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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

Ameen M Mohammad Fic, Nasir As Al-Allawi
To determine the impact of CYP2C19 genotyping on the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), in cohort of Iraqi patients on clopidogrel post percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a total of 201 Iraqi patients undergoing the latter procedure were enrolled. All enrollees had their CYP2C19 genotyped using PCR and reverse hybridization. Genotyping revealed that CYP2C19 *1, *17, *2 and *8 allele frequencies were respectively 0.604, 0.276, 0.117 and 0.0026. After the exclusion of those with two loss of function alleles, 186 patients were available for follow-up as long as they were on clopidogrel, or until MACE occurred, which was encountered in 8...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Lebogang P Mokotedi, Frederic S Michel, Angela J Woodiwiss, Gavin R Norton, Aletta Me Millen
Sodium (Na)-intake increases vascular reactivity. Whether low potassium (K)-intake affects vascular reactivity associated blood pressure (BP) changes is uncertain. This study aimed to determine whether Na-induced increases in BP and vascular reactivity are altered by low K-intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three dietary groups for six weeks: a standard Na-K diet (Control, n=12), a high Na-normal K diet (HS-NormK, n=12) and a high Na-low K diet (HS-LowK, n=12). BP was measured at baseline and after the dietary intervention...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Yang Yuan, Shan-Shan Pan
BACKGROUND: Late exercise preconditioning (LEP) is confirmed to have a protective effect on acute cardiovascular stress. However, the mechanisms by which mitophagy participates in EP-induced cardioprotection remain unclear. LEP may involve mitophagy mediated by the receptors PARK2 gene-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase (Parkin) and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) to scavenge damaged mitochondria. METHODS: Our exercise preconditioning (EP) protocol involved four 10-minute periods of running, separated by 10-minute recovery intervals, plus a period of exhaustive running at 24 hours after EP...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Hong Shen, Shuyang Lu, Lili Dong, Yuan Xue, Chenling Yao, Chaoyang Tong, Chunsheng Wang, Xianhong Shu
Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with aortic dissection (AD). Next generation sequencing was performed to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs in aortic tissue samples between AD and non-diseased individuals. Selected miRNAs which showed significant variation between the two groups, were then transfected into human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMC), and assessed for effects on cell migration and induced apoptosis. The changes in gene expression pattern in HA-VSMC cells transfected with the miRNAs were also investigated...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Elda Favari, Michael J Thomas, Mary G Sorci-Thomas
The formation of the atherosclerotic plaque that is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal amounts of cholesterol-loaded macrophages in the artery wall is mediated by both inflammatory events and alterations of lipid/lipoprotein metabolism. Reverse transport of cholesterol (RCT) opposes the formation and development of atherosclerotic plaque through high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, promoting the removal of cholesterol from peripheral macrophages and its delivery back to the liver for excretion into the bile...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Wenke Cheng, Weijun Liu, Bin Li, Dongfang Li
BACKGROUND: Currently, it is considered that atrial fibrillation (AF) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, which is independent of stroke. However, the relationship between anticoagulant drugs and cognitive function in patients with atrial fibrillation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to complete a meta-analysis, and investigate the association between Anticoagulant therapy and cognitive impairment in patients undergoing AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two investigators systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase databases and Web of Science for all studies showing associations...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Keith Pfannenstiel, Reid Hayward
Though highly effective, doxorubicin (DOX) use is limited by a dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. The purpose of the study was to determine whether resistance training (RT) would protect against DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction and determine if any observed functional preservation is a result of reduced lipid peroxidation or a preservation of the cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform distribution. Rats were resistance trained or remained sedentary (SED) for 12 weeks, then treated with 12.5 mg/kg DOX or 0.9% saline...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Deng Jun, Qin Jiajia, Cai Yi, Zhong Xiaobin, Yu Shanshan, Zhang Xu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the potential roles of Rutaecarpine (Rut) in hypoxia-induced human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) model. METHODS: HPASMCs were cultured with or without hypoxia followed by Rut administration. Cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were assessed by CCK-8 and Cell counting method. Flow cytometry was used for the measurement of cell apoptosis rates. The mRNA expression of HIF-1α and protein levels of HIF-1α, p53, p21, EPO, and VEGF were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot respectively...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Wen-Juan Ni, Dong-Hong Ma, Xiao-Min Leng
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder in human populations. Nevertheless, there are presently no effective means for its prevention and treatment. It is therefore critical to comprehensively define key mechanisms of the disease. A major focus of cardiovascular research has been characterization of how regulation of gene expression maintains healthy physiologic status of the component tissues of the system and how derangements of gene regulation may become pathological...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Shariq Abid, Kanny Kebe, Amal Houssaïni, Françoise Tomberli, Elisabeth Marcos, Emilie Bizard, Marielle Breau, Aurelien Parpaleix, Claire-Marie Tissot, Bernard Maitre, Larissa Lipskaia, Genevieve Derumeaux, Elena Bastia, Armand Mekontso-Dessap, Serge Adnot
Nitric oxide (NO) donors may be useful for treating pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating sickle cell disease (SCD), as endogenous NO is inactivated by hemoglobin released by intravascular hemolysis. Here, we investigated the effects of the new NO donor NCX1443 on PH in transgenic SAD mice, which exhibit mild SCD without severe hemolytic anemia. In SAD and wild-type (WT) mice, the pulmonary pressure response to acute hypoxia was similar and was abolished by 100 mg/kg NCX1443. The level of PH was also similar in SAD and WT mice exposed to chronic hypoxia (9% O2) alone or with SU5416, and was similarly reduced by daily NCX1443 gavage...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Akiko Kojima, Yutaka Fukushima, Yuki Ito, Wei-Guang Ding, Hirotoshi Kitagawa, Hiroshi Matsuura
Reperfusion of ischemic myocardium is accompanied by intracellular Ca overload, leading to cardiac dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying intracellular Ca overload have yet to be fully elucidated. The mechanism may involve the activation of store-operated Ca entry, which is primarily mediated through the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels. The present study was undertaken to examine the possible involvement of TRPC channels in the development of contractile dysfunction associated with reperfusion of ischemic myocardium using a mouse heart model...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Fujiang Chu, Min Wang, Hongyan Ma, Jiayong Zhu
Cellular interactions between Endothelial Cell (EC) and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell (VSMC) /macrophages appear to be greatly changed under inflammatory conditions. Simvastatin could regulate inflammatory transcription factors in EC and VSMC and also could inhibit leukocyte-endothelium interaction, whether it could modulate VSMC/macrophage functions which induced by TNF-α-activated EC remained unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin on VSMC/macrophage functions which induced by TNF-α-activated EC in co-culture system in vitro...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
M Ekholm, A Jekell, N H Wallén, B Gigante, T Kahan
Drugs blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may offer benefit on endothelial function, inflammation, and hemostasis in addition to the effects of reducing blood pressure. We examined the contribution of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril and the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blocker doxazosin on blood pressure and on markers of inflammation and hemostasis in 59 individuals with mild-to-moderate hypertension randomized to receive double blind ramipril 10 mg od or doxazosin 8 mg od for 12 weeks...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Ryo Sato, Chika Hiraishi, Hiroshi Yoshida
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), which is secreted from vascular cells, is an enzyme degrading extracellular matrix protein. MMP molecules, including MMP-2, are involved in the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaque and plaque rupture during the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Angiotensin II (Ang-II), a vascular stimulant associated with CVD progression, has been demonstrated to be mainly involved in cardiovascular remodeling of atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. This study was performed to investigate the regulation of MMP-2 by Ang-II in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Martin I Sigurdsson, Nathan H Waldron, Andrey V Bortsov, Shad B Smith, William Maixner
The autonomic nervous system exerts broad control over the involuntary functions of the human body via complex equilibrium between sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. Imbalance in this equilibrium is associated with a multitude of cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. The cardiovascular static state of this equilibrium can be quantified via physiological parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure and by spectral analysis of heart rate variability.Here we review the current state of knowledge of the genetic background of cardiovascular measurements of autonomic tone...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Peter Verbrugghe, Jelle Verhoeven, Marnick Clijsters, Dominique Vervoort, Jarne Schepens, Bart Meuris, Paul Herijgers
IntroductionAvailable evidence suggests that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system is a good target for medical intervention on aortic root dilatation in Marfan syndrome (MFS). The effect of Compound 21 (C21), a non-peptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) agonist on aneurysm progression is was tested.MethodsMice with a mutation in fibrillin-1 (Fbn1C1039G/+) and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with vehicle, losartan, C21, enalapril or a combination. Blood pressure, aortic root diameter, and histological slides were evaluated...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Colleen T Cole-Jeffrey, Carl J Pepine, Michael J Katovich, Maria B Grant, Mohan K Raizada, Sugata Hazra
The dysfunctional nature of CD34 cells from patients with heart failure (HF) may make them unsuitable for autologous stem-cell therapy. In view of evidence that the vasoprotective axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) improves CD34 cell functions, we hypothesized that CD34 cells from patients with HF will be dysfunctional and that angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] would improve their function. Peripheral blood was collected from New York Heart Association class II-IV patients with HF (n = 31) and reference subjects (n = 16)...
March 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Lihua Li, Juan Li, Jing Yi, Hang Liu, Han Lei
Irbesartan has previously shown antiatherosclerotic effects on human carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Our study aimed to assess the dose-effect of irbesartan on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in rabbit atherosclerotic aorta. New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control (NC), high cholesterol (HC), low-dose (10 mg·kg·day), medium-dose (20 mg·kg·d), and high-dose (30 mg·kg·d) irbesartan and celecoxib (20 mg·kg·d). Except for the NCs, rabbits were fed a HC diet for 14 weeks to induce atherosclerosis...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Tomomichi Ishizaka, Yu Yoshimatsu, Yu Maeda, Katsuyoshi Chiba, Kazuhiko Mori
Nicorandil is a representative antianginal drug that has dual properties of a nitrate and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel agonist; however, its effects on integrated cardiac function have not been fully understood. This study was conducted to clarify the functional, hemodynamic, and electrophysiological effects of nicorandil using ventricular pressure-volume loop analysis in isoflurane-anesthetized monkeys. Nicorandil was given intravenously at therapeutic doses of 0.2 and 2 mg/kg over 10 minutes to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 5) with a pause of 10 minutes between the 2 doses...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Hiroki Saito, Shigeo Godo, Saori Sato, Akiyo Ito, Yosuke Ikumi, Shuhei Tanaka, Tomoaki Ida, Shigemoto Fujii, Takaaki Akaike, Hiroaki Shimokawa
AIMS: Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) play important roles in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. We have previously demonstrated that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays diverse roles depending on vessel size, as a NO generating system in conduit arteries and an EDH-mediated system in resistance arteries, for which caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is involved. However, the physiological role of endothelial Cav-1 in microvessels remains to be elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We newly generated endothelium-specific Cav-1-knockout (eCav-1-KO) mice...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
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