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Nutrition and Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594590/the-past-present-and-future-of-nutrition-and-cancer-part-1-was-a-nutritional-association-acknowledged-a-century-ago
#1
T Colin Campbell
Professional interest in the association of diet and nutrition with cancer first appeared in the early 1800s, if not before. Yet, progress in understanding this association over the past two centuries has been exceedingly slow and confusing. Without addressing this confusion, progress in using diet and nutrition information to prevent and even to treat cancer, will remain uncertain. To better understand this issue, the present paper is the first of two to explore the history of the diet and cancer relationship prior to a 1982 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer...
June 8, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569624/effectiveness-of-parenteral-glutamine-on-methotrexate-induced-oral-mucositis-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#2
Yu-Hsiang Chang, Ming-Sun Yu, Kang-Hsi Wu, Mao-Chou Hsu, Yee-Hsuan Chiou, Han-Ping Wu, Ching-Tien Peng, Yu-Hua Chao
High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) is important for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). There is no effective treatment for patients with oral mucositis, which is a major side effect associated with HDMTX. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients younger than 18 yr with newly diagnosed ALL in our hospitals from 2002 to 2013. According to the nationwide protocol (TPOG-ALL-2002), each patient received four courses of HDMTX (2.5 or 5 g/m(2)) during consolidation therapy. HDMTX courses with glutamine therapy were as the glutamine group, and intravenous glutamine (0...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569608/visceral-adipose-tissue-volume-and-the-occurrence-of-colorectal-adenoma-in-follow-up-colonoscopy-for-screening-and-surveillance
#3
Bun Kim, Byung Chang Kim, Su Youn Nam, Ji Hyung Nam, Kum Hei Ryu, Bum Joon Park, Dae Kyung Sohn, Chang Won Hong, Kyung Su Han, Hyun Bum Kim
Whether obesity accelerates adenoma recurrence is not yet clear; therefore, we analyzed the risk factors for adenoma occurrence at follow-up colonoscopy, with a focus on visceral adiposity. In total, 1516 subjects underwent index colonoscopy, computed tomography, and questionnaire assessment from February to May 2008; 539 subjects underwent follow-up colonoscopy at the National Cancer Center at least 6 mo after the index colonoscopy. The relationships between the presence of adenoma at follow-up colonoscopy and anthropometric obesity measurements, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume, were analyzed...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569598/associations-between-nutritional-parameters-and-clinicopathologic-factors-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer-a-comprehensive-study
#4
Adam Brewczyński, Beata Jabłońska, Krzysztof Pawlicki
The aim of this study was to assess and analyze the nutritional status of gastric cancer (GC) patients. The analysis included 207 patients with GC treated in a large center of oncology. Patients were divided into two groups according to the cutoff value of the mean prognostic nutritional index (PNI): those with a PNI < 52.78 and those with a PNI ≥ 52.78. The higher PNI was associated with lower age and higher total protein and hemoglobin levels (P < 0.01). The total lymphocyte count (P = 0.02), albumin, total protein and PNI (P < 0...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569563/impact-of-early-enteral-nutrition-on-nutritional-and-immunological-outcomes-of-gastric-cancer-patients-undergoing-gastrostomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Zeinab Nikniaz, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Shahnaz Nagashi, Leila Nikniaz
OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review and meta-analysis study evaluated the impact of early enteral nutrition (EN) on postoperative nutritional and immunological outcomes of gastric cancer (GC) patients. METHOD: The databases of PubMed, Embase, Springer, and Cochrane library were searched till September 2016 to identify studies which evaluated the effects of EN compared with parenteral nutrition (PN) on postoperative immunological and nutritional status and hospitalization time in GC patients...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569561/vitamin-b6-intake-and-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#6
Kai Jia, Rong Wang, Jingfeng Tian
OBJECTIVES: We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the association between vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Prospective cohort studies on vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer risk were identified by searching databases from the period of 1960 to 2016. Results from individual studies were synthetically combined using Stata 13.0 software. RESULTS: A total of 10 prospective cohort studies including 13 data sets were included in our meta-analysis, containing 7,817 cases and 784,550 subjects...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569556/guaran%C3%A3-a-highly-caffeinated-food-presents-in-vitro-antitumor-activity-in-colorectal-and-breast-cancer-cell-lines-by-inhibiting-akt-mtor-s6k-and-mapks-pathways
#7
Francine C Cadoná, Jose L Rosa, Taiane Schneider, Monica Cubillos-Rojas, Susana Sánchez-Tena, Verônica F Azzolin, Charles E Assmann, Alencar K Machado, Euler E Ribeiro, Ivana Beatrice M da Cruz
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways are frequently upregulated in cancer. Some authors have reported that some antioxidant molecules could be potential inhibitors of these pathways. Therefore, we investigated the in vitro antitumor effect of guaraná by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/S6K and MAPKs pathways. Colorectal and breast cancer cell lineages, HT-29 and MCF-7 cells, respectively, were exposed to different guaraná concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 µg/mL) as well as its main bioactive molecule, caffeine, in proportional concentrations to those found in the extract...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524727/e-cadherin-%C3%AE-catenin-complex-a-target-for-anticancer-and-antimetastasis-plants-plant-derived-compounds
#8
Majid Tafrihi, Roohollah Nakhaei Sistani
Plants reputed to have cancer-inhibiting potential and putative active components derived from those plants have emerged as an exciting new field in cancer study. Some of these compounds have cancer-inhibiting potential in different clinical staging levels, especially metastasis. A few of them which stabilize cell-cell adhesions are controversial topics. This review article introduces some effective herbal compounds that target E-cadherin/β-catenin protein complex. In this article, at first, we briefly review the structure and function of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, Wnt signaling pathway, and its target genes...
May 19, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524706/cachexia-stage-patient-generated-subjective-global-assessment-phase-angle-and-handgrip-strength-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-cancer
#9
Gislaine Aparecida Ozorio, Katia Barão, Nora Manoukian Forones
The aim of this study was to correlate patients with gastrointestinal cancer, classified according to different stages of cancer cachexia (SCC) as proposed by Fearon, with nutritional assessment tools such as PG-SGA, phase angle (PA), and handgrip strength. One hundred one patients with a mean age of 61.8 ± 12.8 yr, with 58.4% being men were included. 32.6% were malnourished according to the body mass index (BMI). A severe or moderate malnutrition had been diagnosed in 63.3% when assessed using the PG-SGA, 60...
May 19, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524705/beneficial-effect-of-educational-and-nutritional-intervention-on-the-nutritional-status-and-compliance-of-gastric-cancer-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-a-randomized-trial
#10
Feng-Lan Xie, Yong-Qian Wang, Li-Fen Peng, Fang-Yu Lin, Yu-Long He, Zhuo-Qin Jiang
Surgery combined with chemotherapy is the standard treatment for gastric cancer (GC); however, chemotherapy-relative adverse effects are common and result in malnutrition and a poor prognosis. In addition, compliance to postoperative chemotherapy remains a problem. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the effect of educational and nutritional interventions on the nutritional status and compliance of GC patients undergoing postoperative chemotherapy. A total of 144 GC patients were randomized into an intervention group that received intensive individualized nutritional and educational interventions during the entire course of chemotherapy and control group that received basic nutrition care and health education during hospitalization...
May 19, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426250/processed-meat-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-pooled-analysis-of-three-italian-case-control-studies
#11
Valentina Rosato, Alessandra Tavani, Eva Negri, Diego Serraino, Maurizio Montella, Adriano Decarli, Carlo La Vecchia, Monica Ferraroni
To add evidence to the limited data available from southern Europe, we assessed the association between processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. We analyzed data from three case-control studies conducted between 1985 and 2010 in various Italian areas, including a total of 3745 incident cases and 6804 hospital-based controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by unconditional multiple logistic regression models. The median consumption of processed meat was around 20 g/day both in cases and controls...
April 20, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426244/piperine-triggers-apoptosis-of-human-oral-squamous-carcinoma-through-cell-cycle-arrest-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress
#12
Sahabjada Siddiqui, Md Sultan Ahamad, Asif Jafri, Mohd Afzal, Md Arshad
Piperine is a nitrogenous pungent substance exhibiting multifunctional pharmacological properties. However, the mechanism underlying its anticancer potential is not well elucidated in human oral squamous carcinoma (KB) cell line. The anticancer potential of piperine was evaluated through potent biomarkers viz. reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular apoptosis, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, cell cycle kinetics and caspases-3 activity were also carried out to confirm anticancer activity of piperine...
April 20, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368717/association-of-genetic-variants-of-cyp2c19-and-cyp2d6-with-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-risk-in-northern-india-kashmir
#13
Gulzar Ahmad Bhat, Arshid Bashir Bhat, Mohd Maqbool Lone, Nazir Ahmad Dar
Genetic polymorphism in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) is associated with various malignancies. However, the association of esophageal cancer with XMEs is mixed. The current study was aimed to explore the association of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome (CYP) 2C19 and CYP2D6 genotypes with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk in Kashmir, India. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing methods were used for genotyping of 492 ESCC cases and equal number of individually matched controls...
April 3, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362172/vitamin-d-signaling-pathways-confer-the-susceptibility-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-northern-chinese-population
#14
Jianzhou Yang, Haili Wang, Aifang Ji, Liang Ma, Jinsheng Wang, Changhong Lian, Zibai Wei, Lidong Wang
Experimental studies have determined the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D against the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); however, results from the epidemiological studies are not yet well established. The current study aimed to evaluate the associations between plasma vitamin D levels and variants on vitamin D metabolic-related genes with the risks for ESCC. A hospital-based case-control study was performed. Five hundred eighty-two ESCC patients and 569 controls were recruited in a Northern Chinese population...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362171/effects-of-dietary-resistant-starch-on-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-and-preneoplastic-cells-in-the-colons-of-azoxymethane-treated-rats
#15
Nicole Cray, Yinsheng Zhao, Yinan Fang, Peng Liu, Linda Pollak, Susan Duvick, Diane F Birt, Elizabeth M Whitley
Dietary resistant starch (RS) has been suggested to reduce colonic neoplasia. To determine the effects of digestion-resistant cornstarch on colonic carcinogenesis and Wnt signaling in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated F344 rats, diets containing naturally occurring RS from corn lines derived partially from Guat209 (GUAT), AR16035 (AR), or a hybrid (ARxGUAT), containing 34.5 ± 2.0, 0.2 ± 0.1, and 1.9 ± 0.1% RS, respectively, were fed at 55% of the diet. GUAT-fed rats had increased cecal content and tissue weight and decreased cecal pH compared with AR- or ARxGUAT-fed rats...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353366/selenium-administration-attenuates-5-flurouracil-induced-intestinal-mucositis
#16
Jae Min Lee, Hoon Jai Chun, Hyuk Soon Choi, Eun Sun Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Yoon Tae Jeen, Hong Sik Lee, Soon Ho Um, Chul Hwan Kim, Donggeun Sul
Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is mediated by the release of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Selenium has several metabolic functions, including the protection of membrane lipids and macromolecules against oxidative damage. However, to date, there is little evidence on the effect of trace elements on intestinal mucositis after chemotherapy. This study investigated the protective effect of selenium against chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats. Twenty-four 9-wk-old female Wistar rats were randomized to 4 groups: control, selenium, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and 5-FU plus selenium...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353361/enhancement-of-the-antitumor-effect-of-methotrexate-on-colorectal-cancer-cells-via-lactate-calcium-salt-targeting-methionine-metabolism
#17
Young-Kwon Jo, Min Hee Park, Hyunju Choi, HooKeun Lee, Jong-Moon Park, Jae Jun Sim, Chonghwan Chang, Keun-Yeong Jeong, Hwan Mook Kim
Methionine (Met) is involved in one-carbon de novo nucleotide synthesis and is an essential amino acid for cell survival. The impact of lactate calcium salt (CaLa) on the Met metabolism was investigated to evaluate the enhanced antitumor effect of methotrexate (MTX) on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Met dependency relating to homocysteine (Hcy) and betaine was investigated in human CRC cells (HCT-116 and HT-29) using a viability assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Expression of betaine transporter-1 (BGT-1) following treatment with MTX alone or with CaLa was determined by Western blot...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353355/phase-angle-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-as-prognostic-factor-in-palliative-care-patients-at-the-national-cancer-institute-in-mexico
#18
Dana A Pérez Camargo, Silvia R Allende Pérez, Mónica M Rivera Franco, Nelson E Álvarez Licona, Víctor I Urbalejo Ceniceros, Lilian E Figueroa Baldenegro
Patients with advanced cancer often experience symptoms of disease and treatment that contribute to distress such as weight loss, which is present in up to 85% of cancer patients. Palliative care in these patients focuses on care aimed at improving quality of life. Phase angle (PA) is obtained by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and is associated with cellular function. It is considered a reliable marker of malnutrition. A low PA may suggest deterioration of the cell membrane, which in palliative patients may result in a short-term survival...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353353/risk-of-malignancy-in-thyroid-incidentaloma-is-not-increased-in-overweight-or-obese-patients-but-in-young-patients
#19
Kyoungjune Pak, Seunghyeon Shin, So Jung Kim, Keunyoung Kim, Bum Soo Kim, Seong Jang Kim, Yun Kyung Jeon, Sang Soo Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, In-Joo Kim
Thyroid incidentaloma is defined as an unsuspected, asymptomatic thyroid lesion that is discovered on an imaging study or during an operation unrelated to the thyroid gland. We aim to evaluate the relationship between overweight or obese and risk of malignancy in patients with thyroid incidentaloma detected by F18-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and factors to predict risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentaloma. From January 2010 to December 2013, a total of 238 patients were eligible for this study...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362175/synergistic-impact-of-d-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-and-geranylgeraniol-on-the-growth-and-hmg-coa-reductase-of-human-du145-prostate-carcinoma-cells
#20
Hoda Yeganehjoo, Russell DeBose-Boyd, Brian K McFarlin, Huanbiao Mo
The growth-suppressive effect of d-δ-tocotrienol and geranylgeraniol is at least partially attributed to their impact on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway that provides essential intermediates for the posttranslational modification of growth-related proteins including RAS. We hypothesize that these agents synergistically impact cell growth based on their complementary mechanisms of action with HMG CoA reductase. d-δ-tocotrienol (0-40 µmol/L; half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 15 µmol/L) and geranylgeraniol (0-100 µmol/L; IC50 = 60 µmol/L) each induced concentration-dependent suppression of the growth of human DU145 prostate carcinoma cells...
May 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
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