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Ye Yang, Jun Lin
As one of the tip-based nanoscale machining methods, AFM-based nanolithography has been proved to be capable of fabricating nanostructures and devices on a wide range of materials by means of mechanical force, bias voltage, chemical reaction, etc. In this paper, we have compared the influences of the bias voltage effect and the force effect during the nanoscale AFM electric lithography on the metallic copper film surface respectively through the bias voltage dominating scheme and the contact force dominating scheme...
September 2016: Scanning
Muhammed Karadas, Kenan Cantekin, Husniye Gumus, Sabit Melih Ateş, Zeynep Yesil Duymuş
This study evaluated the bond strength of different adhesive agents to TheraCal LC and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and examined the morphologic changes of these materials with different surface treatments. A total of 120 specimens, 60 of MTA Angelus (AMTA), and 60 of TheraCal LC, were prepared and divided into six subgroups according to the adhesive agent used; these agents included Scotchbond Multipurpose, Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil Protect Bond, Clearfil S(3) Bond, OptiBond All-in-One, and G-aenial Bond...
September 2016: Scanning
Emre Ozel, Elif Bahar Tuna, Erhan Firatli
The purpose of this study was to investigate how two cavity-filling techniques affect microleakage in class II resin restorations prepared with Er:YAG laser and diamond bur. Standard MO and DO cavities were prepared in 20 extracted third molars, each randomly assigned to either Group-1 [Herculite XRV Ultra-bur-prepared cavity(bp)], Group-2 [Herculite XRV Ultra-laser-prepared cavity(lp)], Group-3 (SonicFill-(bp)], or Group-4 [SonicFill-(lp)]. For Groups 2 and 4, cavities were prepared by using an Er:YAG laser with a wavelength of 2...
September 2016: Scanning
Shivaram Nemani, Uday K Putchha, Madhusudhanachary Periketi, Sailaja Pothana, Giridharan Nappanveettil, Harishankar Nemani
WNIN/Ob obese mutant rats are unique in comparison to similar rodent models of obesity established in the West. The present study is aimed to evaluate the masticatory function and histological changes in masseter muscle fibres treated with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in WNIN/Ob rats. Twelve WNIN/Ob obese rats and 12 lean rats at 35 days of age were taken and divided into four groups (6 rats in each group): Group-I (WNIN/Ob) and Group-II (lean) rats were injected with BoNT/A (1 unit) into right side of masseter muscle...
September 2016: Scanning
Pavel Bradna, Radka Vrbova, Vlasta Fialova, Devana Housova, Eva Gojisova
This study investigated formation of protective deposits on the enamel surface after application of several anti-erosive toothpastes with different active ingredients. NaF-containing Sensodyne Pronamel, SnCl2 /F-based Elmex Erosion Protection and calcium phosphate-based BioRepair Plus Sensitivity Control, SensiShield and Enamel Care toothpastes with claimed anti-erosive properties were tested. Artificial saliva and Elmex Erosion Protection mouth rinse served as control groups. The toothpastes were applied 30 times by a toothbrush for 2 min per day, mouth rinse for 30 s on polished enamel of thirty five human molars (n = 5) with series of five rhomboid-shaped indents of various length prepared by a Knoop indentor...
September 2016: Scanning
Rui Wang, Jiang Pi, Xiaohui Su, Juan Liu, Xing Zeng, Ivan Wong, Lufen Huang, Hua Zhou, Jiye Cai, Ting Li, Liang Liu
Dihydromyricetin (DMY) a flavonoid derived from medicinal plant Ampelopsis grossedentata, possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, however, the in vivo anti-inflammatory action of DMY remains unknown. In the current study, carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat, an acute inflammation model, and RAW264.7 macrophages activated by LPS were employed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potency of DMY in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that DMY significantly attenuated rat paw edema induced by carrageenan...
August 3, 2016: Scanning
Chen Yang, Jihong Yan, Maja Dukic, Nahid Hosseini, Jie Zhao, Georg E Fantner
Tip-scanning high-speed atomic force microscopes (HS-AFMs) have several advantages over their sample-scanning counterparts. Firstly, they can be used on samples of almost arbitrary size since the high imaging bandwidth of the system is immune to the added mass of the sample and its holder. Depending on their layouts, they also enable the use of several tip-scanning HS-AFMs in combination. However, the need for tracking the cantilever with the readout laser makes designing tip-scanning HS-AFMs difficult. This often results in a reduced resonance frequency of the HS-AFM scanner, or a complex and large set of precision flexures...
August 2, 2016: Scanning
Q Xing
Significant technological advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been achieved over the past years. Different SEMs can have significant differences in functionality and performance. This work presents the perspectives on selecting an SEM for research on bulk inorganic materials. Understanding materials demands quantitative composition and orientation information, and informative and interpretable images that reveal subtle differences in chemistry, orientation/structure, topography, and electronic structure...
July 11, 2016: Scanning
Yongpeng Zou, Linhai Biao, Fengjie Xu, Ruisi Liu, Zhiguo Liu, Yujie Fu
Damage to cellular DNA is believed to determine the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin. However, high resolution structures formed by oxaliplatin and different linear DNA remain unclear. This study characterized, the key structures of different linear DNA in the platination process by UV absorption spectra and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Bathochromic shift and hyperchromicity in UV spectra after addition of oxaliplatin revealed that it can disrupt base stacking of DNA in the platination process. AFM results of different linear DNA indicated that, the platination process can induce DNA change from an extended conformation to the network structure with many kinks and finally to the compact particles, or toroids with increasing the incubation time...
July 8, 2016: Scanning
Xun Huang, He Guo, Chuang Wang, Jingjing Mu, Hongxin Zhang, Zhihong Liang, Jiye Cai, Changren Zhou
Although the importance of B7/CD28 co-stimulation has been widely studied, little is known about their nano-spatial localization and their corresponding cells' biophysical and biomechanical properties. Here, we investigated the morphological, biophysical, and biomechanical properties of T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and force curves. The nano-spatial distribution of CD28 and CD86 antigen on T cells and DCs was detected by CD86 or CD28 antibody-functionalized AFM tip. Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS)-based force volumes and quantum dots (QDs)-based fluorescence imaging demonstrated that the co-stimulatory molecules were not randomly distributed over the cells' surface, but more than 80% of CD28 and CD86 molecules appeared to be expressed as 100-200 nm nanoclusters and polarize dominantly in the peak of the cell membrane fluctuations...
July 2016: Scanning
Mohammed Alshehri, Hadi M Alamri, Emad Alshwaimi, Omar Kujan
The aim of the present micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) analysis was to compare the quality of obturation in the apical third of the root with the warm vertical compaction (WVC) and single matching taper sized cone (SMTSC) techniques. Mesial roots of 16 freshly extracted mandibular first molar teeth (with a total of 32 canals) were used. Canals in each mesial root were shaped to a size F3 Protaper and were randomly assigned to either continuous wave vertical compaction or single match tapered size cone technique...
July 2016: Scanning
Claudemir Kuhn Faccioli, Renata Alari Chedid, Ricardo Hideo Mori, Antônio Carlos do Amaral, Irene Bastos Franceschini Vicentini, Carlos Alberto Vicentini
The surface of the digestive tract of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Morphometric studies by transmission electron microscopy were performed to analysis the intestinal microvilli. H. platyrhynchos is a Neotropical carnivorous freshwater catfish featuring a short digestive tract composed of a short esophagus, saccular stomach, and intestine with four regions: anterior, middle, posterior, and rectal. The esophageal surface is constituted by fingerprint-like microridges that anchor the mucosubstances secreted by goblet cells facilitating the passage of food...
July 2016: Scanning
Yi Zhou, Deyong Kang, Zhenrong Yang, Lianhuang Li, Shuangmu Zhuo, Xiaoqin Zhu, Yongjian Zhou, Jianxin Chen
Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) has been widely used for imaging microstructure of biological tissues. In this article, we used MPM to investigate the microstructure changes of normal and cancerous human gastric muscular layer in transverse and longitudinal sections. The results displayed different patterns of microstructure changes of smooth muscular tissue, cell morphology and interstitial fibers in transverse and longitudinal sections, being similar to standard histopathological images but without the need for tissue processing...
July 2016: Scanning
Matteo Ceci, Maria Mirando, Riccardo Beltrami, Marco Chiesa, Marco Colombo, Claudio Poggio
The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effect of self-assembling peptide P11 -4 (Curodont™ Protect/Credentis) on enamel erosion produced by a soft-drink, by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thirty human incisors were equally and randomly assigned to 6 groups. Group 1: intact enamel, group 2: soft drink, group 3: Curodont(™) Protect applied, group 4: Curodont(™) Protect applied + soft drink, group 5: soft drink + Curodont(™) Protect applied, group 6: soft drink + Curodont(™) Protect applied + soft drink...
July 2016: Scanning
Haiyan Zhu, Hua Jin, Jiang Pi, Haihua Bai, Fen Yang, Chaomin Wu, Jinhuan Jiang, Jiye Cai
Apigenin has shown to have killing effects on some kinds of solid tumor cells. However, the changes in cell membrane induced by apigenin on subcellular- or nanometer-level were still unclear. In this work, human esophageal cancer cells (EC9706 and KYSE150 cells) were employed as cell model to detect the cytotoxicity of apigenin, including cell growth inhibition, apoptosis induction, membrane toxicity, etc. MTT assay showed that apigenin could remarkably inhibit the growth and proliferation in both types of cells...
July 2016: Scanning
Suat Pat, Soner Özen, Volkan Şenay, Şadan Korkmaz
In this study, optical and surface properties of the optically transparent Li3 PO4 solid electrolyte layer for transparent solid battery have been investigated for the first time. To determine the optical properties, transmittance, absorbance, reflection, refractive index spectra, and optical band gap were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and optical interferometer. The surface property of the transparent Li3 PO4 solid electrolyte was analyzed using atomic force microscopy. One another important parameter is contact angle (CA) surface free energy (SFE)...
July 2016: Scanning
Glenda Quaresma Ramos, Eduardo Adriano Cotta, Henrique Duarte da Fonseca Filho
Leaves surfaces have various structures with specific functions and contribute to the relationship with the environment. On morphological studies are analyzed various parameters, ranging from macro scale through the micro scale to the nanometer scale, which contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, and ecology, among others. Functional structures found in leaves are responsible for the wide variety of surfaces and some behaviors are given in terms of cellular adaptation and the presence or absence of wax...
July 2016: Scanning
Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed, Norhayati Luddin, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Khairani Idah Mokhtar, Azlina Ahmad
White Portland cement (WPC) has generated research interests in the field of endodontics. This study compared between the properties of two formulations of white Portland cement (WPC) of different origin (Malaysia [MA] and Egypt [EG]). WPCs with and without calcium chloride dihydrate were prepared. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used for surface morphology evaluation, elemental, and phase analysis, respectively. After the preparation of optimized serial dilutions, the cytotoxicity was evaluated on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) using methyl-thiazol-diphenyltetrazolium assay after 24 and 72 h...
July 2016: Scanning
Suat Pat, Soner Özen, Volkan Şenay, Şadan Korkmaz, Veli Şimşek
A broadband optical transparent InGaAs semiconductor layer production of micron thicknesses was produced in only 75 s by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method at the first time. The optical and surface properties of the produced layers have been investigated. InGaAs structure is using in electronics and optoelectronics devices. The main advantage of TVA method is its fast deposition rate, without any loss in the quality of the films. Doping is a very simple and fast according to common production methods. InGaAs is an alloy of indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs)...
July 2016: Scanning
Yanan Zeng, Xinyu Chang, Hai Lei, Xiaodong Hu, Xiaotang Hu
We utilize digital image-plane holographic microscopy (DIPHM) to achieve the real-time surface profile measurement of microstructure. The impulse response functions of DIPHM and traditional digital holographic microscopy (DHM) are both derived. The theoretical derivations indicate that the differences between the two techniques are caused by the diffraction effect of the recording plane with a finite size. The diffraction effect would introduce an unstable factor to the wavefront reconstruction. Therefore, the DIPHM has the characteristics of totally full field of view and low measuring noise compared to DHM...
July 2016: Scanning
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