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Molecular Immunology

Lu Meng, Longyun Li, Shan Lu, Kai Li, Zhenbo Su, Yunyun Wang, Xiaodi Fan, Xuyang Li, Guoqing Zhao
The aim of present study was to evaluate the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and investigate its possible mechanisms mediated by HMGB1. In vivo, pulmonary pathology observation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were also examined to evaluate the protective effect of DEX in the lungs. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum and lung tissues LPS-induced rats were detected...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Fu-Kai Zhang, Jun-Ling Hou, Ai-Jiang Guo, Ai-Ling Tian, Zhao-An Sheng, Wen-Bin Zheng, Wei-Yi Huang, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Infection of ruminants and humans with Fasciola gigantica is attracting increasing attention due to its economic impact and public health significance. However, little is known of innate immune responses during F. gigantica infection. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) signaling pathways in buffaloes infected with 500F. gigantica metacercariae. Serum, liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from infected and control buffaloes at 3, 10, 28, and 70days post infection (dpi)...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Jini Kim, Seungkoo Lee, Dooil Jeoung, Young-Myeong Kim, Jongseon Choe
In spite of the potential importance of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in the germinal center, its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. COX-2 is the key enzyme generating pleiotropic prostaglandins. Based on our previous findings, we hypothesized that lymphocytes would stimulate COX-2 expression in follicular dendritic cell (FDC) by liberating cytokines. In this study, we examined the effect of tonsillar lymphocytes on COX-2 expression in FDC-like cells by immunoblotting. B but not T cells induced COX-2 protein in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Sandra E Nicholson, Narelle Keating, Gabrielle T Belz
Immune checkpoint inhibitors harness the power of the immune system to fight cancer. The clinical success achieved with antibodies against the inhibitory T cell receptors PD-1 and CTLA4 has focused attention on the possibility of manipulating other immune cells, in particular those involved in innate immunity. Here we review the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and their contribution to tumor immunity. As the prototypical ILC, the natural killer (NK) cell has an intrinsic ability to detect and kill cancer cells...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Marlieke L M Jongsma, Greta Guarda, Robbert M Spaapen
The MHC class I pathway, presenting endogenously derived peptides to T lymphocytes, is hijacked in many pathological conditions. This affects MHC class I levels and peptide presentation at the cell surface leading to immune escape of cancer cells or microbes. It is therefore important to identify the molecular mechanisms behind MHC class I expression, processing and antigen presentation. The identification of NLRC5 as regulator of MHC class I transcription was a huge step forward in understanding the transcriptional mechanism involved...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Dan-Dan Tu, Yi-Lian Zhou, Wen-Bin Gu, Qi-Hui Zhu, Bin-Peng Xu, Zhong-Kai Zhou, Ze-Peng Liu, Cong Wang, Yu-Yin Chen, Miao-An Shu
The peroxiredoxins (Prxs) define a novel and evolutionarily conserved superfamily of peroxidases able to protect cells from oxidative damage by catalyzing the reduction of a wide range of cellular peroxides. Prxs have been identified in prokaryotes as well as in eukaryotes, however, the composition and number of Prxs family members vary in different species. In this study, six Prxs were firstly identified from the mud crab Scylla paramamosain by RT-PCR and RACE methods. Six SpPrxs can be subdivided into three classes: (a) three typical 2-Cys enzymes denominated as Prx1/2, 3, 4, (b) two atypical 2-Cys enzymes known as Prx5-1 and Prx5-2, and (c) a 1-Cys isoform named Prx6...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Katy A Doré, Jun-Ichi Kashiwakura, James M McDonnell, Hannah J Gould, Toshiaki Kawakami, Brian J Sutton, Anna M Davies
In allergic disease, mast cell activation is conventionally triggered by allergen-mediated cross-linking of receptor-bound IgE on the cell surface. In addition to its diverse range of intracellular roles in apoptosis, cell proliferation and cancer, Histamine-Releasing Factor (HRF) also activates mast cells and basophils. A subset of IgE antibodies bind HRF through their Fab regions, and two IgE binding sites on HRF have been mapped. HRF can form dimers, and a disulphide-linked dimer is critical for activity...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Gunter Schmidtke, Richard Schregle, Gerardo Alvarez, Eva M Huber, Marcus Groettrup
The 20S immunoproteasome (IP) is an interferon(IFN)-γ - and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -inducible variant of the 20S constitutive proteasome (CP) in which all its peptidolytically active subunits β1, β2, and β5 are replaced by their cytokine inducible homologues β1i (LMP2), β2i (MECL-1), and β5i (LMP7). These subunit replacements alter the cleavage specificity of the proteasome and the spectrum of proteasome-generated peptide ligands of MHC class I molecules. In addition to antigen processing, the IP has recently been shown to serve unique functions in the generation of pro-inflammatory T helper cell subtypes and cytokines as well as in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, but the mechanistic involvement of the IP in these processes has remained elusive...
December 2, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Erik Schilling, Ronald Weiss, Anja Grahnert, Michael Bitar, Ulrich Sack, Sunna Hauschildt
In response to environmental stimuli such as granulocyte-macrophage or macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF/M-CSF), macrophages (MΦ) can acquire distinct functional phenotypes that control inflammatory processes on the one hand and contribute to a broad spectrum of pathologies on the other. Potential intervention strategies will require an understanding of the signalling processes that are associated with macrophage polarization. In the present study, we show that M-MΦ produce more IFN-β and IL-10 and a lot less TNF-α than do GM-MΦ in response to LPS...
December 2, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Narayanan Kalyanaraman
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is a newly identified parvovirus that causes serious respiratory infection among children across the globe. Aim of the present study was to predict immunogenic residues located on the VP2 protein of HBoV1 towards development of epitope based vaccines. Several computational tools were employed to predict epitopes (bothT and B cell restricted) with stringent regulation for the improvement of confidence. After meticulous analysis, the peptide "TTPWTYFNFNQY" was identified as potential candidate for development of preventive vaccine...
December 2, 2017: Molecular Immunology
M P Keizer, C Aarts, A M Kamp, H N Caron, M D van de Wetering, D Wouters, T W Kuijpers
Oncological treatment has been associated with an increased risk of infection, most often related to therapy-induced pancytopenia. However, limited research has been conducted on the effect of oncological therapy on the complement system, being part of the non-cellular innate immune system. This became the rationale for an observational clinical study (C2012) in which we have investigated the prevalence of transient complement defects. Once we had observed such defects, a correlation of the complement defects to specific clinical parameters or to specific therapeutic regimens was investigated...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Jianjian Yin, Kewei Ren, Yongjing Huang, Gongming Gao, Luming Nong, Nanwei Xu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship and mechanism between IL-10, NF-κB and MMP-3 in cervical degenerative disease induced by unbalanced dynamic and static forces in rats. METHODS: Sixty Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into test (n=45) and control (n=15) groups, which were randomly subdivided into three groups corresponding to one-month, three-month and six-month post-operation. Test group included 10, 15, 20 rats at corresponding postoperative stage and control group had five rats at each time point...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Daniele Corridoni, Alison Simmons
A critical role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is to influence adaptive immune responses by regulating antigen presentation. Engagement of PRRs in dendritic cells (DCs) increases MHC class I antigen presentation and CD8+ T-cell activation by cross-presented peptides but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not completely understood. Studies looking at the role of PRRs in cross-presentation have been largely limited to TLRs but the role of other PRRs such as cytosolic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like (NOD-like) receptors remains particularly enigmatic...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Diego Mota Lopes, Tarcísio Vila Verde S de Almeida, Robson da Paixão de Souza, Luís Eduardo Viana Ribeiro, Brady Page, Jamille de Souza Fernandes, Edgar M Carvalho, Luciana Santos Cardoso
Coinfection with leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis has been associated with increased time to healing of cutaneous lesions of leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Leishmania braziliensis infection on co-cultures of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) with autologous lymphocytes from patients with schistosomiasis and patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. MoDCs were differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes, isolated by magnetic beads, infected with L. braziliensis, and co-cultured with autologous lymphocytes...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Hai-Jia Zhang, Bin Xu, Hu Wang, Bing Xu, Guo-Dong Wang, Ming-Zuo Jiang, Chao Lei, Mei-Ling Ding, Peng-Fei Yu, Yong-Zhan Nie, Kai-Chun Wu, Su-Mei Sha, Meng-Bin Li
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by aberrant immune responses to the gut microbiota. Among the gut microbiota, adherent-invasive Escherichia Coli (AIEC) is thought to be the pathogen through invading the intestinal epithelial cells and causing inflammation. IL-17 secretion increase, induced by enhanced bacterial adhesion to the intestine epithelium, could on one hand protect the mucosa, but on the other hand, over amount of IL-17 initializes inflammation reactions that in turn damages the mucosa. The relationship between IL-17 and AIEC is still unclear...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Emmanuel Montassier, Laureline Berthelot, Jean-Paul Soulillou
The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), particularly the environmental component of the disease, remains speculative. Recent reports have suggested that alterations in the gut microbiota of MS patients could contribute to the etiology or pathophysiology of the disease. In this Viewpoint, using PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) to infer the functional content of the gut microbiota, we show that the gut microbiota of MS patients is characterized by a significant decrease in the relative abundance of the enzyme EC 2...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Katie L Owen, Belinda S Parker
Bone metastasis is a fatal consequence of a subset of solid malignancies that fail to respond to conventional therapies. While a myriad of factors contribute to osteotropism and disseminated cell survival and outgrowth in bone, efforts to inhibit tumor cell growth in the bone-metastatic niche have largely relied on measures that disrupt the bi-directional interactions between bone resident and tumor cells. However, the targeting of isolated stromal interactions has proven ineffective to date in inhibiting bone-metastatic progression and patient mortality...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Khalil Eslamloo, Sabrina M Inkpen, Matthew L Rise, Rune Andreassen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play important immunoregulatory roles in teleosts, although miRNAs involved in the antiviral immune response of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were previously uncharacterised. Using deep sequencing and qPCR, the present study was conducted to identify miRNAs responsive to the viral mimic, polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC) in Atlantic cod macrophages. Macrophage samples isolated from Atlantic cod (n=3) and treated with pIC or phosphate buffered saline (PBS control) for 24 and 72h were used for miRNA profiling...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Takumi Kobayashi, Stephen R Mattarollo
Natural killer (NK) cells are a critical component in the innate immune response against disease. NK cell function is tightly regulated by specific cytokine and activation/inhibitory receptor signalling, leading to diverse effector responses. Like all living cells, energy metabolism is a fundamental requirement for NK cell activation and survival. There is growing evidence that distinct functional profiles of NK cells are determined by alterations to cellular metabolic pathways. In this review, we summarise current literature that has explored NK cell metabolism to provide insight into how metabolic regulation controls NK cell function...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Ka Yee Fung, Paul M Nguyen, Tracy Putoczki
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis. Over the past 15 years, there has been a large effort to dissect the mechanisms required for GI homeostasis, with a major focus on different immune cell populations and the cytokines that they produce. In contrast to T-helper (Th) cells, ILCs respond rapidly to cytokines in their microenvironment in the absence of specific antigens; however, once activated both cell populations have similar effector functions. Two effector cytokines produced by both ILC3 and Th17 cell populations, Interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22, have taken center stage for their ability to signal directly to GI epithelial cells and promote epithelial cell survival...
November 23, 2017: Molecular Immunology
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