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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

Shuxian Ma, Zhenming Dong
The role of OPA1-related mitochondrial fusion in cardiac reperfusion stress has remained elusive. The aim of our study is to explore whether melatonin alleviates cardiac IR injury by modulating OPA1-related mitochondrial fusion. We found that melatonin reduced infarct area, sustained myocardial function and suppressed cardiomyocyte death during cardiac reperfusion stress. Biological studies have revealed that IR-inhibited mitochondrial fusion was largely reversed by melatonin via upregulated OPA1 expression...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Harinder Singh, Manish Kumar, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
BACKGROUND: The role of neurogenic pathway in early phases of cardioprotection during remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) and adenosine preconditioning is reported AIM:: The present study was designed to explore the involvement of neurogenic pathway in late phases of cardioprotection during RIPC and adenosine preconditioning. MATERIAL ANDMETHODS: Fifty four Wistar rats were employed and divided into nine experimental groups. RIPC was induced by tying the blood pressure cuff around the hind limb and subjecting to four cycles of inflation and deflation of 5 minutes each...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Huan Zhang, Xingbo Mo, Zhengyuan Zhou, Zhengbao Zhu, Xinfeng HuangFu, Zhirong Guo, Yonghong Zhang
We have performed a gene-based association study and detected several important blood pressure (BP)-associated genes. In this study we explored functional variants in these genes by bioinformatics analysis and validated the associations between the functional SNPs and hypertension with public data and our in-house data of 857 cases and 927 controls. We found various functional variants in the BP-associated genes, including missense mutations, phosphorylation-related SNPs. Most of these SNPs were associated with expressions of the local genes...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Xin Tian, Yaguang Zhou, Yuanbo Wang, Shumiao Zhang, Jiahao Feng, Xu Wang, Haitao Guo, Rong Fan, Na Feng, Min Jia, Xiaoming Gu, Juan Li, Lu Yang, Yueming Wang, Jun Li, Guoxu Zheng, Feng Fu, Jianming Pei
Previous studies have shown that κ-opioid receptor activation possesses cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury. The current study was designed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction following MI/R is regulated by the κ-opioid receptor and to further explore the underlying mechanisms involved. MI/R rat model was established in vivo, and a hypoxia and reoxygenation cardiomyocytes model was utilized in vitro. Mitochondrial morphology and function, as well as myocardial apoptosis were determined...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
George W Booz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Jesús Piqueras-Flores, Alfonso Jurado-Román, María Thiscal López-Lluva, Ignacio Sánchez-Pérez, José Abellán-Huerta, Fernando Lozano-Ruiz Poveda
BACKGROUND: European Guidelines on Myocardial Revascularization recommend clopidogrel loading dose added to acetylsalicylic acid in elective percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, there is few evidence supporting this recommendation and other P2Y12 inhibitors have not been tested in these patients. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different loading doses of clopidogrel and ticagrelor in patients without double antiplatelet therapy and stable coronary disease (SCAD) undergoing elective PCI...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Amin Polzin, Carolin Helten, Lisa Dannenberg, Philipp Mourikis, David Naguib, Alina Achilles, Betül Knoop, Saif Zako, Susanne Rehder, Klaus Görlinger, Bodo Levkau, Tobias Zeus, Malte Kelm, Thomas Hohlfeld, Till Hoffmann
Various tests are available for measuring on-treatment platelet reactivity. The pharmacologically most specific assays are time-consuming and elaborate. A highly specific and convenient assay would be desirable for clinical routine. In this pilot study we aimed to examine the ability of a novel bedside whole-blood assay - ROTEM® platelet - to evaluate platelet inhibition compared to established assays.Platelet reactivity was investigated in 93 patients. 47 patients were on permanent aspirin therapy and 46 on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Salvatore Carbone, Adolfo G Mauro, Andrea Prestamburgo, Matthew S Halquist, Pratush Narayan, Nicola Potere, Eleonora Mezzaroma, Benjamin W Van Tassell, Antonio Abbate, Stefano Toldo
BACKGROUND: A diet rich in saturated fat and sugars (Western diet, WD) induces myocardial expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome and dysfunction in the mouse. We therefore hypothesized that a diet enriched with an orally available NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor could prevent WD-induced cardiac dysfunction in the mouse. METHODS: Ten-week old CD-1 male mice were fed WD or Standard diet (SD) for 8 weeks. The compound 16673-34-0, an orally active NLRP3 inhibitor, was added to the diet at concentration of 100 mg/Kg...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
D Lezama-Martinez, J Flores-Monroy, S Fonseca-Coronado, M Hernandez-Campos, I Valencia-Hernandez, L Martinez-Aguilar
Antihypertensive pharmacological treatments focus on use of ACE inhibitors, AT1 receptor antagonists (ARBs) and beta-blockers as single and combined treatments. The effect of single treatments on the mRNA expression of some components of the renin-angiotensin system has been studied, but not the effect of combined treatments. This study determined the expression of the AT1, AT2, B1, B2 receptors and of the enzymes ACE and ACE2 in hypertensive rats treated with captopril-propranolol or losartan-propranolol. Methods: the mRNA expression of the receptors and enzymes was determined by RT-qPCR in the aorta of SHR rats under different treatments...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Belal A Al-Husein, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Karem H Al-Zoubi, Omar F Khabour, Mohamad Nsair, Samar Alzayadeen
Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet agent that is indicated for cardiovascular emergencies and procedures. The drug, however, is subject to response variability leading to therapy resistance. In this research, we explored the demographic, clinical and genetic factors associated with clopidogrel resistance. Data analysis among our 280 subjects receiving clopidogrel showed some risk factors that are significantly associated with clopidogrel resistance compared to responders. Those were: female gender (P = 0.021), advanced age (P = 0...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Liang Yuan, Chunping Tang, Dianfu Li, Zhijian Yang
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a kind of cardiovascular disease which has been causing mortality around the world for decades. Since symptoms of CHD are different in female and male patients and these symptoms occur much later in female patients, CHD is very likely to be under-diagnosed in women. Thus, it is imperative to explore novel diagnostic method for CHD especially for women. Recently, microRNA (miRNA) targeted therapy have attracted much attention as a novel therapeutic method. MiRNAs have been proven as possible markers and targeted agents for diverse diseases...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Adamu J Bamaiyi, Gavin R Norton, Vernice Peterson, Glenda Norman, Frank B Mojiminiyi, Angela J Woodiwiss
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major cause of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. Although β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blockers are often used to manage hypertension, the impact of β-AR activation on LV lusitropic effects and hence filling pressures in the hypertensive heart with LV diastolic dysfunction is uncertain. METHODS: Using tissue Doppler imaging and Speckle tracking software, we assessed LV function in isoflurane anesthetised spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats before and after β-AR activation [isoproterenol (ISO) administration]...
November 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Gayathri Narasimhan, Elba D Carrillo, Ascención Hernández, María C García, Jorge A Sánchez
INTRODUCTION AND METHODS: The effects of diazoxide on cardiac hypertrophy and miR-132 expression were characterized in adult rats and in cardiomyocytes. Diazoxide effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and on the cAMP-response element binding (CREB) transcription factor's abundance in cardiomyocytes were also analyzed. ROS measurements used a fluorescent dye. Western blot analysis and quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction were used to measure phosphorylated form of CREB (pCREB) abundance and miR-132 expression, respectively...
November 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Jiung-Pang Huang, Sheng-Chieh Hsu, Dai-Er Li, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Chao-Yu Kuo, Li-Man Hung
We investigated whether resveratrol (RSV) can attenuate obesity and diabetes progression and improve diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction, and we attempted to delineate its underlying mechanisms. Male C57Bl/6 mice were administered a high-fat diet (HFD) for 17 weeks. Mice developed type 2 diabetes with increased body weight, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia. Oral gavage with RSV significantly reversed the symptoms induced by the HFD. Insulin sensitivity likewise improved after the RSV intervention in these mice...
November 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Yu-Meng Jia, Tong-Tong Gu, Jin-Zi Ji, Ting Tai, Meng-Ran Zhang, Bei-Bei Huang, Huan Zhou, Qiong-Yu Mi, Hong-Guang Xie
Vicagrel, a novel acetate analogue of clopidogrel, exerts more potent antiplatelet effect than clopidogrel in rodents. Relevant evidence indicated that aspirin and vicagrel are the drug substrate for carboxylesterase 2. Accordingly, it is deduced that concomitant use of aspirin could attenuate the bioactivation of and platelet response to vicagrel. To clarify whether there could be such an important drug-drug interaction, the differences in both the formation of vicagrel active metabolite H4 and the inhibition of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation by vicagrel were measured and compared between mice treated with vicagrel alone or in combination with aspirin...
November 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Cristina Campos-Carraro, Patrick Turck, Bruna Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Angela Maria Vicente Tavares, Denise Dos Santos Lacerda, Giana Blume Corssac, Rayane Brinck Teixeira, Alexandre Hickmann, Susana Llesuy, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo, Adriane Belló-Klein
There is an increase in oxidative stress and apoptosis signaling during the transition from hypertrophy to right ventricular (RV) failure caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by monocrotaline (MCT). In this study, it was evaluated the action of copaiba oil on the modulation of proteins involved in RV apoptosis signaling in rats with PAH. Male Wistar rats (±170 g, n = 7/group) were divided into 4 groups: control, MCT, copaiba oil, and MCT + copaiba oil. PAH was induced by MCT (60 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and, 7 days later, treatment with copaiba oil (400 mg/kg by gavage) was given for 14 days...
November 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Changhe Liu, Na Hua, Xi Fu, Yilong Pan, Bin Li, Xiaodong Li
We previously found that metformin regulates the ion current conducted by the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels) in the atria of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as the mRNA and protein expression of the SK2 and SK3 subtypes of SK channels. In this study, we hypothesized that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathway was involved in the metformin-mediated regulation of SK2 and SK3 expression in the atria of rats with T2DM...
November 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Alexander Vladimirovich Ivanov, Valery Vasil'evich Alexandrin, Alexander Alexandrovich Paltsyn, Edward Danielevich Virus, Ksenya Alexandrovna Nikiforova, Polina Olegovna Bulgakova, Nadezhda Borisovna Sviridkina, Svetlana Alexandrovna Apollonova, Aslan Amirkhanovich Kubatiev
Cerebral ischemia has previously been shown to cause a systemic decrease in levels of the reduced forms of low-molecular-weight aminothiols [cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy), and glutathione (GSH)] in blood plasma. In this study, we examined the effect of beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonists metoprolol (Met) and nebivolol (Neb) on the redox status of these aminothiols during acute cerebral ischemia in rats. We used a model of global cerebral ischemia (bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries with hypotension lasting for 10 minutes)...
October 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Simran Maggo, John C Ashton
Cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists are under investigation for clinical use. At the same time, synthetic cannabinoids have been implicated in a number of deaths. One cause of death is thought to be cardiac arrest subsequent to extreme tachycardia. Central mechanisms are thought to play a role in this, with CB1 but not CB2 receptors thought to mediate central effects. However, the direct effects of cannabinoids on the heart are less well understood. We therefore tested the effects of cannabinoids on isolated rat atria to test whether activation of myocardial CB1 and CB2 receptors could contribute to tachycardia...
October 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Milad Golabkesh, David Naguib, Betül Knoop, Lisa Dannenberg, Carolin Helten, Martin Pöhl, Christian Jung, Malte Kelm, Tobias Zeus, Amin Polzin
Prasugrel and ticagrelor are recommended over clopidogrel in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this registry analysis, we compared efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and prasugrel P2Y12 inhibition in patients with STEMI. We included 318 patients in this single-center analysis. Twelve-month follow-up was conducted during ambulatory care at our department. Patients were on dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and ticagrelor or prasugrel during the follow-up period. Prescription of prasugrel or ticagrelor, respectively, was according to the preference of the treating physician...
October 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
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