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Molecular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459176/variations-of-t-and-b-lymphocytes-of-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-after-hirame-novirhabdovirus-infection-and-immunization
#1
Jing Xing, Lei Wang, Mengxiao Zhen, Xiaoqian Tang, Wenbin Zhan
T and B lymphocytes are closely related to immunization and pathogen infection. Our previous study confirmed the CD3+ , CD4-1+ , CD4-2+ , CD8β+ T lymphocytes and IgM+ B lymphocytes presented in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), in this paper, the variations of T and B lymphocytes of flounder after Hirame novirhabdovirus (HIRRV) infection or immunization were investigated. The flounders were injected with live or inactivated HIRRV, then the percentages of T and B lymphocytes in PBLs were analyzed by Flow cytometry (FCM), total antibodies and HIRRV-specific antibodies in serum were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and expression of twelve immune-related genes in the head kidneys were determined using q-PCR...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455094/emodin-attenuates-titanium-particle-induced-osteolysis-and-rankl-mediated-osteoclastogenesis-through-the-suppression-of-ikk-phosphorylation
#2
Juehong Li, Yamin Li, Xiaochun Peng, Bin Li, Xiangwei Yuan, Yunsu Chen
Aseptic loosening due to wear particles is a serious challenge for orthopedic surgeons, sabotaging the long-term success of total joint arthroplasty. The existing treatments for aseptic loosening are still far from satisfactory, necessitating more aggressive drug exploration. Here, we examined the effect of emodin on titanium particle-induced osteolysis and further investigated its underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. Thirty-two C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four groups: the Sham group (sham operation with vehicle injection), Vehicle group (titanium particle treatment with vehicle injections), Low group (titanium particle treatment with injections of 10 mg/kg/day emodin) and High group (titanium particle treatment with injections of 50 mg/kg/day emodin)...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433077/characterization-and-expression-of-dec205-in-the-cdc1-and-cdc2-subsets-of-porcine-dendritic-cells-from-spleen-tonsil-and-submaxillary-and-mesenteric-lymph-nodes
#3
Héctor Parra-Sánchez, Lucinda Puebla-Clark, Mónica Reséndiz, Olivia Valenzuela, Jesús Hernández
Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are divided into the following different subtypes: cDC1, which promotes a Th1 response, and cDC2, which stimulates a Th2 and Th17 response. These cells have not been characterized in porcine lymphoid tissues. DEC205 is a receptor that increases antigen presentation and allows DCs to cross-present antigens. The objectives of this work were to characterize cDCs subsets in the tonsil, submaxillary and mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen lymphoid tissues and to determine their expression of DEC205 by flow cytometry...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433067/rapid-induction-of-expression-by-lps-is-accompanied-by-favorable-chromatin-and-rapid-binding-of-c-jun
#4
Kelly Maurer, Swathi Ramen, Lihuaa Shi, Li Song, Kathleen E Sullivan
The response to infection is managed in mammals by a coordinated immune response. Innate responses are rapid and hard wired and have been demonstrated to be regulated at the level of chromatin accessibility. This study examined primary human monocyte responses to LPS as a model of innate responses to bacteria. We utilized inhibitors of chromatin modifying enzymes to understand the inter-relationships of the chromatin complexes regulating transcription. Multiplex digital gene detection was utilized to quantitate changes in mRNA levels for genes induced by LPS...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433066/immuno-profiles-of-balb-c-mice-inoculated-with-salmonella-vector-delivering-b-cell-mitogen-hydroxyproline-epimerase
#5
Jonathan Lalsiamthara, John Hwa Lee
The enzyme 4-hydroxyproline 2-epimerase (PrpA) involves in modulation of host immunity and is also reported as a potent B-cell mitogen. Live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) vector constitutively expressing heterologous Brucella abortus PrpA protein (ST-PrpA) was inoculated in BALB/c mice in order to investigate the influence of the enzyme, on safety aspects, humoral and cellular immunity as well as protective efficacies against wild type challenges. No aggravation of morbidity was observed upon mice inoculation of ST-PrpA...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433065/mir-330-5p-tim-3-axis-regulates-macrophage-m2-polarization-and-insulin-resistance-in-diabetes-mice
#6
Jiling Sun, Qiujing Huang, Shufa Li, Fanqing Meng, Xunhua Li, Xiaoyun Gong
Obesity is associated with a state of low-grade inflammatory response in adipose tissue, and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Immune cells such as macrophages can infiltrate adipose tissue and are responsible for the majority of inflammatory cytokine production. Therefore, adipose tissue promotes macrophage infiltration, resulting in local inflammation and insulin resistance. Tim-3 negatively regulates IFN-γ secretion and influences the ability to induce T cell tolerance in diabetes. MicroRNA contributes to the development of immunological tolerance and involves in macrophage polarization...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428576/ganglioside-gm1-protects-against-high-altitude-cerebral-edema-in-rats-by-suppressing-the-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-response-via-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-pathway
#7
Gu Gong, Liang Yin, Libang Yuan, Daming Sui, Yangyang Sun, Haiyu Fu, Liang Chen, Xiaowu Wang
High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe type of acute mountain sickness (AMS) that occurs in response to a high altitude hypobaric hypoxic (HH) environment. GM1 monosialoganglioside can alleviate brain injury under adverse conditions including amyloid-β-peptide, ischemia and trauma. However, its role in HACE-induced brain damage remains poorly elucidated. In this study, GM1 supplementation dose-dependently attenuated increase in rat brain water content (BWC) induced by hypobaric chamber (7600 m) exposurefor 24 h...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428575/s-adenosylmethionine-attenuates-bile-duct-early-warm-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-after-rat-liver-transplantation
#8
Yong Tang, Hongpeng Chu, Guojun Cao, Xiaolong Du, Xiaobo Min, Chidan Wan
Warm ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) plays a key role in biliary complication, which is a substantial vulnerability of liver transplantation. The early pathophysiological changes of IRI are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is an important metabolic intermediate that modulates inflammatory reactions; however, its role in bile duct warm IRI is not known. In this study, male rats were treated with or without SAM (170 μmol/kg body weight) after orthotopic autologous liver transplantation...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407579/skin-and-scale-regeneration-after-mechanical-damage-in-a-teleost
#9
Rita A Costa, Deborah M Power
Skin wound healing has been widely studied in mammalian models but the information on teleost cutaneous healing is sparse and frequently considered in the context of viral or bacterial infections or parasitic infestations in aquaculture. In the present study a detailed time course (0 h, 6 h, 1, 2, 3 and 4 days) coupled to morphology and gene expression analysis revealed rapid regeneration of skin without scarring in a marine teleost after a superficial wound caused by the loss of a large area of scales. The integrity of the integument, as assessed by quantification of extracellular matrix (ECM) gene transcripts (fn1a, colIα1, colVα2, colXα1, ogn1, ogn2, crtac1a, cyr61, pcna, krt2 and mmp9) was restored within 2 days...
February 4, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407578/a-rapid-and-transient-innate-immune-response-to-avian-influenza-infection-in-mallards
#10
Anu S Helin, Michelle Wille, Clara Atterby, Josef D Järhult, Jonas Waldenström, Joanne R Chapman
The vertebrate innate immune system provides hosts with a rapid, non-specific response to a wide range of invading pathogens. However, the speed and duration of innate responses will be influenced by the co-evolutionary dynamics of specific host-pathogen combinations. Here, we show that low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) subtype H1N1 elicits a strong but extremely transient innate immune response in its main wildlife reservoir, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Using a series of experimental and methodological improvements over previous studies, we followed the expression of retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and myxovirus resistance gene (Mx) in mallards semi-naturally infected with low pathogenic H1N1...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407573/identification-of-duck-il-4-and-its-inhibitory-effect-on-il-17a-expression-in-r-anatipestifer-stimulated-splenic-lymphocytes
#11
Cherry P Fernandez, Fahmida Afrin, Rochelle A Flores, Woo H Kim, Jipseol Jeong, Suk Kim, Hyun S Lillehoj, Wongi Min
As the dysregulation of IL-17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, the suppression of IL-17 production by Th2 cytokines could alleviate the development of these diseases. Previously, we confirmed that inflammatory cytokines including IL-17A are strongly associated with R. anatipestifer infection, which is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in the duck industry. Here, we found that IL-4 treatment downregulated the expression of IL-17A and IL-17F transcripts in splenic lymphocytes stimulated with R...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407577/maintenance-of-cyclic-gmp-amp-homeostasis-by-enpp1-is-involved-in-pseudorabies-virus-infection
#12
Jiang Wang, Shao-Fang Lu, Bo Wan, Sheng-Li Ming, Guo-Li Li, Bing-Qian Su, Jiao-Yang Liu, Yu-Shuang Wei, Guo-Yu Yang, Bei-Bei Chu
In a previous study, we demonstrated that porcine cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) catalyzes cGAMP production and is an important DNA sensor for the pseudorabies virus (PRV)-induced activation of interferon β (IFN-β). Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) has recently been identified as the hydrolase of cGAMP in rodents, but its role in porcine cells is not clear. Our recent study demonstrated that porcine ENPP1 is responsible for the homeostasis of cGAMP and is critical for PRV infection...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407576/the-genes-involved-in-asthma-with-the-treatment-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Yong-Dong Lin, Xing-Liang Fan, Hong Zhang, Shu-Bin Fang, Cheng-Lin Li, Meng-Xia Deng, Zi-Li Qin, Ya-Qi Peng, Hong-Yu Zhang, Qing-Ling Fu
BACKGROUND: Asthma is affecting more than 300 million people worldwide, which represents the most common chronic disease among children. We previously found that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) modulated the immune response on Th2-mediated asthma in vivo and in vitro. This study further evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on asthma. METHODS: Multipotent hESC-MSCs were obtained using a feeder-free method...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407575/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-anisalcohol-on-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-bv2-microglia-via-selective-modulation-of-microglia-polarization-and-down-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-and-jnk-activation
#14
Bin Xiang, Chun Xiao, Ting Shen, Xiufang Li
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. The inhibition of inflammation appears to be a potential therapeutic strategy for neuro-inflammatory injury after ischemic stroke. In response to cerebral ischemia, resident microglia and infiltrated macrophages from the damaged blood-brain barrier are activated. Microglia activation appears to be a double-edged sword. Activated microglia migrate to the damaged neuron, change their phenotype to M1 or M2, and become involved in nerve damage and repair...
January 29, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407574/pathogenicity-of-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-type-3-and-innate-immune-responses-of-the-ducklings-to-virulent-dhav-3
#15
Xuelian Zhang, Chong Cao, Zhehui Qu, Wenjing Zhang, Yue Liu, Haihui Qi, Chunxue Hao, Wenlong Zhang, Mingchun Gao, Junwei Wang, Bo Ma
Duck virus hepatitis caused by duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is an acute and contagious disease. To better understand the pathogenic mechanism of DHAV-3 in ducklings, an infection experiment was performed. Our results showed that typical symptoms were observed in the infected ducklings. DHAV-3 could infect many tissues, leading to pathological lesions, especially on the livers and spleen, and the host immune responses are activated in infection. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that expression of many innate immune-related genes was mostly up-regulated in the livers and spleen, and antiviral innate immune response was established, but not sufficient to restrict the virus replication of lethal dose...
January 26, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395251/the-potential-of-nanoparticle-vaccines-as-a-treatment-for-cancer
#16
REVIEW
David Urbanavicius, Tara Alvarez, Georgina K Such, Angus P R Johnston, Justine D Mintern
A complex and multifaceted relationship exists between cancer and the immune system. Advances in our understanding of this relationship have resulted in significant clinical attention in the possibilities of cancer immunotherapy. Harnessing the immune system's potent and selective destructive capability is a major focus of attempts to treat cancer. Despite significant progress in the field, cancer therapy still remains significantly deficient, with cancer being one of the largest contributors to morbidity and mortality in the developed world...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367080/human-igg-lacking-effector-functions-demonstrate-lower-fcrn-binding-and-reduced-transplacental-transport
#17
Nigel M Stapleton, Sylvia S Armstrong-Fisher, Jan Terje Andersen, C Ellen van der Schoot, Charlene Porter, Kenneth R Page, Donald Falconer, Masja de Haas, Lorna M Williamson, Michael R Clark, Gestur Vidarsson, Kathryn L Armour
We have previously generated human IgG1 antibodies that were engineered for reduced binding to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγRI-III) and C1q, thereby eliminating their destructive effector functions (constant region G1Δnab). In their potential use as blocking agents, favorable binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is important to preserve the long half-life typical of IgG. An ability to cross the placenta, which is also mediated, at least in part, by FcRn is desirable in some indications, such as feto-maternal alloimmune disorders...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367081/immune-modulatory-properties-of-6-gingerol-and-resveratrol-in-atlantic-salmon-macrophages
#18
Nicole C Smith, Sherri L Christian, Richard G Taylor, Javier Santander, Matthew L Rise
The innate immune system provides the first barrier to infection and disease through various processes including activation of inflammation. Inflammation is a biological process whereby immune cells, including macrophages, respond to, and work together to eliminate, damage from injury and disease. Chronic or sustained inflammation, however, can be detrimental to the health and growth of animals, including fish. Immune modulating functional plant compounds, supplemented as feed additives, may be safe and natural approaches to controlling inflammation and disease...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361306/immunoribosomes-where-s-there-s-fire-there-s-fire
#19
Jiajie Wei, Jonathan W Yewdell
The MHC class I antigen presentation pathway enables T cell immunosurveillance of cancer cells, viruses and other intracellular pathogens. Rapidly degraded newly synthesized proteins (DRiPs) are a major source of self-, and particularly, viral antigenic peptides. A number of findings support the idea that a substantial fraction of antigenic peptides are synthesized by "immunoribosomes", a subset of translating ribosomes that generate class I peptides with enhanced efficiency. Here, we review the evidence for the immunoribosome hypothesis...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331804/toll-like-receptor-9-antagonist-suppresses-humoral-immunity-in-experimental-autoimmune-myasthenia-gravis
#20
Peng Zhang, Chun-Lin Yang, Ru-Tao Liu, Heng Li, Min Zhang, Na Zhang, Long-Tao Yue, Cong-Cong Wang, Ying-Chun Dou, Rui-Sheng Duan
Recent studies have demonstrated the important role of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signalling in autoimmune diseases, but its role in myasthenia gravis (MG) has not been fully established. We show herein that blocking TLR9 signalling via the suppressive oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) H154 alleviated the symptoms of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). With the downregulation of dendritic cells (DCs), TLR9 interruption reduced follicular helper T cells (Tfh) and germinal centre (GC) B cells, leading to decreased antibody production...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
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