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Nutrition and Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524727/e-cadherin-%C3%AE-catenin-complex-a-target-for-anticancer-and-antimetastasis-plants-plant-derived-compounds
#1
Majid Tafrihi, Roohollah Nakhaei Sistani
Plants reputed to have cancer-inhibiting potential and putative active components derived from those plants have emerged as an exciting new field in cancer study. Some of these compounds have cancer-inhibiting potential in different clinical staging levels, especially metastasis. A few of them which stabilize cell-cell adhesions are controversial topics. This review article introduces some effective herbal compounds that target E-cadherin/β-catenin protein complex. In this article, at first, we briefly review the structure and function of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, Wnt signaling pathway, and its target genes...
May 19, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524706/cachexia-stage-patient-generated-subjective-global-assessment-phase-angle-and-handgrip-strength-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-cancer
#2
Gislaine Aparecida Ozorio, Katia Barão, Nora Manoukian Forones
The aim of this study was to correlate patients with gastrointestinal cancer, classified according to different stages of cancer cachexia (SCC) as proposed by Fearon, with nutritional assessment tools such as PG-SGA, phase angle (PA), and handgrip strength. One hundred one patients with a mean age of 61.8 ± 12.8 yr, with 58.4% being men were included. 32.6% were malnourished according to the body mass index (BMI). A severe or moderate malnutrition had been diagnosed in 63.3% when assessed using the PG-SGA, 60...
May 19, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524705/beneficial-effect-of-educational-and-nutritional-intervention-on-the-nutritional-status-and-compliance-of-gastric-cancer-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-a-randomized-trial
#3
Feng-Lan Xie, Yong-Qian Wang, Li-Fen Peng, Fang-Yu Lin, Yu-Long He, Zhuo-Qin Jiang
Surgery combined with chemotherapy is the standard treatment for gastric cancer (GC); however, chemotherapy-relative adverse effects are common and result in malnutrition and a poor prognosis. In addition, compliance to postoperative chemotherapy remains a problem. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the effect of educational and nutritional interventions on the nutritional status and compliance of GC patients undergoing postoperative chemotherapy. A total of 144 GC patients were randomized into an intervention group that received intensive individualized nutritional and educational interventions during the entire course of chemotherapy and control group that received basic nutrition care and health education during hospitalization...
May 19, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426250/processed-meat-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-pooled-analysis-of-three-italian-case-control-studies
#4
Valentina Rosato, Alessandra Tavani, Eva Negri, Diego Serraino, Maurizio Montella, Adriano Decarli, Carlo La Vecchia, Monica Ferraroni
To add evidence to the limited data available from southern Europe, we assessed the association between processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. We analyzed data from three case-control studies conducted between 1985 and 2010 in various Italian areas, including a total of 3745 incident cases and 6804 hospital-based controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by unconditional multiple logistic regression models. The median consumption of processed meat was around 20 g/day both in cases and controls...
April 20, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426244/piperine-triggers-apoptosis-of-human-oral-squamous-carcinoma-through-cell-cycle-arrest-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress
#5
Sahabjada Siddiqui, Md Sultan Ahamad, Asif Jafri, Mohd Afzal, Md Arshad
Piperine is a nitrogenous pungent substance exhibiting multifunctional pharmacological properties. However, the mechanism underlying its anticancer potential is not well elucidated in human oral squamous carcinoma (KB) cell line. The anticancer potential of piperine was evaluated through potent biomarkers viz. reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular apoptosis, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, cell cycle kinetics and caspases-3 activity were also carried out to confirm anticancer activity of piperine...
April 20, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368717/association-of-genetic-variants-of-cyp2c19-and-cyp2d6-with-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-risk-in-northern-india-kashmir
#6
Gulzar Ahmad Bhat, Arshid Bashir Bhat, Mohd Maqbool Lone, Nazir Ahmad Dar
Genetic polymorphism in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) is associated with various malignancies. However, the association of esophageal cancer with XMEs is mixed. The current study was aimed to explore the association of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome (CYP) 2C19 and CYP2D6 genotypes with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk in Kashmir, India. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing methods were used for genotyping of 492 ESCC cases and equal number of individually matched controls...
April 3, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362172/vitamin-d-signaling-pathways-confer-the-susceptibility-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-northern-chinese-population
#7
Jianzhou Yang, Haili Wang, Aifang Ji, Liang Ma, Jinsheng Wang, Changhong Lian, Zibai Wei, Lidong Wang
Experimental studies have determined the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D against the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); however, results from the epidemiological studies are not yet well established. The current study aimed to evaluate the associations between plasma vitamin D levels and variants on vitamin D metabolic-related genes with the risks for ESCC. A hospital-based case-control study was performed. Five hundred eighty-two ESCC patients and 569 controls were recruited in a Northern Chinese population...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362171/effects-of-dietary-resistant-starch-on-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-and-preneoplastic-cells-in-the-colons-of-azoxymethane-treated-rats
#8
Nicole Cray, Yinsheng Zhao, Yinan Fang, Peng Liu, Linda Pollak, Susan Duvick, Diane F Birt, Elizabeth M Whitley
Dietary resistant starch (RS) has been suggested to reduce colonic neoplasia. To determine the effects of digestion-resistant cornstarch on colonic carcinogenesis and Wnt signaling in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated F344 rats, diets containing naturally occurring RS from corn lines derived partially from Guat209 (GUAT), AR16035 (AR), or a hybrid (ARxGUAT), containing 34.5 ± 2.0, 0.2 ± 0.1, and 1.9 ± 0.1% RS, respectively, were fed at 55% of the diet. GUAT-fed rats had increased cecal content and tissue weight and decreased cecal pH compared with AR- or ARxGUAT-fed rats...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353366/selenium-administration-attenuates-5-flurouracil-induced-intestinal-mucositis
#9
Jae Min Lee, Hoon Jai Chun, Hyuk Soon Choi, Eun Sun Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Yoon Tae Jeen, Hong Sik Lee, Soon Ho Um, Chul Hwan Kim, Donggeun Sul
Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is mediated by the release of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Selenium has several metabolic functions, including the protection of membrane lipids and macromolecules against oxidative damage. However, to date, there is little evidence on the effect of trace elements on intestinal mucositis after chemotherapy. This study investigated the protective effect of selenium against chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats. Twenty-four 9-wk-old female Wistar rats were randomized to 4 groups: control, selenium, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and 5-FU plus selenium...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353361/enhancement-of-the-antitumor-effect-of-methotrexate-on-colorectal-cancer-cells-via-lactate-calcium-salt-targeting-methionine-metabolism
#10
Young-Kwon Jo, Min Hee Park, Hyunju Choi, HooKeun Lee, Jong-Moon Park, Jae Jun Sim, Chonghwan Chang, Keun-Yeong Jeong, Hwan Mook Kim
Methionine (Met) is involved in one-carbon de novo nucleotide synthesis and is an essential amino acid for cell survival. The impact of lactate calcium salt (CaLa) on the Met metabolism was investigated to evaluate the enhanced antitumor effect of methotrexate (MTX) on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Met dependency relating to homocysteine (Hcy) and betaine was investigated in human CRC cells (HCT-116 and HT-29) using a viability assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Expression of betaine transporter-1 (BGT-1) following treatment with MTX alone or with CaLa was determined by Western blot...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353359/impact-of-undernutrition-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-anticancer-drugs-a-literature-review
#11
Alejandro Pérez-Pitarch, Beatriz Guglieri-López, Amparo Nacher, Virginia Merino, Matilde Merino-Sanjuán
The etiology of undernourishment in cancer patients is multifactorial: tumor-related mechanisms (such as obstruction, metabolic abnormalities, and functionality changes) in addition to the influence of anticancer therapies, which can induce or worsen undernutrition. The evident role of undernutrition in cancer treatment outcomes suggests the need of considering nutritional status when evaluating anticancer drugs. In order to merge the available data and offer researchers and clinicians a global view of this phenomenon, the present manuscript reviews on a drug-by-drug basis the undernutrition-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of anticancer treatments...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353355/phase-angle-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-as-prognostic-factor-in-palliative-care-patients-at-the-national-cancer-institute-in-mexico
#12
Dana A Pérez Camargo, Silvia R Allende Pérez, Mónica M Rivera Franco, Nelson E Álvarez Licona, Víctor I Urbalejo Ceniceros, Lilian E Figueroa Baldenegro
Patients with advanced cancer often experience symptoms of disease and treatment that contribute to distress such as weight loss, which is present in up to 85% of cancer patients. Palliative care in these patients focuses on care aimed at improving quality of life. Phase angle (PA) is obtained by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and is associated with cellular function. It is considered a reliable marker of malnutrition. A low PA may suggest deterioration of the cell membrane, which in palliative patients may result in a short-term survival...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353353/risk-of-malignancy-in-thyroid-incidentaloma-is-not-increased-in-overweight-or-obese-patients-but-in-young-patients
#13
Kyoungjune Pak, Seunghyeon Shin, So Jung Kim, Keunyoung Kim, Bum Soo Kim, Seong Jang Kim, Yun Kyung Jeon, Sang Soo Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, In-Joo Kim
Thyroid incidentaloma is defined as an unsuspected, asymptomatic thyroid lesion that is discovered on an imaging study or during an operation unrelated to the thyroid gland. We aim to evaluate the relationship between overweight or obese and risk of malignancy in patients with thyroid incidentaloma detected by F18-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and factors to predict risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentaloma. From January 2010 to December 2013, a total of 238 patients were eligible for this study...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323500/strategies-to-target-glucose-metabolism-in-tumor-microenvironment-on-cancer-by-flavonoids
#14
Gang Wang, Jun-Jie Wang, Rui Guan, Li Du, Jing Gao, Xing-Li Fu
The imbalance between glucose metabolism and cancer cell growth in tumor microenvironment (TME), which are closely related with the occurrence and progression of cancer. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that flavonoids exert many biological properties, including antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities. Recently, the roles and applications of flavonoids, particularly in relation to glucose metabolism in cancers, have been highlighted. Thus, the identification of flavonoids targeting alternative glucose metabolism pathways in TME may represent an attractive approach to the more effective therapeutic strategies for cancer...
March 21, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323490/triterpenoid-acids-as-important-antiproliferative-constituents-of-european-elderberry-fruits
#15
Michał Gleńsk, Elżbieta Czapińska, Marta Woźniak, Ireneusz Ceremuga, Maciej Włodarczyk, Grzegorz Terlecki, Piotr Ziółkowski, Ewa Seweryn
In Europe, both the fruits and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. have been used against cold, as well as laxative, diaphoretic, and diuretic remedies. There are also a number of commercially available food products that contain elderberry juice, puréed or dried elderberries. Recent comprehensive literature data on pharmacology and chemistry of Sambuci fructus have encouraged us to screen extracts with different polarities from this plant material against cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the ethyl acetate and aqueous acetone extracts from elderberries as well as detected triterpenoids on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (LoVo) and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was investigated by sulforhodamine B assay...
March 21, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323443/impact-of-abdominal-adipose-depots-and-race-on-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-a-case-control-study
#16
Sandra L Gomez-Perez, Vivek Chaudhry, Winnie Mar, Bimal Patel, Giamila Fantuzzi, Sally Freels, Carol A Braunschweig
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) but not subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is associated with obesity-related diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). Superficial SAT (SSAT) and deep SAT (DSAT), components of SAT, also appear to independently influence disease risk. These abdominal adipose tissues (AATs) are not extensively studied in connection with CRC and have not been explored in the United States despite known racial variations in body composition. We conducted a case-control study that compared associations between AAT with CRC risk and race of African-American (AA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) men with incident CRC matched by age, body mass index, and race (N = 158, 79/group)...
March 21, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323438/green-tea-polyphenols-inhibit-colorectal-tumorigenesis-in-azoxymethane-treated-f344-rats
#17
Xingpei Hao, Hang Xiao, Jihyeung Ju, Mao-Jung Lee, Joshua D Lambert, Chung S Yang
In studying the cancer-preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, we previously demonstrated that dietary administration of polyphenon E (PPE) inhibited the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of azoxymethane (AOM)-treated F344 rats. Herein, we reported cancer-preventive activity of PPE using colorectal cancer as an end point. F344 rats were given two weekly injections of AOM, and then maintained on a 20% high-fat diet with or without 0.24% PPE for 34 wk. In the control group, 83% of rats developed colorectal tumors...
March 21, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362175/synergistic-impact-of-d-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-and-geranylgeraniol-on-the-growth-and-hmg-coa-reductase-of-human-du145-prostate-carcinoma-cells
#18
Hoda Yeganehjoo, Russell DeBose-Boyd, Brian K McFarlin, Huanbiao Mo
The growth-suppressive effect of d-δ-tocotrienol and geranylgeraniol is at least partially attributed to their impact on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway that provides essential intermediates for the posttranslational modification of growth-related proteins including RAS. We hypothesize that these agents synergistically impact cell growth based on their complementary mechanisms of action with HMG CoA reductase. d-δ-tocotrienol (0-40 µmol/L; half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 15 µmol/L) and geranylgeraniol (0-100 µmol/L; IC50 = 60 µmol/L) each induced concentration-dependent suppression of the growth of human DU145 prostate carcinoma cells...
May 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362118/dietary-antioxidants-potential-anticancer-agents
#19
Xiayu Wu, Jiaoni Cheng, Xu Wang
There are several extrinsic and intrinsic factors involving reactive oxygen species that play critical roles in tumor development and progression by inducing DNA mutations, genomic instability, and aberrant pro-tumorigenic signaling. There are various essential micronutrients including minerals and vitamins in the diet, which play pivotal roles in maintaining and reinforcing antioxidant performance, affecting the complex network of genes (nutrigenomic approach) and encoding proteins for carcinogenesis. A lot of these antioxidant agents are available as dietary supplements and are predominant worldwide...
May 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323499/antiproliferative-activity-of-egg-yolk-peptides-in-human-colon-cancer-cells
#20
Marwa N Yousr, Akram A Aloqbi, Ulfat M Omar, Nazlin K Howell
Egg yolk peptides were successfully prepared from egg yolk protein by-products after lecithin extraction. Defatted egg yolk protein was hydrolyzed with pepsin and pancreatin and purified by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fraction (EYGF-33) with antiproliferative activity. The highlight of this study was that the peptide EYGF-33 (1.0 mg/ml) significantly inhibits cell viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2) with no inhibitory effects on the viability of human colon epithelial normal cells (HCEC) after 48 h...
May 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
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