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Molecular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777999/targeted-delivery-of-cd44s-sirna-by-scfv-overcomes-de-novo-resistance-to-cetuximab-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#1
Wenyan Fu, Hefen Sun, Yang Zhao, Mengting Chen, Lipeng Yang, Xueli Yang, Wei Jin
The overexpression of EGFR often occurs in TNBC, and the anti-EGFR receptor antibody cetuximab is used widely to treat metastatic cancer in the clinic. However, EGFR-targeted therapies have been developed for TNBC without clinical success. In this study, we show that impaired EGFR degradation is crucial for resistance to cetuximab, which depends on the cell surface molecule CD44. To further investigate the role of CD44 in EGFR signaling and its treatment potential, we developed a targeting fusion protein composed of an anti-EGFR scFv generated from cetuximab and truncated protamine, called Ce-tP...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763880/anti-neuroinflammatory-effects-of-20c-from-gastrodia-elata-via-regulating-autophagy-in-lps-activated-bv-2-cells-through-mapks-and-tlr4-akt-mtor-signaling-pathways
#2
Qian-Hang Shao, Xiao-Ling Zhang, Ying Chen, Cheng-Gen Zhu, Jian-Gong Shi, Yu-He Yuan, Nai-Hong Chen
20C, a novel bibenzyl compound, is isolated from Gastrodia elata. In our previous study, 20C showed protective effects on tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, rotenone-induced apoptosis and rotenone-induced oxidative damage. However, the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of 20C is still with limited acquaintance. The objective of this study was to confirm the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of 20C on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 cells and further elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747052/oleanolic-acid-protects-against-cognitive-decline-and-neuroinflammation-mediated-neurotoxicity-by-blocking-secretory-phospholipase-a2-iia-activated-calcium-signals
#3
Leguo Zhang, Ruixue Xia, Jianpu Jia, Lixuan Wang, Kuo Li, Yanhua Li, Junling Zhang
Neuroinflammation causes neurotoxic injury and underlies the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Astrocytes are the predominant immunoregulatory cells in AD. Oleanolic acid (OA) is a promising anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent that can ameliorate cerebral damage in ischemic environments, but its role in AD remains poorly elucidated. Here, preconditioning with OA inhibited the transcription and secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-activated astrocytes...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747051/immune-modulation-of-two-batf3-paralogues-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#4
Jun Wang, Min Liu, Yang Wu, Sohye Yoon, Abdo Alnabulsi, Fuguo Liu, Clara Fernández-Álvarez, Tiehui Wang, Jason W Holland, Chris J Secombes, Jun Zou
Basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like (BATF) -3 is a member of the activator protein 1 (AP‑1) family of transcription factors and is known to play a vital role in regulating differentiation of antigen-presenting cells in mammals. In this study, two BATF3 homologues (termed BATF3a and BATF3b) have been identified in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Both genes were constitutively expressed in tissues, with particularly high levels of BATF3a in spleen, liver, pyloric caecae and head kidney. BATF3a was also more highly induced by PAMPs and cytokines in cultured cells, with type II IFN a particularly potent inducer...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731166/insect-food-allergy-and-allergens
#5
Steffie de Gier, Kitty Verhoeckx
Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730547/time-course-transcriptome-analysis-of-medullary-thymic-epithelial-cells-in-the-early-phase-of-thymic-involution
#6
Haoming Wu, Xiaodan Qin, Hui Dai, Yu Zhang
Degeneration of the thymic epithelium is believed to be the primary cause of age-associated thymic involution. In order to investigate the molecular events during the early phase of thymic involution, RNA-seq was performed to gain the transcriptional profiles of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) from mice of 2, 6 and 10 weeks of age. We confirmed and extended the previous observation of declined expression of cell cycle-related genes and diminished E2F3 activity during thymic involution, showing that it occurred as early as 2-6 weeks after birth...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730546/increased-plasmatic-soluble-hla-g-levels-in-endometrial-cancer
#7
Hamza Ben Yahia, Wafa Babay, Daria Bortolotti, Nadia Boujelbene, Ahmed Baligh Laaribi, Nour Zidi, Mehdi Kehila, Hanène Chelbi, Abdellatif Boudabous, Karima Mrad, Amel Mezlini, Dario Di Luca, Hadda-Imene Ouzari, Roberta Rizzo, Inès Zidi
Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) is known as an immune suppressive molecule; it interacts with several immune cells and inhibits their functions. HLA-G molecule is highly represented in pathological conditions including malignant transformation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that focuses on the expression of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in endometrial cancer (EC). We aimed at exploring sHLA-G plasma levels and its prognostic value in EC. We examined total sHLA-G expression as well as the sHLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression in plasma samples from 40 patients with EC and 45 healthy controls by a specific sandwich ELISA...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723770/genomic-organization-and-adaptive-evolution-of-ighc-genes-in-marine-mammals
#8
Lili Li, Xinghua Rong, Guiting Li, Yingying Wang, Bingyao Chen, Wenhua Ren, Guang Yang, Shixia Xu
Immunoglobulins are important elements of the adaptive immune system that bind to an immense variety of microbial antigens to neutralize infectivity and specify effector functions. In the present study, the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region (IGHC) genes from marine mammals were identified and compared with those of their terrestrial relatives to explore their genomic organization and evolutionary characteristics. The genomic organization of marine mammal IGHC genes was shown to be conservative with other eutherian mammals...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702356/identification-of-cpe-and-gait-elements-in-3-utr-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-mif-involved-in-inflammatory-response-induced-by-lps-in-ciona-robusta
#9
Aiti Vizzini, Maria Giovanna Parisi, Felicia Di Falco, Laura Cardinale, Matteo Cammarata, Vincenzo Arizza
Innate immune responses face infectious microorganisms by inducing inflammatory responses. Multiple genes within distinct functional categories are coordinately and temporally regulated by transcriptional 'on' and 'off' switches that account for the specificity of gene expression in response to external stimuli. Mechanisms that control transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation are important in coordinating the initiation and resolution of inflammation. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important cytokine that, in Ciona robusta, is related to inflammatory response...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698799/blimp-1-prolongs-allograft-survival-without-regimen-via-influencing-t-cell-development-in-favor-of-regulatory-t-cells-while-suppressing-th1
#10
Aline Yen Ling Wang, Charles Yuen Yung Loh, Shyi-Jou Chen, Huang-Kai Kao, Cheng-Hung Lin, Sheng-Hao Chuang, Chin-Ming Lee, Huey-Kang Sytwu, Fu-Chan Wei
BACKGROUND: B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) transcription factor is expressed in multiple cell lineages and in particular, T cells. However, the role of Blimp-1 in T cell-mediated allograft tolerance is still unknown. METHODS: This study is the first to investigate transplanted skin allograft survival using transgenic (Tg) mice with T cell overexpression of Blimp-1. RESULTS: Without any immunosuppression, fully MHC-mismatched skin allografts on Tg(+) mice had a significantly prolonged survival rate and partial tolerance at 90 days...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685461/meat-allergy-and-allergens
#11
Jeffrey M Wilson, Thomas A E Platts-Mills
IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to ingested animal products, including both mammalian and avian sources, is increasingly appreciated as an important form of food allergy. Traditionally described largely in children, it is now clear that allergy to meat (and animal viscera) impacts both children and adults and represents a heterogeneous group of allergic disorders with multiple distinct syndromes. The recognition of entities such as pork-cat syndrome and delayed anaphylaxis to red meat, i.e- the α-Gal syndrome, have shed light on fundamental, and in some cases newly appreciated, features of allergic disease...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684716/predicted-mirna-mrna-mediated-posttranscriptional-control-associated-with-differences-in-cervical-and-thoracic-thymus-function
#12
Amanda F Assis, Jie Li, Paula B Donate, Janaína A Dernowsek, Nancy R Manley, Geraldo A Passos
A secondary cervical thymus (CT) is present in the neck region in about 50% of human and mice. CT in mice is an independent and functional organ, which can be colonized by T lymphocyte progenitors and generate thymocytes that are selected by the T cell receptor repertoire following the positive and negative selection. However, CT and the main thoracic thymus (TT) have been shown in mice to have significant functional differences. In this study, we use transcriptional profiling to compare mRNA or miRNAs expression patterns in murine CT and TT...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680589/peanut-allergens
#13
Chiara Palladino, Heimo Breiteneder
Peanut allergens have the potential to negatively impact on the health and quality of life of millions of consumers worldwide. The seeds of the peanut plant Arachis hypogaea contain an array of allergens that are able to induce the production of specific IgE antibodies in predisposed individuals. A lot of effort has been focused on obtaining the sequences and structures of these allergens due to the high health risk they represent. At present, 16 proteins present in peanuts are officially recognized as allergens...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680588/tree-nut-allergens
#14
Sabine Geiselhart, Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Merima Bublin
Tree nuts are considered as part of a healthy diet due to their high nutritional quality. However, they are also a potent source of allergenic proteins inducing IgE mediated hypersensitivity often causing serious, life-threatening reactions. The reported prevalence of tree nut allergy is up to 4.9% worldwide. The general term "tree nuts" comprises a number of nuts, seeds, and drupes, derived from trees from different botanical families. For hazelnut and walnut several allergens have been identified which are already partly applied in component resolved diagnosis, while for other tree nuts such as macadamia, coconut, and Brazil nut only individual allergens were identified and data on additional allergenic proteins are missing...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679865/generation-and-characterization-of-hagfish-variable-lymphocyte-receptor-b-against-glycoprotein-of-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-vhsv
#15
Jung Seok Lee, Jaesung Kim, Se Pyeong Im, Si Won Kim, Jassy Mary S Lazarte, Jae Wook Jung, Tae Won Gong, Young Rim Kim, Jeong Ho Lee, Hyoung Jun Kim, Tae Sung Jung
Variable lymphocyte receptors B (VLRBs) are non-immunoglobulin components of the humoral immune system in jawless vertebrates including hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri) and lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Hagfish VLRBs consist of leucine rich repeat (LRR) modules with a superhydrophobic C-terminal tail, the latter of which leads to extremely low expression levels in recombinant protein technology. Here, we present an artificially oligomerized VLRB (arVLRB) that conjugates via the C4bp oligomerization domain derived from human C4b-binding protein (hC4bp) rather than the superhydrophobic tail...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678301/molecular-pathways-for-antigenic-peptide-generation-by-er-aminopeptidase-1
#16
Anastasia Mpakali, Zachary Maben, Lawrence J Stern, Efstratios Stratikos
Endoplasmic Reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is an intracellular enzyme that can generate or destroy potential peptide ligands for MHC class I molecules. ERAP1 activity influences the cell-surface immunopeptidome and epitope immunodominance patterns but in complex and poorly understood manners. Two main distinct pathways have been proposed to account for ERAP1's effects on the nature and quantity of MHCI-bound peptides: i) ERAP1 trims peptides in solution, generating the correct length for binding to MHCI or overtrimming peptides so that they are too short to bind, and ii) ERAP1 trims peptides while they are partially bound onto MHCI in manner that leaves the peptide amino terminus accessible...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674236/sub-lethal-ultraviolet-b-irradiation-and-poly-i-c-treatment-synergistically-induced-apoptosis-of-hacat-cells-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#17
Wuxiyar Otkur, Weiwei Liu, Jinda Wang, Xingfan Jia, Dianchao Huang, Fang Wang, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation exerts multiple effects on skin cells, inducing apoptosis, senescence and carcinogenesis. Toll-like receptor 3, a member of pattern recognition receptors, is reported to initiate inflammation by recognizing double-strand RNA (dsRNA) released from UVB-irradiated cells. It has not been studied, however, whether apoptosis induction in UVB irradiation is attributed to TLR3 activation. Here, we report on the pro-apoptotic role of TLR3 in UVB-irradiated epidermal cells. Poly I:C, an analogue of dsRNA that activates TLR3, was used in combination with sub-lethal UVB (4...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650230/production-of-spliced-peptides-by-the-proteasome
#18
Nathalie Vigneron, Vincent Stroobant, Violette Ferrari, Joanna Abi Habib, Benoit J Van den Eynde
CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes are essential players of anti-tumor immune responses. On tumors, they recognize peptides of about 8-to-10 amino acids that generally result from the degradation of cellular proteins by the proteasome. Until a decade ago, these peptides were thought to solely correspond to linear fragments of proteins that were liberated after the hydrolysis of the peptide bonds located at their extremities. However, several examples of peptides containing two fragments originally distant in the protein sequence challenged this concept and demonstrated that proteasome could also splice peptides together by creating a new peptide bond between two distant fragments...
April 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650229/allergen-component-analysis-as-a-tool-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-occupational-allergy
#19
Monika Raulf
We are now in the epoch of "molecular allergology" and numerous clinically relevant allergenic molecules are available improving the performance of in vitro allergen tests and allergen detection methods. This review is focusing on characterized occupational allergens and their implementation into the in vitro diagnosis for occupational allergy and in allergen detection methods. More than 400 occupational agents are identified and documented as being 'respiratory sensitizers', but currently only a limited number of them are characterized on the molecular level and available for routine diagnosis as native or recombinant allergens...
April 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649688/recombinant-outer-membrane-protein-25c-from-brucella-abortus-induces-th1-and-th2-mediated-protection-against-brucella-abortus-infection-in-mouse-model
#20
Soumya Paul, Bhavani V Peddayelachagiri, Sowmya Nagaraj, Joseph J Kingston, Harsh V Batra
Development of a safe and efficacious vaccine for brucellosis is a long standing challenge for scientists. Recognizing potential antigens towards developing vaccine candidate is crucial. Omp25c, a porin protein of Brucella, is a paralog of two previously identified promising vaccine candidates namely, Omp25 and Omp31, with notable sequence identity. Also, Omp25c is conserved in all major Brucella species. This highlights the possibility of employing this protein in multivalent subunit vaccine based approach of Brucella management...
April 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
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