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Forensic Science International

Tiernan Coyle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
D G Norman, W Baier, D G Watson, B Burnett, M Painter, M A Williams
In toolmark analysis, microscopy techniques, such as micro-CT, are used to visualise and measure toolmarks left on bones by a tool. In dismemberment cases, properties such as the width of the saw mark can provide cues to which tool was used by the culprit. The aim of the current study was to establish whether; (i) micro-CT is an appropriate imaging technique for saw mark analysis, (ii) toolmarks statistically differ when created with different tools, (iii) toolmark width can predict tool blade width, and (iv) toolmarks differ if created under different methodological conditions...
November 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
Kelsey E Seyfang, Hilton J Kobus, Rachel S Popelka-Filcoff, Andrew Plummer, Charles W Magee, Kahlee E Redman, K Paul Kirkbride
The majority of 0.22 calibre rimfire ammunition available in Australia, and overseas, tends to use glass powder rather than antimony sulfide frictionator in the primer. This glass can be the nucleus of a GSR particle, with other primer components condensing around and onto the glass structure. As the composition of glass frictionator remains largely unaltered during ammunition discharge [1] there is the possibility that frictionator composition could be used in GSR examinations to either correlate or discriminate between samples, thereby providing valuable information to an investigation...
October 29, 2018: Forensic Science International
Jozef Sidlo, Henrieta Sidlova
A case of long-term continual self-inflicted penetrating craniocerebral injury to a 59-year-old man with a fatal outcome is reported. The man suffered from paranoid psychosis and alcohol dependence. Over five months, he continually scalped the skin and subcutaneous tissue of his head with a knife until he perforated the skull and dura mater and injured his brain. He eventually sought medical advice, but died after 10 days of hospitalization despite complex conservative treatment. The immediate cause of death was a combination of central nervous system failure and heart failure...
October 28, 2018: Forensic Science International
Maren Bielemeyer, Markus A Rothschild, Jan C Schmolling, Frank Eifinger, Sibylle Banaschak
Signs of maturity such as weight, length and head circumference are still a measure used to investigate cases of suspected neonaticides as they help to differentiate between newborns born dead or alive. However, limit values for these signs have not changed for a long time. Our study considers whether limit values should have changed and which validity the current ones have. We investigated the cases of 3162 newborns, dividing them into a mature and an immature collective on the basis of the gestational week...
October 28, 2018: Forensic Science International
Stefanie Scheiper, Eva Ramos-Luis, Alejandro Blanco-Verea, Constanze Niess, Britt-Maria Beckmann, Ulrike Schmidt, Mattias Kettner, Christof Geisen, Marcel A Verhoff, Maria Brion, Silke Kauferstein
Cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young and apparently healthy individuals represent a devastating event in affected families. Hereditary arrhythmia syndromes, which include primary electrical heart disorders as well as cardiomyopathies, are known to contribute to a significant number of these sudden death cases. We performed postmortem genetic analyses in young sudden death cases (aged <45years) by means of a defined gene panel using massive parallel sequencing (MPS). The data were evaluated bioinformatically and detected sequence variants were assessed using common databases and applying in silico prediction tools...
October 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Chris Flight, Max Jones, Kaye N Ballantyne
Bloodstain evidence can be very powerful evidence in assault related crimes. Determination of the distance that blood droplets may travel as a result of an impact into liquid blood may be of significance to corroborate or disprove a version of events, provide likely scenarios, or help determine the culpability of a person in determining their proximity to the blood shedding event. It was the aim of this research to determine the potential maximum distance blood droplets travel horizontally following a vertical impact into liquid blood...
October 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Natalie Damaso, Katherine F Jones, Traci L Carlson, Jamie Fleming, Dawnie W Steadman, Lee M Jantz, Kathleen Hauther, Linda M Otterstatter, Joseph Donfack
A postmortem root band (PMRB) is defined as "an opaque ellipsoidal band composed of a collection of parallel elongated air/gas spaces and is approximately 0.5mm above the root bulb and about 2mm below the skin surface" [1]. It is generally accepted that it can appear in the root of hairs attached to remains during decomposition [1]. This study aimed to investigate the underlying cause and mechanism of PMRB formation. This was done (i) by observing the overall frequency and the intrinsic variability in anagen hairs containing a PMRB collected across five regions of a human decedent's scalp at three time points, and (ii) by determining if PMRB-like features can be induced via immersion in in-vitro controlled environments of anagen hairs plucked from the scalp of a human decedent (ex-situ postmortem hairs) not containing a PMRB...
October 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
Mateusz Krukowski, Przemysław Kubiak, Adam Mrowicki, Krzysztof Siczek, Jacek Gralewski
In the following study we consider the Intermediate Car Class. We apply a novel non-linear method, where the work W of car deformation is defined as an algebraic function of deformation ratio Cs . We use the data from the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) database comprising numerous frontal crash tests. On the basis of this database, we determine the mathematical model parameters. In the so-called energetic approach, collisions are treated as non-elastic. The velocity threshold that defines the elastic collision was set to be 11km/h...
October 24, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ekaterina Subbotina, Nori Williams, Barbara A Sampson, Yingying Tang, William A Coetzee
BACKGROUND: The TRPM4 gene encodes the subunit of the Ca2+ -activated nonselective cation channel, which is enriched in the specialized cardiac conduction system and Purkinje fibers. To date, several putative disease-causing variants in TRPM4 have been reported to be associated with cardiac arrhythmia and progressive conduction disease. Here, we report the functional effects of previously uncharacterized variants of uncertain significance (VUS) that we have found while performing a "genetic autopsy" in individuals who have suffered sudden unexpected death (SUD) in the New York City area...
October 24, 2018: Forensic Science International
Patricia P Albani, Jayshree Patel, Rachel I Fleming
The use of feminine hygiene products is commonplace and chaperones many women for most of their reproductive years. Unless specifically labelled, products are usually not sterile. Any DNA present on their surface could potentially be transferred onto the wearer and subsequently be detected in samples taken from intimate areas during a medical examination. This study investigated whether unused feminine sanitary products normally carry detectable amounts of DNA. Altogether, 52 items of tampons, pads, liners, and wipes were tape lifted and subjected to total and male-specific DNA quantification and STR amplification...
October 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Marcos Patrício Macedo, Luciano C Arantes, Rosana Tidon
Forensic entomologists rely on insects present in human remains to establish a minimum postmortem interval (PMImin ). Blowflies have been widely used in these estimates because they lay eggs on the victim's body shortly after death and, within hours, larvae hatch and grow at predictable rates. Hence, isomegalen diagrams based on larval size and local temperature are considered good models to estimate PMImin . Still, most professional do not account for size sexual dimorphism in blowflies, which add uncertainty to predictive models by two mechanisms: (1) males and females might grow up to different sizes, and; (2) males and females might grow at different rates...
October 19, 2018: Forensic Science International
Coby Schal, Natalia Czado, Richard Gamble, Amy Barrett, Kiera Weathers, Khalid Mahmud Lodhi
Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) are ectoparasitic wingless insects that feed on the blood of mammals, typically in residential settings. The objectives of this study were to establish a time-course of human DNA quantitation from bed bugs and to generate human DNA profile(s) of a host and/or multiple hosts from a bed bug that fed on human blood. Female human genomic DNA concentrations ranged from 18.370 to 0.195ng/bed bug at 0-108h post blood meal (PBM), male human genomic DNA concentrations ranged from 5.4 to 0...
October 18, 2018: Forensic Science International
Brittany M Trapp, Sean D Tallman
This study examines the effects of household corrosive products on 105 restored (silver amalgam and porcelain-fused-to metal) and non-restored teeth. Five household products were utilized, including hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and detergent. Teeth were radiographed before and after exposure and were submerged for 120 or 264h. Documentation included weight, mesiodistal and buccolingual crown measurements, ordinal scores, and photography at specific hours of exposure. Results indicate that 81.9% of the teeth could be positively matched by radiographs...
October 16, 2018: Forensic Science International
Paul M Williams
The prosecution of those socially irresponsible individuals who drive when they have had too much to drink - in that their breath, blood or urine alcohol level exceeds the prescribed legal limit - has been standard practice since October 1967. The forensic analysis of whichever type of specimen is taken from the suspect operates to a high degree of accuracy. Despite this a defence industry continues to operate in which specialist privately-funded legal practitioners [solicitors and counsel], in conjunction with several 'experts' whom they routinely instruct, seek to persuade the Courts that the alcohol reading on which the Crown's case depends cannot be correct as it does not accord with what their client subsequently states he had to drink...
October 11, 2018: Forensic Science International
Saty Satya-Murti, Joseph J Lockhart
All evolving disciplines have long grappled with nomenclature inconsistencies. Precise terminology facilitates communication among individuals, clinicians, academics and researchers. To arrive at definitions, the concepts underlying basic scientific vocabularies must be universally acceptable to all users. This is not always easy. Tarachow cautioned in 1965 about how contractions and abbreviations, "…eliminated practically all the associations connected with the original title and did not at all have the evocative impact of the complete word or title"[1] (Tarachow, 1965)...
October 10, 2018: Forensic Science International
Himashi Sandamini, Aparni Jayawardena, Lochana Batuwitage, Roshan Rajapakse, Damitha Karunaratna, Muditha Vidanapathirana, Aruna Pallewatte
Facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT), together with the osteological characteristics of the skull, is one of the important factors for facial reconstruction in both forensic anthropology and plastic surgeries. Even though a number of countries around the world have analysed the FSTT data of their own populations and are having a FSTT database, no such dataset or analysis is available in Sri Lanka. In this study, FSTT was measured at 23 standard anthropological landmarks using magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of 243 adult individuals (male - 121, female - 122) of the Sri Lankan population, which were collected from clinical data from the National Hospital of Sri Lanka...
October 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
Marcio Maciel Cavalcanti, Marcelo Peres Rocha, Marcelo Lawrence Bassay Blum, Welitom Rodrigues Borges
In forensic geophysical research, using controlled experiments assists forensic search practitioners in identifying optimal technique(s) and equipment configuration(s) in different burial scenarios. The objective of the research is to observe the geophysical response to different types of buried wrappings, taking into consideration the influence that the presence or absence of a decomposing body (pig carcass) in a lateritic soil in central-western Brazil can have. In this article, the GPR results are presented after a 15day burial period during the rainy season, and the results of Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) after a burial period of 6 months during the dry season...
October 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
Chanté du Toit, Lorna J Martin, Laura J Heathfield
The high rates of abandoned neonatal remains admitted to Salt River Mortuary (SRM), Cape Town, and the dearth of literature published in South Africa prompted a retrospective assessment of these cases to describe the profile and assess the scope of the post-mortem investigation of abandoned neonates, as well as determine the prosecution rate of abandoned live births. Demographic details, scene information and post-mortem findings were obtained from medico-legal case files concerning non-viable fetuses, stillbirths and concealment of birth cases admitted to SRM between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2016 (n=249)...
October 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
Richard David Ash, Min He
Heavy metals pose significant morbidity and mortality threats to humans in connection with both acute and chronic exposure. The often-delayed manifestations of some toxic effects and the wide-spectrum of symptoms caused by heavy metal poisoning may perplex the clinical diagnosis and, when involved in crimes, complicate the forensic investigation. To investigate the original intoxication process of a thallium poisoning case, which occurred in China more than two decades ago, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to analyze several hairs of the victim from before, during and after the poisoning period...
October 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
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