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Molecular Immunology

Jinjin Cui, Fengyun Zhang, Wei Cao, Yongshun Wang, Jingjin Liu, Xinxin Liu, Tao Chen, Ling Li, Jinwei Tian, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO), which is clinically used for renal anaemia, reportedly exerts beneficial pleiotropic effects in atherosclerosis. This aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EPO on macrophage inflammation and polarization under hyperglycaemic conditions and to identify the effects of EPO-treated macrophage supernatants (SNs) on endothelial cell (EC) function. METHODS: Peritoneal macrophages (pMΦs) were isolated from normal, diabetic or EPO-injected mice...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Yue Wang, Qing Li, Lin Zhou, Xuping Ding, Liming Lu
Solid organ transplantation is used as the last resort for patients with end-stage disease, but allograft rejection is an unsolved problem. Here, we showed that Tk-PQ, a peptide derived from trichosanthin, had an immune-suppressive effect without obvious cytotoxicity in vitro and in a mouse skin allo-transplantation model. In vitro, treatment of Tk-PQ administrated type 2 T helper cell (Th2)/regulatory T-cell (Treg) cytokines, and increased the ratio of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg by repressing the PI3K/mTOR pathway...
July 10, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Guangrui Huang, Kai Yuan, Qingqing Zhu, Shan Zhang, Qingyi Lu, Mengmeng Zhu, Honghao Sheng, Ruipeng Yu, Guangbin Luo, Anlong Xu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by cellular infiltration into the joints and cartilage destruction. Neutrophils play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of RA. Triptolide (TP) is a bioactive compound derived from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which has been used in folk medicine as a treatment for a variety of inflammatory disorders, including RA, for many centuries. Previous studies have shown that TP possesses anti-arthritic activity. However, the anti-arthritic mechanism of TP remains to be fully defined...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Jiahuan Zou, Mengwei Zhuang, Xiaopeng Yu, Na Li, Rudi Mao, Zhida Wang, Jianing Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Huaiyu Zhou, Lining Zhang, Yongyu Shi
The effectiveness of immunotherapy targeting the immune checkpoint PD-L1/PD-1 pathway highlights importance of elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of PD-L1 expression in cancer cells. Previous studies demonstrate that oncogene MYC up-regulates PD-L1 expression in lymphomas. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory role of MYC in the PD-L1 expression induced by IFN-γ in HCC cells. Unexpectedly, knockdown of MYC expression using siRNA assay increased the inducible expression of PD-L1 both at mRNA and protein levels...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Hualong Xi, Xiangyu Meng, Tiejun Gu, Zhuang Li, Yue Cheng, Qing Sun, Kaixin Zhang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are a unique and attractive class of biologics and are potential substitutes for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. The safety, tolerance, and broad neutralization efficiency of a MAb cocktail called CL184, composed of the antibodies CR4098 and CR57, was confirmed in a phase I clinical trial. We have prepared a series of single-chain Fv fragments (scFvs) and leucine zipper Fv fragments (zipFvs) from CR57 and CR4098. In this study, we selected and formed scFv and zipFv cocktails and compared their protective effects against the rabies virus...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Sylvia Annabel Dass, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Armando Acosta Dominguez, Maria Elena Sarmiento Garcia San Miguel, Gee Jun Tye
The discovery of heat shock protein 16 kDa antigen protein has deepen the understanding of latent tuberculosis since it was found to be primarily expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latent phase leading to the rapid optimization and development in terms of diagnosis and therapeutics. Recently, T cell receptor-like antibody has been explored extensively targeting various diseases due to its dual functionality (T cell receptor and antibody). In this study, a TCR-like domain antibody (A2/Ab) with the binding capacity to Mtb heat shock protein (HSP) 16 kDa antigen presented by major histocompatible complex (MHC) HLA-A*02 was successfully generated via biopanning against human domain antibody library...
July 4, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Kaili Liao, Jiasheng Xu, Weiming Yang, Xiahong You, Qionghui Zhong, Xiaozhong Wang
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)is a non-coding RNA which lacks a complete open reading frame(ORF) and plays an important role in biological processes such as cell proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis. At present,the expression of lncRNA has been found to be abnormal in inflammatory reaction and inflammatory diseases. It might be involved in the development and progression of inflammatory diseases by regulating the expression of multiple genes and activation of signaling pathways. This article overviewed the progress in study on relationship between lncRNA and inflammatory diseases...
July 4, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Andrea J Tenner, Beth Stevens, Trent M Woodruff
While the mechanisms underlying the functions of the complement system in the central nervous system (CNS) and systemically, namely opsonization, chemotaxis, membrane lysis, and regulation of inflammation are the same, the plethora of functions that complement orchestrates in the central nervous system (CNS) is complex. Strictly controlled expression of complement effector molecules, regulators and receptors across the gamut of life stages (embryogenesis, development and maturation, aging and disease) dictate fascinating contributions for this ancient system...
June 26, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Jin Y Chen, Claudio Cortes, Viviana P Ferreira
Properdin, the widely known positive regulator of the alternative pathway (AP), has undergone significant investigation over the last decade to define its function in inflammation and disease, including its role in arthritis, asthma, and kidney and cardiovascular diseases. Properdin is a glycoprotein found in plasma that is mainly produced by leukocytes and can positively regulate AP activity by stabilizing C3 and C5 convertases and initiating the AP. Promotion of complement activity by properdin results in changes in the cellular microenvironment that contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses, including pro-inflammatory cytokine production, immune cell infiltration, antigen presenting cell maturation, and tissue damage...
June 26, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Shunmei Huang, Jun Wu, Xiaoyan Gao, Shi Zou, Liwen Chen, Xilang Yang, Chan Sun, Yanqin Du, Bin Zhu, Jia Li, Xuecheng Yang, Xuemei Feng, Chunchen Wu, Chunwei Shi, Baoju Wang, Yinping Lu, Jia Liu, Xin Zheng, Feili Gong, Mengji Lu, Dongliang Yang
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are organ resident APCs capable of antigen presentation and subsequent tolerization of T cells under physiological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether LSEC pretreatment with NOD-like receptor (NLR) agonists can switch the cells from a tolerogenic to an immunogenic state and promote the development of T cell immunity. LSECs constitutively express NOD1, NOD2 and RIPK2. Stimulation of LSECs with DAP induced the activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases and upregulated the expression of chemokines (CXCL2/9, CCL2/7/8) and cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2)...
June 23, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Myriam Lawand, Irini Evnouchidou, Thomas Baranek, Sebastian Montealegre, Sha Tao, Ingo Drexler, Loredana Saveanu, Mustapha Si-Tahar, Peter van Endert
Cross-presentation is thought to require transport of proteasome-generated peptides by the TAP transporters into MHC class I loading compartments for most antigens. However, a proteasome-dependent but TAP-independent pathway has also been described. Depletion of the pool of recycling cell surface MHC class I molecules available for loading with cross-presented peptides might partly or largely account for the critical role of TAP in cross-presentation of phagocytosed antigens. Here we examined a potential role of the homodimeric lysosomal TAP-like transporter in cross-presentation and in presentation of endogenous peptides by MHC class II molecules...
June 23, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Francisco Gambón-Deza, David N Olivieri
Squamata are reptiles that diverged from mammals 300 million years ago. During this period, the immunoglobulin (IG) and T lymphocyte receptor (TCR) genes evolved parallel to mammals. However, unlike mammals whose IG/TCR locus has retained a constant structure throughout evolution, Squamata have witnessed duplications, losses, and/or gains in the domains of their immunoglobulin genes. The recent genome sequencing of Shinisaurus crocodilurus, a representative species of the oldest reptiles, provides an opportunity to contrast the structure of IG and TCR genes from previously studied Squamata...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Nadine Hartmann, Melanie J Harriff, Curtis P McMurtrey, William H Hildebrand, David M Lewinsohn, Mitchell Kronenberg
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent a population of innate T cells that is highly abundant in humans. MAIT cells recognize metabolites of the microbial vitamin B pathway that are presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related protein MR1. Upon bacterial infection, activated MAIT cells produce diverse cytokines and cytotoxic effector molecules and accumulate at the site of infection, thus, MAIT cells have been shown to be protective against various bacterial infections...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Immunology
James R Drake
MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by dendritic cells is necessary for activation of naïve CD4 T cells, whereas class II-restricted antigen presentation by B lymphocytes and macrophages is important for the recruitment of CD4+ helper and regulatory T cells. Antigen presentation by B cells is also important for induction of T cell tolerance. B cells are unique among these three types of MHC class II-expressing antigen presenting cells (APC) as they constitutively express high levels of cell surface class II molecules and express a clonally restricted antigen specific receptor, the B cell receptor (BCR)...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Jonghoon Kang, Kyle V Brooks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Felipe Del Valle Batalla, Ana-María Lennon-Dumenil, María-Isabel Yuseff
The capacity of B lymphocytes to produce specific antibodies, particularly broadly neutralizing antibodies that provide immunity to viral pathogens has positioned them as valuable therapeutic targets for immunomodulation. To become competent as antibody secreting cells, B cells undergo a series of activation steps, which are triggered by the recognition of antigens frequently displayed on the surface of other presenting cells. Such antigens elicit the formation of an immune synapse (IS), where local cytoskeleton rearrangements coupled to mechanical forces and membrane trafficking orchestrate the extraction and processing of antigens in B cells...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Zhenzhen Zhang, Yanna Wei, Beibei Liu, Yuzi Wu, Haiyan Wang, Xing Xie, Zhixin Feng, Guoqing Shao, Qiyan Xiong
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a critical inflammatory regulator in response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection. However, the mechanism involved in the secretion of IL-1β during Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection increased the secretion of mature-IL-1β (m-IL-1β), but not pro-IL-1β, in porcine alveolar macrophages. Moreover, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection promoted the generation of autophagosomes, which attributed to the unconventional secretion of m-IL-1β...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Anne-Lene Kjældgaard, Katrine Pilely, Karsten Skovgaard Olsen, Stephen Wørlich Pedersen, Anne Øberg Lauritsen, Kirsten Møller, Peter Garred
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating, neurodegenerative motor neuron disease. The aetiology of ALS remains an enigma which hinders the design of an effective treatment to prevent, postpone, or reverse the pathophysiological changes occurring during the aggressive progression of this disease. During the last decade, basic research within the innate immune system, and in particular the complement system, has revealed new, important roles of the innate immune system during development, homeostasis, and ageing within as well as outside the central nervous system...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Zoltán Prohászka, Michael Kirschfink, Ashley Frazer-Abel
Complement immunobiology, and with it complement analysis, has undergone a renaissance in the past decade. Classically, complement analysis was limited number of testing C3, C4 in a routine laboratory with the possible addition of CH50 with all other analysis being performed at only few highly esoteric laboratories. This diagnostics expanding beyond specialized laboratories is the result of the growing recognition of the role played by complement dysfunction in many more diseases and disorders and the concomitant increase in interest in complement targeting therapeutics...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Jun Luo, Hehe Liu, Jiwen Wang, Liang Li, Chunchun Han, Xinmeng Gan, Yanying Li, Lili Bai, Ahsan Mustafa
As a central immune organ unique to birds, the bursa of Fabricius (BF) provides a proper microenvironment for B-cell development. The bursal B-cells undergo rapid proliferation and differentiation at the embryonic stages, but 95% of them undergo apoptosis after hatching. Few studies have focused on the cause of bursal B-cells apoptosis at the embryonic stages in birds. To explore the cause, we compared the transcriptional profiles of three characteristic embryonic stages in duck, including embryonic day 14 (ED14), 22 (ED22) and 1 day after hatching (D1)...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Immunology
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