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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

Juliane E Medda, Hannah Cholemkery, Christine M Freitag
The aim of the present study was to establish diagnostic validity of the new algorithm of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale, the ADOS-2, to differentiate between ASD and other clinically relevant psychiatric and developmental disorders in a large German sample. Validity of ADOS and ADOS-2 diagnostic algorithms was established in 826 individuals (n = 455 autism, n = 216 autism spectrum, n = 155 non-ASD patients) by receiver operating curves. Confidence intervals overlapped largely for ADOS and ADOS-2 algorithms, confirming diagnostic validity of both algorithms...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Eric Rubenstein, Jessica C Young, Lisa A Croen, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Nicole F Dowling, Li-Ching Lee, Laura Schieve, Lisa D Wiggins, Julie Daniels
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Table 2. The "Time of use" should be the column header with the corresponding row with "N = 126" belonging to the "Peri-pregnancy" row. The "Preconception" row should be the row with "N = 17", "Trimester 1" should be the "N = 29" row, "Trimester 2" should be the "N = 25" row, and "Trimester 3" should be the "N = 47" row...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Kyoko Hatta, Mariko Hosozawa, Kyoko Tanaka, Toshiaki Shimizu
Subclinical traits of autism were measured in children with somatic symptom disorder (SSD, n = 28) and compared with age-matched controls (n = 26) using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) children's version. The KINDLR quality of life questionnaire was used to assess functional disability. Although there was no significant group difference in total traits of autism, SSD group had significantly greater difficulty in attention switching domain. Logistic regression analysis confirmed attention switching and age were associated with increased likelihood of SSD...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
P Prendeville, W Kinsella
A family systems approach is required to identify the needs of families of children with autism. This paper explores how grandparents support children with autism and their parents using a family systems perspective. A thematic analysis of eighteen semi-structured interviews was conducted with participants from nine families, capturing experiences of both parents' and grandparents'. Themes identified were family recalibrating; strengthening the family system; and current needs and future concerns of grandparents...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Joseph M Lambert, Naomi Parikh, Kristen C Stankiewicz, Nealetta J Houchins-Juarez, Vivian A Morales, Erin M Sweeney, Molly E Milam
Challenging behaviors involving food are common for individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and often lead to obesity and other chronic health conditions. Efforts to decrease these behaviors, such as isolation during meals and strict monitoring of food consumption, can be stigmatizing. To decrease the food stealing of a 7 year-old girl with PWS, therapists conducted a latency-based functional analysis in a clinic setting before implementing a function-based intervention to facilitate her inclusion at the family dinner table...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Christine K Syriopoulou-Delli, Stavroula A Polychronopoulou, Gerasimos A Kolaitis, Alexandros-Stamatios G Antoniou
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit comorbidity with anxiety. The aim of this study was the investigation of the perception of teachers on anxiety in school children with ASD. The Scale Teacher Response (SAS-TR) questionnaire was completed by 291 special education and 118 general education teachers, providing data on students in their classes with ASD and of typical development (TD), respectively. According to the total scores on SAS-TR, 46.8% of the children with ASD presented levels of anxiety within the clinical spectrum compared with 15...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Golnaz Ghaderi, Shelley L Watson
This study investigated the knowledge and perceived competence of Ontario physicians regarding the diagnosis and treatment of ASDs. Previous research demonstrates that many physicians would like more education regarding diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Twenty-seven Ontario physicians filled out a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured interview. Findings revealed that despite participants' high perceived knowledge regarding diagnosis and treatment of ASDs, they feel uncomfortable in providing care for this population...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Kenneth J Zucker, Doug P VanderLaan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Gerrit Ian van Schalkwyk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Amy Burns, Mandy Irvine, Kate Woodcock
Adults with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk of developing comorbid depressive symptoms and in the general population self-focused attention has been associated with depression. Here, we aimed to examine the relationships between aspects of self-focused attention and symptoms of depression in individuals with a diagnosis of ASD. 113 adults with a diagnosis of ASD completed self-report questionnaires. Results found that higher levels of brooding, and to a lesser degree, reflection predicted increased depressive symptoms...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Dave Parsons, Reinie Cordier, Hoe Lee, Torbjorn Falkmer, Sharmila Vaz
This exploratory randomised controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a tablet-based information communication technology early intervention application to augment existing therapy with the aim of improving visual motor, imitation, language and social skills in young children with ASD who reside in regional areas. Fifty-nine participants were recruited and randomised to either a therapy-as-usual group or intervention group. With the exception of the expressive language subscale on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, no significant between-group differences were recorded for visual motor, imitation, receptive language and social skills of participants between baseline and post-intervention...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Parisa Ghanouni, Tal Jarus, Jill G Zwicker, Joseph Lucyshyn, Kristin Mow, Alyssa Ledingham
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects socio-emotional skills and perspective-taking abilities. Although social stories in a form of virtual reality program can help children with ASD, developing them and identifying appropriate responses might be subjective and thus challenging. Using Delphi method, and guided by general case training, we involved 63 parents and clinicians of individuals with ASD, in two rounds of online iteration to refine the stories. Scenarios that reached a 75% agreement level were accepted...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Xudong Zhao, Xiujun Li, Youming Song, Wendian Shi
Although the core characteristics associated with autistic traits are impaired social interactions, there are few studies examining how autistic traits translate into prosocial behaviour in daily life. The current study explored the effect of autistic traits on prosocial behaviour and the mediating role of multimodal empathy (trait empathy and state empathic concern). The results showed that autistic traits reduced prosocial behaviour directly and indirectly through complex mediation by multimodal empathy. The findings revealed the internal mechanism of autistic traits impeding prosocial behaviour and expanded our understandings of social behaviour in autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) and autistic traits in the general population...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Ebony Lindor, Nicole Rinehart, Joanne Fielding
Although most researchers agree that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit atypical attention, there is little consensus on the exact nature of their deficits. We explored whether attentional control in ASD varies as a function of motor proficiency. Nineteen children with ASD and 26 typically-developing controls completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and two ocular motor tasks requiring them to generate a saccade toward, and fixate, a visual target in the presence or absence of a distractor...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
S J Rogers, A Estes, L Vismara, J Munson, C Zierhut, J Greenson, G Dawson, M Rocha, C Sugar, D Senturk, F Whelan, M Talbott
Short-term low intensity parent implemented intervention studies for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have found it difficult to demonstrate significantly improved developmental scores or autism severity compared to community treatment. We conducted a randomized comparative intent-to-treat study of a parent implemented intervention to (1) test the effects of an enhanced version on parent and child learning, and (2) evaluate the sensitivity to change of proximal versus distal measures of child behavior...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Matthew Siegel
Research on individuals severely affected by autism, including those who are minimally verbal, have intellectual disability or challenging behaviors, has become less common. The Autism Inpatient Collection (AIC) was initiated so data on this group is available to the research community. Ten studies utilizing phenotypic data from the first 350 AIC participants are presented. Greater autism severity, sleep disturbance, and psychiatric disorders are risks for hospitalization; fluently verbal youth experience more depression and oppositional symptoms; lower adaptive/coping skills are associated with increased problem behaviors; lower IQ is a risk for SIB; post-traumatic and suicidal symptoms are common; and challenging behaviors improve with specialized inpatient treatment...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Troy Vargason, Deborah L McGuinness, Juergen Hahn
A retrospective analysis of administrative claims data from a large U.S. health insurer was performed to study a potential association between oral antibiotic use during early childhood and occurrence of later gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Among 3253 children with ASD, 37.0% had a GI-related diagnosis during the last 2 years of their 5-year health coverage enrollment period, compared to 20.0% of 278,370 children from the general population without an ASD diagnosis...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Emine Gurbuz, Mary Hanley, Deborah M Riby
The number of university students with autism is increasing, and it is crucial that these students can access adequate support. An online questionnaire was completed by 26 autistic students and 158 non-autistic students enrolled at UK universities to investigate social and academic experiences. Autistic students self-reported significant challenges and more mental health difficulties than non-autistic students. Significant challenges focused on the social components of university life, including social skills, social support opportunities, and levels of ASD awareness from others...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Audrey Rutz, Karin M Dent, Lorenzo D Botto, Paul C Young, Paul S Carbone
Despite current guidelines, few children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) receive genetic evaluations. We surveyed Utah pediatricians to characterize the knowledge, beliefs, current practices and perceived barriers of pediatricians regarding genetic evaluation of children with ASD. We found over half lacked knowledge of current guidelines and many held beliefs about genetic evaluation that did not align with guidelines. Barriers were lack of insurance coverage for genetic evaluation/testing and long wait times to see geneticists...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Deanna M Swain, A Lynn Abbott, Susan W White
The impact of facial emotion recognition (FER) deficits on facial emotion expression (FEE) during interaction with a novel computerized system was investigated in children with ASD (n = 20), in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers (n = 20). Although there was not clear evidence of impaired FEE, children with ASD showed more atypical FEE. In children with ASD, better FER predicted better FEE when the participants were asked to express a labeled emotion (t(18) = - 2.75, p = .01, d = 1...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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