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Molecular Immunology

Nicole C Smith, Sherri L Christian, Richard G Taylor, Javier Santander, Matthew L Rise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Jung Seok Lee, Jaesung Kim, Se Pyeong Im, Si Won Kim, Jae Wook Jung, Jassy Mary S Lazarte, Jeong Ho Lee, Kim D Thompson, Tae Sung Jung
Lamprey, one of the living representatives of jawless vertebrates, uses variable lymphocyte receptors B (VLRB) for antigen recognition, rather than immunoglobulin (Ig) based receptors as used by higher vertebrates. The C-terminus of lamprey VLRB (LC) possess a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) signal sequence and seven cysteine residues providing dual functionality of the VLRB antibody in the form of a humoral agglutinin and cell membrane receptors. Here, we show that the LC can be either secreted or be membrane anchored as a heterologous fused protein in a multimeric form comprising of eight or ten monomeric units...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Shuo-Lei Li, Jun-Rui Feng, Hai-Hong Zhou, Chun-Miao Zhang, Guang-Bo Lv, Yu-Bo Tan, Zhong-Bo Ge, Ming-Yu Wang
BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of the systemic inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with increased risk and poor outcomes of many diseases, such as cardiovascular events and cancer. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the conformational rearrangement of human pentameric CRP (pCRP) to monomeric CRP (mCRP) is a prerequisite for participation in the pathogenesis. Therefore, determining the mechanism of the dissociation of pCRP into pro-inflammatory mCRP under physiological/pathological circumstances has been intriguing...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Mary Beth Yu, Joshua Guerra, Anthony Firek, William H R Langridge
Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein traditionally considered to be an intracellular protein with a structural role. However, recent evidence suggests that vimentin can also be found outside the cell in disease conditions such as cancer, traumatic tissue injury, and inflammation. Extracellular vimentin was previously found to stimulate innate immunity by increasing monocyte and macrophage ability to kill bacteria. However, vimentin has also been previously found to decrease neutrophil infiltration into inflamed tissue...
November 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Adam Shahine
The CD1 family of glycoproteins are MHC class I-like molecules that present a wide array of self and foreign lipid antigens to T-cell receptors (TCRs) on T-cells. Humans express three classes of CD1 molecules, denoted as Group 1 (CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c), Group 2 (CD1d), and Group 3 (CD1e). Of the CD1 family of molecules, CD1b exhibits the largest and most complex antigen binding groove; allowing it the capabilities to present a broad spectrum of lipid antigens. While its role in foreign-lipid presentation in the context of mycobacterial infection are well characterized, understanding the roles of CD1b in autoreactivity are recently being elucidated...
November 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Denis A Molina Molina, Clara Guerra-Duarte, Dayane L Naves de Souza, Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Giovana Reis de Ávila, Vanete T Soccol, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui
Bothropasin is a hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) from Bothrops jararaca venom, the snake responsible for most bites in Southeastern Brazil. SVMPs, such as bothropasin, are involved in the main bothropic envenoming symptoms, which include hemorrhage, inflammation, necrosis and blood coagulation deficiency. B-cell epitope mapping of SVMPs can lead to the identification of peptides capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies without causing toxic effects, therefore improving anti-venom production...
November 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Zizhen Gong, Shengnan Zhao, Jiefei Zhou, Junkai Yan, Lingyu Wang, Xixi Du, Hui Li, Yingwei Chen, Wei Cai, Jin Wu
BACKGROUND: NLRP3 inflammasome mediates IL-1β maturation, therefore plays a vital role in the development of IBD. Curcumin is known for possessing strong anti-inflammatory property. OBJECTIVE: The present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β production. METHODS: LPS-primed macrophages were treated with curcumin prior to DSS triggering NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1β secretion and ASC oligomerization were observed...
November 2, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Ting Ling, Sheng-Na Li, Guang-Xiu Weng, Weiying Wang, Changsheng Li, Lingzhen Cao, Hua Rao, Hong-Bing Shu, Liang-Guo Xu
MAVS as an essential receptor protein for anti-virus innate immunity plays an important role in the production of virus-induced typeⅠ interferon and regulation of interferon regulatory factor 3/7. Understanding the MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling pathway can provide detailed insights. In this study, we identify transactivation response element RNA-binding protein (TARBP2), as an inhibitor of the cellular protein kinase PKR, negatively regulates virus -induced IFN-β production by targets MAVS. Overexpression of TARBP2 inhibits virus-induced IFN-β production as well as cellular antiviral response...
October 31, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Sandra E Nicholson, Stephanie S Watowich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Scheherazade Sadegh-Nasseri, AeRyon Kim
MHC II proteins present processed antigens to CD4 + T cells through a complex set of events and players that include chaperons and accessory molecules. Antigen processing machinery is optimized for the selection of the best fitting peptides, called 'immunodominant epitopes', in the MHC II groove to which, specific CD4 + T cells respond and differentiate into memory T cells. However, due to the complexity of antigen processing, understanding the parameters that lead to immunodominance has proved difficult...
August 23, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Jai Rautela, Laura F Dagley, Tobias Kratina, Angaleena Anthony, Wilford Goh, Elliot Surgenor, Rebecca B Delconte, Andrew I Webb, Ngaire Elwood, Joanna R Groom, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Lynn Corcoran, Nicholas D Huntington
NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes with a key role in limiting tumour metastases. In mice, the NK cell lineage continually expresses high levels of the Inhibitor of DNA-binding 2 (Id2) protein and loss of Id2 is incongruous with their survival due to aberrant E-protein target gene activity. Using novel Id2 and E-protein antibodies that detect both mouse and human proteins, we have extensively characterised Id2 and E-protein expression in murine and human NK cells. We detected clear expression of E2 A and HEB, and to a lesser extent E2-2 in murine NK cells...
August 22, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Wael N Hozzein, Gamal Badr, Badr M Badr, Ahmed Allam, Ahmad Al Ghamdi, Mohammed A Al-Wadaan, Noori S Al-Waili
Impaired wound healing is a serious complication of diabetes that negatively affects the patient's socioeconomic life. Multiple mechanisms contribute to impaired diabetic wound healing including deficient recruitment of wound macrophages/neutrophils and impaired neovascularization. Bee venom (BV) has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of several diseases. Nevertheless, the impacts of BV on the diabetic wound healing have been poorly studied. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying BV treatment on diabetic wound healing in a type I diabetic mouse model...
November 2018: Molecular Immunology
Lihua Shi, Song Li, Kelly Maurer, Zhe Zhang, Michelle Petri, Kathleen E Sullivan
We observed increased expression of ADAMDEC1 RNA in monocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The precise role of ADAMDEC1 is uncertain and uniquely among metalloproteinases it utilizes a zinc-coordinating aspartic acid residue which allows it to escape inhibition by tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-3 (TIMP-3). A closely related gene encodes the protein ADAM28, which is not up-regulated in lupus. We leveraged the ability to look at both gene's promoters and enhancers simultaneously. ADAMDEC1 was up-regulated by LPS while ADAM28 was not upregulated in the short term...
November 2018: Molecular Immunology
Maryam Golshani, Mona Amani, Seyed Davar Siadat, Mehdi Nejati-Moheimani, Amin Arsang, Saeid Bouzari
In the present study, protective efficacy conferred by a cocktail protein consisted of Brucella L7/L12 ribosomal, truncated outer membrane protein 31 (TOmp31) and SOmp2b recombinant proteins in CpG ODN 1826+ Montanide ISA 70VG or Poly (I:C) adjuvants was evaluated and compared in BALB/c mice. Immunization of mice with both vaccine regimens elicited strong specific IgG responses (higher IgG2a titers over IgG1 titers), provided T helper1 (Th1) oriented immune responses and conferred protection levels compatible to the live vaccines against Brucella challenge...
November 2018: Molecular Immunology
Xiaoyao Chen, Weiguang Kong, Yongyao Yu, Shuai Dong, Zhenyu Huang, Wei Yu, Jie Xu, Yanzhi Luo, Qingchao Wang, Zhen Xu
Interleukin 15 (IL15) is a pleiotropic cytokine that participates in innate and adaptive immunity along with its receptor α-chain (IL15Rα). In order to investigate the potential roles of IL15 and IL15Rα in dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), we firstly cloned the cDNA sequence of Ma-IL15 and Ma-IL15Rα, which contain 1096bp and 1236bp and code proteins of 193 amino acids and 210 amino acids, respectively. A short signal peptide and Pfam IL15 domain were found in Ma-IL15, while a highly conserved sushi domain existed in Ma-IL15Rα...
November 2018: Molecular Immunology
Joon Seok Park, Ji Hyung Kim
The immune network controls homeostasis and inflammation of the skin. Immune cells use their antigen receptors to respond to a wide range of insults originating from microbes and allergens. T cells, which are key effector cells in the immune system, engage their T cell receptors (TCRs) to recognize self and foreign antigens in the context of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, MHC-like CD1 proteins, or MHC class I-related molecules. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that T cells activated by non-canonical antigens are important in skin diseases...
November 2018: Molecular Immunology
Ying Wang, Yaming Shan, Xinyu Gao, Rui Gong, Jun Zheng, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang, Qi Zhao
Yeast displaying techniques have been widely used for identifying novel single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) and engineering their binding properties. In this study, we establish a set of vectors for scFv screening and production in the yeast system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This suite includes a display vector pYS for screening of recombinant scFv libraries as well as an expression vector pYE for production of scFv candidates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The display vector, pYS, give the identification of the HIV-1-specific scFv clones from one scFv display library by fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
November 2018: Molecular Immunology
Li Zhang, Hu Li, Hong Ren, Peng Hu
Given the B helper function of follicular T helper (Tfh) cells and peripheral T helper (Tph) cells, we researched the roles of circulating PD-1hi CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells and PD-1hi CXCR5- CD4+ T cells in the decrease in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels and hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). In the present study, the frequencies of PD-1hi CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells and PD-1hi CXCR5- CD4+ T cells measured by flow cytometry were significantly higher in patients with CHB than that in healthy controls (HCs)...
November 2018: Molecular Immunology
Mads Lausen, Thomas B G Poulsen, Gunna Christiansen, Kenneth Kastaniegaard, Allan Stensballe, Svend Birkelund
Monocytes are key mediators of innate immunity and comprise an important cellular defence against invading pathogens. However, exaggerated or dysregulated monocyte activation can lead to severe immune-mediated pathology such as sepsis or chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, detailed insight into the molecular mechanisms of monocyte activation is essential to understand monocyte-driven inflammatory pathologies. We therefore investigated the global protein changes in human monocytes during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation to mimic bacterial activation...
November 2018: Molecular Immunology
Rui Liu, Shaopeng Zhang, Wenxuan Ma, Hao Lu, Ji Gao, Xiaojie Gan, Zheng Ju, Jian Gu, Ling Lu
Previous studies demonstrate that the number of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) increases in aged mice. However, these studies do not characterize iTregs across different ages or how these immune modulators contribute to the dysregulation of immunity in murine disease models. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between age and iTreg function using a mouse model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). In this model, aged-mice suffered more serious injury than Young-mice, with higher serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and higher histological scores from liver biopsies...
November 2018: Molecular Immunology
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