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Molecular Immunology

Anh Duc Truong, Cong Thanh Hoang, Yeojin Hong, Janggeun Lee, Kyungbaek Lee, Hyun S Lillehoj, Yeong Ho Hong
This study represents the first description of the cloning of chicken IL-23p19 (ChIL-23α) and the function of the IL-23 complex in birds. Multiple alignment of ChIL-23α with other known IL-23α amino acid sequences revealed regions of amino acid conservation. The homologies of ChIL-23α, IL-12p35, and similar mammalian subunits ranged between 26% and 42%. ChIL-23α consisted of four exons and three introns; similar to those in humans and mice, and limited conservation of synteny between the human and chicken genomes was observed...
October 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Shuzhen Liang, Lizhi Niu, Kecheng Xu, Xiaohua Wang, Yingqing Liang, Mingjie Zhang, Jibing Chen, Mao Lin
In this study, we investigated the clinical benefits of a combination of tumor cryoablation with natural killer (NK) cells therapy and Herceptin for human epidermal growth factor (HER) 2-overexpressing recurrent breast cancer. From May 2015 to May 2016, 48 patients who met the enrollment criteria were assigned to three groups (n=16): cryoablation group (group I), cryoablation-NK cells therapy group (group II) and cryoablation-NK cells therapy-Herceptin group (group III). Safety and short-term effects were evaluated...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Fang Fang, Jian Pan, Yanhong Li, Yiping Li, Xing Feng, Jian Wang
The goal of this study was to identify potential transcriptomic markers in developing asthma by an integrative analysis of multiple public microarray data sets. Using the R software and bioconductor packages, we performed a statistical analysis to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes in asthma, and further performed functional interpretation (enrichment analysis and co-expression network construction) and classification quality evaluation of the DE genes identified. 3 microarray datasets (192 cases and 91 controls in total) were collected for this analysis...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Ishan S Shah, Scott Lovell, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P Battaile, Thomas J Tolbert
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) consists of four subclasses in humans: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4, which are highly conserved but have unique differences that result in subclass-specific effector functions. Though IgG1 is the most extensively studied IgG subclass, study of other subclasses is important to understand overall immune function and for development of new therapeutics. When compared to IgG1, IgG3 exhibits a similar binding profile to Fcγ receptors and stronger activation of complement. All IgG subclasses are glycosylated at N297, which is required for Fcγ receptor and C1q complement binding as well as maintaining optimal Fc conformation...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Peng Su, Xin Liu, Yue Pang, Chang Liu, Ranran Li, Qiong Zhang, Hongfang Liang, Hao Wang, Qingwei Li
The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a pleiotropic transcription factor regulating the expression of genes involved in various biological processes including the immune response and inflammation. Lamprey is regarded as a key species to provide meaningful clues for understanding the evolution of immune system; nevertheless, no information about lamprey NF-κB is reported. Thus, we have characterized a NF-κB homolog in lamprey (lj-NF-κB) for the deeper understanding of the role it played in lamprey immune system...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Huijie Wang, Saichao Li, Tianzhu Chao, Xugang Wang, Lijin Shi, Lichen Zhang, Yinming Liang, Qianqian Zheng, Liaoxun Lu
In this study, we performed ENU mutagenesis and multi-parameter flow cytometric analysis in C57BL/6 mice to uncover novel genes or alleles regulating immune cell development. We identified a novel mutant allele of Cd4 gene which completely blocked development of a major subset of T cells named CD4 T cell. Our data for the first time showed experimentally in mice the critical role of the first extracellular domain, by obtaining mice with a loss of function mutation from Ile to Asn at the position 99 of CD4 (I99N)...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Mahalingam Anjugam, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Arokiadhas Iswarya, Muthu Amala, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
The present study reports the purification of novel immune molecule β-1, 3 glucan binding protein from the heamolymph of the Indian white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus indicus (Fiβ-GBP). The purified Fiβ-GBP had 95kDa molecular weight in SDS-PAGE analysis. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis revealed that the purified Fiβ-GBP showed similarity to various crustacean proteins; 48 and 46% similarity was observed for β-1, 3 glucan binding protein of Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis and banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis, with MOWSE score of 3...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Vívian T Martins, Daniela P Lage, Áquila S B Portela, Lourena E Costa, Beatriz C S Salles, Mariana P Lima, Fernanda F Ramos, Thaís T O Santos, Rachel B Caligiorne, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Julia A G Silveira, Danielle F Magalhães-Soares, Denise U Gonçalves, Jamil S Oliveira, Bruno M Roatt, Mariana C Duarte, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Eduardo S Silva, Alexsandro S Galdino, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Antonio L Teixeira, Eduardo A F Coelho
Different Leishmania proteins have been evaluated in order to find a potential vaccine candidate or diagnostic marker capable of providing long lasting protection against infection or helping to identify infected mammalian hosts, respectively. However, just few molecules have fulfilled all the requirements to be evaluated. In the current study, we evaluated the prophylactic and diagnostic value against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) of a small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing (SGT) protein from Leishmania infantum species...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Rosanna Marino, Rossana Capoferri, Simona Panelli, Giulietta Minozzi, Francesco Strozzi, Erminio Trevisi, Gustavo G M Snel, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, John L Williams
Johne's disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratubercolosis (MAP) which affects ruminants worldwide and has a significant economic impact. MAP has also been associated with human Crohn's disease, although this connection is not well established. MAP is highly adapted for survival within host macrophages and prevents macrophage activation, blocks phagosome acidification and maturation, and attenuates presentation of antigens to the immune system. The consequence is a very long silent infection before clinical signs are observed...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Maia Marin, Ravi Holani, Chaitanya B Shah, Anselmo Odeón, Eduardo R Cobo
Cathelicidin are innate antimicrobial peptides with broad immunomodulatory functions; however, their role in regulating intestinal defenses is not well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the role of cathelicidin modulating expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 4 and 9 in colonic epithelium in response to bacterial patterns. We demonstrated herein that intestinal epithelial cells, when primed by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), responded to cathelicidin by increased transcription and protein synthesis of TLR4...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Immunology
T Nefefe, J Liebenberg, M van Kleef, H C Steyn, A Pretorius
Heartwater is a tick-borne non-infectious fatal disease of wild and domestic ruminants caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium, transmitted by Amblyomma ticks. Although there is evidence that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) controls E. ruminantium growth and that cellular immune responses could be protective, an effective recombinant vaccine for this disease is lacking. An overall analysis of which immune pathways are up- or down-regulated in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells is expected to lead to a better understanding of the global immune response of sheep to E...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Anna M Gram, Chenglong Sun, Sanne L Landman, Timo Oosenbrug, Hester J Koppejan, Mark J Kwakkenbos, Rob C Hoeben, Søren R Paludan, Maaike E Ressing
Most cells are believed to be capable of producing type I interferons (IFN I) as part of an innate immune response against, for instance, viral infections. In macrophages, IFN I is potently induced upon cytoplasmic exposure to foreign nucleic acids. Infection of these cells with herpesviruses leads to triggering of the DNA sensors interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). Thereby, the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and the downstream molecules TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) are sequentially activated culminating in IFN I secretion...
September 29, 2017: Molecular Immunology
A Reum Kim, Ki Bum Ahn, Hyun Young Kim, Ho Seong Seo, Kee-Yeon Kum, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Streptococcus gordonii, a Gram-positive oral bacterium, is a life-threatening pathogen that causes infective endocarditis. It is frequently isolated from the periapical lesions of patients with apical periodontitis and has thus been implicated in inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the virulence factors of S. gordonii responsible for the induction of inflammatory responses in the periapical areas. Here, we investigated the role of S. gordonii cell wall-associated virulence factors on interleukin (IL)-8 induction in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells using ethanol-inactivated wild-type S...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Yeshan Li, Qijun Yu, Wenxue Zhao, Jiaxiang Zhang, Wentao Liu, Mao Huang, Xiaoning Zeng
To date, although a promising anti-inflammatory activity of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) has been observed in asthma, the mechanism responsible for these immunomodulatory properties remains obscure. Dendritic cells (DCs) that reside in the airway have been widely perceived as an important contributor to asthma. Our study was to demonstrate OPCs' effects on maturation and immunoregulation of pulmonary CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs). BALB/c mice were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) to induce murine model of asthma...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Mosayeb Rostamian, Hamid M Niknam
There is no effective vaccine against human leishmaniasis. Achieving successful vaccines seems to need powerful adjuvants. Separate or combined use of toll like receptor (TLR) agonists as adjuvant is a promising approach in Leishmania vaccine research. In present study, we evaluated adjuvant effect of separate or combined use of a TLR7/8 agonist, R848 and a TLR4 agonist, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) beside soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) in BALB/c mice. Mice were vaccinated three times by SLA with separate or combined TLR7/8 and TLR4 agonists and were then challenged by Leishmania major...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Yanhai Chang, Xiao Wang, Zhengming Sun, Zhankui Jin, Ming Chen, Xiaoqing Wang, Mikko J Lammi, Xiong Guo
Mycotoxin T-2 exerts a causative role in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) suffering chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage matrix homeostasis disruption. Recent research corroborated the aberrant levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ß in KBD patients and mycotoxin environment. In the present study, we investigated the relevance of IL-1ß in T-2 toxin-evoked chondrocyte cytotoxic injury and aberrant catabolism. High levels of IL-1ß were detected in serum and cartilages from KBD patients and in T-2-stimulated chondrocytes...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Juan Peng, Xian Deng, Wei Huang, Ji-Hua Yu, Jian-Xiong Wang, Jie-Ping Wang, Shi-Bin Yang, Xi Liu, Li Wang, Yun Zhang, Xiang-Yu Zhou, Hui Yang, Yan-Zheng He, Fang-Yuan Xu
Recent studies found that irisin, a newly discovered skeletal muscle-derived myokine during exercise, is also synthesized in various tissues of different species and protects against neuronal injury in cerebral ischemia. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome play an important role in detecting cellular damage and mediating inflammatory responses to aseptic tissue injury during ischemic stroke. However, it is unclear whether irisin is involved in the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation during ischemic stroke...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Jaqueline Ramalho, Luciana C Veiga-Castelli, Eduardo A Donadi, Celso T Mendes-Junior, Erick C Castelli
The HLA-E gene is characterized by low but wide expression on different tissues. HLA-E is considered a conserved gene, being one of the least polymorphic class I HLA genes. The HLA-E molecule interacts with Natural Killer cell receptors and T lymphocytes receptors, and might activate or inhibit immune responses depending on the peptide associated with HLA-E and with which receptors HLA-E interacts to. Variable sites within the HLA-E regulatory and coding segments may influence the gene function by modifying its expression pattern or encoded molecule, thus, influencing its interaction with receptors and the peptide...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Jun Dai, Ajinkya Kumbhare, Dima Youssef, Zhi Q Yao, Charles E McCall, Mohamed El Gazzar
Sepsis-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to immunosuppression associated with sepsis. We reported that the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein C/EBPβ activates microRNA (miR)-21 and miR-181b expressions, which induce transcription factor NFI-A to support the generation and expansion of MDSCs in the bone marrow and spleens of septic mice. Here, using a conditional knockout mouse model lacking C/EBPβ in the myeloid lineage, we find that without C/EBPβ, myeloid progenitor cells could not express miR-21 or miR-181b, and ectopic expression of C/EBPβ in the C/EBPβ-deficient myeloid progenitors activated the expression of the two miRNAs...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Qiang Zhou, Shengying Qin, Jinyan Zhang, Lin Zhon, Zhihai Pen, Tonghai Xing
Vitamin D has been recommended as an immune modulator in recent years, in addition to regulating calcium-phosphorous-bone metabolism. Clinical studies on organ transplantation found that vitamin D sufficiency patients were less likely to develop acute cellular rejection within one year after transplantation compared to those with vitamin D deficiency. Thus, a high percentage of regulatory T cells might play a key role in preventing acute cellular rejection (ACR). In this report, we studied the specific effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on human T cell diff ;erentiation, and determined the potential molecule mechanism behind...
September 17, 2017: Molecular Immunology
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