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Forensic Science International

Maja Krpo, Hege Cathrine Luytkis, An-Magritt Haneborg, Gudrun Høiseth
For the new psychoactive drug 5-(2-aminopropyl) benzofuran (5-APB), very limited knowledge is available regarding lethal concentrations. We present a case and report the post mortem blood concentration of a fatal outcome for a 25 year old man related to the consumption of 5-APB. After intake, he became unconscious and stopped breathing. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started without success. After 30min he was declared dead at the scene. During autopsy, whole blood from the femoral vein was collected and screened for a wide range of medicinal drugs and drugs of abuse...
September 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Sanggil Choe, Sangwhan In, Youngjoon Jeon, Hyeyoung Choi, Suncheun Kim
In some autopsy cases, there are unknown natural toxins that are suspected to cause serious damage to the person. However, without reference materials, it is almost impossible to identify the suspicious natural toxins by GC-MS or LC-MS. In this case, a man drank mushroom -liquor with a meal at his home. Seven hours later, he was transported to the emergency room, and 12hours later, he died. In the ingested mushroom-infused-liquor, there were pieces of mushroom that were estimated to be Podostroma cornu-damae (Hypocreaceae) based on their morphological characteristics...
September 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Takehisa Matsukawa, Momoko Chiba, Atsuko Shinohara, Yuki Matsumoto-Omori, Kazuhito Yokoyama
In cases of criminal thallium poisoning, forensic investigation is required to identify the amount and time of thallium exposure. Usually, blood and urine thallium levels are respectively used as biomarkers. Additionally, hair has the unique potential to reveal retrospective information. Although several studies have attempted to clarify how thallium is distributed in hair after thallium poisoning, none have evaluated the time course of changing thallium distribution. We investigated changes in the distribution of thallium in hair at different time points after exposure in five criminal thallotoxicosis patients...
September 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
Andrzej Boszczyk, Marcin Fudalej, Sławomir Kwapisz, Marcin Błoński, Maciej Kiciński, Bartłomiej Kordasiewicz, Stefan Rammelt
INTRODUCTION: The genetic Lauge-Hansen classification has been traditionally used for reconstruction of the mechanism of ankle injury. The ability of the Lauge-Hansen classification to predict actual mechanism of the injury has been questioned in recent studies, leaving a void in medicolegal reasoning. The aim of this study is to identify morphologic features of malleolar fractures on plain X-rays that may be used to reveal the fracture mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Radiographs of 78 patients with acute malleolar fractures were analyzed and compared with fracture mechanisms reported by these patients...
September 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
William C Thompson, Nicholas Scurich
Negative forensic evidence can be defined as the failure to find a trace after looking for it. Such evidence is often dismissed by referring to the aphorism "absence of evidence is not evidence of absence." However, this reasoning can be misleading in the context of forensic science. This commentary is designed to help forensic scientists understand the probative value of negative forensic evidence.
September 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
Sonja Sassi, Helinä Hakko, Esa Räty, Pirkko Riipinen
BACKGROUND: Fatal head-on collisions between passenger cars and trucks are sometimes thought as self-inflicted death of the passenger car drivers. METHODS: A total of 378 Finnish drivers of light motor vehicles (LMV) died in collisions with heavy vehicles between the years 2002-2011. These male and female drivers, who were considered as being at fault, and whose collisions with heavy vehicles occurred in the oncoming vehicle's lane, were explored in relation to information on their socio-demographics, physical and mental health condition and driving-related factors...
September 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
Cristian Palmiere, Francesco De Stefano, Alessandro Bonsignore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
Gerardo Flórez, Ventura Ferrer, Luis S García, María R Crespo, Manuel Pérez, Pilar A Saiz, David J Cooke
Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) validation studies have been conducted mainly in non representative samples of North American adult male serious offenders. Research in other samples is needed to test the generalizability of PCL-R construct validity. PCL-R psychometric properties and construct validity were evaluated in a representative sample of 204 Spanish sentenced inmates. These inmates had served at least 6 months of their sentence at Pereiro de Aguiar prison. This sample was heterogeneous with respect to type of official charges and was representative, as all offenders who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were invited to participate...
September 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
Masahito Hitosugi, Takeshi Koseki, Tomokazu Hariya, Genta Maeda, Shingo Moriguchi, Shiho Hiraizumi
INTRODUCTION: When considering seat belt contacts to the neck in pregnant woman of shorter height sitting in the rear seat of a vehicle, subsequent injuries after a collision must be understood in the context of both maternal and fetal outcomes. To determine likely injuries to a pregnant woman sitting in the rear seat, we determined the kinematics of a "pregnant" crash test dummy by measuring neck compression forces and biomechanical parameters acting on the head and neck. METHODS: Sled tests using a shorter-height pregnant woman crash test dummy (Maternal Anthropometric Measurement Apparatus, ver...
September 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
Tiefang Zou, Fenglin He, Ming Cai, Yuelin Li
There is always more than one method can be employed to reconstruct a traffic accident and then more than one result can be obtained. How to describe these different results becomes an issue. Two solutions were given, the first is to fuse different results to one result, while the other is to rank different results according to their credibility. Methods based on the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) operator and Uncertain Ordered Weighted Averaging (UOWA) operator were proposed to fuse different certain results and different interval results to one result, respectively...
August 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
Elisabetta Bertol, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Alessia Fioravanti, Francesco Mari, Diego Palumbo, Jennifer P Pascali, Fabio Vaiano
In case of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), the evidence is frequently anecdotal, with few investigations based on scientific evidences being carried out and thus most cases are diagnosed as an acute drug or alcohol intoxication. The reason may lay in the lack of specific knowledge by the victim on the possibility to retrospectively study the allegedly events and to the absence of standardized and shared protocols among health, forensic and police subjects. On this basis, in 2015 the Unit of Forensic Toxicology of University of Florence and the Sexual Assaults Centre in Hospital Careggi have fixed a common protocol to be applied in case of DFSA...
August 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
Shatishraj Jothee, Mohamed Swarhib Shafie, Faridah Mohd Nor
We present a case of a fatal motor vehicle collision of a 22-year-old car driver, who died at the scene after losing control of his car, and subsequently collided with a tree by the roadside. The subsequent autopsy revealed penetrating injuries on the neck, severing the larynx, carotid artery, jugular vein and fracturing the cervical vertebrae. Internal examination showed the offending material to be a semi-cylindrical metal fragment, which had lodged within the paravertebral muscle. Examination of the car with the authorities found that the metal fragment originated from a defective airbag booster cannister, which shattered upon deployment...
August 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
Nicolas Van Elsué, Cleo L Crunelle, Cor A Verbrugge, Kim van Baarle, Anaïs Rodrigues, Hugo Neels, Michel Yegles
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid used recreationally as a drug of abuse due its strong suppressive effect on the central nervous system. The detection window of GHB in blood and urine is very narrow (t1/2=30min) but can be substantially prolonged using alternative matrices such as hair. We here present a newly developed and limited validated method with a solid phase extraction (SPE) using GC-MS/MS to determine concentrations of GHB in hair samples. The soft extraction technique (water and 90min ultrasonic bath) preserves GHB with a high yield and clean extracts...
August 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ji Hyun Lee, Aeran Jung, Han Na Park, Changhee Lee, Suresh Mandava, Sung-Jun Lim, Byoung-Bok Lim, Sung-Kwan Park, Jongkook Lee, Hoil Kang
Illicit psychoactive substances have threatened public health worldwide. An active metabolite of ADB-CHMINACA and MDMB-CHMINACA was identified for the first time in a powder-type product found in an airmail package. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Compound 1 was proven to be an analogue of MDMB-CHMINACA, an indazole-based synthetic cannabinoid...
August 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
Jacques Linden, Raymond Marquis, Silvia Bozza, Franco Taroni
This article focuses on dynamic signatures and their features. It provides a detailed and critical review of dynamic feature variations and circumstantial parameters affecting dynamic signatures. The state of the art summarizes available knowledge, meant to assist the forensic practitioner in cases presenting extraordinary writing conditions. The studied parameters include hardware-related issues, aging and the influence of time, as well as physical and mental states of the writer. Some parameters, such as drug and alcohol abuse or medication, have very strong effects on handwriting and signature dynamics...
August 29, 2018: Forensic Science International
John T Wixted
Understandably enough, most people are under the impression that eyewitness memory is unreliable. For example, research shows that memory is malleable, so much so that people can come to confidently remember traumatic events that never actually happened. In addition, eyewitness misidentifications made with high confidence in a court of law are known to have played a role in more than 70% of the 358 wrongful convictions that have been overturned based on DNA evidence since 1989. However, recent research demonstrates that eyewitness confidence is highly indicative of accuracy on an initial, uncontaminated, properly administered photo lineup...
August 29, 2018: Forensic Science International
F Riva, E J A T Mattijssen, W Kerkhoff
Trajectory deflections of 5.56 NATO and 7.62×39mm rifle bullets, fired through 7.5, 15 and 22.5cm of gelatine, were studied. The magnitude of the deflections from the bullets' original trajectories after perforation are related to the length and the profile of the (wound) channels through gelatine. After 7.5cm of penetration depth, deflection was less than 1°. With the longer channel lengths, bullet instability set in and subsequently, deflection was much larger. Deflection was highest with fragmented 5.56 NATO bullets after perforating 22...
August 29, 2018: Forensic Science International
Stephanie J Marhoff-Beard, Shari L Forbes, Hayley Green
Forensic anthropologists have traditionally relied on their knowledge and experience of the decomposition stages to make an assessment of the time since death. However, recently new and empirical methods have been developed in various regions worldwide that propose to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) based on the observed decomposition changes alongside important taphonomic variables. Yet despite these methods being predominantly geographic specific, a number of methods have suggested they are effective universally and it is these 'universal' methods that have been inadequately test in Australia...
August 29, 2018: Forensic Science International
Klara Dégardin, Aurélie Guillemain, Philippe Klespe, Florine Hindelang, Raphaël Zurbach, Yves Roggo
The authentication of the packaging represents an important step in the investigation of suspected counterfeits of pharmaceutical products. The visual comparison with a retained sample is the first step to detect a counterfeited packaging. Due to the improvement of technologies like printing, the emergence of counterfeits with a better appearance can be observed. Moreover counterfeits are nowadays often a combination of fake and genuine parts that have been manipulated. Authenticating each part of the product is important in the frame of the investigation to understand how the counterfeiters proceed, and which prevention measures should be taken...
August 29, 2018: Forensic Science International
Martin Hora, Vladimír Sládek
Vertebral measurements have been shown to provide accurate classification of sex. However, the use of vertebral discriminant functions (DFs) in forensic anthropology and bioarchaeology is limited due to the unknown degree of their population specificity. Additionally, the performance of vertebral DFs has not yet been assessed at higher posterior probability thresholds. In this study, we tested the performance of previously published DFs for sex classification from Th12 and L1 vertebrae within a range of 0.5-0...
August 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
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