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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

Kenneth Fung, Johanna Lake, Lee Steel, Kelly Bryce, Yona Lunsky
Few studies have examined interventions or therapeutic processes that may help parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) manage their stress. This study examines the impact of a brief Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) group intervention, led by parents, among a cohort of 33 mothers of children with ASD. Changes in ACT process measures (psychological flexibility, cognitive fusion, values) were evaluated at pre, post, and 3 months following the intervention. Mothers reported significant improvement post-intervention in psychological flexibility, cognitive fusion, and value-consistent activities in multiple life domains, including parenting, relationships, and self-care...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Alan S Lewis, Gerrit Ian van Schalkwyk, Mayra Ortiz Lopez, Fred R Volkmar, Marina R Picciotto, Denis G Sukhodolsky
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly the α7 nAChR, are implicated in the pathophysiology of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and aggressive behavior. We explored the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of targeting nAChRs using transdermal nicotine to reduce aggressive symptoms in adults with ASD. Eight subjects were randomized in a double-blind crossover trial of 7 mg transdermal nicotine or placebo, each for 1 week. All participants tolerated nicotine treatment well...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Nataly Lim, Mark F O'Reilly, Jeff Sigafoos, Giulio E Lancioni
The practice of advising bilingual parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to speak in a single language, often the majority language of the region, with their child with ASD seems to be common. Such advice, however, is not grounded on empirical evidence but appears to be based more on logical arguments and assumptions. In this commentary, fears surrounding dual language exposure and empirical evidence supporting bilingualism in children with ASD are discussed. Suggestions for future research and three key steps that clinicians can consider taking to better address the needs of diverse learners are provided...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Marlene Pereira Galdino, Luiz Fernando Longuim Pegoraro, Laura Olalla Saad, David Grodberg, Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler Celeri
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Autism Mental Status Examination (AMSE) in a Brazilian sample of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A sample of 260 children and adolescents, comprising 56 (21.5%) females and 204 (78.5%) males, was assessed. The participants were submitted to both the childhood autism rating scale (CARS-BR) and the AMSE. The CARS-BR was used to estimate ASD severity and the cutoff point on the AMSE. Spearman's correlation test was employed to determine the correlation between the AMSE and CARS-BR scales...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
A Pablo Juárez, Amy S Weitlauf, Amy Nicholson, Anna Pasternak, Neill Broderick, Jeffrey Hine, J Alacia Stainbrook, Zachary Warren
Increasing access to diagnostic services is crucial for identifying ASD in young children. We therefore evaluated a telemedicine assessment procedure. First, we compared telediagnostic accuracy to blinded gold-standard evaluations (n = 20). ASD cases identified via telemedicine were confirmed by in-person evaluation. However, 20% of children diagnosed with ASD in-person were not diagnosed via telemedicine. Second, we evaluated telediagnostic feasibility and acceptability in a rural catchment. Children (n = 45) and caregivers completed the telemedicine procedure and provided feedback...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Fenny S Zwart, Constance Th W M Vissers, Joseph H R Maes
It is assumed that learning on the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task is related to learning involved in social skill development affected in autism, but this assumption has hardly been investigated. We have therefore examined associations between SRT task learning and social impairment measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale in 72 autistic and non-autistic adults. Results revealed a positive correlation between deterministic sequence learning, putatively involving explicit learning, and social impairment in autistic adults but not in non-autistic adults...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
G N Soke, M J Maenner, D Christensen, M Kurzius-Spencer, L A Schieve
We compared the prevalence of various medical and behavioral co-occurring conditions/symptoms between 4- and 8-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from five sites in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network during the 2010 survey year, accounting for sociodemographic differences. Over 95% of children had at least one co-occurring condition/symptom. Overall, the prevalence was higher in 8- than 4-year-olds for 67% of co-occurring conditions/symptoms examined. Further, our data suggested that co-occurring conditions/symptoms increased or decreased the age at which children were first evaluated for ASD...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Catherine Rex, Marjorie H Charlop, Vicki Spector
In the present study, we used a multiple baseline design across participants to assess the efficacy of a video modeling intervention to teach six children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to assertively respond to bullying. During baseline, the children made few appropriate responses upon viewing video clips of bullying scenarios. During the video modeling intervention, participants viewed videos of models assertively responding to three types of bullying: physical, verbal bullying, and social exclusion...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Calum Hartley, Sophie Fisher
This study investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children matched on receptive language share resources fairly and reciprocally. Children completed age-appropriate versions of the Ultimatum and Dictator Games with real stickers and an interactive partner. Both groups offered similar numbers of stickers (preferring equality over self-interest), offered more stickers in the Ultimatum Game, and verbally referenced 'fairness' at similar rates. However, children with ASD were significantly more likely to accept unfair offers and were significantly less likely to reciprocate the puppet's offers...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Marieke G N Bos, Sofia Diamantopoulou, Lex Stockmann, Sander Begeer, Carolien Rieffe
Children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often show comorbid emotional and behavior problems. The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relation between emotion control (i.e., negative emotionality, emotion awareness, and worry/rumination) and the development of internalizing and externalizing problems. Boys with and without ASD (N = 157; age 9-15) were followed over a period of 1.5 years (3 waves). We found that baseline levels of worry/rumination was a specific predictor of later externalizing problems for boys with ASD...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Fred R Volkmar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Marion Rutherford, Kirsty Forsyth, Karen McKenzie, Iain McClure, Aja Murray, Deborah McCartney, Linda Irvine, Anne O'Hare
This study examined waiting times for diagnostic assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in 11 adult services, prior to and following the implementation of a 12 month change program. Methods to support change are reported and a multi-level modelling approach determined the effect of the change program on overall wait times. Results were statistically significant (b = - 0.25, t(136) = - 2.88, p = 0.005). The average time individuals waited for diagnosis across all services reduced from 149.4 days prior to the change program and 119...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Anders Nordahl-Hansen, Logan Hart, Roald A Øien
There is a long history of research on parents and caregivers of individuals within autism. Parents and other primary caregivers typically play the most important part in the lives of persons with ASD although the need for support as the child becomes of age varies widely. This special issue includes 30 articles on central areas related to parenting and caregiving for people with ASD. Some of the key themes include intervention and training, mental health issues related to parent and family stress, measurement and assessment, and parent-child transactional processes...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Terry Katz, Amy M Shui, Cynthia R Johnson, Amanda L Richdale, Ann M Reynolds, Lawrence Scahill, Beth A Malow
Sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and adversely impact daytime functioning. Although no questionnaires have been developed to assess sleep in children with ASD, the 33-item Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) is widely used in this population. We examined the factor structure of the CSHQ in 2872 children (age 4-10 years) enrolled in the Autism Treatment Network. A four-factor solution (Sleep Initiation and Duration, Sleep Anxiety/Co-Sleeping, Night Waking/Parasomnias, and Daytime Alertness) with 5-6 items per factor explained 75% of the total variation...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Samantha J Teague, Louise K Newman, Bruce J Tonge, Kylie M Gray
This paper investigates the role of caregiver mental health and parenting practices as predictors of attachment in children with intellectual disability/developmental delay, comparing between children with ASD (n = 29) and children with other developmental disabilities (n = 20). Parents reported that children with ASD had high levels of anxiety and stress, and attachment insecurity in children (less closeness and more conflict in attachment relationships, and more inhibited attachment behaviours) compared with children with other developmental disabilities...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Sarah M Haigh, Jennifer A Walsh, Carla A Mazefsky, Nancy J Minshew, Shaun M Eack
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a variety of social and non-social behavioral deficits. One potential mechanism that could unify this diverse profile of behaviors is slower processing speed. Seventy-six high-functioning adults with ASD were compared to 64 matched controls on standardized measures of processing speed. Participants with ASD were significantly slower on all measures, and on the composite score from the three tests (d's > .65). ASD participants with slower processing speeds scored higher on the ADOS Communication and Reciprocal Social Interaction scale (r = ...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Lauren P Lawson, Rucha Joshi, Josephine Barbaro, Cheryl Dissanayake
Relatively few studies have examined gender differences in infants and toddlers, and most focus on clinically referred samples or high-risk infant cohorts. The current study aimed to examine gender differences in early autism manifestations and cognitive development in a community-ascertained sample. In total, 46 males and 21 females with ASD were seen at approximately 24 and 48 months of age. No significant gender differences were observed on overall cognitive ability, verbal skills, non-verbal skills, overall autism severity, or restricted repetitive behaviours...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Melina J West, David A Copland, Wendy L Arnott, Nicole L Nelson, Anthony J Angwin
The current study investigated whether those with higher levels of autism-like traits process emotional information from speech differently to those with lower levels of autism-like traits. Neurotypical adults completed the autism-spectrum quotient and an emotional priming task. Vocal primes with varied emotional prosody, semantics, or a combination, preceded emotional target faces. Prime-target pairs were congruent or incongruent in their emotional content. Overall, congruency effects were found for combined prosody-semantic primes, however no congruency effects were found for semantic or prosodic primes alone...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Victoria F Knight, Belva Collins, Amy D Spriggs, Emily Sartini, Margaret Janey MacDonald
Both scripted lessons and unscripted task analyzed lessons have been used effectively to teach science content to students with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. This study evaluated the efficacy, efficiency, and teacher preference of scripted and unscripted task analyzed lesson plans from an elementary science curriculum designed for students with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder by evaluating both lesson formats for (a) student outcomes on a science comprehension assessment, (b) sessions to criterion, and (c) average duration of lessons...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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