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Changcheng Gong, Li Zeng, Chengxiang Wang, Lei Ran
The purpose of this paper is to design and simulate a new computed tomography (CT) system with a high temporal resolution for dynamic objects. We propose a multisource cubical CT (MCCT) system with X-ray tubes and detectors installed on a cube. Carbon nanotube- (CNT-) based X-ray focal spots are distributed on the twelve edges of the cube. The distribution of X-ray focal spots and detectors completely avoids mechanical movements to scan an object under inspection. CNTs are excellent electron field emitters because the use of a "cold" cathode makes it possible to fabricate a cathode with multiple electron emission points, and the CNT-based X-ray focal spots possess little response time and programmable emission...
2018: Scanning
Peng Yu, Mili Liu, Haixiong Gong, Fangfang Wu, Zili Yi, Hui Liu
SnO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a novel route of a sol-gel method assisted with biomimetic assembly using L-leucine as a biotemplate. The microstructure of as-prepared SnO2 nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurements. The results demonstrated that the growth of SnO2 could be regulated by L-leucine at a high calcination temperature. The electrochemical performance of SnO2 was also measured as anodes for lithium-ion battery...
2018: Scanning
Dawei Cui, Jinlong Wang, Ailing Sun, Hongmei Song, Wenqing Wei
Discharge rate is a key parameter affecting the cycle life of lithium-ion batteries (LIB). Normally, lithium-ion batteries deteriorate more severely at a higher discharge rate. In this paper, we report that the cycle performance of LiNi0.8 Co0.15 Al0.05 O2 /graphite high-energy 2.8 Ah 18650 cells is abnormally worse at a 1.5 C discharge rate than at a 2.0 C discharge rate. Combining macromethods with micromethods, the capacity/rate performance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology of the electrodes are systematically investigated...
2018: Scanning
Jie Cui, Lin Cao, Dahai Zeng, Xiaojian Wang, Wei Li, Zhidan Lin, Peng Zhang
Ag-ion-modified titanium nanotube (Ag/TiO2 -NT) arrays were designed and fabricated as the electrode material of supercapacitors for electrochemical energy storage. TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays were prepared by electrochemical anodic oxidation and then treated by Ag metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) implantation. The Ag amount was controlled via adjusting ion implantation parameters. The morphology, crystallinity, and electrochemistry properties of as-obtained Ag/TiO2 -NT electrodes were distinguished based on various characterizations...
2018: Scanning
Kaan Orhan, Reinhilde Jacobs, Berkan Celikten, Yan Huang, Karla de Faria Vasconcelos, Laura Ferreira Pinheiro Nicolielo, Arda Buyuksungur, Jeroen Van Dessel
While several materials and techniques have been used to assess the quality of root canal fillings in micro-CT images, the lack of standardization in scanning protocols has produced conflicting results. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine a cutoff voxel size value for the assessment of root canal filling voids in micro-CT and nano-CT images. Twenty freshly extracted mandibular central incisors were used. Root canals were prepared with nickel titanium files to an ISO size 40/0.06 taper and then filled with a single cone (40/0...
2018: Scanning
Maria Stefanidou, Eleni Pavlidou
The effect of microstructure on macroproperties of building materials was the initiation in order to use microscopic techniques for studying the materials' behavior. Primer role among the different techniques has the scanning electron microscope (SEM) as it provides much information in an easy and understandable way. SEM has been used in almost every study of the last decades, dealing with historic and repair materials to complete the analysis performed. In the case of historic mortars, it is a unique technique as it requires a small representative sample and without any intense treatment important information derived from an almost unknown sample including damage detection, phase identification, and microanalysis...
2018: Scanning
Lu Liu, Jianguo Xu, Rui Zhang, Sen Wu, Xiaodong Hu, Xiaotang Hu
This article presents an atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique for true three-dimensional (3D) characterization. The cantilever probe with flared tip was used in a home-made 3D-AFM system. The cantilever was driven by two shaking piezoceramics and oscillated around its vertical or torsional resonance frequency. The vertical resonance mode was used for upper surface imaging, and the torsional resonance mode was used for sidewall detecting. The 3D-AFM was applied to measure standard gratings with the height of 100 nm and 200 nm...
2018: Scanning
Jianding Li, Jincheng Xu, Bo Li, Liqing He, Huaijun Lin, Hai-Wen Li, Huaiyu Shao
Mg-based materials are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for hydrogen storage. In order to clarify the relationship between the structures and properties as well as to understand the reaction and formation mechanisms, it is beneficial to obtain useful information about the size, morphology, and microstructure of the studied materials. Herein, the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques for the representation of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials is described...
2018: Scanning
Emil Sandoz-Rosado, Michael R Roenbeck, Kenneth E Strawhecker
High-performance materials like ballistic fibers have remarkable mechanical properties owing to specific patterns of organization ranging from the molecular scale, to the micro scale and macro scale. Understanding these strategies for material organization is critical to improving the mechanical properties of these high-performance materials. In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect changes in material composition at an extremely high resolution with transverse-stiffness scanning. New methods for direct quantification of material morphology were developed, and applied as an example to these AFM scans, although these methods can be applied to any spatially-resolved scans...
2018: Scanning
Mohamed Yassine Amarouch, Jaouad El Hilaly, Driss Mazouzi
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a widely used imaging technique in material sciences. After becoming a standard surface-imaging tool, AFM has been proven to be useful in addressing several biological issues such as the characterization of cell organelles, quantification of DNA-protein interactions, cell adhesion forces, and electromechanical properties of living cells. AFM technique has undergone many successful improvements since its invention, including fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM), which combines conventional AFM with microchanneled cantilevers for local liquid dispensing...
2018: Scanning
Dmitry Filatov, Inga Kazantseva, Dmitry Antonov, Ivan Antonov, Maria Shenina, Dmitry Pavlov, Oleg Gorshkov
We report on the investigation of the resistive switching (RS) in the ultrathin (≈5 nm in thickness) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films with single layers of Au nanoparticles (NPs) by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). Besides the butterfly-type hysteresis loops in the current-voltage ( I - V ) curves of the contact of the CAFM probe to the investigated film surface corresponding to the bipolar RS, the negative differential resistance (NDR) has been observed in the I - V curves of the AFM probe contact to the YSZ films with Au NPs in the conductive ("ON") state...
2018: Scanning
Danielle Pereira Cavalcanti, Wanderley de Souza
The kinetoplast is a specialized region of the mitochondria of trypanosomatids that harbors the most complex and unusual mitochondrial DNA found in nature. Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) is composed of thousands of circular molecules topologically interlocked to form a single network. Two types of DNA circles are present in the kinetoplast: minicircles (0.5-10 kb) and maxicircles (20-40 kb). Knowledge of kinetoplast architecture is crucial to understanding the replication and segregation of kDNA circles because the molecules involved in these processes are precisely positioned in functional domains throughout the kinetoplast...
2018: Scanning
Kazuo Umemura, Shizuma Sato
Nanobioconjugates using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive and promising hybrid materials. Various biological applications using the CNT nanobioconjugates, for example, drug delivery systems and nanobiosensors, have been proposed by many authors. Scanning techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) have advantages to characterize the CNT nanobioconjugates under various conditions, for example, isolated conjugates, conjugates in thin films, and conjugates in living cells...
2018: Scanning
Soon-Hyeok Jeon, Geun Dong Song, Do Haeng Hur
The aim of this work is to characterize the oxide layer structure of Alloy 690TT in high-temperature water with different dissolved hydrogen (DH) contents by using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under the low DH contents (0.4494-0.8988 mg/kg), the oxide layers were composed of an outermost layer of Ni(OH)2 and Cr(OH)3 enriched in Ni, an intermediate layer of hydroxides and oxides enriched in Cr, and an inner Cr2 O3 layer. Outermost NiO coexists with small amount of Cr2 O3 layer, while in the inner oxide only Cr2 O3 remains...
2018: Scanning
Peng Yu, Tao Hu, Hong Hui Chen, Fangfang Wu, Hui Liu
A composite of pyrolytic Triarrhena biochar loading with TiO2 nanoparticles has been synthesized by the sol-gel method. The composite shows a well-developed hollow mesoporous and macropore structure as characterized by XRD, BET, and SEM. When used as an absorbent to remove Congo red from aqueous solution, it was found that as-prepared composite performed better absorption capacity than single biochar or TiO2 . The results suggest that biochar loading with TiO2 could be promisingly implemented as an environmentally friendly and inexpensive adsorbent for Congo red removal from wastewater...
2018: Scanning
Bo Li, Jianding Li, Huaiyu Shao, Wei Li, Huaijun Lin
TiVMn and TiCrMn alloys are promising hydrogen storage materials for onboard application due to their high hydrogen absorption content. However, the traditional synthesis method of melting and continuous necessary heat treatment and activation process are energy- and time-consuming. There is rarely any report on kinetics improvement and nanoprocessing in TiVMn- and TiCrMn-based alloys. Here, through ball milling with carbon black as additive, we synthesized face-centered cubic (FCC) structure TiVMn- and TiCrMn-based nanoalloys with mean particle sizes of around a few to tens of μ m and with the crystallite size just 10 to 13 nm...
2018: Scanning
Clarice Steffens, Alexandra Nava Brezolin, Juliana Steffens
This paper describes the use of different conducting polymers (polyaniline, poly( o -ethoxyaniline), and polypyrrole) as a sensitive layer on a silicon cantilever sensor. The mechanical response (deflection) of the bimaterial (the coated cantilever) was investigated under the influence of relative humidity. The variations in the deflection of the coated cantilevers when exposed to relative humidity were evaluated. The results indicated a linear sensitivity in ranges, where the high value was obtained for a polypyrrole-sensitive layer between 20 and 45% of humidity...
2018: Scanning
Marek Kubica, Władysław Skoneczny, Marek Bara
It has been reported that the size and shape of the pores depend on the structure of the base metal, the type of electrolyte, and the conditions of the anodizing process. The paper presents thin Al2 O3 oxide layer formed under hard anodizing conditions on a plate made of EN AW-5251 aluminum alloy. The oxidation of the ceramic layer was carried out for 40-80 minutes in a three-component SAS electrolyte (aqueous solution of acids: sulphuric 33 ml/l, adipic 67 g/l, and oxalic 30 g/l) at a temperature of 293-313 K, and the current density was 200-400 A/m2 ...
2018: Scanning
Guosong Wu, Eun-Ha Choi, Paul K Chu, Gheorghe Dinescu, Ranju Jung, Ying Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Scanning
Gustavo Fernandes de Souza, Ana Beatriz Arrais, Cícero Flávio Soares Aragão, Isana Alvares Ferreira, Boniek Castillo Dutra Borges
Objective: To evaluate if physical and mechanical properties of self-curing calcium hydroxide cements were affected by contact with polyacrylic and phosphoric acids. Materials and Methods: Resin-containing (Life (LF)) and resin-free (Hydro C (HyC)) materials were subjected to polyacrylic acid conditioning and rinsing (POL); phosphoric acid conditioning and rinsing (PHO); rinsing only; and no treatment ( n = 10). Water sorption/solubility, release of hydroxyl ions (pH), roughness (Ra), and impact resistance were evaluated...
2018: Scanning
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