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Forensic Science International

Osnat Israelsohn-Azulay, Yigal Zidon, Tsadok Tsach
A shooting event involved several types of ammunition that were all shot from a single firearm. GSR analysis of samples taken from the suspect's hands, hair and from his clothes was carried out. Mixed compositions particles were found among other GSR particles, attributed to the weapon memory effect. SEM/EDX analysis of these particles highlighted a particle with defined domains containing distinct groups of elements. Some of these elements were absent in the primers mixtures of the ammunition used in the shooting event...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Natasha Benson, Robson Oliveria Dos Santos, Kate Griffiths, Nerida Cole, Philip Doble, Claude Roux, Lucas Blanes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Forensic Science International
Samuel Mesihää, Ilpo Rasanen, Ilkka Ojanperä
Gas chromatography (GC) hyphenated with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (NCD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) was applied for the first time to the quantitative analysis of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in urine, based on the N-equimolar response of NCD. A method was developed and validated to estimate the concentrations of three metabolites of the common stimulant NPS α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) in spiked urine samples, simulating an analysis having no authentic reference standards for the metabolites and using the parent drug instead for quantitative calibration...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Samantha K Rowbotham, Soren Blau, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich
The term 'B.A.S.E jump' refers to jumping from a building, antenna, span (i.e., bridge) or earth (i.e., cliff) structure, and parachuting to the ground. There are numerous hazards associated with B.A.S.E jumps which often result in injury and, occasionally, fatality. This case report details the skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump in Australia. In this case, the jumper impacted the ground from a fall of 439m in a feet-first landing position, as a result of a partially deployed parachute, under extreme vertical deceleration...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Toru Oshima, Maki Ohtani, Sohtaro Mimasaka
In recent years, the number of bear attacks has risen in Akita prefecture, Japan. Here, we present the injury patterns of seven fatal bear attacks, and discuss the implication of these findings. We included five cases of Asiatic black bear attacks and two cases of Ezo brown bear attacks. In all cases, the injuries, 2-5 parallel linear lacerations with severe hemorrhaging and decollement, were mainly located on the upper body. These injuries were thought to be fatal as, upon a first encounter, bears often stand and first attack the victim's head and face using their claws...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Connie L Parks, Keith L Monson
This study employed an automated facial recognition system as a means of objectively evaluating biometric correspondence between a ReFace facial approximation and the computed tomography (CT) derived ground truth skin surface of the same individual. High rates of biometric correspondence were observed, irrespective of rank class (Rk ) or demographic cohort examined. Overall, 48% of the test subjects' ReFace approximation probes (n=96) were matched to his or her corresponding ground truth skin surface image at R1 , a rank indicating a high degree of biometric correspondence and a potential positive identification...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Aniko Krumbholz, Martin Schönfelder, Hande Hofmann, Detlef Thieme
BACKGROUND: The endogenous glucocorticosteroid cortisol (F) and its metabolite cortisone (E) are known to be involved in stress adaption and anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects. The ratios of F to E in the matrices serum, hair and saliva are different. The shift of this ratio by the enzyme activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, which inactivates cortisol, was often discussed. The aim of our study was to calculate the contribution of the plasma protein binding (PPB) to this shift...
February 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Alicia Khuu, Scott Chadwick, Sébastien Moret, Xanthe Spindler, Peter Gunn, Claude Roux
Fingermarks can be exploited for both their ridge detail and touch DNA. One-step luminescent cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming techniques used for fingermark enhancement, such as PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd) and Lumicyano™ (Crime Science Technology), claim to be compatible with DNA analysis as they reduce the need for post-staining to increase contrast of the developed fingermark. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that these one-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have on DNA analysis and how they compare to conventional CA techniques...
February 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Yu Wang, Lijun Yang, Yingna Zhang, Luyang Tao, Jiangfeng Wang
Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) is an important cosmopolitan pest with potential forensic value. Thus, the investigation of the development of M. domestica is of vital significance both for the control of its colony and for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin ). This study observed the development of M. domestica at seven constant temperatures in the range of 16-34°C; factors such as developmental duration, accumulated degree hours, and changes in larval body length were examined...
February 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Jack Morrison, Giles Watts, Glyn Hobbs, Nick Dawnay
Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Sonja Bitzer
Forensic Advisors at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology in Brussels act as advising body to the magistrate regarding analytical possibilities and the usefulness of trace analysis in a case. Initially, their function was devised to assist in complex murder cases with unknown offender. However, in a previous study, the increasing diversity of the cases they are requested for has been observed (Bitzer et al., in press). In order to deepen our understanding of the decision steps in the criminal investigation process, the decision to involve a Forensic Advisor and the factors leading to their involvement were evaluated...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Hayley S M Fancourt, Carl N Stephan
For measurements to be accurate and precise, measurement errors should be small. In the anthropometry and craniofacial identification literature, four methods are commonly used for assessing measurement error: Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient (r), intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), statistical significance tests (often reported by P-values) and the technical error of measurement (TEM; also known as Dalberg's error/ratio). In this paper, the performance of all four of these statistics were evaluated using maximum cranial lengths (g-op) from Howells (n=2524), by duplicating the dataset and mathematically adding known degrees of error to the second set...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Jay Vincelli, Fatih Calakli, Michael Stone, Graham Forrester, Timothy Mellon, John Jarrell
In order to identify an object in video, a comparison with an exemplar object is typically needed. In this paper, we discuss the methodology used to identify an object detected in underwater video that was recorded during an investigation into Amelia Earhart's purported crash site. A computer aided design (CAD) model of the suspected aircraft component was created based on measurements made from orthogonally rectified images of a reference aircraft, and validated against historical photographs of the subject aircraft prior to the crash...
February 15, 2018: Forensic Science International
Mayank Tiwari, Bhupendra Gupta
For source camera identification (SCI), photo response non-uniformity (PRNU) has been widely used as the fingerprint of the camera. The PRNU is extracted from the image by applying a de-noising filter then taking the difference between the original image and the de-noised image. However, it is observed that intensity-based features and high-frequency details (edges and texture) of the image, effect quality of the extracted PRNU. This effects correlation calculation and creates problems in SCI. For solving this problem, we propose a weighting function based on image features...
February 15, 2018: Forensic Science International
M Hubig, H Muggenthaler, S Schenkl, G Mall
Stomach content based death time estimation (SCE), is a well-known technique in forensic sciences. Among more qualitatively oriented approaches the content percentage based method SCE by Tröger, Baur and Spann yields quantitative results and gives stochastic error measures for its outputs. This is possible since the methods estimator, which we call transformed expectation estimator (TEE) as well as the probability distribution of the time between last meal and death are determined numerically, though in SCE the estimator and confidence intervals are presented graphically only...
February 12, 2018: Forensic Science International
Marianne Knuth, Oliver Temme, Thomas Daldrup, Evelyn Pawlik
For different reasons, street cocaine is often diluted with pharmacologically active substances, the so-called adulterants such as levamisole or hydroxyzine. A controversial debate exists currently on the uptake of adulterants from cocaine preparations and drug-related death. Previous research convincingly argues that serious adverse side effects that affect the central nervous and cardiovascular systems can be a consequence of adulterated cocaine. AIMS: Having identified the presence of adulterants in lung tissue and blood, the concentrations of these substances in brain, an important target location, was of interest...
February 10, 2018: Forensic Science International
Lay See Khoo, Poh Soon Lai, Mohd Hilmi Saidin, Zahari Noor, Mohd Shah Mahmood
Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce...
February 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
Lolita Tsanaclis, Maristela Andraus, John Wicks
Despite having been extensively discussed over the last decade, the differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination still continues to be one of the limitations of hair testing for drugs. For this reason, we consider it worthwhile to re-state some basic principles in this short review. Various studies investigating a diversity of wash protocols, most using artificially contaminated hair with cocaine, have been valuable in evaluating wash efficacy and in understanding the incorporation of drugs in hair...
February 7, 2018: Forensic Science International
Alessandro Bonsignore, Cristian Palmiere, Francesca Buffelli, Eloisa Maselli, Andrea Marzullo, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Francesco Ventura, Francesco De Stefano, Alessandro Dell'Erba
Attribution of death to myocarditis continues to be a controversial issue in forensic pathology, despite the existence of established histopathological criteria as well as complementary investigations. The aim of the study was two-fold: (a) to retrospectively analyse the data obtained from a series of clinical and forensic autopsies in order to assess the number of cases with death attributed to myocarditis, and (b) to reevaluate these cases in order to assess how properly the histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis conformed to established criteria and therefore how accurately these were used on the basis of all postmortem investigation findings to conclude the cause of death...
February 7, 2018: Forensic Science International
Lara Olivieri, Debora Mazzarelli, Barbara Bertoglio, Danilo De Angelis, Carlo Previderè, Pierangela Grignani, Annalisa Cappella, Silvano Presciuttini, Caterina Bertuglia, Paola Di Simone, Nicolò Polizzi, Agata Iadicicco, Vittorio Piscitelli, Cristina Cattaneo
Every year thousands of migrants die during the endeavour to reach the Italian coasts, making the Mediterranean the theatre of one of the greatest tragedies of mankind. Over 60% of these victims is buried unidentified: one of the reasons behind this is related to the specific difficulties and lack of strategies concerning AM and PM data collection. The present article describes how Italy is trying to face the problem of migrant identification, thanks to the collaboration between government, the Italian national police and universities...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
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