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Forensic Science International

Alfonso Bentolila, Ira Hartman, Michal Levin-Elad
Working in crime scenes presents a challenge to the forensic scientist, as some surfaces, such as floors and walls, cannot be transferred to the lab for further development and must, therefore, be processed at the crime scene itself. Two main types of latent fingermarks may be encountered in crime scenes: amino acids based and blood contaminated. One of the most common reagents, which are able to develop both types of fingermarks on porous surfaces, is ninhydrin. As blood contaminated fingermarks may be crucial in connecting the suspect to the crime it is important to be able to distinguish between them and natural fingermarks...
August 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
Saeed Bigdeli, Hamed Danandeh, Mohsen Ebrahimi Moghaddam
The striations on bullet surface are 3D micro structures formed when a bullet is forcing its way out of barrel. Each barrel leaves individual striation patterns on bullets. Hence, the striation information of bullets is helpful for firearm identification. Common automatic identification methods process these images using linear time invariant (LTI) filters based on correlation. These methods do not consider the sensitivity of correlation based comparisons to nonlinear baseline drifts. The striations are undeniably random unique micro structures caused by random non-model-based imperfections in the tools used in rifling process, therefore any characteristic profile that is extracted from a bullet image is statistically non-stationary...
August 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
R Palmer, K Sheridan, J Puckett, N Richardson, W Lo
Textile fibres can be transferred directly, person to person or person to scene (primary transfer), or indirectly via an intermediate (secondary transfer). In criminal cases involving a transfer of textile fibres, it is often the case that whilst the provenance of recovered 'crime significant' fibres is accepted by the defence, it is a particular activity leading to their transfer to a surface in question which is disputed. In such circumstances, transfer and persistence studies relating to fibres on a particular substrate in particular conditions assist in evaluating whether the presence of crime relevant fibres is more likely to have occurred by one particular activity compared to another...
August 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
Nak-Eun Chung, Anton Castilani, Wilfredo E Tierra, Philip Beh, Mohd Shah Mahmood
On December 1st, 2014, the sinking of Oryong 501 occurred in the Bering Sea off the east coast of Russia. A total of 60 crew members, including 35 Indonesians, 13 Filipinos, 11 South Koreans and 1 Russian inspector were on board out of which only seven survived. Through an international rescue operation, the dead bodies of 27 were found and the remaining 26 crew are still missing. After transferring the dead bodies to the Busan Harbor in South Korea, the operation to identify the deceased began involving DVI teams from three countries: Korea, Indonesia and the Philippines...
August 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
Andrew Griffiths, Richard Leonars, Lenore Hadley, Mark Stephenson, Richard Teale
This study outlines the operational challenges and findings of an illicit drug oral fluid testing program carried out on the skippers (those in charge) of water vessels in Queensland, Australia. Between 2010 and 2016, 953 tests of skippers were conducted on water (waterside) for three proscribed illicit drugs; delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), methylamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylendioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). 126 (13%) of the skippers tested returned an on-site positive during waterside testing, 125 were confirmed positive for one or more illicit drug by subsequent laboratory analysis, whilst one skipper did not provide an oral fluid sample for confirmatory analysis...
July 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
Tom G Schotman, Xiaoma Xu, Nicole Rodewijk, Jaap van der Weerd
Seven cases and a quality assurance test are presented. In these cases, fibres or textiles submitted for investigation were analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS to identify the dyes present. The cases presented illustrate that it is possible to identify textile dyes in fibre traces recovered for forensic analysis. The results show that a mixture of dyes is present in all textiles investigated, except one sample that was taken from a manufacturer dye shade card. It is concluded that dye analyses improves the evidential value of forensic fibre examinations, as it becomes possible to distinguish textiles that are different in dye chemistry, but have a similar colour...
July 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
Marie Mardal, Sys Stybe Johansen, Ragnar Thomsen, Kristian Linnet
Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)...
July 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
Byungsuk Cho, Suncheun Kim, Sangwhan In, Sanggil Choe
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed and validated for the detection and quantitation of bentazone and its two hydroxylated metabolites, 6-hydroxybentazone and 8-hydroxybentazone, in postmortem blood. Sample cleanup was performed using a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced (HLB) SPE cartridge and then separated on a C18 LC column using a gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid in distilled water and 0.1% formic acid in methanol. The identification of bentazone and its hydroxylated metabolites was performed using tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode with selective reaction monitoring...
July 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
Fritz Pragst, Silke Suesse, Alberto Salomone, Marco Vincenti, Vincent Cirimele, Jayne Hazon, Lolita Tsanaclis, Robert Kingston, Frank Sporkert, Markus R Baumgartner
The consensus on alcohol markers in hair was revised for the fourth time by an expert group of the Society of Hair Testing based on current state of research. This revision was adopted by the members of the Society during the business meeting in Brisbane on August 29th 2016. For both markers, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), two cut-off values for discrimination between teetotalers or occasional low amount consumption and moderate alcohol drinking (low cut-off), and between non-excessive (abstinence up to moderate alcohol intake) and chronic excessive drinking (high cut-off value) were critically examined...
July 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
Derek Congram, Michael Kenyhercz, Arthur Gill Green
We review the current and potential uses of Geographic Information Software (GIS) and "spatial thinking" for understanding body disposal behaviour in times of mass fatalities, particularly armed conflict contexts. The review includes observations made by the authors during the course of their academic research and professional consulting on the use of spatial analysis and GIS to support Humanitarian Forensic Action (HFA) to search for the dead, theoretical and statistical considerations in modelling grave site locations, and suggestions on how this work may be advanced further...
July 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
Luca Roncati, Antonio Manenti, Monica Roncati, Benedetto Vergari, Antonio Maiorana, Giuseppe Barbolini
Here, referred for the first time in literature, we present the forensic case of death, with suicidal intent, following ingestion of a conspicuous amount of quaternary ammonium compounds contained in an unguarded bottle of household detergent. The deceased person was a young female patient at a psychiatric facility; the cause of death was acute heart failure due to spotty infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells in the myocardial tissue, observable in the course of toxic myocarditis. The dominant pathogenetic factors involved are direct damage of myocardial cells and a superimposed immune response extending to the epicardial perivascular spaces...
July 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
B Zilg, G Thelander, B Giebe, H Druid
Drug concentrations in postmortem blood samples can differ considerably, depending on the sample site - a phenomenon named postmortem redistribution. In this study, blood samples from 48 cases of suspected intoxications were collected during autopsy at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were collected from the right and left heart, the carotid artery, jugular vein, external iliac artery and external iliac vein. The mean ratio of right heart/iliac vein was 1.3, which confirms the results from previous studies that drug concentrations in central blood are generally higher than in peripheral blood...
July 25, 2017: Forensic Science International
Vasif V Nabiyev, Seçkin Yılmaz, Asuman Günay, Gül Muzaffer, Güzin Ulutaş
Shredded banknote reconstruction is a recent topic and can be viewed as solving large-scale jigsaw puzzles. Also, problems such as reconstruction of fragmented documents, photographs and historical artefacts are closely related with this topic. The high computational complexity of these problems increases the need for the development of new methods Reconstruction of shredded banknotes consists of three main stages. (1) Matching fragments with a reference banknote. (2) Aligning the fragments by rotating at certain angles...
July 23, 2017: Forensic Science International
Barbara Ciprandi, Salvatore Andreola, Marta Bianchi, Guendalina Gentile, Riccardo Zoja
Death by accidental mechanical asphyxia in adults is infrequent and usually results from chocking/aspiration, entrapment, ligature strangulation by clothes catching in machinery (especially as occupational deaths) and, more frequently, sexual asphyxia. Except for autoerotic deaths, accidental hanging almost never occurs in adults, and compression of the neck by solid unmovable structures is also rarely reported. The authors report an unusual case of death by mechanical asphyxia due to accidental compression of the neck in combination with suspension of the body, observed in a thief who was found hanging from the ceiling of a room, having his neck compressed by the panels of the floor and his body suspended half a meter from the ground...
July 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
Klara Dégardin, Anne Desponds, Yves Roggo
Protein-based medicines, or large molecule medicines, are innovative products used to treat various diseases like hepatitis or cancer. This new generation of molecules are usually expensive, and thus represents an attractive target for the counterfeiters. Due to the complexity of their chemical structure, their analysis for counterfeit detection is more difficult than small molecule medicines. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy and microscopy can be used for the fast analysis of counterfeits of protein-based medicines...
July 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
Antonia Domingo-Salvany, M Jesús Herrero, Beatriz Fernandez, Julio Perez, Pilar Del Real, Juan Carlos González-Luque, Rafael de la Torre
A survey was conducted during 2015 to monitor psychoactive substance use in a sample of drivers in Spanish roads and cities. Traffic police officers recruited drivers at sites carefully chosen to achieve representativeness of the driver population. A brief questionnaire included the date, time, and personal and driving patterns data. Alcohol use was ascertained through ethanol breath test at the roadside and considered positive if concentrations >0.05mg alcohol/L were detected. Four drug classes were assessed on-site through an oral fluid screening test that, if positive, was confirmed through a second oral fluid sample at a reference laboratory...
July 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
Yasuhito Suzuki, Fujio Ishizawa, Katsuya Honda
BACKGROUND: Various autopsy findings are used for the diagnosis of burning death, including inhalation injury, soot in the respiratory tract, vital reaction, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and blood cyanide. However, not all findings are necessarily complete, and autopsy diagnosis can be difficult in cases where there are few findings. In this study, we analyzed combustion-derived volatile substances (CVSs) in post-mortem blood in fire-related cases, focusing on those that occur when buildings and furniture thermally decompose during a fire, and evaluated these as potential new autopsy findings...
July 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
Luca Morini, Fulvia Pozzi, Angelo Groppi
INTRODUCTION: An in vitro study on authentic positive samples was carried out, aiming the evaluation of the effect of chlorinated water on benzodiazepines in hair. Two subjects exposed to chlorinated water for several consecutive times were also investigated. METHOD: Seven hair samples collected from autopsy cases, previously tested positive for benzodiazepines, were washed with dichloromethane and methanol. They were longitudinally divided in six aliquots of about 30mg...
July 14, 2017: Forensic Science International
Prashant Agrawal, Laurel Barnet, Daniel Attinger
Bloodstain pattern analysis considers stains on various porous and non-porous surfaces, for the purpose of crime scene reconstruction. On non-porous surfaces, several studies relate the impact conditions of drops to the inspection of stain shapes. Stains on porous surfaces like fabrics have been relatively less explored. The phenomenon of imbibition of blood into the fabric after impact adds further complexity in retrieving information on the impacting conditions. The present work studies experimentally and numerically the formation of drip stains on a woven fabric...
July 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
Mithun Rajshekar, Roberta Julian, Anne-Marie Williams, Marc Tennant, Alex Forrest, Laurence J Walsh, Gary Wilson, Leigh Blizzard
AIM: Intra-oral 3D scanning of dentitions has the potential to provide a fast, accurate and non-invasive method of recording dental information. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements of human dental casts made using a portable intra-oral 3D scanner appropriate for field use. METHOD: Two examiners each measured 84 tooth and 26 arch features of 50 sets of upper and lower human dental casts using digital hand-held callipers, and secondly using the measuring tool provided with the Zfx IntraScan intraoral 3D scanner applied to the virtual dental casts...
July 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
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