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Forensic Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932047/disturbances-of-glucose-metabolism-associated-with-the-use-of-psychotropic-drugs-a-post-mortem-evaluation
#1
Cristian Palmiere, Marc Augsburger, Vincent Varlet
Treatment with atypical antipsychotic agents and tetracyclic antidepressants has been associated with impaired glycemic control. Reported complications have included new-onset diabetes mellitus, life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis and, rarely, death. The study presented herein focuses on biochemical investigations of glucose metabolism in a series of medico-legal cases that revealed the presence of atypical antipsychotic agents (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone) or mirtazapine at toxicology...
December 5, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916403/stability-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-oral-fluid-samples
#2
Briana Miller, Jiyoung Kim, Marta Concheiro
Synthetic cathinones are new stimulant drugs derived from cathinone that have been sold as "legal highs" worldwide. These compounds can elicit powerful effects such as delusions, hallucinations as well as other potentially dangerous behavior. New analogs with varying effects and potencies are constantly introduced in the market to evade legislation, and they are not detected by routine screening and confirmation methods. Oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in forensic toxicology. Its collection is non-invasive and easily supervised, and positive drug findings typically reflect recent drug exposure...
December 1, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923170/instant-detection-and-identification-of-concealed-explosive-related-compounds-induced-stokes-raman-versus-infrared
#3
Sherif Elbasuney, Ashraf F El-Sherif
The instant detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become an urgent priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. Modern techniques should offer enhancement in selectivity, sensitivity, and standoff distances. Miniaturisation, portability, and field-ruggedisation are crucial requirements. This study reports on instant and standoff identification of concealed explosive-related compounds using customized Raman technique. Stokes Raman spectra of common explosive-related compounds were generated and spectrally resolved to create characteristic finger print spectra...
November 30, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932048/fatal-intravenous-injection-of-potassium-is-postmortem-biochemistry-useful-for-the-diagnosis
#4
Cristian Palmiere, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Vincent Varlet, Pia Baumann, Katarzyna Michaud, Marc Augsburger
Fatal cases of potassium overdoses have traditionally been considered indemonstrable due postmortem biochemical investigation limits (mainly potassium determination in postmortem serum and vitreous humor). Nevertheless, some authors have expressed a divergent opinion over the years based on the results of their own investigations. In this study, we investigated left vitreous, right vitreous, postmortem serum from peripheral blood, postmortem serum from cardiac blood, urine, pericardial and cerebrospinal fluid potassium concentrations in 21 forensic autopsy cases...
November 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923171/specific-ige-levels-in-pericardial-and-cerebrospinal-fluids-in-forensic-casework
#5
LETTER
Ioanna Koniari, Nicholas G Kounis, George Soufras, Nikolaos Koutsogiannis, George Hahalis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919516/a-newly-assembled-human-skeletal-reference-collection-of-modern-and-identified-filipinos
#6
Matthew C Go, Amanda B Lee, Jana Andrea D Santos, Nicole Marie C Vesagas, Rebecca Crozier
A collection of 75 modern skeletons from the Philippines has recently been created, and is being housed at the Archaeological Studies Program of the University of the Philippines, Diliman, Philippines. All individuals lived during the 20th century, and almost all died within the 21st century. These individuals were accessioned from exhumed and abandoned tombs at the Manila North Cemetery, and most have documented age and sex from tombstone inscriptions. This paper describes the first season of recovery and the collection's current demographic composition, with the future addition of more individuals to the collection expected to follow...
November 25, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914280/trace-isotope-analysis-of-ricinus-communis-seed-core-for-provenance-determination-by-laser-ablation-icp-ms
#7
Christina K Bagas, Rachel L Scadding, Cameron J Scadding, R John Watling, Warren Roberts, Simon P B Ovenden
The castor bean plant, Ricinus communis, grows wild throughout many regions of Australia. The seeds of the plant contain the schedule 1 chemical agent ricin, a type II ribosomal inhibiting protein. Currently there are limited analytical techniques that can be applied in analysis of the seeds to establish attribution. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of seeds collected from 68 plants across 38 locations around Australia. Of the 92 elemental isotopes measured, fifteen ((24)Mg, (27)Al, (44)Ca, (53)Cr, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, (75)As, (85)Rb, (88)Sr, (98)Mo, (138)Ba and (202)Hg) yielded data that were relevant to all collection sites...
November 25, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915189/a-test-of-the-citrate-method-of-pmi-estimation-from-skeletal-remains
#8
Sarah J Wilson, Angi M Christensen
Citrate content in bone has been shown to be associated with the postmortem interval (PMI), with citrate decreasing after death as a function of time. Here we test this method using porcine ribs for the period of 1-165days after death, and also assess citrate content and variation from samples placed into two different postmortem environments (terrestrial and aquatic). Higher citrate variation, lower citrate recovery, and a weaker association with time were found in this study as compared to others. Citrate content, however, was found to decrease with increasing PMI, and the method was found to be easy and inexpensive to apply...
November 24, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914281/stability-of-smokeless-powder-compounds-on-collection-devices
#9
Regina Verena Taudte, Claude Roux, Alison Beavis
The current trend towards the implementation of organic gunshot residue (OGSR) analysis into gunshot residue (GSR) investigation protocols typically involves the sequential analysis of inorganic and organic GSR. However, to allow for the consecutive analysis of inorganic and organic GSR, specimens will often be stored for different lengths of time which may result in compounds of interest degrading. In order to optimise storage conditions, it is important to consider compound degradation on collection devices during storage...
November 24, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914279/identification-and-quantification-of-4-methylethcathinone-4-mec-and-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-hair-by-lc-ms-ms-after-chronic-administration
#10
Jean Claude Alvarez, Isabelle Etting, Emuri Abe, Antoine Villa, Nicolas Fabresse
4-Methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) are synthetic cathinones. The objective of this study was to develop a method in order to measure these compounds in hair of a patient. After decontamination, 20mg of hair were grinded and incubated in phosphate buffer pH 5.0 in presence of 100ng of MDMA-d5 used as internal standard. Double basic liquid-liquid extraction was performed. Samples were separated on a 1.9μm Hypersil GOLD PFP column (100×2.1mm) using gradient elution. Compounds were detected by a LCQ TSQ Vantage XP triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer...
November 24, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915190/gunshot-residue-and-brakepads-compositional-and-morphological-considerations-for-forensic-casework
#11
William Tucker, Nick Lucas, Kelsey E Seyfang, K Paul Kirkbride, Rachel S Popelka-Filcoff
Previous research has raised the possibility that automotive brake pads can produce particles that are both compositionally and morphologically similar to gunshot residue (GSR). These studies, published in the early 2000s, coincided with the reduction or removal of unnecessary sources of lead from the automotive industry. The question therefore arises whether modern brake pads might still be a relevant source of 'GSR-like' particles. In the present study, a total of 75 brake pads taken from a range of cars currently on the road in Adelaide, South Australia, were collected from service centres...
November 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915188/combined-cluster-and-discriminant-analysis-an-efficient-chemometric-approach-in-diesel-fuel-characterization
#12
Márton Novák, Dóra Palya, Zsolt Bodai, Zoltán Nyiri, Norbert Magyar, József Kovács, Zsuzsanna Eke
Combined cluster and discriminant analysis (CCDA) as a chemometric tool in compound specific isotope analysis of diesel fuels was studied. The stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) of n-alkanes in diesel fuel can be used to characterize or differentiate diesels originating from different sources. We investigated 25 diesel fuel samples representing 20 different brands. The samples were collected from 25 different service stations in 11 European countries over a 2 year period. The n-alkane fraction of diesel fuels was separated using solid-state urea clathrate formation combined with silica gel fractionation...
November 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916404/author-s-response-letter-to-the-editor-fsi-d-16-00737
#13
LETTER
N Lucas, M Cook, J Wallace, K P Kirkbride, H Kobus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899216/poisoning-suicide-with-ingestion-of-the-pyrethroids-alpha-cypermethrin-and-deltamethrin-and-the-antidepressant-mirtazapine-a-case-report
#14
Vassiliki A Boumba, Georgios N Rallis, Theodore Vougiouklakis
This case report describes a death attributed to the intake of the pyrethroid insecticides, alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin, and the antidepressant mirtazapine. The autopsy findings showed absence of external traumatic injuries and internal generalized visceral congestion, edema and cyanosis. The toxicological results revealed the presence of a toxic concentration of mirtazapine (12.5mg/L and 10.7mg/L in blood and urine, respectively) and high concentrations of pyrethroids (2.46mg/L alpha-cypermethrin and 2...
November 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899215/toxicology-in-international-drug-control-prioritizing-the-most-harmful-persistent-and-prevalent-substances
#15
Susan C Ifeagwu, Martin Raithelhuber, Conor Crean, Dimitri Gerostamoulos, Heesun Chung, Justice N Tettey
The nature of the global drugs market has evolved rapidly and has become more complex with the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), some of which have been associated with increased abuse, hospital emergency admissions and sometimes fatalities. NPS are characterized by geographic heterogeneity, with some only transient in nature and others not satisfying the criteria for harm required for international control. Consequently, a pragmatic response of the international community is to prioritize the most harmful, persistent and prevalent substances for action - an objective, which is hampered by the paucity of data on harms...
November 20, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912151/euclidean-distances-as-measures-of-speaker-similarity-including-identical-twin-pairs-a-forensic-investigation-using-source-and-filter-voice-characteristics
#16
Eugenia San Segundo, Athanasios Tsanas, Pedro Gómez-Vilda
There is a growing consensus that hybrid approaches are necessary for successful speaker characterization in Forensic Speaker Comparison (FSC); hence this study explores the forensic potential of voice features combining source and filter characteristics. The former relate to the action of the vocal folds while the latter reflect the geometry of the speaker's vocal tract. This set of features have been extracted from pause fillers, which are long enough for robust feature estimation while spontaneous enough to be extracted from voice samples in real forensic casework...
November 17, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889316/antimony-content-of-inorganic-gunshot-residue-igsr-produced-by-0-22-caliber-rimfire-ammunition-having-free-antimony-primer
#17
LETTER
Arie Zeichner
In a recent paper published in Forensic Science International (FSI), Lucas et al. (2016) claimed that muzzle discharge of 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition is more likely to incorporate particles from the bullet surface than those retained on the firearm and that characteristic particles containing Pb, Ba and Sb formed from known Sb-free primers are likely to be more prevalent in muzzle discharge. It seems that this claim is not based on sufficient experimental results.
November 17, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887764/the-importance-of-economic-context-in-interpreting-forensic-data-on-drug-trafficking-networks
#18
LETTER
Siddharth Chandra, Johnathan Joba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919515/sexual-dimorphism-of-the-tibia-in-contemporary-greek-cypriots-and-cretans-forensic-applications
#19
E K Kranioti, J G García-Donas, P S Almeida Prado, X P Kyriakou, H C Langstaff
Sex estimation is an essential step in the identification process of unknown heavily decomposed human remains as it eliminates all possible matches of the opposite sex from the missing person's database. Osteometric methods constitute a reliable approach for sex estimation and considering the variation of sexual dimorphism between and within populations; standards for specific populations are required to ensure accurate results. The current study aspires to contribute osteometric data on the tibia from contemporary Greek-Cypriots to assist the identification process...
November 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889443/the-application-of-silicon-sol-gel-technology-to-forensic-blood-substitute-development-mimicking-aspects-of-whole-human-blood-rheology
#20
Theresa Stotesbury, Mike Illes, Paul Wilson, Andrew J Vreugdenhil
Solution-gelation chemistry has promising applications in forensic synthetic blood substitute development. This research offers a silicon-based sol-gel approach to creating stable materials that share similar rheological properties to that of whole human blood samples. Room temperature, high water content, silicon sol-gels were created using the organosilane precursors 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and tetraethylorthosilicate along with various concentrations of filler and pigment. Shear-thinning non-Newtonian properties were observed within most formulations of the presented materials...
November 15, 2016: Forensic Science International
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