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Forensic Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735217/zopiclone-concentrations-in-oral-fluid-and-blood-after-administration-of-therapeutic-doses-of-zopiclone
#1
Knut Hjelmeland, Ingebjørg Gustavsen, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Åse Marit Leere Øiestad, Gudrun Høiseth, Jørg Mørland
PURPOSE: Little is known about the relationship between concentrations in oral fluid (OF) and blood for the widely prescribed hypnotic drug zopiclone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of OF zopiclone concentrations to predict blood zopiclone concentrations in order to introduce OF testing as an alternative to more cumbersome blood testing. METHODS: 16 healthy young male volunteers received capsules of either 5 or 10mg zopiclone on two different study days separated by at least one week...
July 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732316/a-user-friendly-technical-set-up-for-infrared-photography-of-forensic-findings
#2
Thomas Rost, Nicole Kalberer, Eva Scheurer
Infrared photography is interesting for a use in forensic science and forensic medicine since it reveals findings that normally are almost invisible to the human eye. Originally, infrared photography has been made possible by the placement of an infrared light transmission filter screwed in front of the camera objective lens. However, this set-up is associated with many drawbacks such as the loss of the autofocus function, the need of an external infrared source, and long exposure times which make the use of a tripod necessary...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735218/strength-of-linguistic-text-evidence-a-fused-forensic-text-comparison-system
#3
Shunichi Ishihara
Compared to other forensic comparative sciences, studies of the efficacy of the likelihood ratio (LR) framework in forensic authorship analysis are lagging. An experiment is described concerning the estimation of strength of linguistic text evidence within that framework. The LRs were estimated by trialling three different procedures: one is based on the multivariate kernel density (MVKD) formula, with each group of messages being modelled as a vector of authorship attribution features; the other two involve N-grams based on word tokens and characters, respectively...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734270/a-case-study-of-an-unknown-mass-grave-hostages-killed-70-years-ago-by-a-nazi-firing-squad-identified-thanks-to-genetics
#4
Andrzej Ossowski, Marta Diepenbroek, Marcin Zwolski, Adam Falis, Maria Wróbel, Milena Bykowska-Witowska, Grażyna Zielińska, Maria Szargut, Tomasz Kupiec
Almost 6 million people died in Poland during the Nazi occupation and about 570 thousand during the Soviet occupation. But the end of the war was not the end of the trauma. Historians estimate that at least 30 thousand people were killed during the Stalinist regime in Poland. In 2012 the Institute of National Remembrance started to search for hidden burials of victims of communism. Many exhumations were carried out under the project. One of them took place in Białystok, eastern Poland. According to information gathered by local historians, a detention centre in the heart of city was the place of secret burials of victims of the communist regime...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728049/application-of-forensic-image-analysis-in-accident-investigations
#5
REVIEW
Ellen Verolme, Arjan Mieremet
Forensic investigations are primarily meant to obtain objective answers that can be used for criminal prosecution. Accident analyses are usually performed to learn from incidents and to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Although the primary goal may be different, the steps in which information is gathered, interpreted and weighed are similar in both types of investigations, implying that forensic techniques can be of use in accident investigations as well. The use in accident investigations usually means that more information can be obtained from the available information than when used in criminal investigations, since the latter require a higher evidence level...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708988/early-colonisation-of-urban-indoor-carcasses-by-blow-flies-diptera-calliphoridae-an-experimental-study-from-central-spain
#6
Daniel Martín-Vega, Carla Martín Nieto, Blanca Cifrián, Arturo Baz, Luisa M Díaz-Aranda
Due to their ubiquity and synanthropy, blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are generally the first colonisers of cadavers and, therefore, frequently used to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (minPMI). Whereas in outdoor situations blow flies are expected to locate and colonise exposed cadavers within hours or even minutes after death, it is usually assumed that the colonisation of a cadaver indoors might be delayed for an uncertain period of time. This uncertainty severely limits the informativity of minPMI estimates based on entomological evidence...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716518/virtual-animation-of-victim-specific-3d-models-obtained-from-ct-scans-for-forensic-reconstructions-living-and-dead-subjects
#7
C Villa, K B Olsen, S H Hansen
Post-mortem CT scanning (PMCT) has been introduced at several forensic medical institutions many years ago and has proved to be a useful tool. 3D models of bones, skin, internal organs and bullet paths can rapidly be generated using post-processing software. These 3D models reflect the individual physiognomics and can be used to create whole-body 3D virtual animations. In such way, virtual reconstructions of the probable ante-mortem postures of victims can be constructed and contribute to understand the sequence of events...
July 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715674/the-presence-of-licit-and-illicit-drugs-in-police-stations-and-their-implications-for-workplace-drug-testing
#8
Gregory S Doran, Ralph Deans, Carlo De Filippis, Chris Kostakis, Julia A Howitt
The presence of licit and illicit drug residues on surfaces was studied in 10 police stations and a central drug evidence store in New South Wales, Australia, with the results compared to similar surfaces in four public buildings (to establish a community baseline). The results of almost 850 workplace surface swabs were also compared to the outcome of drug analysis in urine and hair samples volunteered by police officers. Surfaces were swabbed with alcohol and the swabs were extracted and analysed by LC-MS/MS...
July 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697397/reproducibility-of-characteristic-marks-on-fired-cartridge-cases-from-five-chinese-norinco-qsz-92-9%C3%A3-19mm-pistols
#9
Kaifeng Zhang, Yaping Luo, Peng Zhou
Reproducibility of characteristic marks on fired cartridge cases from five Chinese Norinco QSZ-92 9×19mm pistols over the course of 3070 shots is addressed using an Evofinder(®) system. The first 20 cartridges are all studied, while one random sample out of every ten consecutively fired cartridge cases is studied for the rest 3050 rounds. As such, a total of 325 cartridges are entered into the system for each pistol and a database consisting of 1625 cartridges from five pistols is established in this paper...
July 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692859/an-experimental-study-addressing-the-use-of-geoforensic-analysis-for-the-exploitation-of-improvised-explosive-devices-ieds
#10
Beth Wilks, Ruth M Morgan, Neil L Rose
The use of geoforensic analysis in criminal investigations is continuing to develop, with the diversification of analytical techniques, many of which are semi-automated, facilitating prompt analysis of large sample sets at a relatively low cost. Whilst micro-scale geoforensic analysis has been shown to assist criminal investigations including homicide (Concheri et al., 2011 [1]), wildlife crime (Morgan et al., 2006 [2]), illicit drug distribution (Stanley, 1992 [3]), and burglary (Mildenhall, 2006 [4]), its application to the pressing international security threat posed by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is yet to be considered...
July 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715673/activity-level-dna-evidence-evaluation-on-propositions-addressing-the-actor-or-the-activity
#11
Bas Kokshoorn, Bart J Blankers, Jacob de Zoete, Charles E H Berger
More often than not, the source of DNA traces found at a crime scene is not disputed, but the activity or timing of events that resulted in their transfer is. As a consequence, practitioners are increasingly asked to assign a value to DNA evidence given propositions about activities provided by prosecution and defense counsel. Given that the dispute concerns the nature of the activity that took place or the identity of the actor that carried out the activity, several factors will determine how to formulate the propositions...
July 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734268/dna-barcoding-allows-identification-of-european-fanniidae-diptera-of-forensic-interest
#12
Andrzej Grzywacz, Dominika Wyborska, Marcin Piwczyński
In forensic entomology practice, species identification is a prerequisite for any further analysis of collected material. Although morphology-based taxonomy may be hindered by a range of factors, these are not obstacles for a molecular identification approach, so-called DNA barcoding. The Fanniidae are a dipteran family that is attracted to and breeds in decomposing animal carrion and dead human bodies. However, morphological identification of fanniids, both at adult and immature stages, is considered to be difficult, particularly for non-experts...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716517/lethal-suicide-attempt-with-a-mixed-drug-intoxication-of-metoprolol-and-propafenone-a-first-pediatric-case-report
#13
Ivana Kacirova, Milan Grundmann, Martin Kolek, Erika Vyskocilova-Hrudikova, Romana Urinovska, Petr Handlos
INTRODUCTION: The β1 adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol is often prescribed together with the antiarrhythmic drug propafenone. Both are metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 and propafenone is also an inhibitor of this enzyme. We present a pediatric case showing metoprolol and propafenone intoxication in combination. CASE: A 14-year-old girl was admitted to a local emergency department after ingestion of metoprolol (probably 1g) and propafenone (probably 1.5-3g) in a suicide attempt...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692860/-1-h-and-31-p-benchtop-nmr-of-liquids-and-solids-used-in-and-or-produced-during-the-manufacture-of-methamphetamine-by-the-hi-reduction-of-pseudoephedrine-ephedrine
#14
Ben Bogun, Sarah Moore
In this study, the use of benchtop NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of solids and liquids used and/or produced during the HI reduction of pseudoephedrine was evaluated. The study focused on identifying organic precursors and phosphorus containing compounds used in and/or produced during the manufacturing process. Samples taken from clandestine laboratories, where this synthesis process was suspected of occurring, were also analysed and evaluated. Benchtop NMR was able to distinguish between ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine as the free base and hydrochloride salt...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689045/estimation-of-changes-in-breech-face-and-firing-pin-marks-over-consecutive-discharges-and-its-impact-on-an-ibis-%C3%A2-heritage%C3%A2-system
#15
Justin N Kirk, Eric F Law, Keith B Morris
When a firearm is discharged, the individual marks of the breech face and firing pin are imprinted onto the primer of the cartridge case. These individual marks are reproducible between shots; however, over a large number of consecutive shots, it has been observed that minute changes in these individual marks may occur. Changes in individual marks may affect an examiner in their ability to identify or eliminate and may change the magnitude of a likelihood ratio, depending on the system used by the laboratory, but the effect that these changes have on the Integrated Ballistic Identification System (IBIS(®)) is largely unknown...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710938/lack-of-effects-of-a-sobering-product-eezup-on-the-blood-ethanol-and-congener-alcohol-concentration
#16
Cora Wunder, Sarah Hain, Sarah C Koelzer, Alexander Paulke, Marcel A Verhoff, Stefan W Toennes
INTRODUCTION: The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. METHODS: Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study...
June 28, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688345/the-use-of-unburned-propellant-powder-for-shooting-distance-determination-part-ii-diphenylamine-reaction
#17
Rolf Hofer, Philipp Wyss
Shooting samples were produced on standard textile pats of six different ammunition types: four ammunitions with exclusively infrared luminescent propellant powder particles, one containing a mixture of luminescent and non-luminescent particles and one with only non-luminescent particles. Unburned propellant powder particles in the gunshot residue (GSR) on the textile of each sample were transferred onto TLC-plates with the aid of an organic solvent. The patterns of the partially and the all-luminescent propellant powder residue on the TLC-plates were visualized in the near infrared wavelength range by the aid of an IR-sensitive camera...
June 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672218/nanoscale-characterization-of-forensically-relevant-epithelial-cells-and-surface-associated-extracellular-dna
#18
Congzhou Wang, Cristina E Stanciu, Christopher J Ehrhardt, Vamsi K Yadavalli
Atomic force microscopy provides a novel morphological and physico-chemical perspective to analyze epithelial cell samples in forensic investigations. As a nanoscale, single cell tool, it allows the investigation of scarce samples in a non-destructive fashion. Using chemical force spectroscopy, it permits the identification of specific functional groups or surface molecules. Of specific interest is the presence of extracellular DNA (eDNA) on the surface of epithelial cells that line the exterior skin and interior cavities of human bodies, and can transfer onto surfaces through contact with skin and saliva...
June 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734269/crime-scene-reconstruction-sex-prediction-from-blood-stained-foot-sole-impressions
#19
Nabanita Basu, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
It is often difficult to predict the sex of an individual based on bloody incomplete footprints. However, such prints/impressions are particularly common in a crime scene. Again variability in the texture, color of the target surface has an impact on the bloodstained impression formed. The study of bare foot, footprint, footwear (i.e. shoe, canvas etc.) within the legal context is referred to as forensic podiatry. Based on the fact that it is possible to predict the sex of an individual from footprint impressions, an automated model has been proposed in this paper for analyzing the sex of an individual from his/her broken/incomplete footprint impressions based on morphological features alone...
June 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689044/voyaging-into-the-third-dimension-a-perspective-on-virtual-methods-and-their-application-to-studies-of-juvenile-sex-estimation-and-the-ontogeny-of-sexual-dimorphism
#20
REVIEW
L A B Wilson, L T Humphrey
In contrast to the well-established and highly accurate morphological methods available for sexing adult skeletons, juvenile sex estimation is widely recognised as a difficult task that faces a series of challenges. The acquisition of 3D data, and construction of 3D models from volume or surface scans, has become increasingly common in forensic sciences, and these data offer considerable opportunity for the development and refinement of methods in sex estimation. The suitability and potential of virtual methods for juvenile sex estimation are evaluated with the aims of identifying (1) the benefits and challenges associated with virtual data and quantitative analysis of 3D models, and (2) pathways that may lead to practical improvements for sexing juveniles...
June 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
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