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Molecular Immunology

Kuntal Kanti Goswami, Madhurima Sarkar, Sarbari Ghosh, Akata Saha, Tithi Ghosh, Ipsita Guha, Subhasis Barik, Saptak Banerjee, Soumyabrata Roy, Anamika Bose, Parthasarathi Dasgupta, Rathindranath Baral
Heterogeneous tumor microenvironment (TME), broadly divided into tumor core and peripheral sub-microenvironments, differentially polarize normal macrophages into a different form known as tumor associated M2 macrophages (M2TAMs) to promote tumor growth. In view of the extensive immune-editing role of NLGP, here, we have observed that NLGP is effective to convert M2TAMs (CD11b(+)F4/80(high)) to M1 (CD11b(+)F4/80(low)) more prominently in tumor core, along with downregulation of other M2 associated markers, like, ManR, Ym1, Fizz1...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Tan A Nguyen, Ken C Pang, Seth L Masters
An effective innate immune response relies on the detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by various host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that result in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Viruses and bacteria have co-evolved with the immune system and developed multiple strategies to usurp or circumvent host machinery and blunt the innate immune response in infected cells. Recently, it has become apparent that infected or dying cells can transmit PAMPs and host PRR signalling proteins to uninfected bystander cells to thereby bypass pathogen evasion strategies, and potentiate innate immune signalling...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Fufa Qu, Zhiming Xiang, Yang Zhang, Jun Li, Shu Xiao, Yuehuan Zhang, Fan Mao, Haitao Ma, Ziniu Yu
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are conserved serine/threonine-specific kinases that are activated by various extracellular stimuli and play crucial regulatory roles in immunity, development and homeostasis. However, the function of p38s in mollusks, the second most diverse group of animals, is still poorly understood. In this study, a novel molluscan p38 (designated Chp38) was cloned and characterized from the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. Its full-length cDNA encoded a putative protein of 353 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of approximately 40...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Arpit Bhargava, Dinesh K Mishra, Subodh K Jain, Rupesh K Srivastava, Nirmal K Lohiya, Pradyumna K Mishra
We aimed to identify an optimum nano-carrier system to deliver tumor antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) for efficient targeting of tumor reinitiating cells (TRICs) in gynecological malignancies. Different lipid based nano-carrier systems i.e. liposomes, ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNPs) were examined for their ability to activate DCs in allogeneic settings. Out of these three, the most optimized formulation was subjected for cationic and mannosylated surface modification and pulsed with DCs for specific targeting of tumor cells...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Wubing He, Lihong Chen, Lin Zheng, Liuping Luo, Lingyun Gao
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for inducing immune tolerance. However, the suppressive function of infused Treg cells and immature DCs (imDCs) following solid organ transplantation remains unclear. METHODS: ImDCs derived from DA-donor rats and Treg cells isolated from spleens of Lewis rats were prepared. A heterotopic liver transplantation model was established to examine the immune tolerance effects of infusion of Treg-imDCs, imDCs and Treg cells individually...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Yushan Chen, Shanshan Zhou, Kexin Hua, Hongde Xiao, Zili Li, Mei Liu, Rui Luo, Dingren Bi, Rui Zhou, Hui Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Li Cai, Haiyan Xu, Han Zhang, Lili Zhang, Guojue Wang, Hong Nie
T cell response is crucial to the pathogenesis and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-7/IL-7R axis has significant effect on CD4(+) T cell response, including proliferation, differentiation, survival and migration. However, whether blockade of IL-7/IL-7R axis signaling can relieve RA and what is the potential treatment mechanisms are still remaining unclear. In this paper, we established collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and observed the effect of IL-7Rα antibody in the treatment of CIA mice...
October 10, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Hanen Ouadani, Imen Ben-Mustapha, Meriem Ben-Ali, Beya Larguèche, Tihana Jovanic, Sylvie Garcia, Benoit Arcangioli, Houda Elloumi-Zghal, Dahmani Fathallah, Mongia Hachicha, Hatem Masmoudi, François Rougeon, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche
Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential enzyme for class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) during secondary immune response. Mutations in the AICDA gene are responsible for Hyper IgM 2 syndrome where both CSR and SHM or only CSR are affected. Indeed, triggering either of the two mechanisms requires the DNA deamination activity of AID. Besides, different domains of AID may be differentially involved in CSR and SHM through their interaction with specific cofactors...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Ronald Schilderink, Matthew Bell, Eleonora Reginato, Chris Patten, Inmaculada Rioja, Francisca W Hilbers, Pawel A Kabala, Kris A Reedquist, David F Tough, Paul Peter Tak, Rab K Prinjha, Wouter J de Jonge
Transcription of inflammatory genes is tightly regulated by acetylation and deacetylation of histone tails. An inhibitor of the acetylated-lysine reader bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins, I-BET151, is known to counteract the induction of expression of inflammatory genes in macrophages. We have investigated the effects of I-BET151 on dendritic cell function, including expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines, and capacity for T cell activation. Treatment of mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and human monocyte derived DCs (mdDC) with I-BET151 reduced LPS-induced expression of co-stimulatory molecules, as well as the production of multiple cyokines and chemokines...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Fuguo Liu, Xiaoqian Tang, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
In the present study, molecular chaperone GroEL of Edwardsiella tarda was found both react with flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) anti-recombinant GroEL (rGroEL) and anti-E. tarda antibodies, and it was both detected in the outer membrane and the secretome. To evaluate the vaccine potential of GroEL, pCI-neo-GFP-GroEL (pCG-GroEL) was prepared and used to vaccinate healthy flounder, and immune protective effects were investigated. The results showed that pCG-GroEL produced an RPS of 60% following E. tarda challenge at week 5 after immunization...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Colleen W Brinson, Zhongyang Lu, Yanchun Li, Maria F Lopes-Virella, Yan Huang
Both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin (IL)-1β activate the MyD88-dependent signaling pathways to stimulate proinflammatory cytokine expression. However, it remains unknown how LPS and IL-1β interact with each other to coordinate the stimulation. In this study, we sought to investigate the interaction between LPS and IL-1β on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Results showed that LPS derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg LPS) and IL-1β cooperatively stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling pathways, and subsequent expression of proinflammatory cytokine expression...
September 30, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Virginie Deswaerte, Saleela M Ruwanpura, Brendan J Jenkins
Over the last decade it has emerged that inflammasome complexes provide a pivotal platform for the host innate immune system to respond to exogenous infectious microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi) and non-infectious environmental agents (cigarette smoke, pollution), as well as endogenous "danger" signals. Upon the canonical activation of inflammasomes, a key effector function is to catalyze, via caspase-1, the maturation of the potent pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, which, in addition to chronic inflammatory responses have also been intimately linked to the inflammatory form of lytic cell death, pyroptosis...
September 30, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Julien Leconte, Sahar Bagherzadeh Yazdchi, Vincent Panneton, Woong-Kyung Suh
The inducible costimulator (ICOS) is a T cell costimulatory receptor that plays crucial roles in T cell differentiation and function. So far, ICOS has been shown to activate three signaling components: phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), intracellular calcium mobilization, and TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1). By generating a knock-in strain of mice in which the ICOS gene is modified such that the ICOS-mediated PI3K pathway is selectively abrogated while the capacity of ICOS to mobilize intracellular calcium remains intact, we have shown that ICOS-mediated PI3K activation is required for some but not all T cell responses...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Weihua Ni, Fang Wang, Guomu Liu, Nannan Zhang, Hongyan Yuan, Jing Jie, Guixiang Tai
Our previous study demonstrated that maltose-binding protein (MBP) combined with BCG induced synergistic mouse Th1 activation in vivo. Here, to explore the mechanism of MBP combined with BCG on Th1 activation, mouse purified CD4(+) T cells were stimulated with MBP and BCG in vitro. The results showed that MBP combined with BCG synergistically increased IFN-γ production, accompanied with the upregulation of TLR2/9 expressions, suggesting that TLR2/9 were involved in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Next, TLR2 antibodies and TLR9 inhibitor were used to further analyze the effects of TLRs in Th1 activation...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Nathalie Niyonzima, Bente Halvorsen, Bjørnar Sporsheim, Peter Garred, Pål Aukrust, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Terje Espevik
In the host a diverse collection of endogenous danger signals is constantly generated consisting of waste material as protein aggregates or crystalline materials that are recognized and handled by soluble pattern recognition receptors and phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. These signals may under certain circumstances drive processes leading to adverse inflammation. One example is cholesterol crystals (CC) that accumulate in the vessel wall during early phases of atherogenesis and represent an important endogenous danger signal promoting inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Ning Na, Yun Luo, Daqiang Zhao, Shicong Yang, Liangqing Hong, Heng Li, Bin Miao, Jiang Qiu
Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) are bone marrow-derived professional antigen-presenting cells, exhibit very low levels of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1), CD86 (B7-2), and CD40 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and play a critical role in triggering antigen-specific immunotolerance. The enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a cytosolic tryptophan catabolism rate-limiting step enzyme. IDO secreted by DCs shows an association with the suppression of T-cell responses and promotion of tolerance...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Jun-Ai Zhang, Gan-Bin Liu, Bi-Ying Zheng, Yuan-Bin Lu, Yu-Chi Gao, Xiao-Zhen Cai, You-Chao Dai, Shi-Yan Yu, Yan Jia, Chen Chen, Ze-Gang Zhuang, Xin Wang, Wan-Dang Wang, Xiao-Xia Fu, Lai-Long Yi, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen, Jun-Fa Xu
Roles of human IL-37 in infections remain poorly characterized. Although plasma IL-37 is elevated in patients with tuberculosis (TB), IL-37 source and immune correlate in TB have not been investigated. It is also unknown whether and how TB can influence the ability of immune cells to mount innate responses of IL-37 and pre-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we demonstrated that IL-37b-producing monocytes coincided with a source of elevated plasma IL-37b in TB patients. While IL-37b production in TB was associated with prolonged/complicated TB, TB burdens and inflammatory reactions, it negatively correlated with immune responses of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α or IL-10...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Petra Cerkovnik, Barbara Jezeršek Novaković, Vida Stegel, Srdjan Novaković
In our previous studies, it has been demonstrated that in more than 80% of mice long-lasting antitumor immunity has been established following intraperitoneal (i.p.) vaccination with tumor vaccine composed of irradiated syngeneic tumor cells and CpG ODNs class C. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate molecular mechanisms through which this vaccine triggers the immunity and to define genes particularly involved in this process. Changes in gene expression were followed in mononuclear cells isolated from peritoneal lavages, spleens and bone marrow samples...
September 24, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Yushan Chen, Ting Liu, Paul Langford, Kexin Hua, Shanshan Zhou, Yajun Zhai, Hongde Xiao, Rui Luo, Dingren Bi, Hui Jin, Rui Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Molecular Immunology
Shufang Li, Wei Liu, Yinghui Li, Shaorong Zhao, Can Liu, Mengyun Hu, Wei Yue, Yanhua Liu, Yue Wang, Rongcun Yang, Rong Xiang, Feifei Liu
Abs reactive to DNA and DNA/histone complexes are a distinguished characteristic of primary immunoglobulin repertoires in autoimmune B6.MRL-Fas(lpr) and MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice. These mice are defective in Fas receptor, which is critical for the apoptosis of autoreactive B cells by an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, we explored the possibility that bone marrow small pre-B and immature B cells from adult B6.MRL-Fas(lpr) mice and MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice respectively, which contain autoreactive B-cell antigen receptors (BCR) and manifest autoimmune syndromes, exhibit enhanced receptor editing patterns...
October 2016: Molecular Immunology
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