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Forensic Science International

Stefanie Plenzig, Hannelore Held, Franziska Holz, Theresa Kals, Marcel A Verhoff
The earliest mention of a stowaway in the wheel well of an airplane dates back to 1947: A 30-year-old man chose this mode of travel for a trip from Lisbon to Brazil and survived (Véronneau et al., 1996). In a retrospective study, we evaluated cases with lethal outcome of stowaways in airplane wheel wells by focusing on forensic autopsy results, in particular, in regard to hypothermia, hypoxia, and injuries. In addition, the flight routes, flight altitudes, and flight durations were analyzed. Using the forensik® program, a search of all the autopsies performed between 1994-2017 at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, was conducted, using the key words "airplane," "flights," and "wheel well...
June 28, 2018: Forensic Science International
Alice Elizabeth Catherine Dyke, Susan Cunningham, Nigel Hunt, Clifford Ruff
AIM: The human dentition contains many features which can be used to identify an individual from the dentition or from bite marks created and bite mark evidence may be used to link a suspect to a crime. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on the uniqueness of the human anterior dentition by comparison of the number of dental shape matches between pre- and post-treatment dental casts for a group of patients who have undergone orthodontic treatment (dental braces) to improve the alignment of their teeth...
June 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
João Pinheiro, José Luis Cascallana, Benito Lopez de Abajo, José Luis Otero, Maria Sol Rodriguez-Calvo
The aims of this investigation were to determine the characteristics and prevalence of anatomical variants of the larynx apparatus and to evaluate the impact of these variants on the accurate diagnosis of laryngeal fractures. A population-based study was carried out, analyzing a series of 207 consecutive autopsied cases in the Institute of Legal Medicine of Galicia (Northwestern Spain). The prevalence of triticeal cartilage was 52.7% and that of agenesis of thyroid horns 10%. Calcification of the stylo-hyoid ligament accounted for 1...
June 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
Sophie Duchesne, Marie Seyller, Patrick Chariot
BACKGROUND: Male sexual assaults were long ignored, possibly because of the myth acceptance that a man can only be the perpetrator of sexual assaults. It is increasingly admitted that all males can be victims of rape. We described the characteristics of a series of male adolescent and adult victims of sexual assault who had a forensic medical examination. METHODS: We conducted an observational study over 8 years. RESULTS: We included 98 male patients aged 15 years and older (range 15-66, median 25) at the time of a reported sexual assault...
June 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Konrad Sydow, Theresa Kueting, Frank Musshoff, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Since there are no characteristic morphological findings post mortem diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and identification of diabetic coma need to be confirmed by suitable biomarkers. The postmortem identification of preexisting hyperglycemia or diabetic coma can be difficult if the matrices for the determination of the established biomarkers are not available or the obtained results are close to the established cut-off values. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), the 1-deoxy form of glucose, competes with glucose for renal reabsorption...
June 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Bryan R Burnett
A road-rage altercation occurred between two vehicle drivers. The driver of vehicle 1 stopped and allegedly fired two shots from within his vehicle over the heads of the driver and passenger of vehicle 2 when they were out of their vehicle. The driver of vehicle 2, an off-duty police officer, fired his .45 calibre pistol at the driver of vehicle 1. The bullet went through the windshield and lodged in the instrument panel. Eight gunshot residue (GSR) samples were taken from the interior of vehicle 1 and analysed by automated scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy...
June 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ludovica Gorza, Scheila Mânica
Forensic dentistry plays a major role in human identification. Teeth carry individual characteristics that differ among different individuals. Dental radiographs depict reality objectively, being the most reliable tool for dental identification. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dental identification of individuals with permanent unrestored teeth by visual comparison with radiographs of mixed dentition. The second aim was to learn which anatomical features were compared by examiners with different backgrounds...
June 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Maximilian J Spies, Devin A Finaughty, Victoria E Gibbon
The effect of vertebrate scavenging can drastically alter the rate of decomposition and cause skeletal scatter, which hinders human forensic recovery and identification. Patterns of scavenging, disarticulation and scatter in a forensic context are specific to different environments with no known data for South Africa. A better understanding of these patterns can increase the chances of full body recovery and improve identification of human remains. In this preliminary study, the effect of wild vertebrate scavenging on skeletal scatter was examined using a porcine model in the forensically significant thicketed Cape Flats Dune Strandveld habitat...
June 20, 2018: Forensic Science International
Andreas Schmidberger, Bernhard Durner, David Gehrmeyer, Robert Schupfner
The age determination of elephant ivory provides necessary and crucial information for all criminal prosecution authorities enforcing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The knowledge of the age of ivory allows to distinguish between pre-convention, hence legal material and ivory deriving from recent, illegal poaching incidents. The commonly applied method to determine the age of ivory is radiocarbon dating in the form of bomb pulse dating, which however will fade out soon...
June 19, 2018: Forensic Science International
K A Corcoran, A Z Mundorff, D A White, W L Emch
Unmarked graves are difficult to locate once the ground surface no longer shows visible evidence of disturbance, posing significant challenges to missing person investigations. This research evaluates the use of terrestrial LIDAR point data for measuring localized elevation change at human grave surfaces. Three differently sized human graves, one control-pit, and surrounding undisturbed ground, were scanned four times between February 2013 and November 2014 using a tripod-mounted terrestrial laser scanner. All the disturbed surfaces exhibited measurable and localized elevation change, allowing for separation of disturbed and undisturbed ground...
June 19, 2018: Forensic Science International
R M Arthur, J Hoogenboom, M Baiker, M C Taylor, K G de Bruin
In the forensic discipline of bloodstain pattern analysis, it has been suggested that there is a blurred boundary between characterising the features of a bloodstain pattern and determining the mechanism(s) that led to its deposition. This study proposes that bloodstain pattern classification can become a distinct and logical process by implementing an automated approach. To do this, an automated bloodstain pattern recognition system was developed to enable the distinction of two types of spatter bloodstain patterns...
June 19, 2018: Forensic Science International
Alicia Rairden, Brandon L Garrett, Sharon Kelley, Daniel Murrie, Amy Castillo
Latent print examination traditionally follows the ACE-V process, in which latent prints are first analyzed to determine whether they are suitable for comparison, and then compared to an exemplar and evaluated for similarities and differences. Despite standard operating procedures and quality controls designed, in part, to mitigate differences between examiners, latent print processing and review are inherently subjective. The ACE-V process addresses subjectivity, and the possibility of error, in the verification stage in which a second examiner repeats the analysis, comparison, and evaluation steps in a given case...
June 19, 2018: Forensic Science International
Scott Chadwick, Sebastien Moret, Nilesh Jayashanka, Chris Lennard, Xanthe Spindler, Claude Roux
The primary aims of fingermark detection research are to improve the quality and increase the rate of detection of identifiable impressions. This is usually performed through the development of new methods and technologies to provide alternatives to or improve current procedures. While research of this nature is important to pursue, it fails to address the underlying question related to the factors that affect the detection of a latent fingermark. There has been significant research that has examined the differences between techniques, donors and fingermark age, as well as the composition of latent fingermarks...
June 18, 2018: Forensic Science International
Hang Chen, Baohua Shen, Sujing Zhang, Ping Xiang, Xianyi Zhuo, Min Shen
The origin of ethanol detected in bio-samples whether it be from the consumption of alcoholic beverages or contamination with disinfectants has been questioned in court cases in China recently. The stable carbon isotope naturally occurs in carbon-containing compounds and can help determine the origin of the compound in question. In total, 42 types of beers and 11 types of disinfectants were analyzed by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Consumption and contamination experiments were carried out with 6 volunteers...
June 18, 2018: Forensic Science International
Jodi M Caple, John E Byrd, Carl N Stephan
Current quantitative methods for estimating ancestry and sex from skulls typically require substantial manual data collection and specialized recording equipment, which can limit analysis to the laboratory. This limitation could be addressed by establishing a faster, more user-friendly, and automatic data protocol as investigated in the current study using elliptical Fourier analysis (EFA). Ancestry and sex were estimated using outlines acquired from standardized photographs of the skull in norma lateralis (left side)...
June 18, 2018: Forensic Science International
André L Castro, Sónia Tarelho, Paula Melo, João Miguel Franco
An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and l1-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in whole blood samples, for identification and quantitation purposes. Samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction, followed by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis in multiple reaction monitoring mode, with a total run time of 7.6min. MS/MS detection was achieved with two ion transitions per substance...
June 15, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ashish Saraf, Navneet Ateriya, Tanuj Kanchan, Vikas P Meshram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Forensic Science International
R Tse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Forensic Science International
Łukasz Szleszkowski, Marcin Kadej, Agata Thannhäuser, Dariusz Tarnawski, Tomasz Jurek
We report, for the first time, a case of nesting by Apis mellifera mellifera (L., 1758) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae), V. vulgaris (L., 1758) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Vespidae), and Sciurus vulgaris L., 1758 (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae) inside a mummified human corpse in natural conditions (Lower Silesia province, south-western Poland). A case history, autopsy findings, and biological observations are provided. A list of the insect species found in the corpse is provided and compared with available data. Other zoological findings are mentioned and briefly discussed...
June 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
Roberto S P King, Lloyd W L Davis, Daniel A Skros
Longwave ultraviolet reflection (LWUVR) imaging is reported as a simple, safe and non-invasive technique that significantly aids in the visualisation of cyanoacrylate developed latent fingermarks. The process can precede traditional cyanoacrylate dye staining and often removes the necessity to use these chemical contrast reagents, saving time, cost and eliminating mess. The non-destructive nature of the process and high resolution images that are obtained, builds upon issues that surround shorter-wavelength UV imaging...
June 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
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