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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

Xiran He, Bo Gao, Lei Zhou, Sidong Xiong
Viral myocarditis, which is mainly caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), affects about 5%-20% of the world population and still lacks efficient treatments. Green tea, a tonic and healthful beverage that was originated in ancient China, has been receiving considerable attention for its protective effect on cardiovascular diseases in recent years. In present investigation, we aimed to explore the effect of Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on CVB3-induced myocarditis and its underlying mechanism...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
José Ángel García-Pedraza, Mónica García, María Luisa Martín, Nélida Eleno, Asunción Morán
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates the cardiac parasympathetic neurotransmission, inhibiting the bradyarrhythmia by 5-HT2 receptor activation. We aimed to determine whether the chronic selective 5-HT2 blockade (sarpogrelate) could modify the serotonergic modulation on vagal cardiac outflow in pithed rat. Bradycardic responses in rats treated with sarpogrelate (30 mg/; p.o.) were obtained by electrical stimulation of the vagal fibers (3, 6, and 9 Hz) or i.v. injections of acetylcholine (ACh; 1, 5, and 10 μg/kg)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Chuying Wang, Yumei Li, Xinxin Yang, Shengnan Bi, Yajie Zhang, Dong Han, Dafang Zhang
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and astragaloside IV (AGS-IV) are herbal ingredients that have been demonstrated in animal models to limit infarct size and protect cardiomyocytes in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI), yet their long-term cardio-protective effects have not been evaluated. In the present study, TMP and/or ASG-IV were administrated to rats for 14 days after MI. Echocardiography revealed that the left ventricular (LV) dimensions and cardiac function was preserved in the MI rats with TMP and ASG-IV treatment, compared to untreated MI rats...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Asmaa I Matouk, Ashraf Taye, Mohamed A El-Moselhy, Gehan H Heeba, Abdel A Abdel-Rahman
While acute activation of the novel endocannabinoid receptor GPR18 causes hypotension, there are no reports on GPR18 expression in the heart or its chronic modulation of cardiovascular function. In this study, after demonstrating GPR18 expression in the heart, we show that chronic (2 weeks) GPR18 activation with its agonist abnormal cannabidiol (abn-cbd; 100 µg/kg/day; i.p) produced hypotension, suppressed the cardiac sympathetic dominance, and improved left ventricular (LV) function (increased the contractility index dp/dtmax, and reduced LV end diastolic pressure, LVEDP) in conscious rats...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Akinori Sairaku, Yukiko Nakano, Kazuyoshi Suenari, Takehito Tokuyama, Hiroshi Kawazoe, Hiroya Matsumura, Shunsuke Tomomori, Michitaka Amioka, Yasuki Kihara
It has been reported that dexmedetomidine (dex) has an impact on the cardiac conduction system and even has potential antiarrhythmic actions. We examined the influence of dex on the cardiac electrophysiological properties and atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility. Adult paroxysmal AF patients were randomly assigned to receive (N=107) or not receive (N=108) dex during cardiac electrophysiological studies. The corrected sinus node recovery time (558±331 vs. 459±260ms; P=0.02), Wenckebach cycle length (P<0...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Sarah Holmboe, Asger Andersen, Jacob Johnsen, Jan Møller Nielsen, Rikke Nørregaard, Hans Erik Bøtker, Lucie H Clapp, Jens Erik Nielsen-Kudsk
BACKGROUND: Prostacyclin mimetics are vasodilatory agents used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The direct effects of prostanoids on right ventricular (RV) function are unknown. We aimed to investigate the direct effects of prostacyclin mimetics on RV function in hearts with and without RV hypertrophy and failure. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to pulmonary trunk banding to induce compensated RV hypertrophy (n=32) or manifest RV failure (n=32)...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Ilona Bodi, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Arnold Schwartz
AIMS: To obtain functional evidence that ICa,T is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. We unexpectedly identified ICa(TTX) rather than ICa,T, therefore, we adjusted our aim to encompass these findings. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 1) Cav3.1 (α1G) transgenic (Tg) mice compared with non-transgenic (tTA-Ntg) 2) Cav3.1 deficient mice (Cav3.1) compared with wild-type (Wt) after chemically and surgically induced cardiac remodeling 3) Spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and thoracic aorta constricting (TAC) rats...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Hua Qin, Yan Zhang, Ru Wang, Xiaoyan Du, Liping Li, Haiwei Du
Puerarin, a type of isoflavone, was shown to have multiple protective effects on myocardial injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of puerarin in the progression of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from FATP1 transgenic (Tg) mice with lipotoxic cardiomyopathy, and various concentrations of puerarin were used to incubate with the cardiomyocytes. Our results showed low dose puerarin (≤ 20 μM) treatment increased the cell viability and decreased the accumulation of free fatty acid (FFA)...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Wei Li, Xiangqi Wu, Minghui Li, Zhimei Wang, Bing Li, Xinliang Qu, Shaoliang Chen
Pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction progress to heart failure, which is mainly due to excessive oxidative stress. Hence, our study aimed to illustrate whether cardamonin, a kind of chalcone, could attenuate maladaptive cardiac changes and ameliorate cardiac insufficiency through its antioxidant mechanism. In vivo, our study revealed that cardamonin treatment could attenuate transverse aortic contraction-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Histological observations have suggested that cardamonin inhibited the occurrence of excessive cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Mei Liu, Xiu-Jun Wu, Gui-Lian Zhao, Ti Zhang, Shan-Sen Xu, Ya-Xin Sun, Feng Qiu, Li-Mei Zhao
The nuclear receptors (NR)-farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) have important effects on the expression of genes related to the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of rosuvastatin. This study was designed to investigate whether the genetic variants in drug disposition genes (SLCO1B1 and ABCG2) combined with their upstream regulators (NR1H4 and NR1I2) would affect the PKs of rosuvastatin in a Chinese population. Sixty-one healthy male volunteers were enrolled and the plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin were measured using the LC-MS/MS method...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Shoubao Wang, Lincai Ye, Minghui Li, Jinfen Liu, Chuan Jiang, Haifa Hong, Hongbin Zhu, Yanjun Sun
BACKGROUND: The renewal capacity of neonate human cardiomyocytes provides an opportunity to manipulate endogenous cardiogenic mechanisms for supplementing the loss of cardiomyocytes caused by myocardial infarction or other cardiac diseases. GSK-3β inhibitors have been recently shown to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation in rats and mice, thus may be ideal candidates for inducing human cardiomyocyte proliferation. METHODS: Human cardiomyocytes were isolated from right atrial specimens obtained during routine surgery for ventricle septal defect (VSD) and cultured with either GSK-3β inhibitor (CHIR-99021) or β-catenin inhibitor (IWR-1)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Ting Tai, Qiong-Yu Mi, Jin-Zi Ji, Qian Yin, Yu-Qin Pan, Meng-Ran Zhang, Hong-Guang Xie
Resistance of the patient to clopidogrel (an inactive prodrug) has been recently reported to be associated with increased mRNA expression of ABCC3 that encodes MRP3 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 3). However, there is no evidence to show the effects of MRP3 on altered platelet responses to clopidogrel and their underlying mechanisms. To further clarify whether the absence and presence of Mrp3 could affect the formation of and response to clopidogrel active metabolite (CAM) in Abcc3 knock-out (KO) vs...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Laura Means, Scott T Benken, Eljim P Tesoro
Nifedipine immediate release (IR) is a short-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker historically used for hypertensive crisis, but use has decreased due to reports of adverse reactions such as myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmias, and stroke. This was a retrospective evaluation of the safety of nifedipine IR in 122 patients at an academic medical center from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2014. Patients were separated into high and low risk groups. High-risk was defined as a past medical history (PMH) significant for arrhythmia, MI, or stroke...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Asya Makhro, Qinghai Tian, Lars Kaestner, Dmitry Kosenkov, Giuseppe Faggian, Max Gassmann, Colin Schwarzwald, Anna Bogdanova
This study focuses on characterization of the cardiac N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) as a target for endogenous and synthetic agonists and antagonists. Using isolated perfused rat hearts, we have shown that intracoronary administration of the NMDAR agonists and antagonists has a pronounced effect on autonomous heart function. Perfusion of rat hearts with autologous blood supplemented with NMDAR agonists was associated with induction of tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia and ischemia occurring within physiological plasma concentration range for glutamate and glycine...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Luoman Chen, Jianhui Zhuang, Shekhar Singh, Kai Wang, Mengting Xiong, Dachun Xu, Wei Chen, Jinjiang Pang, Yawei Xu, Xiankai Li
BACKGROUND: Excessive proliferation, migration and oxidative stress of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are key mechanisms involved in intima formation, which is the basic pathological process of in stent restenosis. This study aims at exploring the role of XAV939 in proliferation, migration and ROS generation of VSMCs and hence evaluating its effects on intima formation. METHODS: Carotid artery ligation models for C57BL/6 mice were established and gave them different intervention: saline, XAV939, Axin2 over-expression adenovirus and negative control adenovirus...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Bianca Hemmeryckx, Philipp Hohensinner, Melissa Swinnen, Ward Heggermont, Johann Wojta, Henri Roger Lijnen
Bmal1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like protein-1) deficient (Bmal1) mice prematurely age due to an increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These mice also show a decline in cardiac function with age. We investigated whether an anti-oxidant treatment can ameliorate the declining cardiac function in prematurely aged Bmal1 mice. Male Bmal1 and wild-type (Bmal1) mice were exposed for 15 weeks to a high fat and high cholesterol diet with or without the anti-oxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPOL; 5 mmol/l; in drinking water during the last 10 weeks)...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Shan Yingguang, Wang Dandan, Li Ran, Huang Congxin
The present study investigated the effects and associated underlying mechanisms of molsidomine, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on cardiac electrical remodeling and ventricular arrhythmias tachycardias (VAs VTs) induced by chronic isoprenaline (ISO) stimulation in rats. The rats were randomly divided into groups that were treated with saline (control group), ISO (ISO group), ISO + molsidomine (ISO + M group), and ISO + molsidomine + the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, ISO + M + O group) for 14 days...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Mei-Rong Du, Gui-Xia Ju, Nian-Sheng Li, Jun-Lin Jiang
Microvascular complications are the leading causes of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, and varieties of neuropathy associated with diabetes. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, is involved in endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation associated with the progression of diabetic microvascular complications. Elevated ADMA has been detected in experimental animals and patients with diabetic microangiopathy like retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy...
October 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Ahmad Separham, Samad Ghaffari, Hossein Najafi, Reza Ghaffari, Mojtaba Ziaee, Hossein Babaei
Allopurinol may have protective effects over ischemic reperfusion injury and reduce infarct size. In this randomized study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of allopurinol in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing thrombolytic therapy. Overall, 140 patients with STEMI were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg of allopurinol or placebo before treating with streptokinase. Then, study group received 100 mg of allopurinol daily for 28 days and placebo group received placebo for the same period...
October 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Diana Vicente, Blanca Hernández, Vanessa Segura, Desirée Pascual, Giacomo Fornaciari, Fermí Monto, Vicente Mirabet, M Carmen Montesinos, Pilar DʼOcon
The sprouting of new vessels is greatly influenced by the procedure chosen. We sought to optimize the experimental conditions of the angiogenic growth of fresh and cryopreserved vessels cultured in Matrigel with the aim to use this system to analyze the pharmacological modulation of the process. Segments of second-order branches of rat mesenteric resistance arteries, thoracic aorta of rat or mouse, and cryopreserved rat aorta and human femoral arteries were cultured in Matrigel for 7-21 days in different mediums, as well as in the absence of endothelial or adventitia layer...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
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