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Forensic Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162298/on-the-bayesian-approach-to-forensic-age-estimation-of-living-individuals
#1
Emanuele Sironi, Joëlle Vuille, Niels Morling, Franco Taroni
Forensic age estimation, a branch of forensic science, has received renewed attention lately mainly due to societal migration phenomena. And yet, the interpretation of age-related evidence is still largely neglected as a field, the literature being usually limited to technical discussions strictly pertaining to the statistical methodologies to be used in estimation process. This short communication aims to highlight the fundamental role of evidence evaluation and interpretation in forensic age estimation. We illustrate why the Bayesian approach represents the best choice in such a perspective...
November 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156328/role-of-hair-pigmentation-in-drug-incorporation-into-hair
#2
Hyerim Yu, Won-Jun Jang, Jung-Hee Jang, Byoungduck Park, Young Ho Seo, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sooyeun Lee
Hair analysis has notably expanded its application as a bio-monitor for drug or toxicant exposure. Hair pigmentation is proposed as a major factor affecting drug incorporation into hair; however, the mechanisms underlying the incorporation of drugs into hair are still unclear. In the present study, the effect of hair pigmentation on drug incorporation into hair was examined using rats carrying hair with different melanin status and human cells (SK-Mel-28 cells, HaCaT cells and the co-cultured HaCaT cells with SK-Mel-28 cells) representing the main pigmentary unit in hair...
November 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153481/what-is-the-error-margin-of-your-signature-analysis
#3
Raymond Marquis, Liv Cadola, Williams David Mazzella, Tacha Hicks
In our experience, it seems to become more and more common for mandating authorities or parties to ask forensic signature examiners to quantify the degree of certainty of their conclusion regarding a signature analysis. This paper reports the likelihood ratio approach followed by examiners to answer such a question, in a case where the Court asked whether a questioned signature was written, or not, by Mr Jones. The Court also required an assessment of the error margin of the signature analysis. This question was answered using Bayes' theorem (i...
November 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149685/simultaneous-drug-identification-in-urine-of-sexual-assault-victims-by-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Hei Hwa Lee, Suen Chi Chen, Jong Feng Lee, Hsin Yu Lin, Bai Hsiun Chen
According to domestic and international epidemiological investigation, the proportion of substance involved sexual assault has the trend of ascent. In the past, laboratory methods that investigated urine sample of the sexual assault victims was to screen with enzyme immunoassay and then confirmed with mass spectrometry. The objective of the study is to simultaneously identify abused drugs in 126 decoded urine samples of sexual assault victims by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring with an electro-spray positive ionization mode...
November 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149684/combining-benford-s-law-and-machine-learning-to-detect-money-laundering-an-actual-spanish-court-case
#5
Elena Badal-Valero, José A Alvarez-Jareño, Jose M Pavía
OBJECTIVES: This paper is based on the analysis of the database of operations from a macro-case on money laundering orchestrated between a core company and a group of its suppliers, 26 of which had already been identified by the police as fraudulent companies. In the face of a well-founded suspicion that more companies have perpetrated criminal acts and in order to make better use of what are very limited police resources, we aim to construct a tool to detect money laundering criminals...
November 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128655/nonlinear-approximation-method-of-vehicle-velocity-vt-and-statistical-population-of-experimental-cases
#6
Przemysław Kubiak
In car crash analysis three calculations methods can be distinguished: analytical (Campbell, McHenry, Strother, Prasad, Crash3 etc.), comparative and graphical (Lindquist et al., 2003; Prasad, 1990; Sharma et al., 2007; Wach and Unarski, 2006; Żuchowski, 2015) [15,23,25,29,33]. The number and reliability of these methods, in reference to modern vehicles and their structure, may lead to unclear conclusions. This issue proves to be significant, especially due to slight modifications of both input parameters and input data for the analysis of the method...
November 9, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127892/estimation-of-the-late-postmortem-interval-using-ftir-spectroscopy-and-chemometrics-in-human-skeletal-remains
#7
Qi Wang, Yinming Zhang, Hancheng Lin, Shuai Zha, Ruoxi Fang, Xin Wei, Shuanliang Fan, Zhenyuan Wang
Due to a lack of reliable and accurate methods, determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains is one of the most important and challenging tasks in forensic medicine. In this paper, we studied the changes to bone chemistry with increasing PMI in two different experimental conditions using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics methods Paired bone samples collected from 56 human corpses were buried (placed in soil) and unburied (exposed to the air) for intervals between 76 and 552 days...
November 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136579/the-effectiveness-and-practicality-of-using-simultaneous-superglue-iodine-fuming-method-for-fingermark-development-on-low-yield-leather-surfaces-a-feasibility-study
#8
Xiaochun Zheng, Kang Li, Jingyang Xu, Zhen Lin
This research successfully demonstrated the first use of simultaneous superglue & iodine fuming on leather surfaces compared to superglue, iodine, superglue-iodine and iodine-superglue fuming methods which typically give low fingermark yields. A novel fuming chamber was developed and used for simultaneous superglue & iodine fuming. Results show that the simultaneous fuming method produced significantly better enhancement for light-coloured leather substrates relative to other processing procedures, but was found to be ineffective on dark-coloured leather...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136575/the-correlation-between-concentrations-of-zolpidem-and-benzodiazepines-in-segmental-hair-samples-and-use-patterns
#9
Hyojeong Kim, Sangeun Lee, Sanghwan In, Meejung Park, Sungnam Cho, Junguk Shin, Hunjoo Lee, Eunyoung Han
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between histories of zolpidem and benzodiazepines use and their concentrations in hair as determined by segmental hair analysis, that is, by analyzing hair samples taken 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, and 5-6cm etc. and 0-3cm from the scalp, and whole hair. Of the 23 hair samples examined, 18 were collected from patients in a rehabilitation program and five were from patients that had taken zolpidem only once by prescription. All 23 patients provided written informed consent after reviewing the research plan, described their zolpidem and benzodiazepines use histories accurately, and provided hair samples, which were weighed, washed, cut into lengths of <1mm, and extracted in 100% methanol for 16h (diazepam-d5 was used as an internal standard)...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136574/are-we-using-the-appropriate-reference-samples-to-develop-juvenile-age-estimation-methods-based-on-bone-size-an-exploration-of-growth-differences-between-average-children-and-those-who-become-victims-of-homicide
#10
Laure Spake, Hugo F V Cardoso
The population on which forensic juvenile skeletal age estimation methods are applied has not been critically considered. Previous research suggests that child victims of homicide tend to be from socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts, and that these contexts impair linear growth. This study investigates whether juvenile skeletal remains examined by forensic anthropologists are short for age compared to their normal healthy peers. Cadaver lengths were obtained from records of autopsies of 1256 individuals, aged birth to eighteen years at death, conducted between 2000 and 2015 in Australia, New Zealand, and the U...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133010/three-fatalities-associated-with-the-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-5f-pb-22-and-ab-chminaca
#11
V Angerer, S Jacobi, F Franz, V Auwärter, J Pietsch
The use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has been widespread in certain groups of drug users for many years. In the scientific literature many intoxication cases and a number of fatalities after the use of synthetic cannabinoids were reported. In this paper three death cases are described with involvement of the synthetic cannabinoids 5F-PB-22, AB-CHMINACA, and 5F-ADB. The three cases occurred in the eastern region of Germany, which is known as a region of high methamphetamine abuse. All decedents were male, between 25 and 41 years old, and had a known history of drug use...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156218/use-of-luminescent-gunshot-residues-markers-in-forensic-context-part-ii
#12
A M Arouca, M A M Lucena, R J Rossiter, M Talhavini, I T Weber
Gunshot residues (GSR) are important physical evidence in firearm-related crimes. Recently developed non-toxic ammunition, however, requires a new methodology for its characterization. To overcome this drawback, the introduction of noncommercial luminescent markers in ammunition was proposed. These markers, synthesized and added to the gunpowder, presented as a versatile tool for GSR analysis, since they require UV radiation alone to visualize the luminescent GSR (LGSR). This has opened up new perspectives for understanding GSR behavior at a crime scene...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128652/differences-in-combinations-and-concentrations-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-fatal-intoxication-and-driving-under-the-influence-cases
#13
Hilde Erøy Edvardsen, Torill Tverborgvik, Joachim Frost, Sidsel Rogde, Inge Morild, Helge Waal, Thomas Clausen, Lars Slørdal, Vigdis Vindenes
BACKGROUND: In toxicology, international classification systems focus on single intoxicants as the cause of death. It is, however, well known that very few drug related deaths are caused by a single substance and that information concerning the drug concentrations as well as the combinations of drugs are essential in order to ascertain the cause of death. The aim of the study was to assess whether those prone to fatal intoxications differ significantly from chronic drug users - in terms of demographics and drug exposure patterns...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128126/inhaled-cyanide-poisoning-as-a-vital-sign-in-a-room-fire-victim
#14
Christoph G Birngruber, Florian Veit, Juliane Lang, Marcel A Verhoff
The corpse of a 71-year-old woman was found on the floor of her smoke-filled room. The source of the fire was the mattress of a double bed on which newspapers had apparently been set aflame. The woman's history in conjunction with the finding situation suggested an act of suicide. No signs of soot inhalation or soot swallowing were found at autopsy. Other vital signs were absent. Severe cardiac disease was the most notable pre-existing medical condition. Although the concentration of COHb in heart blood was low (3%), the concentration of cyanide was found to be 4...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127893/traumatic-fatal-aortic-rupture-in-motorcycle-drivers
#15
Guido Pelletti, Giovanni Cecchetto, Alessia Viero, Maria De Matteis, Guido Viel, Massimo Montisci
Traumatic fatal aortic rupture (FAR) is a common finding in victims of motor vehicle crashes (MVC), but its aetiology and mechanisms of production remain an issue of major concern, above all in motorcyclists. This study reports a series of cases obtained from a retrospective analysis of traumatic FARs occurring in motorcycle drivers, with the aim of defining the injury patterns and correlating them with the mechanisms of FAR production. Circumstantial, autopsy and histology data were collected through a retrospective analysis of post mortem examinations performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University of Padova between 2014 and 2016...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154142/child-trafficking-and-the-european-migration-crisis-the-role-of-forensic-practitioners
#16
Zuzana Obertová, Cristina Cattaneo
Trafficking in children is one of the worst forms of human rights violation and is categorised as a serious crime. Children at high risk of becoming victims of trafficking are runaways, children with a history of abuse, and migrant children. Internationally, cases of child trafficking are increasing the most in Europe, which is likely the result of the current migration crisis. In crises, preventing and combating human trafficking needs to be prioritized, considering that the aims of humanitarian action include saving lives, easing suffering and preserving human dignity...
November 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125988/quantification-of-nitrogenous-bases-dna-and-collagen-type-i-for-the-estimation-of-the-postmortem-interval-in-bone-remains
#17
Cristina Pérez-Martínez, María D Pérez-Cárceles, Isabel Legaz, Gemma Prieto-Bonete, Aurelio Luna
Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) is an important goal in forensic medicine and continues to be one of the most difficult tasks of the forensic investigator. Few accurate methods exist to determine the time since death of skeletonized human remains due to the great number of intrinsic and external factors that may alter the normal course of postmortem change. The purpose of this research was to assess the usefulness of various biochemical parameters, such as nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, purines, cytosine, thymine, pyrimidines, hypoxanthine and xanthine), DNA and Collagen Type I peptides to estimate PMI...
November 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154143/investigation-of-various-factors-influencing-raman-spectra-interpretation-with-the-use-of-likelihood-ratio-approach
#18
Aleksandra Michalska, Agnieszka Martyna, Grzegorz Zadora
The main aim of this study was to verify whether selected analytical parameters may affect solving the comparison problem of Raman spectra with the use of the likelihood ratio (LR) approach. Firstly the LR methodologies developed for Raman spectra of blue automotive paints obtained with the use of 785nm laser source (results published by the authors previously) were implemented for good quality spectra recorded for these paints with the use of 514.5nm laser source. For LR models construction two types of variables were used i...
November 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149686/preliminary-application-of-structure-from-motion-and-gis-to-document-decomposition-and-taphonomic-processes
#19
Connor D Carlton, Samantha Mitchell, Patrick Lewis
Over the past decade, Structure from Motion (SfM) has increasingly been used as a means of digital preservation and for documenting archaeological excavations, architecture, and cultural material. However, few studies have tapped the potential of using SfM to document and analyze taphonomic processes affecting burials for forensic sciences purposes. This project utilizes SfM models to elucidate specific post-depositional events that affected a series of three human cadavers deposited at the South East Texas Applied Forensic Science Facility (STAFS)...
November 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128653/acoustic-environment-identification-by-kullback-leibler-divergence
#20
G Delgado-Gutiérrez, F Rodríguez-Santos, O Jiménez-Ramírez, R Vázquez-Medina
This paper presents a forensic methodology that determines, from among a set of recording places, the probable place where allegedly a disputed digital audio recording was made. The methodology considers that digital audio recordings are noisy signals that have two involved noise components. One component is the multiplicative noise, which is an internal feature on the audio recording that is related to the recording device. The other component is the additive noise, which is an external feature on the audio recording that can be related to the recording place...
October 28, 2017: Forensic Science International
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