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Forensic Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324768/analysis-of-different-materials-subjected-to-open-air-explosions-in-search-of-explosive-traces-by-raman-microscopy
#1
Félix Zapata, Carmen García-Ruiz
Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control...
March 16, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288338/ghb-involved-crimes-among-intoxicated-patients
#2
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Gábor Zacher, János Posta, Zsolt Demetrovics
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, the involvement of GHB in drug facilitated sexual assaults has been one of the most frequently studied aspects of GHB in both clinical and non-clinical settings. GHB-involved acquisitory crimes, however, can be mentioned as understudied research topics, as well as the poisoning severity properties of GHB. MEASURES: The medical reports of Péterfy Sándor Street Hospital Clinic and Casualty Centre's 408 GHB-intoxication cases (352 patients) were reviewed and registered...
March 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329723/analysis-of-synthetic-phenethylamine-street-drugs-using-direct-sample-analysis-coupled-to-accurate-mass-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#3
Maura K McGonigal, Joshua A Wilhide, Philip B Smith, Noelle M Elliott, Frank L Dorman
Serious health complications and fatal overdoses have brought phenethylamine, otherwise known as 2C, drug abuse to the public's attention. These compounds are 2C-X series analogs of mescaline. The name "2C" results from the two carbons in the ethyl chain. The substituents on these emerging drugs are constantly changed in order to avoid listing as controlled substances. These synthetic drugs are marketed as having affects similar to LSD and MDMA and are typically consumed sublingually via blotter paper. Twenty-six commercially available standards were analyzed using a direct sample analysis technique coupled to accurate mass time of flight mass spectrometry...
March 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324770/a-non-fatal-intoxication-and-seven-deaths-involving-the-dissociative-drug-3-meo-pcp
#4
Anna Johansson, Daniel Lindstedt, Markus Roman, Gunilla Thelander, Elisabet I Nielsen, Ulrica Lennborn, Håkan Sandler, Sten Rubertsson, Johan Ahlner, Robert Kronstrand, Fredrik C Kugelberg
INTRODUCTION: 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) appeared on the illicit drug market in 2011 and is an analogue of phencyclidine, which exhibits anesthetic, analgesic and hallucinogenic properties. In this paper, we report data from a non-fatal intoxication and seven deaths involving 3-MeO-PCP in Sweden during the period March 2014 until June 2016. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: The non-fatal intoxication case, a 19-year-old male with drug problems and a medical history of depression, was found awake but tachycardic, hypertensive, tachypnoeic and catatonic at home...
March 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283378/the-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-ur-144-on-the-human-body-a-review-of-39-cases
#5
Piotr Adamowicz, Joanna Gieroń, Dominika Gil, Wojciech Lechowicz, Agnieszka Skulska, Bogdan Tokarczyk
UR-144 [(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone] is a synthetic cannabinoid, which has been detected in many 'legal highs', seized from the global drug market since the beginning of 2012. It has gained popularity as a 'legal' alternative to classic cannabis in countries where it was not controlled. Despite the widespread distribution of this substance, the data on its effects on the human body are scarce. Therefore, this paper describes the results of analysis and observed effects in 39 cases in which UR-144 was determined in blood...
March 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336197/determination-of-specific-ige-in-pericardial-fluid
#6
LETTER
Cristian Palmiere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292657/migration-of-latent-fingermarks-on-non-porous-surfaces-observation-technique-and-nanoscale-variations
#7
K T Popov, V G Sears, B J Jones
Latent fingermark morphology was examined over a period of approximately two months. Variation in topography was observed with atomic force microscopy and the expansion of the fingermark occurred in the form of the development of an intermediate area surrounding the main fingermark ridge. On an example area of a fingermark on silicon, the intermediate region exists as a uniform 4nm thick deposit; on day 1 after deposition this region extends approximately 2μm from the edge of the main ridge deposit and expands to a maximum of ∼4μm by day 23...
March 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285091/identification-of-anfo-use-of-luminescent-taggants-in-post-blast-residues
#8
F G M Mauricio, A Z Pralon, M Talhavini, M O Rodrigues, I T Weber
This work describes the incorporation of luminescent taggants in cartridges of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) to allow easy identification and collection of post-blast residues. Metal-Organic Frameworks taggants proved to be appropriate for explosive marking when ANFO proportions were above 3.0wt.%. Lanthanide-based light emission enabled in situ retrieval of explosive residues as well as chemical identification, allowing the creation of a coding system using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The proposed method will accelerate laboratory analysis and support forensic investigations, connecting evidence to suspects and/or to the explosive origin...
March 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279942/effect-of-hand-sanitizer-on-the-performance-of-fingermark-detection-techniques
#9
Scott Chadwick, Melissa Neskoski, Xanthe Spindler, Chris Lennard, Claude Roux
Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate)...
March 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329724/accurate-predictions-of-postmortem-interval-using-linear-regression-analyses-of-gene-meter-expression-data
#10
M Colby Hunter, Alex E Pozhitkov, Peter A Noble
In criminal and civil investigations, postmortem interval is used as evidence to help sort out circumstances at the time of human death. Many biological, chemical, and physical indicators can be used to determine the postmortem interval - but most are not accurate. Here, we sought to validate an experimental design to accurately predict the time of death by analyzing the expression of hundreds of upregulated genes in two model organisms, the zebrafish and mouse. In a previous study, the death of healthy adults was conducted under strictly controlled conditions to minimize the effects of confounding factors such as lifestyle and temperature...
March 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292656/fingermark-visualisation-on-uncirculated-%C3%A2-5-bank-of-england-polymer-notes-initial-process-comparison-studies
#11
Rory P Downham, Eleigh R Brewer, Roberto S P King, Aoife M Luscombe, Vaughn G Sears
Experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a range of fingermark visualisation processes on brand new, uncirculated, £5 polymer banknotes (and their test note predecessors), as produced by the Bank of England (BoE). In the main study of this paper, a total of 14 individual processes were investigated on BoE £5 polymer banknotes, which included both 'Category A' processes (as recommended in the Home Office Fingermark Visualisation Manual) as well as recently developed processes, including fpNatural(®) 2 powder (cuprorivaite) from Foster+Freeman and a vacuum metal deposition sequence that evaporates silver followed by zinc...
March 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260645/effect-of-drug-precursors-and-chemicals-relevant-to-clandestine-laboratory-investigation-on-plastic-bags-used-for-collection-and-storage
#12
Harmonie Michelot, Shanlin Fu, Barbara Stuart, Ronald Shimmon, Tony Raymond, Tony Crandell, Claude Roux
In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag...
March 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284677/the-everlasting-issue-of-ghb-cut-offs-in-biological-samples-how-important-it-is-to-be-careful-when-interpreting-values
#13
LETTER
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273545/prevalence-of-drugs-in-oral-fluid-from-truck-drivers-in-brazilian-highways
#14
Henrique Silva Bombana, Hallvard Gjerde, Marcelo Filonzi Dos Santos, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem Jamt, Mauricio Yonamine, Waldo José Caram Rohlfs, Daniel Romero Muñoz, Vilma Leyton
Traffic accidents are responsible for 1.25 million deaths worldwide and are the most common cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. In Brazil, traffic accidents caused more than 44,000 deaths in 2014. The use of psychoactive drugs is an important risk factor for being involved in traffic accidents. Previous studies have found that psychoactive substances are commonly used by truck drivers in Brazil to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake while driving during nighttime hours. The state of Sao Paulo is one of the most important states regarding goods transportation...
March 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318652/the-non-sense-of-routinely-analyzing-beta-hydroxybutyrate-in-forensic-toxicology-casework
#15
LETTER
Cristian Palmiere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288337/remodelling-of-myocardial-intercalated-disc-protein-connexin-43-causes-increased-susceptibility-to-malignant-arrhythmias-in-arvc-d-patients
#16
Xiao Chen, Liang Chen, Zhenglian Chen, Xinshan Chen, Jiangping Song
BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a primary cardiomyopathy characterised by fibrofatty replacement and ventricular arrhythmias. The occurrence of malignant arrhythmias may be associated with fatty infiltration and intercalated disk remodelling, but the specific pathological remodelling pattern is not yet clear. METHODS: Twelve explanted hearts from patients diagnosed with ARVC/D according to the 2010 Task Force Criteria and pathology examination were divided into two groups with (SVT, n=6) or without (non-SVT, n=6) recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia (SVT) before heart transplantation...
February 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249216/three-dimensional-analysis-of-the-uniqueness-of-the-anterior-dentition-in-orthodontically-treated-patients-and-twins
#17
A Franco, G Willems, P H C Souza, O M Tanaka, W Coucke, P Thevissen
Dental uniqueness can be proven if no perfect match in pair-wise morphological comparisons of human dentitions is detected. Establishing these comparisons in a worldwide random population is practically unfeasible due to the need for a large and representative sample size. Sample stratification is an option to reduce sample size. The present study investigated the uniqueness of the human dentition in randomly selected subjects (Group 1), orthodontically treated patients (Group 2), twins (Group 3), and orthodontically treated twins (Group 4) in comparison with a threshold control sample of identical dentitions (Group 5)...
February 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273546/electrochemical-impedance-spectroscopy-a-deeper-and-quantitative-insight-into-the-fingermarks-physical-modifications-over-time
#18
Roberto Rosa, Roberto Giovanardi, Andrea Bozza, Paolo Veronesi, Cristina Leonelli
The present work is focused on a novel approach for the study and quantification of some of the physical changes to which a fingermark deposited on non-porous substrates is subjected as its ageing proceeds. Particularly, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique has been applied for the first time in order to monitor the electrochemical behaviour of the system constituted by the fingermark residue and the underlying substrate. The impedance spectra proved to be significantly affected by the presence of the mark residue as well as by its ageing process...
February 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260644/diagnosis-of-drowning-electrolytes-and-total-protein-in-sphenoid-sinus-liquid
#19
Akira Hayakawa, Koichi Terazawa, Kotaro Matoba, Kie Horioka, Tatsushige Fukunaga
In this study, electrolyte (sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), and magnesium (Mg)) and total protein (TP) concentrations and volume of liquid in the sphenoid sinus were examined to determine their usefulness to elucidate whether drowning occurred in freshwater or seawater. We examined 68 cases (seawater drowning group: 27 cases, freshwater drowning group: 21 cases, non-drowning group: 20 cases). There was a significant difference in Na, Cl, Mg, and TP concentrations of liquid in the sphenoid sinus among the three groups (seawater drowning, freshwater drowning, and non-drowning groups)...
February 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324769/factors-associated-with-latent-fingerprint-exclusion-determinations
#20
Bradford T Ulery, R Austin Hicklin, Maria Antonia Roberts, JoAnn Buscaglia
Exclusion is the determination by a latent print examiner that two friction ridge impressions did not originate from the same source. The concept and terminology of exclusion vary among agencies. Much of the literature on latent print examination focuses on individualization, and much less attention has been paid to exclusion. This experimental study assesses the associations between a variety of factors and exclusion determinations. Although erroneous exclusions are more likely to occur on some images and for some examiners, they were widely distributed among images and examiners...
February 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
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