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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921201/sensory-clusters-of-adults-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-conditions
#1
Marie Elwin, Agneta Schröder, Lena Ek, Tuula Wallsten, Lars Kjellin
We identified clusters of atypical sensory functioning adults with ASC by hierarchical cluster analysis. A new scale for commonly self-reported sensory reactivity was used as a measure. In a low frequency group (n = 37), all subscale scores were relatively low, in particular atypical sensory/motor reactivity. In the intermediate group (n = 17) hyperreactivity, sensory interests and sensory/motor issues were significantly elevated in relation to the first group, but not hyporeactivity. In a high frequency subgroup (n = 17) all subscale scores were significantly elevated and co-occurrence of hyper- and hyporeactivity was evident...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909851/brief-report-knowledge-and-confidence-of-emergency-medical-service-personnel-involving-treatment-of-an-individual-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
David Wachob, Louis J Pesci
In order to best respond to an emergency situation, professionals need to have an understanding about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and techniques that will ensure proper care. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and confidence of EMS personnel on interacting and treating an individual with ASD. Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT), and Paramedics were surveyed on their knowledge of ASD; familiarity or experience with ASD, and level of comfort responding to emergencies involving an individual with ASD...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909850/a-rural-urban-comparison-in-emergency-department-visits-for-u-s-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Wanqing Zhang, Ashley E Mason, Brian Boyd, Linmarie Sikich, Grace Baranek
We examined rural-urban differences in emergency department visits, and child and clinical characteristics associated with visits for U.S. children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Rural children with ASD were twice more likely to have emergency department visits in urban hospitals than rural children without ASD. The children with ASD in rural areas were economically disadvantaged and concentrated in the South and Midwest regions. Rural children diagnosed with ASD and multiple comorbidities during emergency department visits were 1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904991/eat-up%C3%A2-family-centered-feeding-intervention-to-promote-food-acceptance-and-decrease-challenging-behaviors-a-single-case-experimental-design-replicated-across-three-families-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Joanna Cosbey, Deirdre Muldoon
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-centered feeding intervention, Easing Anxiety Together with Understanding and Perseverance (EAT-UP™), for promoting food acceptance of children with autism spectrum disorder at home. A concurrent multiple-baseline design was used with systematic replication across three families. Baseline was followed by an 'Intervention-Coaching' phase and then an 'Intervention-Independent' phase. Using direct observation and pre- and post-intervention questionnaires, data on acceptance of less preferred foods and challenging mealtime behaviors were collected...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888367/increasing-opportunities-for-question-asking-in-school-aged-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-effectiveness-of-staff-training-in-pivotal-response-treatment
#5
Rianne Verschuur, Bibi Huskens, Ludo Verhoeven, Robert Didden
Deficits in question-asking are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, their opportunities to self-initiate questions are often hindered by directive behavior of their conversation partners. This study assessed the effectiveness of staff training in pivotal response treatment (PRT) on staff member-created opportunities and self-initiated questions of school-aged children with ASD. Generalization and maintenance were also assessed. Participants were 14 staff members and children with ASD attending an inpatient treatment facility...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885547/identifying-high-ability-children-with-dsm-5-autism-spectrum-or-social-communication-disorder-performance-on-autism-diagnostic-instruments
#6
Megan Foley-Nicpon, Staci L Fosenburg, Kristin G Wurster, Susan G Assouline
This study was a replication of Mazefsky et al.'s (Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities 43:1236-1242, 2013) investigation among a sample of 45 high ability children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD under DSM-IV-TR. Items from the ADOS and ADI-R were mapped onto DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD to determine whether participants would meet either diagnosis under DSM-5. If the ADOS were administered alone, 62% of individuals diagnosed with ASD would no longer meet criteria under DSM-5; however, when the ADI-R and ADOS scores were combined, 100% of individuals would continue to meet ASD diagnosis...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882443/gut-microbiota-and-autism-key-concepts-and-findings
#7
Helen T Ding, Ying Taur, John T Walkup
There is an emerging body of evidence linking the intestinal microbiota with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies have demonstrated differences in the composition of gut bacteria between children with ASD and controls. Certain intestinal bacteria have been observed in abundance and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD; including members of the Clostridium and Sutterella genus. Evidence from animal models suggest that certain microbial shifts in the gut may produce changes consistent with the clinical picture of autism, with proposed mechanisms including toxin production, aberrations in fermentation processes/products, and immunological and metabolic abnormalities...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878742/brief-report-diminished-gaze-preference-for-dynamic-social-interaction-scenes-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
Rebecca C Shaffer, Ernest V Pedapati, Frederick Shic, Kristina Gaietto, Katherine Bowers, Logan K Wink, Craig A Erickson
In this study, we present an eye-tracking paradigm, adapted from previous work with toddlers, for assessing social-interaction looking preferences in youth ages 5-17 with ASD and typically-developing controls (TDC). Videos of children playing together (Social Scenes, SS) were presented side-by-side with animated geometric shapes (GS). Participants with ASD demonstrated reduced SS preferences compared to TDC, results also represented continuously by associations between higher SS preferences and fewer social difficulties across the combined sample...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878741/coexistence-of-9p-deletion-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
LETTER
Serkan Güneş, Özalp Ekinci, Nuran Ekinci, Fevziye Toros
Deletion or duplication of the short arm of chromosome 9 may lead to a variety of clinical conditions including craniofacial and limb abnormalities, skeletal malformations, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder. Here, we present a case report of 5-year-old boy with 9p deletion syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.
November 23, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878740/brief-report-a-comparison-of-the-preference-for-viewing-social-and-non-social-movies-in-typical-and-autistic-adolescents
#10
Indu Dubey, Danielle Ropar, Antonia F de C Hamilton
The recently proposed Social Motivation theory (Chevallier et al., Trends in cognitive sciences 16(4):231-239, 2012) suggests that social difficulties in Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC) might be caused by a difference in the motivation to engage with other people. Here we compared adolescents with (N = 31) and without (N = 37) ASC on the Choose-a-Movie paradigm that measures the social seeking. The results showed a preference for viewing objects over smiling faces in ASC, which is in line with the theory of low social motivation...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878739/divergence-of-age-related-differences-in-social-communication-improvements-for-typically-developing-youth-but-declines-for-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Gregory L Wallace, Katerina Dudley, Laura Anthony, Cara E Pugliese, Bako Orionzi, Liv Clasen, Nancy Raitano Lee, Jay N Giedd, Alex Martin, Armin Raznahan, Lauren Kenworthy
Although social-communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors are hallmark features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and persist across the lifespan, very few studies have compared age-related differences in these behaviors between youth with ASD and same-age typically developing (TD) peers. We examined this issue using SRS-2 (Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition) measures of social-communicative functioning and repetitive behaviors in a stratified cross-sectional sample of 324 youth with ASD in the absence of intellectual disability, and 438 TD youth (aged 4-29 years)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878738/size-constancy-is-preserved-but-afterimages-are-prolonged-in-typical-individuals-with-higher-degrees-of-self-reported-autistic-traits
#12
Irene Sperandio, Katy L Unwin, Oriane Landry, Philippe A Chouinard
Deficits in perceptual constancies from early infancy have been proposed to contribute to autism and exacerbate its symptoms (Hellendoorn et al., Frontiers in Psychology 6:1-16, 2015). Here, we examined size constancy in adults from the general population (N = 106) with different levels of self-reported autistic traits using an approach based on negative afterimages. The afterimage strength, as indexed by duration and vividness, was also quantified. In opposition to the Hellendoorn and colleagues' model, we were unable to demonstrate any kind of relationship between abilities in size constancy and autistic traits...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873140/cross-cultural-validity-of-the-social-communication-questionnaire-for-adults-with-intellectual-developmental-disorder
#13
Tanja Sappok, Whitney Brooks, Manuel Heinrich, Jane McCarthy, Lisa Underwood
Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is important throughout the lifespan. The objective was to investigate the transcultural diagnostic validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a clinical sample of 451 adults with Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD) with and without ASD in Germany, the U.S.A. and Great Britain. Variables associated with higher SCQ sum-scores were higher levels of IDD, male gender, a diagnosis of ASD and the study site (Germany > U.S.A > G.B.). An ROC analysis revealed a cut-score of 13, which resulted in a sensitivity of 0...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868163/parents-perceive-improvements-in-socio-emotional-functioning-in-adolescents-with-asd-following-social-skills-treatment
#14
Danielle N Lordo, Madison Bertolin, Eliana L Sudikoff, Cierra Keith, Barbara Braddock, David A S Kaufman
The current study examined the effectiveness of a social skills treatment (PEERS) for improving socio-emotional competencies in a sample of high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Neuropsychological and self- and parent-report measures assessing social, emotional, and behavioral functioning were administered before and after treatment. Following social skills treatment, adolescents with ASD exhibited decreased aggression, anxiety, and withdrawal, as well as improvements in emotional responsiveness, adaptability, leadership, and participation in activities of daily living, though no change was found in affect recognition abilities...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866352/friendship-satisfaction-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-nominated-friends
#15
Neysa Petrina, Mark Carter, Jennifer Stephenson, Naomi Sweller
The current study examined the level of friendship satisfaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their nominated friends (with and without diagnosis of ASD). A total of 77 target children with ASD and friends from 49 nominated friendships participated in the study. Relatively high levels of friendship satisfaction were reported by both target children and their nominated friends with no overall difference between dyads involving typically developing friends and friends with ASD. Analysis at the individual dyad level showed a high level of agreement on the reported level of satisfaction across the target participants and their friends...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866351/social-referencing-gaze-behavior-during-a-videogame-task-eye-tracking-evidence-from-children-with-and-without-asd
#16
Erinn H Finke, Krista M Wilkinson, Benjamin D Hickerson
The purpose of this study was to understand the social referencing behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) while visually attending to a videogame stimulus depicting both the face of the videogame player and the videogame play action. Videogames appear to offer a uniquely well-suited environment for the emergence of friendships, but it is not known if children with and without ASD attend to and play videogames similarly. Eyetracking technology was used to investigate visual attention of participants matched based on chronological age...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866350/changes-in-food-selectivity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Linda G Bandini, Carol Curtin, Sarah Phillips, Sarah E Anderson, Melissa Maslin, Aviva Must
Food selectivity is a common problem in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and has an adverse impact on nutrient adequacy and family mealtimes. Despite recent research in this area, few studies have addressed whether food selectivity present in children with ASD persists into adolescence. In this study, we assessed food selectivity in 18 children with ASD at two time points (mean age = 6.8 and 13.2 years), and examined changes in food selectivity. While food refusal improved overall, we did not observe an increase in food repertoire (number of unique foods eaten)...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866349/the-emergent-literacy-skills-of-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
M F Westerveld, J Paynter, D Trembath, A A Webster, A M Hodge, J Roberts
A high percentage of school-age students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties leading to academic disadvantage. These difficulties may be related to differences in children's emergent literacy development in the preschool years. In this study, we examined the relationship between emergent literacy skills, broader cognitive and language ability, autism severity, and home literacy environment factors in 57 preschoolers with ASD. The children showed strengths in code-related emergent literacy skills such as alphabet knowledge, but significant difficulties with meaning-related emergent literacy skills...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866348/attentional-differences-in-a-driving-hazard-perception-task-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Elizabeth Sheppard, Editha van Loon, Geoffrey Underwood, Danielle Ropar
The current study explored attentional processing of social and non-social stimuli in ASD within the context of a driving hazard perception task. Participants watched videos of road scenes and detected hazards while their eye movements were recorded. Although individuals with ASD demonstrated relatively good detection of driving hazards, they were slower to orient to hazards. Greater attentional capture in the time preceding the hazards' onset was associated with lower verbal IQ. The findings suggest that individuals with ASD may distribute and direct their attention differently when identifying driving hazards...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858263/-it-was-like-walking-without-knowing-where-i-was-going-a-qualitative-study-of-autism-in-a-uk-somali-migrant-community
#20
Fiona Fox, Nura Aabe, Katrina Turner, Sabi Redwood, Dheeraj Rai
Increasing recognition of autism in Somali migrant communities means that appropriate support services are needed. Attitudes to autism and barriers related to help-seeking in these communities are poorly understood. We aimed to assess what families affected by autism need, and how health, education and social care services can support them. In partnership with the local Somali community the research team conducted 15 in-depth interviews with parents affected by autism. Two themes are reported; 'Perceptions of Autism' and 'Navigating the System'...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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