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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059858/cardiac-gpcr-mediated-egfr-transactivation-impact-and-therapeutic-implications
#1
Laurel A Grisanti, Shuchi Guo, Douglas G Tilley
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) remain primary therapeutic targets for numerous cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure (HF), due to their influence on cardiac remodeling in response to elevated neurohormone signaling. GPCR blockers have proven to be beneficial in the treatment of HF by reducing chronic G protein activation and cardiac remodeling, thereby extending the lifespan of HF patients. Unfortunately this effect does not persist indefinitely, thus next generation therapeutics aim to selectively block harmful GPCR-mediated pathways while simultaneously promoting beneficial signaling...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045759/efficacy-and-safety-of-novel-oral-p2y12-receptor-inhibitors-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-patients-undergoing-pci-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Jianjun Sun, Qian Xiang, Chao Li, Zining Wang, Kun Hu, Qiufen Xie, Yimin Cui
The efficacy and safety of novel oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) are subjects of contention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing PCI, the optimal duration of therapy remains uncertain. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang Data to identify randomized controlled trials comparing novel oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors to clopidogrel in STEMI patients undergoing PCI until February 2016. The primary efficacy and safety endpoint were all-cause mortality and major/minor bleeding...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045761/the-selective-late-sodium-current-inhibitor-eleclazine-unlike-amiodarone-does-not-alter-defibrillation-threshold-or-dominant-frequency-of-ventricular-fibrillation
#3
Ana F G Silva, Rodolfo Bonatti, Julio Batatinha, Bruce D Nearing, Dewan Zeng, Luiz Belardinelli, Richard L Verrier
INTRODUCTION: We examined effects of the selective late INa inhibitor eleclazine on the 50% probability of successful defibrillation (DFT50) before and after administration of amiodarone to determine its suitability for use in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 20 anesthetized pigs, transvenous active-fixation cardiac defibrillation leads were fluoroscopically positioned into right ventricular apex via jugular vein...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045760/bleeding-risk-of-anti-thrombotic-treatment-in-patients-on-haemodialysis
#4
Eduardo Vázquez, Carmen Sánchez-Perales, Sonia Ortega, Teresa Vázquez-Sánchez, Enrique Quesada, Daniel Salas, Juan Carlos Fernández-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: The risk-benefit of anti-thrombotic treatment (ATT) has not been established in patients on dialysis. Our objective was to determine the influence of ATT on the risk of haemorrhage in patients on haemodialysis. METHODS: We included patients who began dialysis between 2003 and 2007. We determined the rates of fatal bleeding or bleeding leading to hospitalisation or transfusion. RESULTS: 221 patients were included. Over the follow-up period (45...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059859/pro-inflammatory-cytokines-mediate-gpcr-dysfunction
#5
Maradumane L Mohan, Neelakantan T Vasudevan, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad
Pro-inflammatory reaction by the body occurs acutely in response to injury that is considered primarily beneficial. However, sustained pro-inflammatory cytokines observed with chronic pathologies such as metabolic syndrome, cancer, and arthritis are detrimental and in many cases is a major cardio-vascular risk factor. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleulin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) have long been implicated in cardiovascular risk and considered to be a major underlying cause for heart failure...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009721/propofol-provides-cardiac-protection-by-suppressing-the-proteasome-degradation-of-caveolin-3-in-ischemic-reperfused-rat-hearts
#6
Afang Zhu, Xin Wei, Yali Zhang, Tao You, Shanglong Yao, Shiying Yuan, Haodong Xu, Faqian Li, Weike Mao
The mechanisms underlying propofol's cardioprotective role remain elusive. Caveolin-3 (Cav-3) has been shown to mediate both opioids- and volatile anesthetics-induced cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We hypothesize that the cardioprotective role of propofol is mediated through Cav-3 and its regulation of PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signal pathway. Rats or H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to propofol prior to I/R or simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R). Propofol pretreatment significantly decreased left ventricle (LV) infarct size in vivo (P < 0...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009720/roscovitine-protects-from-arterial-injury-by-regulating-the-expressions-of-c-jun-and-p27-and-inhibiting-vsmc-proliferation
#7
Yu Liu, Yun-Feng Li, Hong Chang, Jing-Shan Zhao, Jian-Ming Hou, Kun Yu, Jia-Huan Sun, Hong Wang, Ai-Ying Li
PURPOSE: Roscovitine (Rosc) is a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and a promising therapy for various cancers. However, limited information is available on the biological significance of Rosc in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the cell type critical for the development of proliferative vascular diseases. In this study, we address the effects of Rosc in regulating VSMC proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo, exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: The proliferations and cell-cycle distributions of in vitro cultured VSMCs, as well as several other cancer cell lines, were examined by cell-counting assay and flow cytometry, respectively...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922911/meta-analysis-of-comparison-of-the-newer-p2y12-inhibitors-oral-preparation-or-intravenous-to-clopidogrel-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#8
Lu Zhang, Jun Lu, Weihua Dong, Huiping Tian, Weiyi Feng, Haisheng You, Hairong He, Jing Ma, Yalin Dong
AIMS: New P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist that has been used in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with mixed results. This systematic review analyzed and compared the evidence from large, clinical trials regarding the efficacy of clopidogrel relative to that of cangrelor, prasugrel, and ticagrelor in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with ACS. METHODS AND RESULTS: This analysis of the findings for comparing newer P2Y12 inhibitors with clopidogrel of 13 clinical trials involving a total of 87,985 patients with ACS ...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930430/w1-a-novel-oral-antiplatelet-agent-with-less-resistance-than-clopidogrel
#9
Pengxin Ge, Li Du, Chunguang Han, Hui Li, Yanguo Feng, Jie Han, Zhen Wang, Liangzhong Xiong, Meiru Yuan, Yongxue Liu
Clopidogrel is a clinical antiplatelet agent, about which there are major concerns because its antiplatelet efficiency decreases with insufficient metabolic activation, leading to "clopidogrel resistance." We aimed to determine the antiplatelet effects of W1, a novel molecule composed of 2-O-clopidogrel and aspirin (1:1 ratio), on platelet aggregation ex vivo and thrombus formation in vivo, and its susceptibility to "clopidogrel resistance" in combination with other therapies in rats. Platelets were prepared, and an arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model was established using Wistar rats to measure platelet aggregation and thrombus formation, respectively...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009722/safety-and-efficacy-of-under-dosing-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-in-patients-undergoing-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation
#10
Hirosuke Yamaji, Takashi Murakami, Kazuyoshi Hina, Shunichi Higashiya, Hiroshi Kawamura, Masaaki Murakami, Shigeshi Kamikawa, Issei Komatsubara, Shozo Kusachi
BACKGROUND: Some patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) received under-doses of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in the real world. Under-dosing is defined as administration of a dose lower than the manufacturer recommended dose. OBJECTIVES: To identify the efficacy and safety of under-dosing NOACs as perioperative anticoagulation for AF ablation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients who received rivaroxaban or dabigatran etexilate according to dosage: adjusted low-dosage (reduced by disturbed renal function; n = 30), under-dosage (n = 307), or standard-dosage (n = 683)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984331/safety-and-efficacy-of-under-dosing-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-in-patients-undergoing-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation
#11
Hirosuke Yamaji, Takashi Murakami, Kazuyoshi Hina, Shunichi Higashiya, Hiroshi Kawamura, Masaaki Murakami, Shigeshi Kamikawa, Issei Komatsubara, Shozo Kusachi
BACKGROUND: Some patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) received under-doses of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in the real world. Under-dosing is defined as administration of a dose lower than the manufacturer recommended dose. OBJECTIVES: To identify the efficacy and safety of under-dosing NOACs as perioperative anticoagulation for AF ablation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients who received rivaroxaban or dabigatran etexilate according to dosage: adjusted low-dosage (reduced by disturbed renal function; n = 30), under-dosage (n = 307), or standard-dosage (n = 683)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875385/effects-of-linagliptin-on-vessel-wall-healing-in-the-rat-model-of-arterial-injury-under-normal-and-diabetic-conditions
#12
Linnea Eriksson, Samuel Röhl, Robert Saxelin, Mariette Lengquist, Malin Kronqvist, Kenneth Caidahl, Claes-Göran Östenson, Anton Razuvaev
Diabetic patients suffer an increased risk of restenosis and late stent thrombosis after angioplasty, complications that are related to a defective re-endothelialization. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors have been suggested to exert direct effect on endothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Therefore the objective was to study if the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin could influence vascular repair and accelerate re-endothelialization after arterial injury in healthy and diabetic animals. Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki and healthy Wistar rats were subjected to arterial injury and treated with linagliptin or vehicle...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851698/nitrite-prevents-right-ventricular-failure-and-remodeling-induced-by-pulmonary-artery-banding
#13
Jian Hu, Maryam Sharifi-Sanjani, Stevan P Tofovic
BACKGROUND: Nitrite has been shown to reduce right ventricle (RV) remodeling in experimental pulmonary hypertension. However, whether this effect is due to a reduction in RV afterload (i.e., reduction in pulmonary artery pressure) or a direct effect on the RV itself remains unanswered. We hypothesize that nitrite has direct effects on RV remodeling and studied its effects in mice with pulmonary artery banding (PAB). METHODS AND RESULTS: PAB decreased exercise tolerance, and reduced RV systolic and diastolic function...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851697/preventing-publication-of-falsified-and-fabricated-data-roles-of-scientists-editors-reviewers-and-readers
#14
Sanne M Korte, Marcel A G van der Heyden
Recently, the Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology retracted two papers for figure irregularities. In an attempt to reduce the number of such cases in future, we provide insights in a number of existing control mechanisms for scientists, editors, reviewers and readers, in the process of scholarly publication. We encourage case-based education using very recent examples from literature, implementation of early detection measures in the editorial and peer review processes, and finally, we emphasize the value of post-publication quality control by readers and means to assist them in such endeavors...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828791/efficacy-and-safety-of-vernakalant-for-cardioversion-of-recent-onset-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-asia-pacific-region-a-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Gregory N Beatch, Kiran Bhirangi, Steen Juul-Moller, Jörg Rustige
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common clinically significant cardiac arrhythmia. This phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of vernakalant hydrochloride for the pharmacological conversion of AF to sinus rhythm (SR) in patients with recent-onset (>3 hours-≤7 days) symptomatic AF from the Asia-Pacific region. Patients received an infusion of vernakalant (3 mg/kg) or placebo over 10 minutes. If AF had not been terminated 15 minutes later, a second infusion of vernakalant (2 mg/kg) or placebo 15 minutes was administered...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798416/effect-of-free-and-nanoencapsulated-copaiba-oil-on-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#16
Cristina Campos, Alexandre Luz de Castro, Angela Maria Vicente Tavares, Rafael Oliveira Fernandes, Vanessa Duarte Ortiz, Tatiane Evelyn Barboza, Cláudio Pereira, Miriam Apel, Onilda Santos da Silva, Susana Llesuy, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo, Adriane Belló-Klein
Copaiba oil comes from an Amazonian tree and has been used as an alternative medicine in Brazil. However, it has not been investigated yet in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to test whether copaiba oil or nanocapsules containing this oil could modulate monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Male Wistar rats (170 ± 20 g) received oil or nanocapsules containing this oil (400 mg/kg) by gavage daily for one week. At the end of this period, a single injection of MCT (60 mg/kg i...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828790/naoxintong-enhances-atorvastatin-induced-plaque-stability-while-ameliorating-atorvastatin-induced-hepatic-inflammation
#17
Xiaoxiao Yang, Yan Li, Lei Sun, Ying Liu, Chuanrui Ma, Yuanli Chen, Hao Tan, Qi Li, Xiaoju Li, Yong Wang, Yajun Duan, Buchang Zhao, Jihong Han
Buchang NaoXinTong (NXT) is a Chinese medicine that has been used for many years for treatment of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in China. Statins substantially reduce hypercholesterolemia and CHD mortality and morbidity. However, there is still a lot of CHD patients who do not respond well to statin therapy. Herein, we report the effects of NXT on atorvastatin-inhibited atherosclerosis and atorvastatin-induced hepatic side effects. After 10 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, apoE-deficient mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and received the following treatment for another 8 weeks: group 1, HFD; group 2, HFD containing NXT; group 3, HFD containing atorvastatin; and group 4, HFD containing both NXT and atorvastatin...
January 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798417/efficacy-of-zofenopril-compared-with-placebo-and-other-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-previous-cardiovascular-risk-factors-a-pooled-individual-data-analysis-of-4-randomized-double-blind-controlled-prospective
#18
Claudio Borghi, Stefano Omboni, Giorgio Reggiardo, Stefano Bacchelli, Daniela Degli Esposti, Ettore Ambrosioni
In the Survival of Myocardial Infarction Long-term Evaluation (SMILE) 1, 3, and 4 studies, early administration of zofenopril in acute myocardial infarction showed to be prognostically beneficial versus placebo or ramipril. The SMILE-2 showed that both zofenopril and lisinopril are safe and showed no significant differences in the incidence of major cardiovascular (CV) complications. In this pooled analysis of individual data of the SMILE studies, we evaluated whether the superior efficacy of zofenopril is maintained also in patients with ≥1 CV risk factor (CV+, n = 2962) as compared to CV- (n = 668)...
January 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753702/green-tea-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-alleviated-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-myocarditis-through-inhibiting-viral-replication-but-not-through-inhibiting-inflammatory-responses
#19
Xiran He, Bo Gao, Lei Zhou, Sidong Xiong
Viral myocarditis, which is mainly caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), affects about 5%-20% of the world population and still lacks efficient treatments. Green tea, a tonic and healthful beverage that was originated in ancient China, has been receiving considerable attention for its protective effect on cardiovascular diseases in recent years. In the present investigation, we aimed to explore the effect of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on CVB3-induced myocarditis and its underlying mechanism...
January 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676327/chronic-sarpogrelate-treatment-reveals-5-ht7-receptor-in-the-serotonergic-inhibition-of-the-rat-vagal-bradycardia
#20
José Ángel García-Pedraza, Mónica García, María Luisa Martín, Nélida Eleno, Asunción Morán
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates the cardiac parasympathetic neurotransmission, inhibiting the bradyarrhythmia by 5-HT2 receptor activation. We aimed to determine whether the chronic selective 5-HT2 blockade (sarpogrelate) could modify the serotonergic modulation on vagal cardiac outflow in pithed rat. Bradycardic responses in rats treated with sarpogrelate (30 mg·kg·d; orally) were obtained by electrical stimulation of the vagal fibers (3, 6, and 9 Hz) or intravenous (IV) injections of acetylcholine (1, 5, and 10 μg/kg)...
January 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
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