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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

Gerrit van Schalkwyk, Isaac C Smith, Wendy K Silverman, Fred R Volkmar
Youth with ASD are more likely to experience bullying than their typically developing peers. This risk has not been studied in youth with ASD transitioning to college. We examined the occurrence of bullying in 35 high functioning youth with ASD who were preparing to attend college. We also examined youth anxiety and ASD symptoms. Fifty-one percent of the sample reported being recent victims of bullying; 31% of parents reported their child was a victim of bullying. Parent report of bullying correlated significantly with ratings of youth social anxiety symptoms...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Kathy Leadbitter, Catherine Aldred, Helen McConachie, Ann Le Couteur, Dharmi Kapadia, Tony Charman, Wendy Macdonald, Erica Salomone, Richard Emsley, Jonathan Green
There is a lack of measures that reflect the intervention priorities of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that assess the impact of interventions on family experience and quality of life. The Autism Family Experience Questionnaire (AFEQ) was developed through focus groups and online consultation with parents, and reflected parental priorities. It was then administered to the parents of children enrolled in the Pre-school Autism Communication Trial and its 6-year follow-up study. The AFEQ showed good convergent validity with well-established measures of child adaptive functioning, parental mental health and parental wellbeing...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Xueyun Su, Ru Ying Cai, Mirko Uljarević
The aim of this study was to explore the influence of parental intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), sensory sensitivity (SS) and Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP), as well as the severity of their children's autism symptoms and co-morbid symptoms, on the mental health of Chinese parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One hundred and twenty-two parents (86.9% mothers; M age = 35.64 years, SD = 4.21) of children with ASD took part. Regression and mediation analyses showed that children's internalizing difficulties, parental BAP and IU had a direct effect, and SS had an indirect effect through IU, on parental mental health...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Elise Ng-Cordell, Mary Hanley, Alyssa Kelly, Deborah M Riby
Anxiety is a prevalent mental health issue for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Relatively little is known about the developmental course of anxiety, or how it links with core features of WS, namely social and executive functioning (EF). In this study, parent-reports of anxiety were compared across a 4-year period (N = 17), and links between anxiety, social and EF were explored from concurrent parent-reports (N = 26). Results indicated that high anxiety persisted over time, and anxiety was related to impairments in both social and executive functioning...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Ya-Ting Chen, Kuo-Su Tsou, Hao-Ling Chen, Ching-Ching Wong, Yang-Teng Fan, Chien-Te Wu
Whether action representation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is deficient remains controversial, as previous studies of action observation or imitation report conflicting results. Here we investigated the characteristics of action representation in adolescents with ASD through motor imagery (MI) using a hand rotation and an object rotation task. Comparable with the typically-developing group, the individuals with ASD were able to spontaneously use kinesthetic MI to perform the hand rotation task, as manifested by the significant biomechanical effects...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Mayra Muller Spaniol, Lilach Shalev, Lila Kossyvaki, Carmel Mevorach
This study assessed the effectiveness of an attention intervention program (Computerized Progressive Attentional Training; CPAT) in improving academic performance of children with ASD. Fifteen 6-10 year olds with ASD attending a mainstream and a special school were assigned to an experimental (CPAT; n = 8) and active control (computer games; n = 7) group. Children were assessed pre- and post-intervention on measures of behavioural symptoms, cognitive skills and academic performance. The intervention was conducted in school twice a week for 8 weeks...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Annika Rausch, Wei Zhang, Christian F Beckmann, Jan K Buitelaar, Wouter B Groen, Koen V Haak
Amygdala dysfunction plays a role in the social impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but it is unclear which of its subregions are abnormal in ASD. This study compared the volume and functional connectivity (FC) strength of three FC-defined amygdala subregions between ASD and controls, and assessed their relation to social skills in ASD. A subregion associated with the social perception network was enlarged in ASD (F1 = 7.842, p = .008) and its volume correlated significantly with symptom severity (social skills: r = ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Kevin S Heffernan, Luis Columna, Natalie Russo, Beth A Myers, Christine E Ashby, Michael L Norris, Tiago V Barreira
We examined the association between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI) and novel measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 15 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (mean age 7 ± 2 years, 2 girls). PA was objectively assessed using accelerometry as time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Arterial stiffness was measured via aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and taken as a marker of subclinical CVD risk. MVPA was inversely associated with aortic PWV (r = - 0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Liem T Chistol, Linda G Bandini, Aviva Must, Sarah Phillips, Sharon A Cermak, Carol Curtin
Few studies have compared atypical sensory characteristics and food selectivity between children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We compared oral sensory processing between children with (n = 53) and without ASD (n = 58), ages 3-11 years. We also examined the relationships between atypical oral sensory processing, food selectivity, and fruit/vegetable consumption in children with ASD. We found that more children with ASD presented with atypical sensory processing than children without ASD...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
William Mandy, Kiri Clarke, Michele McKenner, Andre Strydom, Jason Crabtree, Meng-Chuan Lai, Carrie Allison, Simon Baron-Cohen, David Skuse
We developed a brief, informant-report interview for assessing autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in adults, called the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview-Adult Version (3Di-Adult); and completed a preliminary evaluation. Informant reports were collected for participants with ASC (n = 39), a non-clinical comparison group (n = 29) and a clinical comparison group (n = 20) who had non-autistic mental health conditions. Mean administration time was 38 min (50 min for ASC). Internal consistency (αs ≥ 0...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Kenneth Larsen, Astrid Aasland, Trond H Diseth
Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has the potential to elicit effective early intervention, improving children's level of functioning and developmental trajectories as well as reducing parental stress. Multiple sources of information, including several informants may facilitate early identification. This study examined the agreement between parents and day-care professionals on how they retrospectively recall early symptoms associated with ASD. In this study, we found fair to excellent agreement on early symptoms between parents and day-care professionals...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Hirokazu Kumazaki, Zachary Warren, Amy Swanson, Yuichiro Yoshikawa, Yoshio Matsumoto, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Nilanjan Sarkar, Yoshio Minabe, Mitsuru Kikuchi
Identification of meaningful endophenotypes may be critical to unraveling the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated whether impressions of "humanness" for android robot might represent a candidate characteristic of an ASD endophenotype. We used a female type of android robot with an appearance similar to that of a real person. Significant differences in overall impressions of 'humanness' for android robot were found between adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD) controls, as well as parents of children with ASD and parents of TD controls...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Christiane E S Rudolph, Andreas Lundin, Jill W Åhs, Christina Dalman, Kyriaki Kosidou
We examined the association between autistic traits and sexual orientation in a general adult population (N = 47,356). Autistic traits were measured with the ten items Autistic Quotient questionnaire using a cut-off score of ≥ 6. Sexual orientation was assessed by self-report. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sexual orientation categories. Participants with autistic traits were more likely to identify as bisexual (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Elise M Sannar, Tamara Palka, Carol Beresford, Christine Peura, Desmond Kaplan, Mary Verdi, Matthew Siegel, Shir Kaplan, Marco Grados
We examined the relationship between sleep duration and awakenings to Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) scores in hospitalized youth with ASD and behavioral disturbance. Participants included 106 patients with a stay of at least 10 nights. Sleep in the hospital was recorded by staff observation. Higher scores on the ABC-C (irritability, stereotypy, and hyperactivity subscales) at admission were significantly associated with fewer minutes slept during the last five nights of hospitalization...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Marissa E Yingling, Robert M Hock, Bethany A Bell
Health coverage of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is rapidly expanding across the United States. Yet we know little about the time-lag between diagnosis and treatment onset. We integrated administrative, Medicaid claims, and Census data for children in an EIBI Medicaid waiver (n = 473) to examine the relationship between time-lag and (a) child race-ethnicity and (b) neighborhood racial composition, poverty, affluence, and urbanicity. We explored whether the relationship between child race-ethnicity and time-lag varies by neighborhood characteristics...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Lauren V Usher, Catherine A Burrows, Daniel S Messinger, Heather A Henderson
This study compared how adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) evaluated unfamiliar peers (i.e., perceptions), as well as how adolescents believed they were evaluated by peers (i.e., metaperceptions). The Perceptions and Metaperceptions Questionnaire was designed to quantify perceptions and metaperceptions following a live interaction. For all adolescents, more positive perceptions of the peer were associated with more positive metaperceptions. Adolescents with ASD exhibited more accurate metaperceptions than did typically developing adolescents...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Kim de Verdier, Elisabeth Fernell, Ulla Ek
The prevalence of autism in children with blindness is much higher than in the general population. There are many challenges regarding the school situation for children with this complex dual disability. This study explored challenges and successful strategies in school for a sample of six Swedish children with blindness and autism, with and without intellectual disability, through qualitative interviews with students, teachers and parents. All students displayed executive functioning deficits, and the teaching situation entailed several challenges...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Brittany N Hand, Alison E Lane, Paul De Boeck, D Michele Basso, Deborah S Nichols-Larsen, Amy R Darragh
Understanding characteristics associated with burden in caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is critical due to negative health consequences. We explored the association between child sensory subtype, sensory dimension scores, and caregiver burden. A national survey of caregivers of children with ASD aged 5-13 years was conducted (n = 367). The relationship between variables of interest and indicators of caregiver burden, including health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and caregiver strain, was examined with canonical correlation analyses...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Michal Hochhauser, Adi Aran, Ouriel Grynszpan
Visual attention of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was assessed using a change blindness paradigm. Twenty-five adolescents with ASD aged 12-18 years and 25 matched typically developing (TD) adolescents viewed 36 pairs of digitized real-world images. Each pair of images was displayed in a 'flicker paradigm' whereby a particular item alternately appeared and disappeared. This item was either a central or a marginal detail of the scene. Change detection response times were measured and compared between groups...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Eilidh Cage, Jessica Di Monaco, Victoria Newell
Mental health difficulties are highly prevalent in individuals on the autism spectrum. The current study examined how experiences and perceptions of autism acceptance could impact on the mental health of autistic adults. 111 adults on the autism spectrum completed an online survey examining their experiences of autism acceptance, along with symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Regression analyses showed that autism acceptance from external sources and personal acceptance significantly predicted depression...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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