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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730417/patterns-of-age-related-cognitive-differences-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Patrick S Powell, Laura G Klinger, Mark R Klinger
Little is known about age-related cognitive differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, given the overlap in cognitive impairments in ASD to those seen in typical aging, it is possible that adults with ASD will face even greater cognitive difficulties as they age. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine age-related cognitive differences in adults with ASD and age and IQ-matched adults with typical development (age range 30-67 years). Results indicated that both age and diagnosis were related to poorer cognitive performance...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730416/quality-of-life-coping-styles-stress-levels-and-time-use-in-mothers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-comparing-single-versus-coupled-households
#2
Tomomi McAuliffe, Reinie Cordier, Sharmila Vaz, Yvonne Thomas, Torbjorn Falkmer
This study aimed to examine the influence of differences in household status on the parental stress, coping, time use and quality of life (QoL) among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders. Forty-three single and 164 coupled mothers completed the survey. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. We found that single mothers were 1.05 times more likely to report lower levels of environmental QoL. Whilst they were 1.73 times more likely to use acceptance coping style, this association did not persist after adjusting for total number of children, household income and employment status...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710532/the-gap-between-adaptive-behavior-and-intelligence-in-autism-persists-into-young-adulthood-and-is-linked-to-psychiatric-co-morbidities
#3
Catherine K Kraper, Lauren Kenworthy, Haroon Popal, Alex Martin, Gregory L Wallace
For individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), long-term outcomes have been troubling, and intact IQ has not been shown to be protective. Nevertheless, relatively little research into adaptive functioning among adults with ASD has been completed to date. Therefore, both adaptive functioning and comorbid psychopathology were assessed among 52 adults with ASD without intellectual disability (ID). Adaptive functioning was found to substantially lag behind IQ, and socialization was a particular weakness. Comorbid psychopathology was significantly correlated with the size of IQ-adaptive functioning discrepancy...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699053/vicarious-effort-based-decision-making-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Maya G Mosner, Jessica L Kinard, Sean McWeeny, Jasmine S Shah, Nathan D Markiewitz, Cara R Damiano-Goodwin, Margaret R Burchinal, Helena J V Rutherford, Rachel K Greene, Michael T Treadway, Gabriel S Dichter
This study investigated vicarious effort-based decision-making in 50 adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to 32 controls using the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task. Participants made choices to win money for themselves or for another person. When choosing for themselves, the ASD group exhibited relatively similar patterns of effort-based decision-making across reward parameters. However, when choosing for another person, the ASD group demonstrated relatively decreased sensitivity to reward magnitude, particularly in the high magnitude condition...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699052/young-adults-on-the-autism-spectrum-at-college-successes-and-stumbling-blocks
#5
Connie Anderson, Catherine Butt
There is limited information on outcomes for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including achievement at college. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 families reporting a degree-seeking college experience for their young adult with ASD. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Four themes surrounding success and failure at college emerged. Preparation Beyond Academics involved challenges associated with ASD, such as social, executive functioning, and mental health issues, and to what extent these had been addressed prior to leaving high school...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695439/subjective-burden-and-depression-in-mothers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-india-moderating-effect-of-social-support
#6
Prerna Singh, Subharati Ghosh, Subhrangshu Nandi
The quantitative study assessed subjective burden, depression, and the moderating effect of social support in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in India. Seventy mothers were interviewed using a structured interview schedule, which measured their subjective burden, depression, and social support from family, friends, and significant others. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis with interaction terms. Half of the mothers in the study reported depression of clinical significance...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695438/developing-clinically-practicable-biomarkers-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
LETTER
James C McPartland
Despite significant advances in understanding the biological bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the field remains primarily reliant on observational and parent report measures of behavior to guide clinical practice, conduct research, and evaluate intervention outcomes. There is a critical need for objective measures to more sensitively and validly quantify risk for ASD, ASD symptomatology, and its change in clinical trials. To maximize public health impact, such biomarkers must be cost effective and utilize accessible and scalable technologies...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695437/quantitative-aspects-of-communicative-impairment-ascertained-in-a-large-national-survey-of-japanese-children
#8
Manabu Oi, Hiroshi Fujino, Naotake Tsukidate, Yoko Kamio, Yuko Yoshimura, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Chiaki Hasegawa, Keiko Gondou, Tomoko Matsui
The Japanese version of the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) was rated by caregivers in a large national population sample of 22,871 children aged 3-15 years. The General Communication Composite (GCC) of the CCC-2 exhibited a distribution with a single-factor structure. The GCC distribution between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and language impairment (LI) groups in the general population fit inside a bell curve with significant overlap with the general population, and a continuum was evident between groups...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695436/coherence-of-representations-regarding-the-child-resolution-of-the-child-s-diagnosis-and-emotional-availability-a-study-of-arab-israeli-mothers-of-children-with-asd
#9
Efrat Sher-Censor, Smadar Dolev, Marwa Said, Nagham Baransi, Kholud Amara
This study examined the interplay of mothers' coherent representations of their child (i.e., multidimensional and balanced view); resolution of the child's ASD diagnosis (i.e., acceptance); and emotional availability to the child in the unique cultural context of Arab-Israeli families. Participants were 46 mothers and their 2-8 year old sons. Coherent representations and resolution of the diagnosis were assessed using narrative measures. Emotional availability (namely, sensitivity, structuring, and lack of intrusiveness and hostility) was observed during mother-child play interactions...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689330/phenotypic-characteristics-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-diverse-sample-of-somali-and-other-children
#10
Amy N Esler, Jennifer Hall-Lande, Amy Hewitt
The potential for culture to impact diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high, yet remains largely unstudied. This study examined differences across racial/ethnic groups in ASD symptoms, cognitive and adaptive skills, and related behaviors in children with ASD that included a unique subgroup, children from the Somali diaspora. Somali children were more likely to have ASD with intellectual disability than children from all other racial/ethnic groups. Few differences were found in the presence of specific symptoms and behaviors across groups once IQ was controlled...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689329/amygdala-volume-differences-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-are-related-to-anxiety
#11
John D Herrington, Brenna B Maddox, Connor M Kerns, Keiran Rump, Julie A Worley, Jennifer C Bush, Alana J McVey, Robert T Schultz, Judith S Miller
Recent studies suggest that longstanding findings of abnormal amygdala morphology in ASD may be related to symptoms of anxiety. To test this hypothesis, fifty-three children with ASD (mean age = 11.9) underwent structural MRI and were divided into subgroups to compare those with at least one anxiety disorder diagnosis (n = 29) to those without (n = 24) and to a typically developing control group (TDC; n = 37). Groups were matched on age and intellectual level. The ASD and anxiety group showed decreased right amygdala volume (controlled for total brain volume) relative to ASD without anxiety (p = ...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688078/differences-in-neural-correlates-of-speech-perception-in-3-month-olds-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Laura A Edwards, Jennifer B Wagner, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
In this study, we investigated neural precursors of language acquisition as potential endophenotypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 3-month-old infants at high and low familial ASD risk. Infants were imaged using functional near-infrared spectroscopy while they listened to auditory stimuli containing syllable repetitions; their neural responses were analyzed over left and right temporal regions. While female low risk infants showed initial neural activation that decreased over exposure to repetition-based stimuli, potentially indicating a habituation response to repetition in speech, female high risk infants showed no changes in neural activity over exposure...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688077/grandparents-experience-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-identifying-primary-themes-and-needs
#13
Jennifer L Hillman, Michele C Wentzel, Connie M Anderson
Limited information is available regarding the first person perspective of grandparents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In the present study, 1870 grandparents of a child with ASD participated in a nationwide, online, anonymous, 30-minute survey and responded to open-ended questions including their "greatest challenges and greatest joys" as the grandparent of a child on the autism spectrum. A grounded theory approach to qualitative analysis revealed four overarching categories: a Desire for Connection, Barriers to Care, Celebration of Progress, and Personal Reactions...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688076/an-eye-movement-study-of-relational-memory-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Melanie Ring, Dermot M Bowler, Sebastian B Gaigg
Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate good memory for single items but difficulties remembering contextual information related to these items. Recently, we found compromised explicit but intact implicit retrieval of object-location information in ASD (Ring et al. Autism Res 8(5):609-619, 2015). Eye-movement data collected from a sub-sample of the participants are the focus of the current paper. At encoding, trial-by-trial viewing durations predicted subsequent retrieval success only in typically developing (TD) participants...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688075/coparenting-competence-in-parents-of-children-with-asd-a-marker-of-coparenting-quality
#15
Chris D May, Jennifer M St George, Richard J Fletcher, Ian Dempsey, Louise K Newman
The coparenting relationship has been linked to parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy and many other concerns associated with the development of children with ASD. Parents of children with ASD (N = 22) were interviewed to explore three domains of their coparenting relationship; (1) adaptation to the emergence of their child's autism, (2) parenting their child with ASD, (3) expectations for their child's developmental outcomes. The concept of coparenting competence, developed during analysis, describes collective perceptions of parenting efficacy...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688074/teaching-reading-comprehension-skills-to-a-child-with-autism-using-behaviour-skills-training
#16
Binita D Singh, Dennis W Moore, Brett E Furlonger, Angelika Anderson, Margherita L Busacca, Derek L English
A multiple probe design across skills was used to examine the effects of behaviour skills training (BST) on teaching four reading comprehension skills (predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing) to a 7th grade student with autism. Following baseline, the student received 12 sessions of BST during which each skill was taught to criterion. At each session, data was also collected on the accuracy of oral responses to 10 comprehension questions. BST was associated with clear gains in the participant's performance on each comprehension skill, along with concomitant gains in reading comprehension both on the daily probes and a standardized measure...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688073/the-integration-of-occlusion-and-disparity-information-for-judging-depth-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Danielle Smith, Danielle Ropar, Harriet A Allen
In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), atypical integration of visual depth cues may be due to flattened perceptual priors or selective fusion. The current study attempts to disentangle these explanations by psychophysically assessing within-modality integration of ordinal (occlusion) and metric (disparity) depth cues while accounting for sensitivity to stereoscopic information. Participants included 22 individuals with ASD and 23 typically developing matched controls. Although adults with ASD were found to have significantly poorer stereoacuity, they were still able to automatically integrate conflicting depth cues, lending support to the idea that priors are intact in ASD...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685412/discriminative-and-criterion-validity-of-the-autism-spectrum-identity-scale-asis
#18
T A M McDonald
Individuals on the autism spectrum face stigma that can influence identity development. Previous research on the 22-item Autism Spectrum Identity Scale (ASIS) reported a four-factor structure with strong split-sample cross-validation and good internal consistency. This study reports the discriminative and criterion validity of the ASIS with other measures. Adults (n = 1139) who have, or identify with, an autism spectrum diagnosis took a nationally distributed online survey that also included demographic questions and measures for stigma, self-esteem, and quality of life (QoL)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685411/how-to-implement-robots-in-interventions-for-children-with-autism-a-co-creation-study-involving-people-with-autism-parents-and-professionals
#19
Claire A G J Huijnen, Monique A S Lexis, Rianne Jansens, Luc P de Witte
The aim of this study was to gain insight into how robots can be practically implemented into current education and therapy interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This qualitative study included focus groups and co-creation sessions. 73 Participants (professionals and adults with ASD) took part in 13 focus groups to elicit requirements for robot assisted interventions. Additionally, 22 participants (professionals, parents of children with ASD and adults with ASD) generated ideas for interventions using robot KASPAR in three co-creation sessions...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685410/school-functions-in-unaffected-siblings-of-youths-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Yi-Ling Chien, En-Nien Tu, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
This study investigated school functioning among unaffected siblings of youths with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identified the correlates for school maladjustment. We recruited 66 youths with a clinical diagnosis of ASD, aged 8-19, their unaffected siblings and 132 typically developing controls (TD). We found that ASD youths had poorer school functions than unaffected siblings and TD. Unaffected siblings had poorer attitude toward schoolwork and more severe behavioral problems at school than TD. Several associated factors for different scholastic functional domains (i...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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