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Nutrition and Cancer

Annapoorna Sreedhar, Jun Li, Yunfeng Zhao
Growing modernization and lifestyle changes with limited physical activity have impacted diet and health, leading to an increased cancer mortality rate worldwide. As a result, there is a greater need than before to develop safe and novel anticancer drugs. Current treatment options such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, induce unintended side effects, compromising patient's quality of life, and physical well-being. Therefore, there has been an increased global interest in the use of dietary supplements and traditional herbal medicines for treatment of cancer...
May 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Leda Roncoroni, Luca Elli, Paola Braidotti, Delfina Tosi, Valentina Vaira, Lorenza Tacchini, Vincenza Lombardo, Federica Branchi, Alice Scricciolo, Luisa Doneda
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound extracted from plants and is also a constituent of red wine. Our aim was to evaluate if the cytotoxic effect of resveratrol (RES) on cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and gallbladder cancer (GBC) cell lines could be abolished by TG2 inhibition. Human CC and GBC cell lines (SK-ChA-1 and MZ-ChA-1), grown in a three-dimensional cell culture system (MCTS, multicellular tumor spheroids), were treated for 72 h with RES (32, 64 µM) alone or combined with different TG2 inhibitors (Cystamine, B003, T101)...
May 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Colin A Ross
The trophoblast model of cancer is incorporated into The Gonzalez Protocol for treatment of cancer and a range of noncancer chronic diseases. The other main component of the Protocol involves the prescription of detailed diets and supplementation. The foundation of the diet and supplementation component of the Protocol is the theory of autonomic types, which range from parasympathetic-dominant, through balanced, to sympathetic-dominant; a person's autonomic type determines the details of the prescribed diet and supplements...
May 10, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Kevin Doello, Raúl Ortiz, Pablo J Alvarez, Consolación Melguizo, Laura Cabeza, José Prados
Curcumin, the main active compound of the curcuma root, shows antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties which have been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical trials. Its antitumor activity is mediated by its ability to act directly on the tumor cell, activating apoptosis pathways and indirectly inhibiting the process of inflammation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, it has a preventive activity such as radio and/or chemosensitizer. These effects have been evident in in vitro assays but have also been corroborated in patient trials either through the isolated use of curcumin or through its association with other agents...
April 30, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Fatema Zohora, Katayoon Bidad, Zahra Pourpak, Mostafa Moin
Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) is a universal health problem and a risk factor for the development of cancer. IDA changes the microenvironment of the human body by affecting both the biological and immunological systems. It increases DNA damage and genomic instability by different mechanisms. IDA is one of the leading causes of the imbalance between different antioxidant enzymes as well as enzymes involved in DNA damage and DNA repair systems of the body. It can affect the biogenesis/expression of microRNAs. IDA interrupts the oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism and intestinal Cytochrome-P450 systems...
April 26, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Andy Perloy, Leo J Schouten, Piet A van den Brandt, Roger Godschalk, Frederik-Jan van Schooten, Janneke G F Hogervorst
To investigate the association between dietary acrylanide and advanced prostate cancer, we examined acrylamide-gene interactions for advanced prostate cancer risk by using data from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants (n = 58,279 men) completed a baseline food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which daily acrylamide intake was calculated. At baseline, 2,411 men were randomly selected from the full cohort for case-cohort analysis. Fifty eight selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two gene deletions in genes in acrylamide metabolism, DNA repair, sex steroid systems, and oxidative stress were analyzed...
April 26, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Hyungkuen Kim, Sun Shin Yi, Hak-Kyo Lee, Tae-Hwe Heo, Sang-Kyu Park, Hyun Sik Jun, Ki Duk Song, Sung-Jo Kim
The vine stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn (SS) is used as a traditional herbal medicine in China. Chinese herbal medicines are well known as natural bioactive compounds that can be used as new medicines, and their antioxidant and anticancer effects have also been reported. This study aimed to examine the anticancer effect of a high-pressure hot-water SS extract on rat C6 glioma cells. The SS extract effectively suppressed the viability and proliferation of C6 glioma cells through an antioxidant effect. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cancer cells are higher than that in normal cells...
April 18, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Kirsty J Martin-McGill, Anthony G Marson, Catrin Tudur Smith, Michael D Jenkinson
There is an increasing interest in the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) as an adjuvant therapy for glioma patients. We assessed the tolerability and feasibility of a modified ketogenic diet (MKD) in patients with glioma, along with willingness of patients to participate in future randomized controlled trials. The study was undertaken in two parts; a patient questionnaire and evaluation of the diet. One hundred and seventy-two questionnaires were completed; 69% (n = 119) of the population reported MKD should be offered to patients with glioma and 73% (n = 125) would be willing to try MKD for 3 months...
April 18, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Jiang-Wei Sun, Wei Zheng, Hong-Lan Li, Jing Gao, Gong Yang, Yu-Tang Gao, Nat Rothman, Qing Lan, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yong-Bing Xiang
To investigate the potential influence of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, or carbohydrate intake and lung cancer risk in Shanghai. We prospectively investigated the associations among 130,858 participants in the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies. Diet was assessed using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Lung cancer cases were ascertained through annual record linkage and every 2-3 years in-home visits. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
April 18, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Upendra Yadav, Pradeep Kumar, Vandana Rai
Several studies reported that polymorphism C609T (rs1800566) in (NAD(P)H): quinoneoxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene is associated with risk to digestive tract (DT) cancers, like esophageal cancer (EC), gastric cancer (GC), and colorectal cancer (CRC). Authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate association between C609T polymorphism and DT cancer risk. Eligible studies were extracted from the databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Springer Link. All retrieved articles were evaluated. All statistical analyses were performed using Open Meta-Analyst and MIX1...
April 13, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Joseph Shalom, Ian E Cock
Terminalia spp. are characterized by their high antioxidant contents and several species have anticancer activity. This study examined T. ferdinandiana fruit and leaf extracts for antiproliferative and apoptotic activities against a panel of human carcinoma cell lines. All extracts inhibited Caco2, HeLa, Jeg-3, JAR, MC3T3-E1, and MG63 proliferation. The leaf ethyl acetate extract was the most potent inhibitor of proliferation (MC3T3-E1 IC50 = of 6 µg/ml; Caco2 IC50 = 102 µg/ml). Furthermore, IC50 's < 500 µg/ml were determined against all cell lines tested against that extract...
April 11, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Shreena J Desai, Ben Prickril, Avraham Rasooly
The link between chronic inflammation and cancer involves cytokines and mediators of inflammatory pathways. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism, is upregulated during both inflammation and cancer. COX-2 is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines at the site of inflammation and enhanced COX-2-induced synthesis of prostaglandins stimulates cancer cell proliferation, promotes angiogenesis, inhibits apoptosis, and increases metastatic potential. As a result, COX-2 inhibitors are a subject of intense research interest toward potential clinical applications...
March 26, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Sunil Kumar Dhatwalia, Manoj Kumar, Devinder K Dhawan
Lung cancer is a prominent form among various types of cancers, irrespective of the sex worldwide. Treatment of lung cancer involves the intensive phase of chemotherapy/radiotherapy which is associated with high rate of adverse events. There is a need of safe and reliable treatment/adjunctive therapy to apprehend the cancer by reducing the undesirable outcome of primary therapy. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is a potent antioxidant and anticancer compound extracted from the plant camellia sinensis has proved to be a novel agent to control or reduce lung tumorigenesis by affecting the signaling molecules of cell cycle regulation and apoptotic pathways...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Xuejiao Song, Tiantao Gao, Qian Lei, Lidan Zhang, Yuqin Yao, Jingyuan Xiong
Malignant melanoma is a devastating skin cancer due to its severe drug resistance and prompt metastasis. Piperlongumine is an anti-inflammation and tumor-suppressing natural product with defined structure. While numerous studies revealed exceptional inhibitory effects of piperlongumine on several carcinomas, few investigations were performed on melanoma. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-tumor effects of piperlongumine on human melanoma cells in vitro, and explored the mechanisms of action...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Boudewijn J J Smeets, David J Brinkman, Eelco C J Horsten, Jacqueline A E Langius, Harm J T Rutten, Wouter J de Jonge, Misha D P Luyer
BACKGROUND: Myopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) is associated with an increased risk of complications following colorectal surgery, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. This study investigates the effect of myopenia on the early postoperative systemic inflammatory response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 78 patients undergoing colorectal surgery, the presence of myopenia was preoperatively assessed using computed tomography images of the third lumbar vertebra...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Maria C Mora-Pinzon, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Ronald E Gangnon, Scott V Adams, John M Hampton, Elizabeth Burnside, Martin M Shafer, Polly A Newcomb
PURPOSE: Heavy metals and other elements may act as breast carcinogens due to estrogenic activity. We investigated associations between urine concentrations of a panel of elements and breast density. METHODS: Mammographic density categories were abstracted from radiology reports of 725 women aged 40-65 yr in the Avon Army of Women. A panel of 27 elements was quantified in urine using high resolution magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We applied LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) logistic regression to the 27 elements and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dense vs...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Simona Bertoli, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandra Petruzzi, Alessandro Leone, Ramona De Amicis, Elena Tramacere, Maddalena Meda, Andrea Foppiani, Antonio Silvani, Elena Lamperti
Nutritional status in adults with high-grade gliomas (HGGs) has been poorly investigated. We studied anthropometrics and fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and body water in HGGs patients also in relation to disease-related variables. Fifty-one patients (17 III and 34 IV-grade) and fifty-one control group (CG) matched for sex, age, and BMI were enrolled. Neurological scales, anthropometry, bioimpedance, and blood sampling were performed and analyzed according to grade, lesion location, extent of resection, phase of treatment, current steroids and antiepileptic therapy, and age of patient...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Merel R van Veen, Renate M Winkels, Silvie H M Janssen, Ellen Kampman, Sandra Beijer
We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel of cancer survivors and relatives. This panel completed a survey about their experiences with nutritional information provision by healthcare professionals and the media in the period after diagnosis, their information needs regarding nutrition and cancer, and whether they changed their dietary behavior since diagnosis...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Sara Nejatinamini, Catherine Kubrak, Mirey Álvarez-Camacho, Vickie E Baracos, Sunita Ghosh, Wendy V Wismer, Vera C Mazurak
This study assessed dietary and micronutrient intakes of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients at key points in the disease trajectory and evaluated the contribution of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) to micronutrient intake. HNC patients (n = 114) completed a three-day dietary record and a tool to assess Nutrition Impact Scores (NIS) at baseline, post-treatment, and follow-up. Foods were classified into food categories. Micronutrient, protein, and energy intakes were compared to European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines for cancer patients...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Sadaf Alipour, Nooshin Shirzad, Mahdi Sepidarkish, Azin Saberi, Leila Bayani, Ladan Hosseini
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation with 50,000 IU/monthly vitamin D for 1 yr on breast density in Iranian women. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, single center clinical trial was conducted among 400 women aged 40 yr and older. Participants were allocated to 2 groups. Group 1 received vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) 50,000 IU in tablet form, monthly, for 1 yr. Group 2 received vitamin E 400 IU in tablet form, monthly, for the same period of time...
March 12, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
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