journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527098/mediating-effects-of-social-support-on-quality-of-life-for-parents-of-adults-with-autism
#1
Christina N Marsack, Preethy S Samuel
The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of formal and informal social support on the relationship of caregiver burden and quality of life (QOL), using a sample of 320 parents (aged 50 or older) of adult children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Multiple linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that caregiver burden had a negative impact on QOL and that informal social support partially mediated the relationship between caregiver burden and parents' QOL. Formal social support did not mediate the relationship between caregiver burden and QOL...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527097/the-flexibility-scale-development-and-preliminary-validation-of-a-cognitive-flexibility-measure-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
John F Strang, Laura G Anthony, Benjamin E Yerys, Kristina K Hardy, Gregory L Wallace, Anna C Armour, Katerina Dudley, Lauren Kenworthy
Flexibility is a key component of executive function, and is related to everyday functioning and adult outcomes. However, existing informant reports do not densely sample cognitive aspects of flexibility; the Flexibility Scale (FS) was developed to address this gap. This study investigates the validity of the FS in 221 youth with ASD and 57 typically developing children. Exploratory factor analysis indicates a five-factor scale: Routines/rituals, transitions/change, special interests, social flexibility, and generativity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527096/childhood-predictors-of-young-adult-social-functioning-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#3
Kayla E Wagner, Wendy R Kates, Wanda Fremont, Kevin M Antshel
The primary objectives of the current prospective longitudinal study were to (a) describe social functioning outcomes and (b) identify childhood predictors of social functioning in young adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Childhood predictors of young adult social functioning were examined. Family environment and parental stress in adolescence were investigated as potential mediators between childhood variables and adult social functioning. Parent rated childhood internalizing symptoms significantly predicted young adult social functioning in 22q11...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527095/-putting-on-my-best-normal-social-camouflaging-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#4
Laura Hull, K V Petrides, Carrie Allison, Paula Smith, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, William Mandy
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC, with questions focusing on the nature, motivations, and consequences of camouflaging. Thematic analysis was used to identify key elements of camouflaging, which informed development of a three-stage model of the camouflaging process...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523392/brief-report-autism-in-the-courtroom-experiences-of-legal-professionals-and-the-autism-community
#5
Katie L Maras, Laura Crane, Sue Mulcahy, Tamsyn Hawken, Penny Cooper, David Wurtzel, Amina Memon
Online surveys were used to sample the views of judges, barristers and solicitors (n = 33) about their engagement with autistic individuals in criminal courts in England and Wales. Despite an understanding of some of the difficulties experienced by individuals with autism, and the adjustments suitable for supporting them, legal professionals reported constraints arising from a lack of understanding by others within the criminal justice system. These results are considered alongside the views and perspectives of autistic adults (n = 9) and parents of children on the autism spectrum (n = 19), who had encountered the criminal courts as witnesses or defendants and were largely dissatisfied with their experiences...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516426/characterization-of-medication-use-in-a-multicenter-sample-of-pediatric-inpatients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Logan K Wink, Ernest V Pedapati, Ryan Adams, Craig A Erickson, Kahsi A Pedersen, Eric M Morrow, Desmond Kaplan, Matthew Siegel
Nearly 11% of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) undergo psychiatric hospitalization, and 65% are treated with psychotropic medication. Here we characterize psychotropic medication usage in subjects enrolled in the Autism Inpatient Collection. Participant psychotropic medication usage rates topped 90% at admission and discharge, though there was a decline at 2-month follow-up. Antipsychotics, ADHD medications, and sleep aids were the most commonly reported classes of medications. The impact of age, gender, and non-verbal IQ on medication usage rates was minimal, though age and IQ may play a role in prescribing practices...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516425/a-screening-tool-to-measure-eye-contact-avoidance-in-boys-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#7
Scott S Hall, Kaitlin M Venema
We examined the reliability, validity and factor structure of the Eye Contact Avoidance Scale (ECAS), a new 15-item screening tool designed to measure eye contact avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Internal consistency of the scale was acceptable to excellent and convergent validity with the Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2) and the Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale (ADAMS) was good. Boys with a comorbid ASD diagnosis obtained significantly higher scores on the ECAS compared to boys without ASD, when controlling for communication ability...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516424/differing-developmental-trajectories-in-heart-rate-responses-to-speech-stimuli-in-infants-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Katherine L Perdue, Laura A Edwards, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
We investigated heart rate (HR) in infants at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age, at high (HRA) and low (LRC) familial risk for ASD, to identify potential endophenotypes of ASD risk related to attentional responses. HR was extracted from functional near-infrared spectroscopy recordings while infants listened to speech stimuli. Longitudinal analysis revealed that HRA infants and males generally had lower baseline HR than LRC infants and females. HRA infants showed decreased HR responses to early trials over development, while LRC infants showed increased responses...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516423/exploring-the-components-of-advanced-theory-of-mind-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
C Pedreño, E Pousa, J B Navarro, M Pàmias, J E Obiols
Performance of a group of 35 youth and adults with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) was compared with a typical developing (TD) group on three Advanced Theory of Mind tests. The distinction between the social-cognitive and social-perceptual components of Theory of Mind was also explored. The HFA group had more difficulties in all tasks. Performance on the two social-cognitive tests was highly correlated in the HFA group, but these were not related with the social-perceptual component. These results suggest that the youth with HFA have difficulties on all the components of social knowledge but may be using different underlying cognitive abilities depending on the nature of the task...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516422/a-mixed-methods-study-of-barriers-to-formal-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-adults
#10
Laura Foran Lewis
Delayed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) into adulthood is common, and self-diagnosis is a growing phenomenon. This mixed methods study aimed to explore barriers to formal diagnosis of ASD in adults. In a qualitative strand, secondary analysis of data on the experiences of 114 individuals who were self-diagnosed or formally diagnosed with ASD in adulthood was used to identify barriers. In a quantitative strand, 665 individuals who were self-diagnosed or formally diagnosed in adulthood were surveyed online to examine incidence and severity of barriers...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516421/differential-fairness-decisions-and-brain-responses-after-expressed-emotions-of-others-in-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Eduard T Klapwijk, Moji Aghajani, Gert-Jan Lelieveld, Natasja D J van Lang, Arne Popma, Nic J A van der Wee, Olivier F Colins, Robert R J M Vermeiren
Little is known about how emotions expressed by others influence social decisions and associated brain responses in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying fairness decisions in response to explicitly expressed emotions of others in boys with ASD and typically developing (TD) boys. Participants with ASD adjusted their allocation behavior in response to the emotions but reacted less unfair than TD controls in response to happiness. We also found reduced brain responses in the precental gyrus in the ASD versus TD group when receiving happy versus angry reactions and autistic traits were positively associated with activity in the postcentral gyrus...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508931/kafka-and-autism-the-undisclosed-logic-behind-kafka-s-work
#12
Jerry Stuger
In this paper the hypothesis is presented that Franz Kafka was a person with autism. This is done by analyzing and discussing his biography, letters, diaries and major works. Kafka's autism is an integral diagnosis which encompasses both his personal life and his work. This interpretation is contrary to other interpretations from the past which in all cases were only partially applicable to explain Kafka's life and work. In Kafka research the big secret of Kafka was how he was able to write he did, like no one before him had done...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508177/standing-postural-control-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Yi Huey Lim, Katie Partridge, Sonya Girdler, Susan L Morris
Impairments in postural control affect the development of motor and social skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review compared the effect of different sensory conditions on static standing postural control between ASD and neurotypical individuals. Results from 19 studies indicated a large difference in postural control between groups across all sensory conditions. This review revealed sensorimotor and multiple sensory processing deficits in ASD. The tendency for individuals with ASD to be more susceptible to postural instability with use of visual information compared with somatosensory information suggests perinatal alterations in sensory development...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502038/verbal-visual-and-intermediary-support-for-child-witnesses-with-autism-during-investigative-interviews
#14
Lucy A Henry, Laura Crane, Gilly Nash, Zoe Hobson, Mimi Kirke-Smith, Rachel Wilcock
Three promising investigative interview interventions were assessed in 270 children (age 6-11 years): 71 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 199 who were typically developing (TD). Children received 'Verbal Labels', 'Sketch Reinstatement of Context' or 'Registered Intermediary' interviews designed to improve interview performance without decreasing accuracy. Children with ASD showed no increases in the number of correct details recalled for any of the three interview types (compared to a Best-Practice police interview), whereas TD children showed significant improvements in the Registered Intermediary and Verbal Labels interviews...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502037/the-role-of-the-broader-autism-phenotype-and-environmental-stressors-in-the-adjustment-of-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-taiwan-and-the-united-kingdom
#15
Hsiao-Wei Joy Tsai, Katie Cebula, Sue Fletcher-Watson
The influence of the broader autism phenotype (BAP) on the adjustment of siblings of children with autism has previously been researched mainly in Western cultures. The present research evaluated a diathesis-stress model of sibling adjustment using a questionnaire study including 80 and 75 mother-typically developing sibling dyads in Taiwan and the United Kingdom (UK). UK siblings reported elevated adjustment difficulties compared to the Taiwanese sample and to normative data. Whilst higher BAP levels were generally associated with greater adjustment difficulties, differences were found across cultures and respondents...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500573/brief-report-contrasting-profiles-of-everyday-executive-functioning-in-smith-magenis-syndrome-and-down-syndrome
#16
Lucy Wilde, Chris Oliver
Everyday executive function (EF) was examined in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), associated with high risk of behaviour disorder, and Down syndrome (DS), associated with relatively low risk of behaviour disorder. Caregivers of 13 children with SMS and 17 with DS rated everyday EF using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Preschool. Greater everyday EF deficits relative to adaptive ability were evident in SMS than in DS. The SMS profile of everyday EF abilities was relatively uniform; in DS emotional control strengths and working memory weaknesses were evident...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497246/neural-correlates-of-explicit-versus-implicit-facial-emotion-processing-in-asd
#17
Christina Luckhardt, Anne Kröger, Hannah Cholemkery, Stephan Bender, Christine M Freitag
The underlying neural mechanisms of implicit and explicit facial emotion recognition (FER) were studied in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to matched typically developing controls (TDC). EEG was obtained from N = 21 ASD and N = 16 TDC. Task performance, visual (P100, N170) and cognitive (late positive potential) event-related-potentials, as well as coherence were compared across groups. TDC showed a task-dependent increase and a stronger lateralization of P100 amplitude during the explicit task and task-dependent modulation of intra-hemispheric coherence in the beta band...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488079/fathers-orientation-to-their-children-s-autism-diagnosis-a-grounded-theory-study
#18
Michael D Hannon, LaChan V Hannon
Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children's autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases: orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental differences, engaging in research and education activities, having their children formally evaluated; inquiring about their children's prognosis, and having curiosities about autism's etiology...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488078/can-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-learn-new-vocabulary-from-linguistic-context
#19
Rebecca Lucas, Louisa Thomas, Courtenay Frazier Norbury
This study investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can learn vocabulary from linguistic context. Thirty-five children with ASD (18 with age-appropriate structural language; 17 with language impairment [ALI]) and 29 typically developing peers were taught 20 Science words. Half were presented in linguistic context from which meaning could be inferred, whilst half were accompanied by an explicit definition. Children with ASD were able to learn from context. Condition did not influence phonological learning, but receptive semantic knowledge was greatest in the context condition, and expressive semantic knowledge greatest in the definitional condition...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488077/the-physiological-and-psychological-effects-of-ostracism-in-adults-with-asd
#20
Emily Trimmer, Skye McDonald, Michelle Kelly, Jacqueline Ann Rushby
Whilst some form of ostracism is experienced by most people at some point in their lives, it is experienced far more often in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is known about how this social exclusion is interpreted, experienced or managed. This study aimed to explore the psychological (mood and social needs) as well as the physiological (arousal) effects of ostracism using a well-established paradigm, Cyberball. Results demonstrated no differences between groups on social needs, however, mood was rated as more negatively by ASDs overall...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
journal
journal
27614
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"