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Molecular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222330/hereditary-c1-inhibitor-deficiency-is-associated-with-high-spontaneous-amidase-activity
#1
Delphine Charignon, Arije Ghannam, Denise Ponard, Christian Drouet
BACKGROUND: Angioedema diagnosis classically targets the complement system (via C1 inhibitor (C1Inh) function and antigenic C4 level) and contact phase activation (via amidase activity). Bradykinin is responsible for angioedema attacks and is produced from contact phase activation secondary to failed C1Inh control. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the diagnostic performances of spontaneous amidase activity and antigenic C4 level in C1Inh hereditary angioedema (C1Inh-HAE) patients...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222329/inflammatory-chemokines-and-their-receptors-in-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-splenic-cellular-sources-and-their-impact-on-trafficking-of-inflammatory-cells
#2
Neetu Singh, Shyam Sundar
Chemokines play an important role in determining cellular composition at inflammatory sites, and as such, influence disease outcome. In this study, we investigated the expression profile and splenic cellular source of various inflammatory chemokines and their receptors in human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The expression of chemokines or their receptors was measured at the gene and protein level by employing real time qPCR and a cytometric bead array assay, respectively. In addition, the cellular source of chemokines and their receptors in the spleen was identified employing gene expression analyses in sequentially selected cell subsets...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219820/versatile-carboxyl-terminus-of-capsid-protein-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-were-recognized-by-monoclonal-antibodies-with-pluripotency-of-binding
#3
Ling-Chu Hung, Ivan-Chen Cheng
We designed the peptide (C3) mimetic carboxyl-terminus (Cterminus) of capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b-1A/1B) inducing humoral immunity and generating hybridomas. The positive reactivity of the mAbs to PCV2 capsid protein was demonstrated by Western blot assay. Those mAbs also showed positive signals on PCV2b infected swine lymphocytes by indirect immunofluorescence staining. The mAb 1H3 bound to three minimal linear epitopes (P62, DPPLNP; P67, DPPLNPK; P73, LKDPPLKP), which was located at Cterminus of the capsid protein of PCV2b-1A/1B, PCV2b-1C, and PCV2a-2A respectively...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216098/potential-influences-of-complement-factor-h-in-autoimmune-inflammatory-and-thrombotic-disorders
#4
Janez Ferluga, Lubna Kouser, Valarmathy Murugaiah, Robert B Sim, Uday Kishore
Complement system homeostasis is important for host self-protection and anti-microbial immune surveillance, and recent research indicates roles in tissue development and remodelling. Complement also appears to have several points of interaction with the blood coagulation system. Deficiency and altered function due to gene mutations and polymorphisms in complement effectors and regulators, including Factor H, have been associated with familial and sporadic autoimmune inflammatory - thrombotic disorders, in which autoantibodies play a part...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214650/2-methoxyestradiol-protects-against-igg-immune-complex-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-blocking-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-activities
#5
Chunguang Yan, Yanfei Shen, Qiqing Sun, Dong Yuan, Huifang Tang, Hongwei Gao
Increasing evidences indicate that 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) plays an essential role in protecting against inflammatory responses. However, its effect on IgG immune complex (IC)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains enigmatic. In the study, by using i.p. administration of 2ME2, we evaluated its influence on IgG IC-induced pulmonary injury in mice. We found that during IgG IC-induced ALI, mice treated by 2ME2 displayed a substantial decrease in vascular permeability and neutrophil influx (represented by myeloperoxidase activity) when compared with their counterparts receiving vehicle treatment...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212503/lactobacillus-buchneri-s-layer-as-carrier-for-an-ara-h-2-derived-peptide-for-peanut-allergen-specific-immunotherapy
#6
Julia Anzengruber, Merima Bublin, Eva Bönisch, Bettina Janesch, Angelika Tscheppe, Matthias L Braun, Eva-Maria Varga, Christine Hafner, Heimo Breiteneder, Christina Schäffer
Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated severe hypersensitivity disorder. The lack of a treatment of this potentially fatal allergy has led to intensive research on vaccine development. Here, we describe the design and initial characterization of a carrier-bound peptide derived from the most potent peanut allergen, Ara h 2, as a candidate vaccine. Based on the adjuvant capability of bacterial surface (S-) layers, a fusion protein of the S-layer protein SlpB from Lactobacillus buchneri CD034 and the Ara h 2-derived peptide AH3a42 was produced...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212502/a-new-mechanism-shapes-the-na%C3%A3-ve-cd8-t-cell-repertoire-the-selection-for-full-diversity
#7
Pedro Gonçalves, Marco Ferrarini, Carmen Molina-Paris, Grant Lythe, Florence Vasseur, Annik Lim, Benedita Rocha, Orly Azogui
During thymic T cell differentiation, TCR repertoires are shaped by negative, positive and agonist selection. In the thymus and in the periphery, repertoires are also shaped by strong inter-clonal and intra-clonal competition to survive death by neglect. Understanding the impact of these events on the T cell repertoire requires direct evaluation of TCR expression in peripheral naïve T cells. Several studies have evaluated TCR diversity, with contradictory results. Some of these studies had intrinsic technical limitations since they used material obtained from T cell pools, preventing the direct evaluation of clone sizes...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208074/cd47-limits-antibody-dependent-phagocytosis-against-non-malignant-b-cells
#8
Sandra Gallagher, Sean Turman, Kristen Lekstrom, Susan Wilson, Ronald Herbst, Yue Wang
Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of CD47 in protecting malignant B cells from antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Combined treatment of anti-CD47 and -CD20 antibodies synergistically augment elimination of tumor B cells in xenograft mouse models. This has led to the development of novel reagents that can potentially enhance killing of malignant B cells in patients. B cell depleting therapy is also a promising treatment for autoimmune patients. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether or not CD47 protects non-malignant B cells from ADCP...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208073/temporal-regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-is-important-for-invariant-nkt-cell-development-and-terminal-maturation
#9
Kalyani Pyaram, Jyoti Misra Sen, Cheong-Hee Chang
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles during various cellular functions including survival and proliferation of immune cells. The critical role of this pathway in conventional T cell development is established but little is known about its contributions to innate T cell development. In this study, we found that β-catenin level, an indication of the strength of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, is regulated during invariant NKT (iNKT) cell development. β-catenin levels were greatly increased during iNKT cell selection from double positive thymocytes to Stage 0 of iNKT cell development and during subsequent development to Stage 1...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208072/identification-of-triosephosphate-isomerase-as-a-novel-allergen-in-octopus-fangsiao
#10
Yang Yang, Zhong-Wei Chen, Barry K Hurlburt, Gui-Ling Li, Yong-Xia Zhang, Dan-Xia Fei, Hai-Wang Shen, Min-Jie Cao, Guang-Ming Liu
Octopus is an important mollusk in human dietary for its nutritional value, however it also causes allergic reactions in humans. Major allergens from octopus have been identified, while the knowledge of novel allergens remains poor. In the present study, a novel allergen with molecular weight of 28kDa protein was purified from octopus (Octopus fangsiao) and identified as triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) by mass spectrometry. TIM aggregated beyond 45°C, and its IgE-binding activity was affected under extreme pH conditions due to the altered secondary structure...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208071/anthocyanin-suppresses-cocrmo-particle-induced-osteolysis-by-inhibiting-ikk%C3%AE-%C3%AE-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-a-mouse-calvarial-model
#11
Yamin Li, Juehong Li, Bin Li, Hui Qin, Xiaochun Peng, Yaochao Zhao, Yunsu Chen
Wear particle-induced osteolysis and bone resorption have been identified as critical factors of implant failure and total joint revision, in which nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and chronic inflammation have been shown to play key roles. Although anthocyanin is known to have anti-inflammatory function via blocking NF-κB pathway, it is still unclear whether anthocyanin has a protective effect on particle-induced osteolysis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the detailed effects and the underlying mechanism of anthocyanin on CoCrMo particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvavial model...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199852/b-cell-activating-factor-baff-selects-il-10-b-cells-over-il-10-b-cells-during-inflammatory-responses
#12
Ning Ma, Yu Zhang, Qilin Liu, Zhiding Wang, Xiaoling Liu, Gaizhi Zhu, Dandan Yu, Gencheng Han, Guojiang Chen, Chunmei Hou, Tianxiao Wang, Yuanfang Ma, Beifen Shen, Yan Li, He Xiao, Renxi Wang
B cell activating factor (BAFF) regulates B cell maturation, survival, function, and plays a critical pathogenic role in autoimmune diseases. It remains unclear how BAFF affects IL-10(-)B cells versus regulatory B cells (Bregs) in inflammatory responses. In this study, we found that IL-10-expressing Bregs decreased in lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. On blockade of the effects of BAFF with TACI-IgG, IL-10(+) Bregs were upregulated in MRL/lpr and EAE mice. In addition, BAFF expanded IL-10(+)B cells over IL-10(-)B cells under noninflammatory conditions in vitro, whereas it expanded IL-10(-)B cells over IL-10(+)B cells during inflammatory responses, such as stimulation with autoantigen and LPS...
February 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196665/complement-s-hidden-arsenal-new-insights-and-novel-functions-inside-the-cell
#13
M Kathryn Liszewski, Michelle Elvington, Hrishikesh S Kulkarni, John P Atkinson
A key component of both innate and adaptive immunity, new understandings of the complement system are expanding its roles beyond that traditionally appreciated. Evidence is accumulating that complement has an intracellular arsenal of components that provide not only immune defense, but also assist in key interactions for host cell functions. Although early work has primarily centered on T cells, the intracellular complement system likely functions in many if not most cells of the body. Some of these functions may trace their origins to the primitive complement system that began as a primeval form of C3 likely tasked for protection from intracellular pathogen invasion...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192730/inducible-turnover-of-optineurin-regulates-t-cell-activation
#14
Angela Montecalvo, Simon C Watkins, Jordan Orange, Lawrence P Kane
Optineurin (Optn) is an adaptor protein with homology to NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), the regulatory subunit of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Dysregulation of Optn has been linked to neurodegenerative, autoimmune and bone diseases. Optn shares a high degree of homology with NEMO, but is not part of the same high-molecular weight complex containing IKKα and IKKβ. Despite its homology with NEMO and the fact that it has been the subject of extensive study in several cell types, there are no published studies addressing the role of Optn during T cell activation...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169000/regulation-and-functions-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-during-influenza-virus-infection
#15
Teneema Kuriakose, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
The NLRP3 inflammasome constitutes a major antiviral host defense mechanism during influenza virus infection. Inflammasome assembly in virus-infected cells facilitates autocatalytic processing of pro-caspase-1 and subsequent cleavage and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is critical for induction of both innate and adaptive immune responses during influenza virus infection. Inflammasome-dependent antiviral responses also regulate immunopathology and tissue repair in the infected lungs...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167202/two-hemocyte-sub-populations-of-kuruma-shrimp-marsupenaeus-japonicus
#16
Keiichiro Koiwai, Rod Russel R Alenton, Reina Shiomi, Reiko Nozaki, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono
Hemocytes in the circulating hemolymph play important roles for immune responses in shrimp. Previous studies on immune responses by hemocytes in penaeid shrimp were based on gene expression analyses of the entire population of hemocytes and thus may have missed different immune responses of different hemocyte sub-populations. In this study, we separated hemocytes into two sub-populations by Percoll gradient centrifugation, morphological characteristics of each population were then analyzed by May-Giemsa staining, flow cytometry, and FACSCalibur...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129896/inflammasomes-in-the-lung
#17
James W Pinkerton, Richard Y Kim, Avril A B Robertson, Jeremy A Hirota, Lisa G Wood, Darryl A Knight, Matthew A Cooper, Luke A J O'Neill, Jay C Horvat, Philip M Hansbro
Innate immune responses act as first line defences upon exposure to potentially noxious stimuli. The innate immune system has evolved numerous intracellular and extracellular receptors that undertake surveillance for potentially damaging particulates. Inflammasomes are intracellular innate immune multiprotein complexes that form and are activated following interaction with these stimuli. Inflammasome activation leads to the cleavage of pro-IL-1β and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, which initiates acute phase pro-inflammatory responses, and other responses are also involved (IL-18, pyroptosis)...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076799/adenylyl-cyclase-type-9-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-asthma-and-allergy-in-brazilian-children
#18
Helena M P Teixeira, Neuza M Alcantara-Neves, Maurício Barreto, Camila A Figueiredo, Ryan S Costa
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract. This heterogeneous disease is caused by the interaction of interindividual genetic variability and environmental factors. The gene adenylyl cyclase type 9 (ADCY9) encodes a protein called adenylyl cyclase (AC), responsible for producing the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP is produced by T regulatory cells and is involved in the down-regulation of T effector cells. Failures in cAMP production may be related to an imbalance in the regulatory immune response, leading to immune-mediated diseases, such as allergic disorders...
January 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073079/trail-facilitates-cytokine-expression-and-macrophage-migration-during-hypoxia-reoxygenation-via-er-stress-dependent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#19
Yinan Jiang, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengya Fan, Hui Li, Weina Zhu, Xi Chen, Chenghua Cao, Rui Xu, Yaohui Wang, Yuanfang Ma
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is known as a key molecule to induce cancer cell apoptosis, has also been found to participate in the process of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Infiltrated macrophages play dual roles in inflammatory injury and healing following I/R. Whether TRAIL has any effect on macrophages during this process remains elusive. Here we showed that I/R triggered the expressions of TRAIL, DR5 and cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, CCL-2 and ICAM-1), in addition to macrophage infiltration, which could be abolished by TRAIL neutralizing antibody...
January 7, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073078/trim52-a-nuclear-trim-protein-that-positively-regulates-the-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-signaling-pathway
#20
Wenchun Fan, Tingting Liu, Xiangmin Li, Yun Zhou, Mengge Wu, Xiaofang Cui, Huanchun Chen, Ping Qian
Emerging evidence suggests that TRIM family proteins play a crucial role in regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. TRIM52 is a novel noncanonical antiviral TRIM gene with a unique expanded RING domain. Information on the biological function of TRIM52 is limited. Herein, we demonstrated TRIM52 involvement in NF-κB activation. We found that TRIM52 overexpression specifically activated the NF-κB signal. TRIM52 overexpression can significantly induce TNFα and IL-6 expression. We also found that the RING domain of TRIM52 was essential for its activation of the NF-κB signal...
January 7, 2017: Molecular Immunology
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