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Molecular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919436/complement-in-basic-processes-of-the-cell
#1
Anaïs Jiménez-Reinoso, Ana V Marin, José R Regueiro
The complement system is reemerging in the last few years not only as key element of innate immunity against pathogens, but also as a main regulator of local adaptive responses, affecting dendritic cells as well as T and B lymphocytes. We review data showing that leucocytes are capable of significant autocrine synthesis of complement proteins, and express a large range of complement receptors, which in turn regulate their differentiation and effector functions while cross talking with other innate receptors such as Toll-like receptors...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916272/regulation-and-function-of-anaphylatoxins-and-their-receptors-in-allergic-asthma
#2
Yves Laumonnier, Anna V Wiese, Julia Figge, Christian Karsten
Allergic asthma is a disease of the airways driven by maladaptive T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 immune response against harmless, airborne substances. The hallmarks of this disease are airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation and mucus overproduction. Distinct dendric cell (DC) subsets together with airway epithelial and pulmonary vascular endothelial cells play critical roles in allergen sensing and in driving T cell differentiation towards Th2 and Th17 effector or regulatory T cells (Treg)...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915154/lipopolysaccharides-stimulated-macrophage-products-enhance-withaferin-a-induced-apoptosis-via-activation-of-caspases-and-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-human-cancer-cells
#3
Liang Piao, Zhao Canguo, Lu Wenjie, Cheng Xiaoli, Shi Wenli, Lu Li
Macrophages, as a major cellular component in tumor microenvironment, play an important role in tumor progression. However, their roles in modulation of cytotoxic chemotherapy are still not fully understood. Here, we investigated the influence of Lipoplysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated macrophage products (LSMP) on Withaferin A (WA), a natural compound that derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, as an antitumor agent in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and prostate cancer cells PC-3. Our results revealed that LSMP may enhance WA-induced apoptosis in both cell lines, the underlying mechanisms of which are closely associated with activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), as well as specifically inhibiting the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP1/2)...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915153/room-temperature-structure-of-human-igg4-fc-from-crystals-analysed-in-situ
#4
Anna M Davies, Theo Rispens, Pleuni Ooijevaar-de Heer, Rob C Aalberse, Brian J Sutton
The Fc region of IgG antibodies (Cγ2 and Cγ3 domains) is responsible for effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and phagocytosis, through engagement with Fcγ receptors, although the ability to elicit these functions differs between the four human IgG subclasses. A key determinant of Fcγ receptor interactions is the FG loop in the Cγ2 domain. High resolution cryogenic IgG4-Fc crystal structures have revealed a unique conformation for this loop, which could contribute to the particular biological properties of this subclass...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914690/c1q-as-an-autocrine-and-paracrine-regulator-of-cellular-functions
#5
REVIEW
Berhane Ghebrehiwet, Kinga H Hosszu, Ellinor I B Peerschke
Most of the complement proteins in circulation are, by and large, synthesized in the liver. However data accumulated over the past several decades provide incontrovertible evidence that some if not most of the individual complement proteins are also synthesized extrahepatically by activated as well as non-activated cells. The question that is finally being addressed by various investigators is: are the locally synthesized proteins solely responsible for the myriad of biological functions in situ without the contribution of systemic complement? The answer is probably "yes"...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898347/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-inhibit-cd4-t-cell-activation-in-acute-kidney-injury-patients-by-influencing-the-mir-101-c-rel-il-2-pathway
#6
Junfeng Liu, Rong Hua, Zhangbin Gong, Bin Shang, Yongyi Huang, Lihe Guo, Te Liu, Jun Xue
In the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI), the release of multiple interleukins can lead to increased kidney damage. Human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) can inhibit immune cell activation in vivo and in vitro. We hypothesized that HuAECs could weaken patient-derived peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell activation and decreasing the ability of these cells to express and release IL-2. -Cell proliferation assay revealed that under the same culture conditions, activated AKI patient-derived CD4+ T cells had a significantly reduced proliferation rate when were co-cultured with HuAECs...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898346/amp-kinase-promotes-bcl6-expression-in-both-mouse-and-human-t-cells
#7
Markus M Xie, Tohti Amet, Hong Liu, Qigui Yu, Alexander L Dent
The transcription factor Bcl6 is a master regulator of follicular helper T (TFH) cells, and understanding the signaling pathway that induces Bcl6 and TFH cell differentiation is therefore critical. IL-2 produced during T cell activation inhibits Bcl6 expression but how TFH cells evade IL-2 inhibition is not completely understood. Here we show that Bcl6 is highly up-regulated in activated CD4 T cells following glucose deprivation (GD), and this pathway is insensitive to inhibition by IL-2. Similar to GD, the glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) inhibits glycolysis, and 2DG induced Bcl6 expression in activated CD4 T cells...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894513/complement-in-the-fundamental-processes-of-the-cell
#8
Owen A Hawksworth, Liam G Coulthard, Trent M Woodruff
Once regarded solely as an activator of innate immunity, it is now clear that the complement system acts in an assortment of cells and tissues, with immunity only one facet of a diverse array of functions under the influence of the complement proteins. Throughout development, complement activity has now been demonstrated from early sperm-egg interactions in fertilisation, to regulation of epiboly and organogenesis, and later in refinement of cerebral synapses. Complement has also been shown to regulate homeostasis of adult tissues, controlling cell processes such as migration, survival, repair, and regeneration...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889620/the-fli-1-transcription-factor-is-a-critical-regulator-for-controlling-the-expression-of-chemokine-c-x-c-motif-ligand-2-cxcl2
#9
Ning Lou, Mara L Lennard Richard, Jin Yu, Mark Kindy, Xian K Zhang
Mammalian cells produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to innate immune signals and their expression is tightly regulated. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 2-alpha (MIP2-alpha), is an inflammatory chemokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. CXCL2 is chemotactic for neutrophils and elevated expression of CXCL2 is associated with many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The Fli-1 gene belongs to the large Ets transcription factor family, whose members regulate a wide variety of cellular functions including the immune response...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888719/treponema-pallidum-flagellin-flaa2-induces-il-6-secretion-in-thp-1-cells-via-the-toll-like-receptor-2-signaling-pathway
#10
Yafeng Xie, Man Xu, Yongjian Xiao, Zhuoran Liu, Chuanhao Jiang, Xingxing Kuang, Chuan Wang, Haiying Wu, Jing Peng, Chun Li, Yu Wang, Huaming Liu, Bin Liu, Xiaotuan Zhang, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Shuangquan Liu, Yimou Wu
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum membrane proteins are considered as potent inducers in the initiation and development of inflammation. In the present study, the mechanism that leads to the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), one of the key proinflammatory cytokines, by human monocytic THP-1 cells when these cells are treated with T. pallidum flagellin FlaA2 was investigated. Stimulation with flagellin FlaA2 can induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes and augment the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB, but has no effect on the phosphorylation of JNK...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888718/characterization-of-peritoneal-leukemia-associated-macrophages-in-notch1-induced-mouse-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#11
Shayan Chen, Xiao Yang, Wenli Feng, Feifei Yang, Rong Wang, Chong Chen, Lina Wang, Yongmin Lin, Qian Ren, Guoguang Zheng
Macrophages, which have remarkable plasticity, are indispensable cellular components and play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Peritoneal macrophages show unique gene expression profile and peritoneal cavity is also involved in leukemia. However, the characteristics of peritoneal leukemia-associated macrophages (Per LAMs) have not been established. Here we studied the phenotype of Per LAMs, their subpopulations in Notch1-induced acute lymphoblastic leukemia mice and compared with LAMs from BM or spleen in the same model...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888717/the-role-of-ficolin-like-protein-pcflp1-in-the-antibacterial-immunity-of-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#12
Yun-Jia Dai, Yu-Qing Wang, Ying-Hao Zhang, Yan Liu, Jin-Quan Li, Shun Wei, Li-Juan Zhao, Yong-Can Zhou, Li Lin, Jiang-Feng Lan
In invertebrates, ficolin-like proteins (FLPs) play important roles in innate immunity against pathogens. Previous studies primarily investigated the functions of FLPs in immune recognition, activation, and regulation. However, limited research has examined the functions of FLPs as immune effectors. In this work, a ficolin-like protein was identified in red swam crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and designated as PcFLP1. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were employed to analyze the distribution and expression profiles of PcFLP1 in the tissues of the crayfish...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886550/v%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-early-cardiac-infiltrated-innate-population-dominantly-producing-il-4-protect-mice-against-cvb3-myocarditis-by-modulating-ifn%C3%AE-t-response
#13
Fangfang Wan, Kepeng Yan, Dan Xu, Qian Qian, Hui Liu, Min Li, Wei Xu
Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammation of the myocardium closely associated with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection. Vγ1(+)γδT cells, one of early cardiac infiltrated innate population, were reported to protect CVB3 myocarditis while the precise mechanism not fully addressed. To explore cytokine profiles and kinetics of Vγ1(+)γδT and mechanism of protection against VMC, flow cytometry was conducted on cardiac Vγ1 cells in C57BL/6 mice following CVB3 infection. The level of cardiac inflammation, transthoracic echocardiography and viral replication were evaluated after monoclonal antibody depletion of Vγ1γδT...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883938/pretreatment-of-activated-human-cd8-t-cells-with-il-12-leads-to-enhanced-tcr-induced-signaling-and-cytokine-production
#14
Aldo Vacaflores, Samantha N Freedman, Nicole M Chapman, Jon C D Houtman
During the immune response to pathogens and autoantigens, CD8T cells are exposed to numerous inflammatory agents including the cytokine IL-12. Previous studies have focused on how IL-12 regulates T cell functions when present during or after the activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). However, recent studies suggest that prior exposure to IL-12 also alters the TCR responsiveness of murine T cells. Whether similar phenomena occur in human activated CD8T cells and the mechanisms mediating these effects remain unexplored...
November 21, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846429/effects-of-bothrops-atrox-venom-and-two-isolated-toxins-on-the-human-complement-system-modulation-of-pathways-and-generation-of-anaphylatoxins
#15
Danilo L Menaldo, Carolina P Bernardes, Anna L Jacob-Ferreira, Cíntia G Nogueira-Santos, Tania M Casare-Ogasawara, Luciana S Pereira-Crott, Suely V Sampaio
The complement system plays important biological roles, including the activation of inflammatory processes in response to the generation of proteolytic fragments of its components. Here we evaluated the effects of Bothrops atrox venom and two of its toxins (the P-I metalloprotease Batroxase and the acidic phospholipase A2 BatroxPLA2) on the human complement system, evaluating their effects on the classical (CP), lectin (LP) and alternative (AP) pathways, as well as on different complement components associated to the generation of anaphylatoxins...
November 12, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838011/corrigendum-to-insights-into-the-effector-functions-of-human-igg3-in-the-context-of-an-antibody-targeting-transferrin-receptor-1-mol-immunol-67-2015-407-415
#16
Lai Sum Leoh, Tracy R Daniels-Wells, Otoniel Martínez-Maza, Manuel L Penichet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835756/regulated-localization-of-an-aid-complex-with-e2a-pax5-and-irf4-at-the-igh-locus
#17
Jannek Hauser, Christine Grundström, Ramesh Kumar, Thomas Grundström
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the key mutagenic enzyme that initiates somatic hypermutation (SH) and class switch recombination (CSR) by deaminating cytosine to uracil. The targeting of AID and therefore SH and CSR to Ig genes is a central process of the immune system, but the trans-acting factors mediating the specific targeting have remained elusive. Here we show that defective calmodulin inhibition of the transcription factor E2A after activation of the B cell receptor (BCR) leads to reduced BCR, IL4 plus CD40 ligand stimulated CSR to IgE and instead CSR to other Ig classes...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835755/expression-of-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-mediated-by-recombinant-adeno-associated-virus-8-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Yongjiao Yu, Lu Fu, Xiaoyu Jiang, Shanshan Guan, Ziyu Kuai, Wei Kong, Yuhua Shi, Yaming Shan
Despite unremitting efforts since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), an effective vaccine has not been generated. Viral vector-mediated transfer for expression of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) is an attractive strategy. In this study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 (rAAV8) vector was used to encode full-length antibodies against HIV-1 in 293T cells and Balb/c mice after gene transfer. The 10E8 or NIH45-46 BnAb was expressed from a single open reading frame by linking the heavy and light chains with a furin cleavage and a 2A self-processing peptide (F2A)...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833039/transmembrane-protein-88-attenuates-liver-fibrosis-by-promoting-apoptosis-and-reversion-of-activated-hepatic-stellate-cells
#19
Shuang-Peng Cai, Xiao-Yu Cheng, Pei-Jie Chen, Xue-Yin Pan, Tao Xu, Cheng Huang, Xiao-Ming Meng, Jun Li
Transmembrane protein 88 (Tmem88) is a crucial inhibitor for Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the development of myocardial cells. Due to the important role of β-catenin in the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), it is necessary to investigate the function of Tmem88 in HSCs. In this study, we found that Tmem88 expression was decreased in the human liver fibrotic tissues, primary HSCs from fibrotic mice and activated HSC-T6 cells. Functionally, Tmem88 could inhibit HSCs activation and proliferation by blocking Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and promoted the apoptosis of activated HSCs by initiating Bcl-2/Bax/Caspase3 pathway...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825050/fever-range-hyperthermia-inhibits-cells-immune-response-to-protein-bound-polysaccharides-derived-from-coriolus-versicolor-extract
#20
Małgorzata Pawlikowska, Tomasz Jędrzejewski, Jakub Piotrowski, Wiesław Kozak
The aim of the study was to explore whether fever-range hyperthermia (FRH) might enhance the anticancer and immunoregulatory activities of protein-bound polysaccharides (PBP), a class of fungus derived immunomodifiers used in the cancer adjuvant therapy. Blood lymphocytes and breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were cultured at 39.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2 for 2h. After rested at 37°C for 6h, the cells were treated with PBP extract at 100- and 300μg/ml concentration. After indicated time, the proliferative response was analyzed and cytokine mRNA expression assessment was performed by qRT-PCR...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Immunology
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