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Molecular Immunology

Lisa Tuppo, Ivana Giangrieco, Claudia Alessandri, Teresa Ricciardi, Chiara Rafaiani, Michela Ciancamerla, Rosetta Ferrara, Danila Zennaro, Maria Livia Bernardi, Maurizio Tamburrini, Adriano Mari, Maria Antonietta Ciardiello
Allergy to pomegranate is often associated with severe symptoms. Two allergens have previously been described: 9k-LTP Pun g 1 and pommaclein Pun g 7. This study describes the isolation of a chitinase III, identified by direct protein sequencing and mass spectrometry. It is a 29-kDa protein showing 69% sequence identity with the latex hevamine and IgE binding in dot blotting, immunoblotting and FABER® test. Chitinase-specific IgE were detected in 69 of 357 patients sensitized to one or more pomegranate allergenic preparations present on the FABER® test...
September 18, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Zhehao Shi, Wen Ye, Jiecheng Zhang, Fan Zhang, Dinglai Yu, Huajun Yu, Bicheng Chen, Mengtao Zhou, Hongwei Sun
An essential component of acute pancreatitis(AP)-induced acute lung injury(ALI) is the inflammation that is part of the body's systemic inflammatory response to a variety of systemic stimuli. Lipoxins(LXs) are considered important endogenous lipids that mediate the resolution of inflammation. In previous studies, we found that Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) reduced AP-induced pulmonary oedema and TNF-α production in lung. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Due to the above studies, we investigated the aquaporin, matrix metalloprotein, apoptosis and PKC/SSeCKS signal pathway in cellular and animal models of AP-associated lung injury following LXA4 intervention...
September 13, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Bo Yang, Yan Luo, Zhigang Liu, Pingchang Yang, Yaoting Gui
Bacterial probiotics are of increasing use against intestinal disorders such as food allergy. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying probiotics-mediated anti-allergic effect remains unknown. In the present study, we orally treated OVA-sensitized mice with Bifidobacterium infantis (BB) for two weeks. It was found that OVA specific-IgE and-IgG levels in serum were significantly decreased after BB administration. BB treatment also significantly reduced the release of IL-4, -5, -13 in splenocytes...
September 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
D A Diaz-Dinamarca, D A Soto, Y Y Leyton, M J Altamirano-Lagos, M J Avendaño, A M Kalergis, A E Vasquez
The Surface Immunogenic Protein (SIP) of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) had been described as a good target for vaccine development. To date, SIP has been reported as a highly conserved protein, and in a mouse model it induces protection against lethal GBS challenge. Also, similar effects have been described by intranasal immunization with a SIP-based vaccine. In this study, we show the immune response induced by an oral SIP-based vaccine formulated on alum in a mouse model. Our vaccine can reduce vaginal GBS colonization and induce specific SIP-antibodies with opsonophagocytosis activities against GBS...
September 8, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Xiao Zhu, Kun Ren, Yong-Zhi Zeng, Zhi Zheng, Guang-Hui Yi
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive metabolite of sphingolipid, has an important role in lymphocyte trafficking, immune responses, vascular and embryonic development, cancer, bone homeostasis, etc. S1P is produced intracellularly and then secreted into the circulation to engage in the above physiological or pathological processes by regulating the proliferation, differentiation and survival of target cells; however, the underlying mechanisms of S1P secretion and function remain poorly understood. Recently, Spinster 2 (SPNS2), a newly identified transporter of S1P, was shown to act as a mediator of intracellular S1P release and play an important role in the regulation of S1P...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Criselle D'Souza, Zhenjun Chen, Alexandra J Corbett
Mucosal-associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells represent a large proportion of T cells in human blood, and are also present throughout the body, being concentrated at mucosal sites. Their high level of conservation throughout mammalian evolution and recognition of conserved microbial antigens, derived from precursors of riboflavin (vitamin B2) biosynthesis, suggest an important role in protective immunity to pathogens. However, the picture that is emerging of MAIT cell immune function is increasingly complex, with numerous correlations of MAIT cell numbers with human diseases, and with recent studies demonstrating their pathogenic potential...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Yue Yang, Yang Wang, Yawei Kong, Xiaoning Zhang, He Zhang, Yi Gang, Lunhao Bai
Lipoxin A4 (LXA4 ), a kind of adipokines, is a potent stop signal of inflammation. Our preliminary study found that LXA4 of serum and intra-articular lavage fluid (IALF) was rapidly elevated in 2 h and rapidly reduced to normal level at 4 h after moderate-intensity treadmill exercise. The aim was to confirm the therapeutic effects of LXA4 during treadmill exercise on rat model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA and the detailed mechanism of LXA4 on OA. One hundred and twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to two different protocols...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Liangliang Mu, Xiaoxue Yin, Xia Bian, Liting Wu, Yanjian Yang, Xiufang Wei, Zheng Guo, Jianmin Ye
Collectin-K1 (CL-K1), a multifunctional Ca2+ -dependent lectin, is able to bind carbohydrates on pathogens and inhibit infection by direct neutralization, agglutination, opsonization and killing, which plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a CL-K1 homolog (OnCL-K1) was identified from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and characterized at expression and agglutination functional levels. The open reading frame of OnCL-K1 is 720 bp of nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide of 239 amino acids...
September 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Maria Agallou, Eleni Pantazi, Elisavet Tsiftsaki, Dimitra K Toubanaki, Catherine Gaitanaki, Despina Smirlis, Evdokia Karagouni
Leishmania elongation factor 2 (EF-2) has been previously identified as a TH 1-stimulatory protein. In this study, we assayed the protective potential of the N-terminal domain of EF-2 (N-LiEF-2, 1-357 aa) that has been predicted to contain several overlapping MHC class I and II-restricted epitopes injected in the form of dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine. Ex vivo pulsing of DCs with the recombinant N-LiEF-2 domain along with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) resulted in their functional differentiation. BALB/c vaccinated with CpG-triggered DCs pulsed with N-LiEF-2 were found to be the most immune-reactive in terms of induction of DTH responses, increased T cell proliferation and IL-2 production...
August 30, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Linnea Thörnqvist, Mats Ohlin
Sequencing of immunoglobulin germline gene loci is a challenging process, e.g. due to their repetitiveness and complexity, hence limiting the insight in the germline gene repertoire of humans and other species. Through next generation sequencing technology, it is possible to generate immunoglobulin transcript data sets large enough to computationally infer the germline genes from which the transcripts originate. Multiple tools for such inference have been developed and they can be used for construction of individual germline gene databases, and for discovery of new immunoglobulin germline genes and alleles...
August 29, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Scheherazade Sadegh-Nasseri, AeRyon Kim
MHC II proteins present processed antigens to CD4 + T cells through a complex set of events and players that include chaperons and accessory molecules. Antigen processing machinery is optimized for the selection of the best fitting peptides, called 'immunodominant epitopes', in the MHC II groove to which, specific CD4 + T cells respond and differentiate into memory T cells. However, due to the complexity of antigen processing, understanding the parameters that lead to immunodominance has proved difficult...
August 23, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Jai Rautela, Laura F Dagley, Tobias Kratina, Angaleena Anthony, Wilford Goh, Elliot Surgenor, Rebecca B Delconte, Andrew I Webb, Ngaire Elwood, Joanna R Groom, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Lynn Corcoran, Nicholas D Huntington
NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes with a key role in limiting tumour metastases. In mice, the NK cell lineage continually expresses high levels of the Inhibitor of DNA-binding 2 (Id2) protein and loss of Id2 is incongruous with their survival due to aberrant E-protein target gene activity. Using novel Id2 and E-protein antibodies that detect both mouse and human proteins, we have extensively characterised Id2 and E-protein expression in murine and human NK cells. We detected clear expression of E2 A and HEB, and to a lesser extent E2-2 in murine NK cells...
August 22, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Claire L Harris, Richard B Pouw, David Kavanagh, Ruyue Sun, Daniel Ricklin
The complement system is well known for its role in innate immunity and in maintenance of tissue homeostasis, providing a first line of defence against infection and playing a key role in flagging apoptotic cells and debris for disposal. Unfortunately complement also contributes to pathogenesis of a number of diseases; in some cases driving pathology, and in others amplifying or exacerbating the inflammatory and damaging impact of non-complement disease triggers. The role of complement in pathogenesis of an expanding number of diseases has driven industry and academia alike to develop an impressive arsenal of anti-complement drugs which target different proteins and functions of the complement cascade...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Jennifer N Saultz, Aharon G Freud, Bethany L Mundy-Bosse
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as important regulators of all cellular processes, including immune function and cancer survival. These evolutionary preserved, single-stranded, non-coding RNA molecules mediate important functional effects primarily through post-transcriptional regulation of protein expression. MiRNAs are known to mediate multiple oncogenic pathways in tumor cells, both tumor promoting and tumor suppressing. In addition to a direct tumor cell effect, miRNAs have also been shown to play a critical role in immune cell development, function and survival...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Andreas Neerincx, Louise H Boyle
We recently discovered that TAPBPR promotes reglucosylation of the N-linked glycan on MHC class I molecules, a modification that restores their recognition by calreticulin and reincorporation into the peptide-loading complex. We wondered whether TAPBPR displayed some degree of glycan specificity, as is known to be the case for tapasin via its interaction with calreticulin & ERp57, or whether its interaction with MHC class I was glycan independent. Here, we explored this by comparing the ability of TAPBPR to bind to MHC class I containing either an intact or disrupted NxS/T glycosylation consensus sequence...
August 1, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Andrea J Tenner, John P Atkinson, V Michael Holers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Justin T Gunesch, Laura S Angelo, Sanjana Mahapatra, Raquel P Deering, Johanna E Kowalko, Patrick Sleiman, John W Tobias, Linda Monaco-Shawver, Jordan S Orange, Emily M Mace
Natural killer (NK) cell lines, including YTS, NK92, NK3.3, and NKL, represent excellent models for the study of human natural killer cells. While phenotypic and functional differences between these cell lines have been reported, a multi-parametric study, encompassing genomic, phenotypic, and functional assays, has not been performed. Here, using a combination of techniques including microarray and copy number analyses, flow cytometry, and functional assays, we provide in-depth genetic, functional, and phenotypic comparison of YTS, NK92, NK3...
July 24, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Jessy J Alexander
The brain is an immune privileged organ, uniquely placed in the body. Two systems involved in maintaining brain homeostasis and in protecting the brain are the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the complement system. The BBB is present in the vasculature of the brain and is the dynamic interface between brain and body that regulates what enters and leaves the brain, thereby maintaining the brain microenvironment optimal for brain function. The complement system is ubiquitous, being present systemically and in the brain, both membrane bound and in circulation...
July 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Andrea J Tenner, Beth Stevens, Trent M Woodruff
While the mechanisms underlying the functions of the complement system in the central nervous system (CNS) and systemically, namely opsonization, chemotaxis, membrane lysis, and regulation of inflammation are the same, the plethora of functions that complement orchestrates in the central nervous system (CNS) is complex. Strictly controlled expression of complement effector molecules, regulators and receptors across the gamut of life stages (embryogenesis, development and maturation, aging and disease) dictate fascinating contributions for this ancient system...
June 27, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Stephen Tomlinson, Joshua M Thurman
Complement activation contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Therapeutic complement inhibitors have proven effective in several of these diseases and have now entered clinical use. Complement activation has multiple different biologic effects, however, and the currently available drugs can have undesirable side-effects, such as an increased risk of infection. Several different complement inhibitors have been developed that bind to target molecules, thereby concentrating the drug at a specific anatomic site...
October 2018: Molecular Immunology
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