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Forensic Science International

Leandro S A Pereira, Fernanda L C Lisboa, José Coelho Neto, Frederico N Valladão, Marcelo M Sena
Several new psychoactive substances (NPS) have reached the illegal drug market in recent years, and ecstasy-like tablets are one of the forms affected by this change. Cathinones and tryptamines have increasingly been found in ecstasy-like seized samples as well as other amphetamine type stimulants. A presumptive method for identifying different drugs in seized ecstasy tablets (n=92) using ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) was developed...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
Marie Morelato, Julian Broséus, Adrian De Grazia, Mark Tahtouh, Pierre Esseiva, Claude Roux
Technology provides new ways to access customers and suppliers while enhancing the security of off-line criminal activity. Since the first cryptomarket, Silk Road, in 2011, cryptomarkets have transformed the traditional drug sale by facilitating the creation of a global network of vendors and buyers. Due to the fragmented nature of traces that result from illegal activities, combining the results of concurrent processes based on traces of different nature should provide supplementary benefit to understand the drug market...
May 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
Peter Blanckaert, Stijn Vanquekelberghe, Vera Coopman, Martijn D P Risseeuw, Serge Van Calenbergh, Jan Cordonnier
This paper reports the structure elucidation and full characterization of 4-chloromethamphetamine (4-CMA), a compound which was never reported previously outside of laboratory settings in seized drug samples, or samples actively being used at large dance festivals. Identification of 4-CMA was obtained by liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Further structure elucidation was performed by fragment pattern analysis of the trimethylsilyl and trifluoroacetyl derivatives with GC-MS...
May 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
Davide Ferrari, Monica Manca, Simone Premaschi, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Locatelli
Driving under the influence of illicit drugs (DUID) represents a significant menace to public safety and is therefore sanctioned with severe fines and penalties such as driving disqualification or even arrest in case the accident has caused serious injury or death. In Italy, DUID is regulated by the article 187 of the National Street Code, however, the list of the substances to be searched and their threshold concentrations are left to the 20 Italian regional authorities. A further lack of legislative standardization concerns the type of detection methods and moreover the time gap between the car accident and blood sampling...
May 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
Larissa Komo, Martin Grassberger
Tool marks on bones induced by knife blades can be analysed morphometrically in order to enable an allocation of the suspected "inflicting weapon" to the particular morphology of the bone lesions. Until now, geometric morphometrics has not been used to analyse the morphology of knife lesions on fleshed bones in detail. By using twelve experimental knives and a drop weight tower, stab/cut injuries were inflicted on untreated pig ribs. The morphology of the experimentally produced lesions was subsequently recorded with three imaging techniques (μCT, macro photography and SEM) and analysed with different morphometric software (Amira, tps and Morpheus)...
May 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
Yael Herman, Ilan Feine, Ron Gafny
The precise and efficient detection of semen and saliva in sexual assault case-work items is a critical step in the forensic pipeline. The outcome of this stage may have a profound impact on identifying perpetrators as well as on the investigation process and the final outcome in court. Semen detection is usually based on the activity of acid phosphatase (AP), an enzyme found in high concentration in the seminal plasma. Amylase, an enzyme catalyzing starch hydrolysis is found in high concentrations in saliva and therefore is a useful target for its detection...
April 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
Felix Mayer, Martin Falk, Ragnar Huhn, Friederike Behmenburg, Stefanie Ritz-Timme
Matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 as well as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) 1 were tested as markers of myocardial early ischemia/infarctions. Experiments with an animal model, the isolated Langendorff heart, and analysis of human tissue samples drawn during autopsies were performed. Results of the experiments with the Langendorff model implied that the detectable amount of the markers might increase early after the onset of ischemia, in less than one hour, under ideal conditions. The results of the examined human cases showed that MMP-2 is constantly detectable in human myocardial tissue with an increased amount in case of an infarction with longer survival times...
April 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Carlos A Valdez, Mira K Marchioretto, Roald N Leif, Saphon Hok
Trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4 ) has been used in the simultaneous derivatization of phosphonic and 2-aminoethylsulfonic acids related to nerve agents in different soils for their enhanced detection and identification by electron ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (EI-GC-MS). The panel of acids consisted of five Schedule 2 phosphonic acids (methyl methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid) along with two sulfonic acids, N,N-diethyl-2-aminoethylsulfonic acid and N,N-diisopropyl-2-aminoethylsulfonic acid...
April 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
M Winters, A Torkelson, R Booth, C Mailand, Y Hoareau, S Tucker, S K Wasser
Genotyping ivory samples can determine the geographic origin of poached ivory as well as the legality of ivory being sold in ivory markets. We conducted a series of experiments to determine where the DNA is most concentrated in ivory samples and how best to increase DNA yield from groups of samples likely to vary in DNA concentration. We examined variation in DNA amplification success from: the layer(s) of the tusk (cementum and/or dentine) being extracted, demineralization temperature and time, and the concentration of eluates...
April 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Nemanja Marinkovic, Petar Milovanovic, Marija Djuric, Nenad Nedeljkovic, Ksenija Zelic
AIMS: To test the applicability of European formula for dental maturity estimation in non-adults on Serbian sample and compare its accuracy with Willems' age estimation method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Panoramic radiographs of 423 children (192 boys and 231 girls) aged between 5 to 15 were evaluated. Willems' method and European formula were applied to estimate dental age. Intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficients between estimated age and chronological age for each method and sex were reported separately...
April 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Rory P Downham, Eleigh R Brewer, Roberto S P King, Vaughn G Sears
An investigation was undertaken to assess the relative effectiveness of five fingermark visualisation process sequences on new, uncirculated £10 polymer banknotes from the Bank of England (BoE). Each sequence was challenged with the visualisation of 64 natural fingermarks on eight banknotes, of which half were aged for 2-3days and half were aged for 12-13days (32 donors contributed in each set). The sequences investigated were; After each process was applied, fingermark development was assessed under primary viewing conditions appropriate to the technique (white light or fluorescence)...
April 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Matthew P Levitas, Emily Andrews, Ira Lurie, Ioan Marginean
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is currently among the methods of choice for the analysis of synthetic cathinones. However, these analytes are extremely labile, and classical electron ionization (EI) results in excessive and relatively uninformative fragmentation, yielding little to no molecular ions. Cold EI reduces the internal energy of the analytes by expansion of supersonic molecular beams prior to their ionization, leading to improved molecular ion information. In this study, classical and cold EI were compared for the analysis of synthetic cathinones...
April 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
R Becker, I Lô, F Sporkert, M Baumgartner
The increasing request for hair ethyl glucuronide (HEtG) in alcohol consumption monitoring according to cut-off levels set by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) has triggered a proficiency testing program based on interlaboratory comparisons (ILC). Here, the outcome of nine consecutive ILC rounds organised by the SoHT on the determination of HEtG between 2011 and 2017 is summarised regarding interlaboratory reproducibility and the influence of procedural variants. Test samples prepared from cut hair (1mm) with authentic (in-vivo incorporated) and soaked (in-vitro incorporated) HEtG concentrations up to 80pg/mg were provided for 27-35 participating laboratories...
April 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Caitlin Humphrey, Maciej Henneberg, Christian Wachsberger, Jaliya Kumaratilake
Firearm injuries are common in the world today, in both military and civilian settings. Research into the effects different ammunition has on the human body has been conducted using tissue simulants such as Ballistics Ordnance Gelatine. Previous research has found that with low velocity projectiles, the tissue simulants only represent a selected few organs, as the human body and its organs/tissues are not homogeneous. The aim of this research was to determine which ballistic simulants best represent the abdomen and thorax, for the purposes of anatomical modelling...
April 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
A Biedermann, F Taroni, S Bozza, M Augsburger, C G G Aitken
In this paper we critically discuss the definition and use of cut-off values by forensic scientists, for example in forensic toxicology, and point out when and why such values - and ensuing categorical conclusions - are inappropriate concepts for helping recipients of expert information with their questions of interest. Broadly speaking, a cut-off is a particular value of results of analyses of a target substance (e.g., a toxic substance or one of its metabolites in biological sample from a person of interest), defined in a way such as to enable scientists to suggest conclusions regarding the condition of the person of interest...
April 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
Matthew C Go
The increasing significance of forensic anthropology in the 21st century, yet unequitable worldwide distribution of expertise, necessitates a stocktaking of the discipline on a local scale. The purpose of this work is to appraise the current state of forensic anthropology in the Philippines and provide the rationale for its further development within the country. Recent efforts in research, education, and legislation that seek to boost Philippine forensic anthropology specifically and forensic sciences generally are highlighted...
April 24, 2018: Forensic Science International
D J Carr, M Featherstone, C Malbon, D Miller, M Teagle
When a person is shot, they are generally wearing clothing which will be damaged by the perforation of the bullet. There are relatively few reports of such textile damage in the literature and the effect of blood on the textile damage observed is not reported. The appearance of textile damage caused by bullet impacts is further compounded by the diverse nature of (i) fabrics used in apparel and (ii) ammunition types. In this work, the effect of blood on textile damage due to ballistic impact was investigated by the development of a specimen that incorporated blood...
April 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Marianne Tiemensma, Bronwen Davies
BACKGROUND: Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a well-recognised public health concern. In South Africa however, epidemiological and toxicological data associated with suspected DFSA are not available. Toxicological screening is currently not routinely available in clinical forensic practice in the Western Cape, or elsewhere in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To preliminary investigate and characterize DFSA in a specific metropolitan setting in South Africa and to identify the drugs/xenobiotics associated with these reported DFSAs...
April 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini, Raffaele Giorgetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
F Veit, W Martz, C G Birngruber, R B Dettmeyer
Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner...
April 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
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