family
#19
REVIEW
Qingli Bie, Chengqiang Jin, Bin Zhang, Haixin Dong
The interleukin (IL)-17 superfamily, a relatively new family of cytokines, consists of six ligands (from IL-17A to IL-17F), which bind to five receptor subtypes (from IL-17RA to IL-17RE) and induce downstream signaling. IL-17A, a prototype member of this family, has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of allergies, autoimmune diseases, allograft transplantations, and malignancies. Unlike IL-17A, which is mainly produced by T helper 17 cells, IL-17B is widely expressed in various tissues. Recently, the biological function of IL-17B in diseases, particularly tumors, has attracted the attention of researchers...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704704/the-role-of-monocytes-in-models-of-infection-by-protozoan-parasites
#20
REVIEW
Shanshan Hu, Wei Wei, Heinrich Korner
The confirmation of developmental differences between tissue macrophages and peripheral monocytes has changed our view of the functions and dynamics of these two important components of the innate immune system. It has been demonstrated conclusively that homeostasis of tissue resident macrophages is maintained by a low proliferative turn over. During an inflammatory response, bone marrow derived monocytes enter the tissue in large numbers and take part in the defense against the pathogens. After the destruction of invading pathogens, these cells disappear and tissue resident macrophages can be detected again...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
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