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Molecular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715683/il-17rb-enhances-thyroid-cancer-cell-invasion-and-metastasis-via-erk1-2-pathway-mediated-mmp-9-expression
#1
Lei Ren, Yapei Xu, Cong Liu, Shoujun Wang, Guijun Qin
IL-17RB, a member of the IL-17 receptor family that can be activated by IL-17B, has been proved to be involved in inflammatory diseases and cancers. However, the function of IL-17RB in thyroid cancer is still unknown. In this study, IL-17RB expression in thyroid cancer cell lines and tissues was examined by real-time PCR and western blot. The effects of IL-17RB on cell invasion and migration were determined by in vitro invasion and migration assays, while the effects of IL-17RB on cell metastasis were analyzed by in vivo experiments...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715682/cath-2-and-ll-37-increase-mannose-receptor-expression-antigen-presentation-and-the-endocytic-capacity-of-chicken-mononuclear-phagocytes
#2
Marina D Kraaij, Albert van Dijk, Henk P Haagsman
Cathelicidins display in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities and are part of the innate immune system. Previously, we found that in ovo treatment with chicken cathelicidin CATH-2 partially protects young broilers against respiratory E. coli infection. To determine the cellular aspects of this protection, we investigated immunomodulatory effects of CATH-2 and the human cathelicidin LL-37 on primary chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of chicken PBMCs with L-CATH-2, D-CATH-2 or LL-37 increased the percentage of mononuclear phagocytes, but decreased that of B cells...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708980/cd3-cd28-dynabeads-induce-expression-of-tn-antigen-in-human-t-cells-accompanied-by-hypermethylation-of-the-cosmc-promoter
#3
Chuanqin Shi, Xue Xu, Xiaofeng Yu, Zhenzhen Du, Xiying Luan, Dachang Liu, Tao Hu
Glycosylation is an important protein post-translational modification. In this process, the intermediate product, Tn antigen, arises from somatic mutations in core1β3-galactosyltransferase-specific molecular chaperone (Cosmc), which is required for the formation of active core1β3-galactosyltransferase (T-synthase). As a type of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen, Tn antigen is mainly expressed in many human tumor cells and is absent in normal cells. Surprisingly, it is also expressed in normal activated T cells after in vitro stimulation, but the mechanism underlying its expression remains unclear...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708979/why-human-anti-gal%C3%AE-1-4gal%C3%AE-1-4glc-natural-antibodies-do-not-recognize-the-trisaccharide-on-erythrocyte-membrane-molecular-dynamics-and-immunochemical-investigation
#4
Pavel Volynsky, Roman Efremov, Ilya Mikhalev, Kira Dobrochaeva, Alexander Tuzikov, Elena Korchagina, Polina Obukhova, Evgenia Rapoport, Nicolai Bovin
BACKGROUND: Human blood contains a big variety of natural antibodies, circulating throughout life at constant concentration. Previously, we have found natural antibodies capable of binding to trisaccharide Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc (P(k)) practically in all humans. Intriguingly, the same trisaccharide is a key fragment of glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) - normal component of erythrocyte and endothelial cell membrane, i.e. the antibodies and their cognate antigen coexist without any immunological reaction...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708978/methotrexate-combined-with-cyclophosphamide-attenuates-murine-collagen-induced-arthritis-by-modulating-the-expression-level-of-breg-and-dcs
#5
Jinnan Fan, Jing Luo, Caiping Yan, Runxi Hao, Xiangcong Zhao, Ruihuan Jia, Jiaojiao He, Dan Xu, Miao Miao, Xiaofeng Li
To explore the mechanism of methotrexate (MTX) and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CTX) in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), we investigated the levels of several immune cells and cytokines in mice with different treatments. CIA was induced in DBA/1 mice at the age of 7 weeks by primary immunization with 100μl emulsion containing 2mg/ml bovine type II collagen which was mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The booster immunization was performed with 50-100μl emulsion containing 2mg/ml bovine type II collagen (CII) mixed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA)...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704709/protective-role-of-surface-toll-like-receptor-9-expressing-neutrophils-in-local-inflammation-during-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-in-mice
#6
Xiuping Meng, Wei Sun, Yunjia Ren, Yue Xiao, Peiyan Zhao, Wenting Lu, Li Hua, Luowei Wang, Liying Wang, Yongli Yu
Clinically, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) occurs after serious trauma or sepsis. In sepsis, neutrophils are the major effector cells responsible for eliminating pathogens. However, the role of neutrophils in development of SIRS, especially in local inflammatory area, is controversial. In this study, we established a SIRS mouse model characterized with cytokine-mediated lethal shock by intraperitoneal injection of oligodexynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN) in D-galactosamine (D-GalN) sensitized mice based on our previous work and found that abundant neutrophils were rapidly recruited into the peritoneal cavity, where some neutrophils expressed surface TLR9 (sTLR9), defined as sTLR9(+) neutrophils...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704708/innate-immunity-related-pathogen-recognition-receptors-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#7
REVIEW
Reza Nosratabadi, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohammad Zare-Bidaki, Vahid Mohammadi Shahrokhi, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Innate immunity consists of several kinds of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), which participate in the recognition of pathogens and consequently activation of innate immune system against pathogens. Recently, several investigations reported that PRRs may also play key roles in the induction/stimulation of immune system related complications in microbial infections. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), as the main cause of viral hepatitis in human, can induce several clinical forms of hepatitis B and also might be associated with hepatic complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704707/a-founder-mutation-underlies-a-severe-form-of-phosphoglutamase-3-pgm3-deficiency-in-tunisian-patients
#8
Leila Ben-Khemis, Najla Mekki, Imen Ben-Mustapha, Karen Rouault, Fethi Mellouli, Monia Khemiri, Mohamed Bejaoui, Leila Essaddam, Saayda Ben-Becher, Lamia Boughamoura, Saida Hassayoun, Meriem Ben-Ali, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche
Phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) protein catalyzes the conversion of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P) to N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P), which is required for the synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) an important precursor for protein glycosylation. Mutations in PGM3 gene have been recently shown to underlie a new congenital disorder of glycosylation often associated to elevated IgE. Herein, we report twelve PGM3 deficient patients. They belong to three highly consanguineous families, originating from a rural district in the west central Tunisia...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704706/il-17b-a-new-area-of-study-in-the-il-17-family
#9
REVIEW
Qingli Bie, Chengqiang Jin, Bin Zhang, Haixin Dong
The interleukin (IL)-17 superfamily, a relatively new family of cytokines, consists of six ligands (from IL-17A to IL-17F), which bind to five receptor subtypes (from IL-17RA to IL-17RE) and induce downstream signaling. IL-17A, a prototype member of this family, has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of allergies, autoimmune diseases, allograft transplantations, and malignancies. Unlike IL-17A, which is mainly produced by T helper 17 cells, IL-17B is widely expressed in various tissues. Recently, the biological function of IL-17B in diseases, particularly tumors, has attracted the attention of researchers...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704704/the-role-of-monocytes-in-models-of-infection-by-protozoan-parasites
#10
REVIEW
Shanshan Hu, Wei Wei, Heinrich Korner
The confirmation of developmental differences between tissue macrophages and peripheral monocytes has changed our view of the functions and dynamics of these two important components of the innate immune system. It has been demonstrated conclusively that homeostasis of tissue resident macrophages is maintained by a low proliferative turn over. During an inflammatory response, bone marrow derived monocytes enter the tissue in large numbers and take part in the defense against the pathogens. After the destruction of invading pathogens, these cells disappear and tissue resident macrophages can be detected again...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697404/il-33-improves-wound-healing-through-enhanced-m2-macrophage-polarization-in-diabetic-mice
#11
Rongguo He, Hui Yin, Baohong Yuan, Tao Liu, Li Luo, Ping Huang, Liangcheng Dai, Kang Zeng
IL-33 is a newly discovered member of the IL-1 family and has been identified as a potent inducer of Th2 type immunity. Emerging evidence imply that IL-33 may also act as an alarm to alert the immune system when released by epithelial barrier tissues during trauma or infection. In this study, we further investigate the potential efficacy of IL-33 on dermal wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. A full-thickness skin wound was generated on the back of diabetic mice and treated with IL-33 or vehicle topically...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668455/polymorphisms-in-dennd1b-gene-are-associated-with-asthma-and-atopy-phenotypes-in-brazilian-children
#12
Bianca S D Fiuza, Milca de J Silva, Neuza M Alcântara-Neves, Maurício L Barreto, Ryan Dos S Costa, Camila A Figueiredo
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease associated with a complex basis involving environmental factors and individual variabilities. The DENN Domain Containing 1B (DENND1B) gene has an important role on T cell receptor (TCR) down-regulation on Th2 cells and studies have shown that mutations or loss of this factor can be associated with increased Th2 responses and asthma. The aim of this work is to evaluate the association of polymorphisms in the DENND1B with asthma and allergy markers phenotypes in Brazilian children...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668353/salsa-a-dance-on-a-slippery-floor-with-changing-partners
#13
M P Reichhardt, U Holmskov, S Meri
It is becoming increasingly clear that the connections between our immune system and the microbiota colonizing us have a tremendous impact on human health. A number of innate molecular defence mechanisms cooperate to selectively target unwanted microorganisms at the mucosal surfaces. Amongst others these include the complement system, IgA and the SALSA molecule. The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (SAG) or gp340 is a multifunctional molecule with important functions in innate immunity, inflammation and epithelial homeostasis...
June 28, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662411/activating-transcription-factor-3-protects-mice-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-interacting-with-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein
#14
Yunfeng Zhao, Xiulin Wu, Lanlan Qian, Liang Guo, Jiangrong Liao, Xueling Wu
Excessive inflammatory response is critical event in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Previous study has shown that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) plays a role in downregulate inflammatory responses including ventilation-induced ALI. We hypothesized that ATF3 have a protective effect in ALI induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa. PA was intra-tracheally administrated to ATF3 knock-out (KO) mice to establish ALI model. Inflammatory factors, BALF protein, lung wet to dry ratio, lung injury score and mortality were determined...
June 26, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662410/lei0258-microsatellite-variability-and-its-association-with-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-in-broiler-chickens
#15
Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni, Maryam Badavam
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has a profound influence on disease resistance or susceptibility, productivity and important economic traits in chicken. Association of the MHC with a wide range of immune responses makes it a valuable predictive factor for the disease pathogenesis and outcome. The tandem repeat LEI0258 is a genetic marker which is located within the B locus of chicken MHC and strongly associated with serologically defined haplotypes. LEI0258 microsatellite marker was applied to investigate the MHC polymorphism in Ross 308 broiler chicken (N=104)...
June 26, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662409/human-placental-mesenchymal-stem-cells-of-fetal-origins-alleviated-inflammation-and-fibrosis-by-attenuating-myd88-signaling-in-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-mice
#16
Feng Li, Fei Han, Hui Li, Jia Zhang, Xia Qiao, Juan Shi, Li Yang, Jianda Dong, Meihui Luo, Jun Wei, Xiaoming Liu
Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease that its pathogenic mechanism currently is incompletely understood. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling has recently been identified as a regulator of inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of different origins offer a great promise in treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However mechanisms of pathogenic roles of TLR signaling and therapeutic effects of MSCs in the IPF remain elusive. In present study, the involvement of TLR signaling and the therapeutic role of MSCs were interrogated in MyD88-deficient mice using human placental MSCs of fetal origins (hfPMSCs)...
June 26, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654770/md-2-regulates-lps-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-il-1beta-secretion-by-a-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-pathway-in-alveolar-macrophages-cell-line
#17
Man Luo, Lijuan Hu, Dandan Li, Yanying Wang, Yuting He, Lei Zhu, Weiying Ren
Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is required in the recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and participates in LPS-induced alveolar macrophage (AM) inflammation during acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome aggravates inflammation in LPS-induced ALI. However, there is currently little known about the relationship between MD-2 signaling and the NLRP3 inflammasome. This study showed that NLRP3 expression, IL-1beta (IL-1β) secretion, and pyroptosis were up-regulated after LPS stimulation in the NR8383 AM cell-line...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648996/rnai-knock-down-of-the-bemisia-tabaci-toll-gene-bttoll-increases-mortality-after-challenge-with-destruxin-a
#18
Can Zhang, Shao-Qiao Yan, Bin-Bin Shen, Shaukat Ali, Xing-Min Wang, Feng-Liang Jin, Andrew G S Cuthbertson, Bao-Li Qiu
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) is a well known invasive insect species. Little information is available on immune system of B. tabaci to date. In this study, one of the Toll-like receptors (TLR; namely BtToll) was cloned in MEAM1 B. tabaci which contains an open reading frame of 3153bp, encoding putative 1050 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BtToll is highly identitical with other members of the TLR family. Transcripts of BtToll detected through qRT-PCR were expressed in all developmental stages of B...
June 22, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646679/hypoxia-induced-adam-17-expression-is-mediated-by-rsk1-dependent-c-ebp%C3%AE-activation-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#19
Jing-Yun Chen, Chien-Huang Lin, Bing-Chang Chen
Hypoxia was identified as a mediator of lung fibrosis in patients with chronic obstructive asthma (COA). Overexpression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM 17) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) leads to development of tissue fibrosis. However, the signaling pathway in hypoxia-induced ADAM 17 expression remains poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the roles that ribosomal S-6 kinase 1 (RSK1)/CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ)-dependent ADAM 17 expression plays in hypoxia-induced CTGF expression in human lung fibroblasts...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644974/immature-human-dcs-efficiently-translocate-endocytosed-antigens-into-the-cytosol-for-proteasomal-processing
#20
Renato B Baleeiro, Peter Walden
Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen is essential for induction of CD8 effector T cell responses and a hallmark of dendritic cells (DCs). The mode of antigen processing in this context is controversial and some models imply translocation of the antigen from the endosomes into the cytosol. To test this hypothesis we made use of the pro-apoptotic properties of cytochrome c when in the cytosol, and confirmed that it indeed triggered apoptosis of human immature DCs but only at high concentrations. Proteasome inhibitors reduced the required concentration of cytochrome c thousand-fold, indicating that protein translocated into the cytosol is rapidly degraded by proteasomes...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
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