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Forensic Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214756/multifarious-applications-of-atomic-force-microscopy-in-forensic-science-investigations
#1
REVIEW
Gaurav Pandey, Maithri Tharmavaram, Deepak Rawtani, Sumit Kumar, Y Agrawal
Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences...
February 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214757/staining-in-firearm-barrels-after-experimental-contact-shots
#2
C Schyma, K Bauer, J Brünig, C Courts, B Madea
After contact shots to the head biological traces inside firearm barrels can be found. This study was conducted to simulate and to evaluate such staining. Five current handguns of four inch barrel length in the calibre .22 long rifle, 7.65mm Browning, 9mm Luger and .38 special were used to perform 24 contact shots on silicone coated, gelatine filled box models using the triple contrast method. The staining was documented by endoscopy and swabs gathered from both ends of the barrel were analysed by quantitative PCR...
February 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215449/tiaft2016-special-edition-of-forensic-science-international
#3
EDITORIAL
Olaf H Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214755/identification-of-a-new-tert-leucinate-class-synthetic-cannabinoid-in-powder-and-spice-like-herbal-incenses-methyl-2-1-5-fluoropentyl-indole-3-carbonyl-amino-3-3-dimethyl-butanoate-5f-mdmb-pica
#4
Martijn D P Risseeuw, Peter Blanckaert, Vera Coopman, Stijn Van Quekelberghe, Serge Van Calenbergh, Jan Cordonnier
A brown powder and different product packages of "spice-like" herbal incenses were analyzed using a systematic identification approach based on liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with computer based library search against spectral libraries. However, the most predominant compound in the methanolic sample solutions could not be identified. In order to elucidate the chemical structure, a more extensive analysis of the material was initiated using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), electrospray high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and (1)H, (13)C and (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which allowed the identification and characterization of the major compound as methyl 2-[[1-(5-fluoropentyl)indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethyl-butanoate (5F-MDMB-PICA)...
February 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214170/a-response-to-the-importance-of-economic-context-in-interpreting-forensic-data-on-drug-trafficking-networks
#5
LETTER
Julian Broséus, Simon Baechler, Pierre Esseiva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213186/enantioseparation-of-methamphetamine-by-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-with-cellulose-based-packed-column
#6
Hiroki Segawa, Yuko T Iwata, Tadashi Yamamuro, Kenji Kuwayama, Kenji Tsujikawa, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Hiroyuki Inoue
The enantiomers of methamphetamine were differentiated by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with an enantioselective cellulose-based packed column. The optimization of the chromatographic conditions was achieved by changing column temperature, co-solvent proportion, additive concentration, flow rate and back pressure. In particular, the additive concentration crucially changed the resolution between the enantiomers. After determining the optimized conditions, the enantiomers of methamphetamine were successfully separated...
February 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213185/a-comparative-study-of-photogrammetric-methods-using-panoramic-photography-in-a-forensic-context
#7
Kayleigh Sheppard, John P Cassella, Sarah Fieldhouse
Taking measurements of a scene is an integral aspect of the crime scene documentation process, and accepted limits of accuracy for taking measurements at a crime scene vary throughout the world. In the UK, there is no published accepted limit of accuracy, whereas the United States has an accepted limit of accuracy of 0.25 inch. As part of the International organisation for Standardisation 17020 accreditation competency testing is required for all work conducted at the crime scene. As part of this, all measuring devices need to be calibrated within known tolerances in order to meet the required standard, and measurements will be required to have a clearly defined limit of accuracy...
February 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213184/forensic-applications-fluorescence-properties-of-tooth-coloured-restorative-materials-using-a-fluorescence-dslr-camera
#8
Ramya Kiran, James Chapman, Alexander Forrest, Marc Tennant, Laurence J Walsh
The objective of this study was to compare the fluorescence properties of dry and wet samples of contemporary tooth-coloured restorative materials using a fluorescence based DSLR camera and a variety of LEDs emitting different wavelengths of visible light as excitation sources. The materials examined included resin composites; ceramics and hybrid restorative materials such as ormocers, Vita Enamic™ and resin reinforced glass-ionomer cements. The levels of fluorescence for each sample under different combinations of incident light wavelengths and filters was analysed by using histogram data for colour channels from Adobe Photoshop software...
February 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190538/acute-intoxication-caused-by-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-and-mmb-2201-a-case-series
#9
Bernardino Barceló, Simona Pichini, Victoria López-Corominas, Isabel Gomila, Christopher Yates, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Manuela Pellegrini
Synthetic cannabinoids are relatively new substances of abuse. Recently, abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been increasingly reported in the lay press and medical literature. When new compounds are introduced, their use is initially not restricted by prohibition therefore their consumption cannot be verified by standard drug tests. The use of these compounds among adolescents and young adults is constantly growing, making it important for emergency services to be familiar with the signs and symptoms of intoxication present...
February 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187296/toxicological-investigation-of-forensic-cases-related-to-the-designer-drug-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-detection-quantification-and-studies-on-human-metabolism-by-gc-ms
#10
Marcel Grapp, Christoph Kaufmann, Martin Ebbecke
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone belonging to the class of α-pyrrolidinophenones that become increasingly popular as a designer psychostimulant. Here, we report a comprehensive collection of MDPV exposure with quantitative serum level confirmation in Germany. During the years 2014-2016, we could proof consumption of MDPV in 23 cases where urine and blood samples were submitted to our laboratory by the police of Lower Saxony. Most of the samples underwent systematic toxicological analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), where MDPV could be detected in urine and/or serum samples...
February 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189934/the-use-of-unburned-propellant-powder-for-shooting-distance-determination-part-i-infrared-luminescence
#11
Rolf Hofer, Stefan Graf, Stephan Christen
Unburned propellant powder particles in gunshot residue (GSR) were detected at near infrared by optical excitation in the visible wavelength range. A series of ammunition (different brands and different manufacturers) was analyzed concerning the luminescence of their propellant. Shooting target samples with different shooting distances were produced on standard textile tissue and analyzed with this optical infrared inspection. The number of luminescent GSR particles per area was measured and curves with particle density vs...
January 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139340/ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-determination-of-ghb-ghb-glucuronide-in-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-narcoleptic-patients-under-sodium-oxybate-treatment
#12
Roberta Tittarelli, Simona Pichini, Daniel S Pedersen, Roberta Pacifici, Monica Moresco, Fabio Pizza, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Giuseppe Plazzi
Sodium oxybate (Xyrem(®)), the sodium salt of γ- hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is a first-line treatment of the symptoms induced by type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) and it is highly effective in improving sleep architecture, decreasing excessive daytime sleepiness and the frequency of cataplexy attacks. Using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) validated method, GHB was determined together with its glucuronide (GHB-gluc), in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of NT1 patients under sodium oxybate treatment...
January 25, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129584/bone-natural-autofluorescence-and-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy-preliminary-results-of-a-novel-useful-tool-to-distinguish-between-forensic-and-ancient-human-skeletal-remains
#13
Luigi Capasso, Ruggero D'Anastasio, Simone Guarnieri, Joan Viciano, Maria Mariggiò
The fast, high-throughput distinction between palaeoanthropological/archaeological remains and recent forensic/clinical bone samples is of vital importance in the field of medico-legal science. In this paper, a novel dating method was developed using the autofluorescence of human bones and the confocal laser scanning microscope as the means to distinguish between archaeological and forensic anthropological skeletal findings. Human bones exhibit fluorescence, typically induced by natural antibiotics that are absorbed by collagen, and provide secondary, exogenous fluorophores...
January 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157639/distinguishing-real-from-fake-ivory-products-by-elemental-analyses-a-bayesian-hybrid-classification-method
#14
Kittisak Buddhachat, Janine L Brown, Chatchote Thitaram, Sarisa Klinhom, Korakot Nganvongpanit
As laws tighten to limit commercial ivory trading and protect threatened species like whales and elephants, increased sales of fake ivory products have become widespread. This study describes a method, handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) as a noninvasive technique for elemental analysis, to differentiate quickly between ivory (Asian and African elephant, mammoth) from non-ivory (bones, teeth, antler, horn, wood, synthetic resin, rock) materials. An equation consisting of 20 elements and light elements from a stepwise discriminant analysis was used to classify samples, followed by Bayesian binary regression to determine the probability of a sample being 'ivory', with complementary log log analysis to identify the best fit model for this purpose...
January 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189344/determination-of-origin-and-intended-use-of-plutonium-metal-using-nuclear-forensic-techniques
#15
Jung H Rim, Kevin J Kuhn, Lav Tandon, Ning Xu, Donivan R Porterfield, Christopher G Worley, Mariam R Thomas, Khalil J Spencer, Floyd E Stanley, Elmer J Lujan, Katherine Garduno, Holly R Trellue
Nuclear forensics techniques, including micro-XRF, gamma spectrometry, trace elemental analysis and isotopic/chronometric characterization were used to interrogate two, potentially related plutonium metal foils. These samples were submitted for analysis with only limited production information, and a comprehensive suite of forensic analyses were performed. Resulting analytical data was paired with available reactor model and historical information to provide insight into the materials' properties, origins, and likely intended uses...
January 19, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183035/toward-a-universal-equation-to-estimate-postmortem-interval
#16
Amy E Maile, Christopher G Inoue, Larry E Barksdale, David O Carter
Estimating postmortem interval is an important goal in medicolegal death investigations. Although several methods have been developed to achieve this goal, many of these require significant time and advanced expertise to generate a reliable estimate. Unfortunately these techniques do not provide much insight during the early stages of an investigation when critical decisions must be made regarding the allocation of investigative resources. An equation was recently developed to address this problem: provide a preliminary estimate of postmortem interval to initiate an investigation while more advanced techniques are conducted...
January 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152441/the-identification-of-markers-for-geoforensic-hplc-profiling-at-close-proximity-sites
#17
G McCulloch, L A Dawson, M J Brewer, R M Morgan
Soil is a highly transferable source of trace physical material that is both persistent in the environment and varied in composition. This inherent variability can provide useful information to determine the geographical origin of a questioned sample or when comparing and excluding samples, since the composition of soil is dependent on geographical factors such as climate, bedrock geology and land use. Previous studies have limited forensic relevance due to the requirement for large sample amounts and unrealistic differences between the land use and geographical location of the sample sites...
January 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129585/age-estimation-in-portuguese-population-the-application-of-the-london-atlas-of-tooth-development-and-eruption
#18
Strahinja Pavlović, Cristiana Palmela Pereira, Rui Filipe Vargas de Sousa Santos
Chronological age estimation from the dental parameters is becoming increasingly important. The London atlas of tooth development is the most recent developed method and represents a modification of the previous older methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the London atlas for the dental age estimation in the Portuguese population. The study sample included 736 radiographic images (498 females and 238 males) of Portuguese origin, patients of Dental Clinic of Superior Institute of Health Sciences Egas Moniz and Dental Medicine Faculty, University of Lisbon...
January 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129583/blind-source-computer-device-identification-from-recorded-voip-calls-for-forensic-investigation
#19
Mehdi Jahanirad, Nor Badrul Anuar, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab
The VoIP services provide fertile ground for criminal activity, thus identifying the transmitting computer devices from recorded VoIP call may help the forensic investigator to reveal useful information. It also proves the authenticity of the call recording submitted to the court as evidence. This paper extended the previous study on the use of recorded VoIP call for blind source computer device identification. Although initial results were promising but theoretical reasoning for this is yet to be found. The study suggested computing entropy of mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (entropy-MFCC) from near-silent segments as an intrinsic feature set that captures the device response function due to the tolerances in the electronic components of individual computer devices...
January 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129582/an-up-no-change-or-down-system-time-dependent-expression-of-mrnas-in-contused-skeletal-muscle-of-rats-used-for-wound-age-estimation
#20
Jun-Hong Sun, Xi-Yan Zhu, Ta-Na Dong, Xiao-Hong Zhang, Qi-Qing Liu, San-Qiang Li, Qiu-Xiang Du
The combined use of multiple markers is considered a promising strategy in estimating the age of wounds. We sought to develop an "up, no change, or down" system and to explore how to combine and use various parameters. In total, 78 Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into a control group and contusion groups of 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 24-, 28-, 32-, 36-, 40-, 44-, and 48-h post-injury (n=6 per group). A contusion was produced in the right limb of the rats under diethyl ether anesthesia by a drop-ball technique; the animals were sacrificed at certain time points thereafter, using a lethal dose of pentobarbital...
January 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
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