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Nutrition and Cancer

Patricia L Quiroga, Elio A Soria, Mirta A Valentich, Aldo R Eynard
Retinoic acid (RA) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) are proposed as nutritional anticancer agents. Nonetheless, the activity of their combination on human breast cancer needs further study. Our aim was to evaluate this activity on the MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cell lines treated with 1 µM RA and 50 µM of γ-linoleic (GLA, ω-6), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, ω-3), oleic (OA, ω-9), or eicosatrienoic (ETA, ω-9) acids. The following cellular responses were compared by ANOVA and Fisher test (P < 0.05): fatty acids, E-cadherin, actin (differentiation), conjugated dienes, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activity (stress), and viability, which were correlated by partial least squares regression...
September 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Keith Glenn, DawnKylee S Klarich, Milica Kalaba, Arturo Figueroa, Shirin Hooshmand, Mark Kern, Mee Young Hong
Diets high in fruits and vegetables may help prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). Watermelon consumption may reduce CRC risk due to its concentration of l-citrulline and its role in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. Research suggests that increased NO levels have tumoricidal effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder supplementation on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, precancerous lesions, and expression of genes associated with colon carcinogenesis. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into three groups: control, 0...
September 12, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Alicja Zajdel, Magdalena Kałucka, Ewa Chodurek, Adam Wilczok
Clinical and epidemiological studies show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) exert multiple effects on ovarian cancer. While DHA seems to inhibit growth and prevent carcinogenic processes, stimulation of leukotriene B4 receptors BLT1 and BLT2 by several eicosanoids derived from AA plays an important role in mediating cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells. We examined whether DHA and AA exerted antiproliferative effect on epithelial ovarian cancer cells and whether these polyunsaturated fatty acids could alter their susceptibility to cisplatin...
September 11, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Elena Antonini, Renato Iori, Paolino Ninfali, Emanuele Salvatore Scarpa
Moringin (MOR), a glycosyl-isothiocyanate obtained by myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the precursor 4-(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin), found predominantly in the seeds of Moringa oleifera, shows anticancer effects against several cancer cell lines. Avenanthramide (AVN) 2f is a phytochemical purified from oats with antioxidant and anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of MOR and AVN 2f used alone and in combination on Hep3B cancer cells, which are highly resistant to conventional anticancer drugs...
September 11, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Yogesh Kumar, Alugoju Phaniendra, Latha Periyasamy
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and is known to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy. The use of herbal medicine and supplements has increased over recent decades following side effects and resistant to conventional chemotherapy. The seeds of Bixa orellana L. commonly known as annatto have recently gained scientific attention due to presence of a carotenoid bixin for its substantial anticancer properties. However, molecular mechanisms underlying bixin-induced apoptosis are still unclear...
September 11, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Marcela Carnier, Fernanda Pinheiro Silva, Danielle Araujo de Miranda, Ana Claudia Losinskas Hachul, Alessandra Bragança Silva Rischiteli, Nelson Inacio Pinto Neto, Valter Tadeu Boldarine, Marilia Seelaender, Claudia Maria Oller do Nascimento, Lila Missae Oyama
Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) contains high amounts of n-3 α-linolenic acid (ALA) and has been associated with many health benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the AIN-93 diet supplemented by chia flour on cancer-cachexia development and tissues inflammatory response. Wistar rats at 30 days old were treated with control diet or diet supplemented with chia flour for eight weeks. After this period, half of the animals in each diet group were inoculated with Walker 256 tumor cells. On the 14th day after tumor inoculation, the animals were euthanized and white adipose tissue depots, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and tumor were removed...
September 11, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Susanne Grube, Christian Ewald, Christine Kögler, Aaron Lawson McLean, Rolf Kalff, Jan Walter
The polyphenolic compounds present in green tea are preventative against cancer in several animal tumor models. However, direct cytotoxic effects on cancer cells have also been reported. In order to determine whether drinking of green tea has chemopreventive or cytotoxic effects on brain cancer cells, we investigated the effect of the major green tea polyphenol EGCG as a pure substance and as tea extract dietary supplement on primary human glioblastoma cell cultures at the CNS-achievable concentration of 100 nM reported in the literature...
September 10, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Narges Ramezani, Alireza Moafi, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Saeed Yousefian, Nahid Reisi, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
No previous studies were found to examine the effect of soy as a whole food on patients with leukemia. The present randomized controlled clinical trial studied the effect of soy nut on children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who were in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy. The eligible patients were randomized to receive 30 g/day soy or cowpea nut powder for 12 weeks. Dietary intake, physical activity, anthropometric measurements, complete blood count, serum albumin, serum highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as chemotherapy side effects were assessed at the start and the end of the study...
September 10, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Oliver Ng, Barrie Keeler, John Alastair Simpson, Srinivasan Madhusudan, Matthew Brookes, Austin Acheson
BACKGROUND: Anemia is common with esophagogastric adenocarcinoma, increasing mortality, blood transfusions, and reducing quality of life (QOL). No clear evidence exists for safe and effective treatment. METHODS: Anemic patients (Hb <12 g/dl women, <13 g/dl men) with esophagogastric adenocarcinoma were recruited before initiation of palliative chemotherapy. Patients were randomized to standard care or single dose of intravenous iron isomaltoside (IVI) before chemotherapy...
September 10, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Sarah J O Nomura, Chiranjeev Dash, Lynn Rosenberg, Julie Palmer, Lucile L Adams-Campbell
This project evaluated associations between fruit and vegetable intake, cigarette smoking and lung cancer incidence among U.S. Black women. The Black Women's Health Study is a prospective cohort study (analytic cohort = 46,889) among Black women between the ages 21 and 69 at baseline (1995). Fruit and vegetable intake and smoking history were ascertained via questionnaires at baseline and during follow-up. Associations between fruit and vegetable intake, smoking and lung cancer incidence (N = 306 incident cases through 2013) were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression...
September 10, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Mohamed Kacem Ben Fradj, Yassine Ouanes, Sameh Hadj-Taieb, Ahmed Sallemi, Amani Kallel, Riadh Jemaa, Naziha Kaabachi, Yassine Nouira, Moncef Feki
Fatty acids (FAs) are thought to impact carcinogenesis by affecting cell signaling. A case-control study including 250 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) and 250 controls was conducted. Plasma FAs composition was assessed using capillary gas chromatography. Associations of individual and classes of FAs with UBC were controlled for the main risk factors for UBC. Plasma FAs profile was different in patients compared to controls. Higher levels (third tertile vs. first tertile) in palmitic acid (PA) [multi-adjusted OR (95% CI), 1...
September 5, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Leila Kaeid Sharaf, Geeta Shukla
Epidemiological and experimental observations have shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs especially selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and probiotics reduce the incidence risk of colon cancer. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the prophylactic potentials of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) in conjunction with celecoxib, a selective cox-2 inhibitor in 1,2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis, a well-established, well appreciated and widely used model for colorectal cancer that shares many similarities to human sporadic colorectal cancer with respect to response to some promotional and preventive agents...
September 5, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Flore Depeint, Claude-Narcisse Niamba, Anne-Kathrin Illner, Cécile Buche-Foissy, Julie Branchu, Hassan Younes, Christelle Loncke, Philippe R Pouillart
The idea that sugar feeds the tumor cells is relayed by some health professionals and media alike. Patients may be torn between what they read in the media and their food preferences during and after treatment. With this survey, we aim at understanding the perception and overall consumption patterns of sugar in cancer patients together with possible physiological and psychological triggers. We decided not to include quantitative nutritional measures of the sugar consumption. The survey was distributed in a hospital setting and through a cancer support online network...
September 5, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Sanne J Bille, Benedicte W Fjalstad, Mette B Clausen, Bent J Andreasen, Jens Rikardt Andersen
Major weight loss and taste changes are well documented in patients with hematological cancer during chemotherapy. We have previously documented, that such patients have preferences for much umami, a little sweet, sour and salt, and no bitter. We wanted to convert these results into real diets. Patients participated in two sensory pilot studies (n = 10), where dishes were tested for preferences before and after chemotherapy. From these results, four dishes were selected and tested on 32 patients in 30 days in a cross-over design...
August 6, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Virginia Signal, Stephanie Huang, Diana Sarfati, James Stanley, Katherine A McGlynn, Jason K Gurney
Dairy consumption has been studied extensively in terms of its relationship with testicular cancer (TC), yet this relationship remains unclear. In this systematic review, we aimed to answer whether TC development is associated with (a) high amounts of dairy product consumption, (b) the type of dairy product consumed, (c) increasing levels of dairy product consumption, and (d) dairy consumption during certain periods during the lifecourse. Following a systematic review of the literature, eight studies (all case-control studies) were included in our review...
July 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Amir Yarahmadi, Fatemeh Khademi, Zohreh Mostafavi-Pour, Fatemeh Zal
Some types of cancers show a strong relationship with diabetes and play a central role in mortality in the patient population suffering from diabetes mellitus. In this study, HepG2 cells have been used to investigate the toxic effects of hyperglycemia and/or quercetin (Q) on mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) expression as central molecules involved in cancer. HepG2 cells were cultured with different concentrations of glucose (5.5, 30, and 50 mM) and/or Q (25 µM) for 48 and 72 h...
July 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Helen L Robbins, Megan Symington, Barbara Mosterman, Josie Goodby, Louise Davies, Georgios K Dimitriadis, Gregory Kaltsas, Harpal S Randeva, Martin O Weickert
Vitamin D (vit-D) deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) and has been linked to reduced overall survival. We here assessed the vit-D status in 183 patients with GEP-NET at the time of their first presentation in the ARDEN NET Centre. We further examined the effect of simple advice to increase vit-D intake using over-the-counter vit-D preparations [colecalciferol (Vit-D3), 1,000-2,000 units/day], over a prospective observation period of 24 mo...
July 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Jessica L Tommie, Susan M Pinney, Laurie A Nommsen-Rivers
BACKGROUND: The association between vitamin D status and breast cancer risk is equivocal. No systematic reviews or meta-analyses have examined this association stratified by receptor status. Our objective is to conduct a systematic review to answer the question, "Is there a relationship between lower serum/plasma vitamin D levels and increased risk of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) specifically?" METHODS: We systematically searched Embase and PubMed databases for published original research studies examining the risk of a breast cancer diagnosis according to vitamin D status...
July 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Imran Khan, Fahad Khan, Arshi Farooqui, Irfan A Ansari
Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone and a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata Nees, exhibits remarkable anticancer activity. However, the effect of andrographolide on colon cancer has not been completely elucidated yet. Thus, we investigated the chemopreventive potential of andrographolide in colon cancer HT-29 cells. The cytotoxic potential of andrographolide on HT-29 cells was determined by MTT assay, trypan blue exclusion assay, colony formation assay, and morphological analysis; and apoptotic property by DAPI and Hoechst staining, FITC-Annexin V assay, DNA fragmentation assay and caspase-3 activity assay...
July 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Nour Makarem, Elisa V Bandera, Yong Lin, Nicola M McKeown, Richard B Hayes, Niyati Parekh
Case-control studies suggest that higher whole grain and lower refined grain intakes are associated with reduced cancer risk, but longitudinal evidence is limited. The objective of this prospective cohort study is to evaluate associations between whole and refined grains and their food sources in relation to adiposity-related cancer risk. Participants were adults from the Framingham Offspring cohort (N = 3,184; ≥18 yr). Diet, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, medical and lifestyle data were collected at exam 5 (1991-95)...
July 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
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