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Molecular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531815/chicken-interleukin-1%C3%AE-mutants-are-effective-single-dose-vaccine-adjuvants-that-enhance-mucosal-immune-response
#1
Wen-Ting Chen, Hao-Kai Chang, Cheng-Chung Lin, Shan-Min Yang, Hsien-Sheng Yin
The use of cytokines as adjuvants in poultry is promising because they may enhance immune responses to antigens. In this study, we created two mutants, chicken interleukin-1 beta (ChIL-1β) Q19A and R140A, which exhibited significantly increased in vivo biological activity compared with wild-type ChIL-1β. The potential mucosal adjuvant activity of the mutants Q19A and R140A was evaluated in chickens through the intranasal coadministration of a single dose of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine with Q19A or R140A...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531814/targeting-egfr-her2-heterodimerization-with-a-novel-anti-her2-domain-ii-iii-antibody
#2
Xiaojie Yu, Lingfei Wang, Yafeng Shen, Chao Wang, Yajun Zhang, Yanchun Meng, Yang Yang, Beibei Liang, Bo Zhou, Huajing Wang, Huafeng Wei, Changhai Lei, Shi Hu, Bohua Li
HER2, a ligand-free tyrosine kinase receptor of the HER family, is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer. The anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab has shown significant clinical benefits in metastatic breast cancer. Despite the effectiveness of trastuzumab, its efficacy remains variable and often modest. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve ErbB2-targeting therapy. Here, we describe a novel anti-HER2 antibody, 7C3, which was developed using hybridoma technique. Structural analysis confirms that the epitope of this antibody is in domain II/III of HER2...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531813/immunomodulatory-function-of-whole-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Hao Zhang, Yanling Tao, Haihui Liu, Saisai Ren, Bin Zhang, Hu Chen
Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a critical role in immune modulation. However, immunomodulatory function of whole human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) remains unclear. In this study, UC-MSCs were separated from whole umbilical cord using a single enzyme digestion. UC-MSCs (CD73(+), CD90(+), CD105(+), and CD34(-), CD45(-), HLA-DR(-)) were differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes in vitro under specific stimulatory environments. UC-MSCs suppressed umbilical cord blood lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by mitogen, and ELISA showed that the secretion of INF-γ was downregulated, and the secretion of IL-4 was upregulated, with CD8(+) T cells markedly decreased and CD4(+) T cells changed lightly...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531812/macrophages-produce-il-33-by-activating-mapk-signaling-pathway-during-rsv-infection
#4
Feifei Qi, Song Bai, Dandan Wang, Lei Xu, Haiyan Hu, Sheng Zeng, Ruonan Chai, Beixing Liu
It has been reported that RSV infection can enhance IL-33 production in lung macrophages. However, little is known about specific signaling pathways for activation of macrophages during RSV infection. In the present study, by using real-time RT-PCR as well as western blot assay, it became clear that RSV infection can enhance not only the expression of mRNAs for MAPK molecules (including p38, JNK1/2, and ERK1/2), but also the levels of MAPK proteins in lung macrophages as well as RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, infection with RSV resulted in an increased level of phosphorylated MAPK proteins in RAW264...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521279/chronic-stress-impairs-the-local-immune-response-during-cutaneous-repair-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#5
Ana Patrícia Mateus, Liliana Anjos, João R Cardoso, Deborah M Power
Scale removal in fish triggers a damage-repair program to re-establish the lost epidermis and scale and an associated local immune response. In mammals, chronic stress is known to delay wound healing and to modulate the cutaneous stress axis, but this is unstudied in teleost fish the most successful extant vertebrates. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that chronic stress impairs cutaneous repair in teleost fish as a consequence of suppression of the immune response. The hypothesis was tested by removing the scales and damaging the skin on one side of the body of fish previously exposed for 4 weeks to a chronic crowding stress and then evaluating cutaneous repair for 1 week...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521278/scaffold-protein-jlp-mediates-tcr-initiated-cd4-t-cell-activation-and-cd154-expression
#6
Qi Yan, Cheng Yang, Qiang Fu, Zhaowei Chen, Shan Liu, Dou Fu, Rahmat N Rahman, Ryota Nakazato, Katsuji Yoshioka, Sam K P Kung, Guohua Ding, Huiming Wang
CD4(+) T-cell activation and its subsequent induction of CD154 (CD40 ligand, CD40L) expression are pivotal in shaping both the humoral and cellular immune responses. Scaffold protein JLP regulates signal transduction pathways and molecular trafficking inside cells, thus represents a critical component in maintaining cellular functions. Its role in regulating CD4(+) T-cell activation and CD154 expression, however, is unclear. Here, we demonstrated expression of JLP in mouse tissues of lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, and also CD4(+) T cells...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514714/calcitonin-protects-chondrocytes-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-apoptosis-and-inflammatory-response-through-mapk-wnt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#7
Lai-Bo Zhang, Zhen-Tao Man, Wei Li, Wei Zhang, Xian-Quan Wang, Shui Sun
Calcitonin (CT) is an anti-absorbent, which has long been used for treatment of osteoporosis. However, little information is available about the effects of CT on osteoarthritis (OA). This study was mainly aimed to explore the effects of CT on the treatment of OA, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Chondrocytes were isolated from immature mice and then were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT, small interfering (si) RNA against bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and/or the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathway...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514713/pattern-recognition-receptors-and-coordinated-cellular-pathways-involved-in-tuberculosis-immunopathogenesis-emerging-concepts-and-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Abhishek Mishra, Shamim Akhtar, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Arshad Khan
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) play a central role in the recognition of numerous pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resulting in activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Besides Toll Like Receptors, C-type Lectin Receptors and Nod Like Receptors are now being recognized for their involvement in inducing immune response against M. tuberculosis infection. Although, a functional redundancy of the PRRs has also been reported in many studies, emerging evidences support the notion that a cooperative and coordinated response generated by these receptors is critical to sustain the full immune control of M...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511092/epigenetics-and-immunotherapy-the-current-state-of-play
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer Dunn, Sudha Rao
Cancer cells employ a number of mechanisms to escape immunosurveillance and facilitate tumour progression. The recent explosion of interest in immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint blockade, is a result of discoveries about the fundamental ligand-receptor interactions that occur between immune and cancer cells within the tumour microenvironment. Distinct ligands expressed by cancer cells engage with cell surface receptors on immune cells, triggering inhibitory pathways (such as PD-1/PD-L1) that render immune cells immunologically tolerant...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511091/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-dngr-1-in-rhesus-macaques
#10
Wen-Rong Yao, Lei Yu, Dong Li, Gui-Bo Yang
DC, NK lectin group receptor-1 (DNGR-1), also known as C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (CLEC9A), is a promising target for immunological therapeutics and vaccination against tumors and viruses. However, little is known about its property in rhesus macaques. In this study, we cloned rhesus macaque DNGR-1 cDNA, and found that its coding region could encode a 241-amino acid polypeptide with 91.7% sequence identity and similar antigenicity to that of humans. Both free and cell surface rhesus macaque DNGR-1 expressed in vitro could bind to apoptotic/dead cells induced by serum deprivation or freeze-thaw, and to pyroptotic cells stimulated with PMA and LPS...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511090/inactivation-of-the-ksrp-gene-modifies-collagen-antibody-induced-arthritis
#11
Rudolf Käfer, Katharina Schrick, Lisa Schmidtke, Evelyn Montermann, Dominika Hobernik, Matthias Bros, Ching-Yi Chen, Hartmut Kleinert, Andrea Pautz
The KH type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP) is a nucleic acid binding protein, which negatively regulates the stability and/or translatability of many mRNA species encoding immune-relevant proteins. As KSRP is expressed in immune cells including T and B cells, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells, we wanted to analyze its importance for the development of autoimmune diseases. We chose collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) as an appropriate autoimmune disease mouse model in which neutrophils and macrophages constitute the main effector cell populations...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505515/rhob-induces-the-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-tlr-triggered-macrophages
#12
Shuyuan Liu, Lisong Huang, Zhusen Lin, Yuanqin Hu, Ruifeng Chen, Liqiu Wang, Yi Shan
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the primary sensors detecting conserved molecular patterns on microorganisms, thus acting as important components of innate immunity against invading pathogens. Many positive and negative regulators of TLR-triggered signaling have been identified. The Rho GTPase RhoB plays a key role in cell migration, division and polarity; however, the function and regulatory mechanisms of RhoB in TLR ligand-triggered innate immune responses remain to be investigated. Here, we report that the expression of RhoB is induced by TLR agonists (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG, poly(I:C)) in macrophages...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505514/tlr4-supports-the-expansion-of-fasl-cd5-cd1d-hi-regulatory-b-cells-which-decreases-in-contact-hypersensitivity
#13
Keng Wang, Lei Tao, Jianbing Su, Yueyang Zhang, Binhua Zou, Yiyuan Wang, Min Zou, Nana Chen, Linsheng Lei, Xiaojuan Li
Certain B cells termed as "regulatory B cells" (Bregs) can suppress the ongoing immune responses and a splenic CD5(+)CD1d(hi) Breg subset identified earlier was shown to exert its regulatory functions through secretion of IL-10. Though FasL expression is an alternative mechanism of immune suppression used by B cells, little is known about the FasL expressing CD5(+)CD1d(hi) Bregs. In this study, we isolated splenocytes or splenic CD19(+) B cells and compared the efficiency of toll-like receptor(TLR)4 ligand (lipopolysaccharide) with TLR9 ligand (CpG), anti-CD40 and TLR9 ligand (CpG) plus anti-CD40 on the FasL expression of splenic CD5(+)CD1d(hi) Bregs by flow cytometry...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501652/a-new-adenovector-system-for-implementing-thymulin-gene-therapy-for-inflammatory-disorders
#14
María F Zappa-Villar, Micaela López-León, Joaquín Pardo, Mariana Costa, Rosana Crespo, Mireille Dardenne, Rodolfo G Goya, Paula C Reggiani
Thymulin is a thymic peptide possessing anti-inflammatory effects. In order to manipulate thymulin expression in gene therapy studies, we built a bidirectional regulatable two-vector Tet-Off system and the corresponding control system. The experimental two-vector system, ETV, consists of a recombinant adenovector (RAd) harboring an expression cassette centered on a Tet-Off bidirectional promoter flanked by a synthetic gene for thymulin and the gene for humanized Green Fluorescent Protein (hGFP). The second adenovector of this system, RAd-tTA, constitutively expresses the regulatory protein tTA...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494352/il-33-protects-murine-viral-fulminant-hepatitis-by-targeting-coagulation-hallmark-protein-fgl2-fibroleukin-expression
#15
Haijing Yu, Yang Liu, Jiaquan Huang, Hongwu Wang, Weiming Yan, Dong Xi, Guanxin Shen, Xiaoping Luo, Qin Ning
Fulminant hepatitis (FH) is characterized by rapid liver failure and high mortality. The pathogenesis of viral FH includes virus-induced immune activation, inflammation, and subsequent hepatic apoptosis and necrosis. However, the mechanisms that underlie FH progression are unclear. IL-33 is a member of the IL-1-related cytokines, considered to be an "alarmin" that participates in various diseases, but its precise role in the coagulation of FH is not very clear. In our study, we found that IL-33 is significantly elevated in mice infected with murine hepatitis virus strain 3 (MHV-3)...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478286/tlr2-mediates-autophagy-through-erk-signaling-pathway-in-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-infected-raw264-7-cells
#16
Ziyin Lu, Daoyuan Xie, Ying Chen, Erjie Tian, Ishfaq Muhammad, Xueping Chen, Yusong Miao, Wanjun Hu, Ziyong Wu, Huili Ni, Jiuqing Xin, Yuan Li, Jichang Li
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a crucial role in early innate immune response of host to various microorganisms. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is one of the major pathogen that can cause chronic respiratory diseases in chickens, but the molecular mechanism of MG infection still remained unclear. In this study, we examined the typical hallmarks of autophagy and multiple signaling pathways by western blot, immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The results indicated that infection of mouse macrophage cell line RAW264...
May 4, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445787/adipose-derived-stem-cells-were-impaired-in-restricting-cd4-t-cell-proliferation-and-polarization-in-type-2-diabetic-apoe-mouse
#17
Ming-Hao Liu, Ya Li, Lu Han, Yao-Yuan Zhang, Di Wang, Zhi-Hao Wang, Hui-Min Zhou, Ming Song, Yi-Hui Li, Meng-Xiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most common and serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is accelerated via chronic systemic inflammation rather than hyperglycemia. Adipose tissue is the major source of systemic inflammation in abnormal metabolic state. Pro-inflammatory CD4(+)T cells play pivotal role in promoting adipose inflammation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for fat regeneration have potent ability of immunosuppression and restricting CD4(+)T cells as well...
April 23, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441623/identification-of-a-macrobrachium-nipponense-c-type-lectin-with-a-close-evolutionary-relationship-to-vertebrate-lectins
#18
Xin Huang, Tingting Li, Min Jin, Shaowu Yin, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
C-type lectins (CTLs) are involved in the innate immune defense of vertebrates and invertebrates against invading pathogens. This study cloned and characterized a novel C-type lectin (MnCTL) of the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense. The cloned MnCTL cDNA encompasses an open reading frame of 774 nucleotides and encodes polypeptides of 257 residues. The deduced MnCTL protein contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with an EPN (Glu-Pro-Asn) motif in calcium-binding site 2. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MnCTL has a closer evolutionary relationship with vertebrate lectins than with invertebrate lectins...
April 22, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433890/il-37-induces-autophagy-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-inhibiting-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#19
Ting-Ting Li, Di Zhu, Tong Mou, Zhen Guo, Jun-Liang Pu, Qing-Song Chen, Xu-Fu Wei, Zhong-Jun Wu
Autophagy is an intracellular "self-eating" process that is closely related to inflammation and cellular immunity. New studies indicate that autophagy is also involved in tumor suppression. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-37 (IL-37) has been shown to have tumor-suppressive abilities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Notably, autophagy appears to play a dual role in the development of HCC and may be involved in both tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. However, the potential role of IL-37 in autophagy is currently unknown...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433889/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-for-clarification-of-the-crucial-roles-of-lysosomes-in-microbial-infections
#20
Benhong Xu, Yanpan Gao, Shaohua Zhan, Wei Ge
Lysosomes play vital roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. It is widely accepted that lysosomes do not function exclusively as a digestive organelle. It is also involved in the process of immune cells against pathogens. However, the changes in the lysosomal proteome caused by infection with various microbes are still largely unknown, and our understanding of the proteome of the purified lysosome is another obstacle that needs to be resolved. Here, we performed a proteomic study on lysosomes enriched from THP1 cells after infection with Listeria monocytogenes (L...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
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