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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

Wanqing Zhang, Marziye Eshghi
Regional differences in ASD inpatient care remain understudied. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to examine contributory causes and potential determinants associated with regional variations in ASD hospitalizations. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify differences in ASD hospitalizations across four U.S. Census Bureau-defined regions. Our results revealed considerable variations in ASD hospitalizations across U.S. regions. Compared with patients in the Northeast, those in the Midwest, South, and West were less likely to be hospitalized for ASD...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Maya Matheis, Johnny L Matson, Esther Hong, Paige E Cervantes
A growing body of research suggests that symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may present differently in males and females. This study examined gender differences in ASD symptoms and developmental functioning, using the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtism Traits, Part 1 (BISCUIT-Part 1) and the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-2), amongst children aged 17-37 months meeting ASD diagnostic criteria (n = 1317). No gender differences were found in regards to overall symptom severity or symptom domains on the BISCUIT-Part 1 when gender groups were matched by cognitive ability...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Kathleen Blackburn Franke, Kimberly Hills, E Scott Huebner, Kate Flory
We provided evidence regarding the reliability and validity of measures of assets and life satisfaction (LS) for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We identified levels of LS within this population, compared these levels to those of typically developing adolescents, and described the relation between assets and LS. Forty-six adolescents with ASD and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing LS and assets. Preliminary support was provided for the internal consistency reliability and validity of these measures in adolescents with ASD...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Meixia Dai, Lizi Lin, Jingjing Liang, Zengjian Wang, Jin Jing
Autistic traits and executive function (EF) were assessed in 413 typically developing children aged 6-9 years. The children were divided into the high- autistic-trait (HAT) and low-autistic-trait (LAT) groups based on their total autistic traits. Results suggested that there were gender differences in specific autistic traits in children with LAT. There were gender-specific associations between EF and autistic traits in children with HAT: the set shifting of EF predicted difficulties in social awareness in boys; whereas all the EF components predicted difficulties in social communication and social cognition in girls...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Stephanie C Lazzaro, Laura Weidinger, Rose A Cooper, Simon Baron-Cohen, Christina Moutsiana, Tali Sharot
Humans are extremely susceptible to social influence. Here, we examine whether this susceptibility is altered in autism, a condition characterized by social difficulties. Autistic participants (N = 22) and neurotypical controls (N = 22) completed a memory test of previously seen words and were then exposed to answers supposedly given by four other individuals. Autistic individuals and controls were as likely to alter their judgements to align with inaccurate responses of group members. These changes reflected both temporary judgement changes (public conformity) and long-lasting memory changes (private conformity)...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Jordan Ezell, Abigail Hogan, Amanda Fairchild, Kimberly Hills, Jessica Klusek, Leonard Abbeduto, Jane Roberts
Anxiety disorders affect ~ 15-20% of youths without neurodevelopmental disorders, with persons having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS) at elevated risk for anxiety disorders. Few studies have compared rates and predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents with FXS or ASD. This study directly compares rates, predictors, and medication of anxiety disorders between age-matched, male adolescents with FXS (n = 31) or ASD (n = 20). Results indicate that 51.6% of FXS and 50.0% of ASD adolescents met criteria for an anxiety disorder...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Kelsey Mandak, Janice Light, David McNaughton
Despite the importance of literacy in today's educational curriculum, learning to read is a challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One of the foundational skills of early literacy learning is the ability to recognize sight words. This study used a single-subject, multiple-probe, across-participants design, to investigate the effects of a new software feature, dynamic text and speech output, on the acquisition of sight words by three pre-literate preschoolers with ASD during shared digital book reading experiences...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Merve Kalınlı, Özalp Ekinci, Serkan Güneş, Nuran Ekinci
Pena-Shokeir syndrome (PSS) is a rare, early lethal disease. PSS is characterized by fetal growth restriction, craniofacial deformities, multiple ankyloses and pulmonary hypoplasia. Because of the primary concern of physical health problems, psychiatric evaluation is frequently underestimated in PSS patients. Our case report describes a child with PSS who presented with autistic spectrum disorder symptoms.
November 14, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Vernika Tyagi, Monica Juneja, Rahul Jain
Sleep problems were studied in both typically developing (TD) children and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Factors associated with these problems were also studied in children with ASD. Seventy-three children with ASD and their age and sex matched TD controls in age group of 3-12 years were enrolled in the study. Higher sleep problems were found in children with ASD than TD children. Most common sleep problem reported in children with ASD was Sleep Wake Transition Disorders, followed by Disorder of Initiation and Maintenance; while in TD controls, it was Sleep Breathing Disorders...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Silke Lipinski, Elisabeth S Blanke, Ulrike Suenkel, Isabel Dziobek
Many adults with autism spectrum condition (ASC) desire outpatient psychotherapy (PT). This study compared reasons for seeking PT, experiences with PT, and modifications preferred with respect to PT of individuals with ASC to non-autistic individuals with depression (MDD). Furthermore, factors predictive for treatment satisfaction were identified in individuals with ASC. A total of 262 adults with ASC without intellectual impairment and 304 non-autistic controls with MDD were surveyed. In this pilot study both groups predominantly sought treatment for depressiveness...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Carol Sankey, Cyrielle Derguy, Céline Clément, Jennifer Ilg, Émilie Cappe
After being wrongfully blamed for their child's disturbances, French parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are now perceived as essential partners of care professionals. This shift in perspective has encouraged the development of parent training programs in the field of autism. In this paper, we present three programs currently implemented in France for parents of a child with ASD. We investigated their social validity, from the parents' perspective. All three programs showed good social validity: attendance rate was good and parents were satisfied...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Emily Zane, Zhaojun Yang, Lucia Pozzan, Tanaya Guha, Shrikanth Narayanan, Ruth Bergida Grossman
Research shows that neurotypical individuals struggle to interpret the emotional facial expressions of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study uses motion-capture to objectively quantify differences between the movement patterns of emotional facial expressions of individuals with and without ASD. Participants volitionally mimicked emotional expressions while wearing facial markers. Recorded marker movement was grouped by expression valence and intensity. We used Growth Curve Analysis to test whether movement patterns were predictable by expression type and participant group...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Louise Neil, Hannah White, Katy Warren, Elizabeth Pellicano
Anxiety is highly prevalent in autistic children. Yet interpretation biases implicated in anxiety in non-autistic individuals have received little research attention in this group. Twenty-two autistic children and 25 typical children completed an ambiguous scenarios interview and questionnaire-based measures of anxiety. A subsample of mothers completed parent-report and adult relevant versions of the interview and anxiety questionnaires. Autistic children self-reported similar interpretations of ambiguous scenarios, and similar levels of anxiety, to their typical peers...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Telma Sousa Almeida, Michael E Lamb, Emma J Weisblatt
Twenty-seven autistic children and 32 typically developing (TD) peers were questioned about an experienced event after a two-week delay and again after a two-month delay, using the Revised National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Investigative Interview Protocol. Recall prompts elicited more detailed and more accurate responses from children than recognition prompts. Autistic children recalled fewer correct narrative details than TD peers when questioned using open invitations, cued invitations, and directive questions...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Lauren VanderBroek Stice, Justin A Lavner
Adults with autism and subclinical autistic traits report greater internalizing problems than their peers, but the psychological processes underlying these associations are not well understood. The current study used structural equation modeling to examine whether social experiences (social connectedness and loneliness) mediate the link between autistic traits and internalizing symptoms among 821 college students. Those with higher total Broader Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) scores reported lower social connectedness, which related to greater loneliness, and, in turn, greater anxious and depressive symptoms...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Lauren E Miller, Jeffrey D Burke, Diana L Robins, Deborah A Fein
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnostic tools are not designed for mental ages (MA) below 12 months. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) were examined in 2-year-olds with ASD-low MA (n = 53), Global Developmental Delay (GDD; n = 175), and ASD-higher MA (n = 425). ADOS and CARS demonstrated similar agreement with clinical diagnosis, but ADOS over-classified ASD in low MA, whereas CARS both over- and under-classified. All ADOS items differentiated GDD from ASD...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Hannah M Rea, Reina S Factor, Deanna M Swain, Angela Scarpa
Broader autism phenotype (BAP) characteristics (pragmatic language deficits, aloofness, and rigidity) are prevalent in families of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may influence emotion-related behaviors. The current study analyzed associations among BAP characteristics with emotion-related behaviors in mothers of children with and without ASD. Twenty-seven mothers completed BAP and emotion regulation (ER) questionnaires. Maternal affect was coded during an interaction task. BAP rigidity negatively correlated with the ER strategy reappraisal...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Inmaculada Peñuelas-Calvo, Aditya Sareen, Julia Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 studies to establish whether a relation exists between Reading the Mind in the Eye Test (RMET) performance and intelligence quotient (IQ) in individuals diagnosed with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, taking into account relevant characteristics such as age, gender, and autism quotient. Our findings indicate that RMET performance was better in controls compared with those diagnosed with ASD. We found that RMET performance is dependent on full and verbal IQ and age in controls...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Takeshia V Williams, Kathrin Hartmann, James F Paulson, C Teal Raffaele, Maria R Urbano
The purpose of the present study was to understand how caregiver stress and coping behaviors impact African American and Euro-American families differently when caring for a child with autism. This study used discriminate function analysis to contrast the stress and coping profiles of Euro-American caregivers who are more acculturated with the majority culture with African American caregivers who ascribe to more traditional values. A sample of 103 families was recruited (52 Euro-American, 51 African American)...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Courtney E Venker, Jan Edwards, Jenny R Saffran, Susan Ellis Weismer
In typical development, listeners can use semantic content of verbs to facilitate incremental language processing-a skill that is associated with existing language skills. Studies of children with ASD have not identified an association between incremental language processing in semantically-constraining contexts and language skills, perhaps because participants were adolescents and/or children with strong language skills. This study examined incremental language processing and receptive language in young children with ASD with a range of language skills...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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