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Forensic Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927690/forensic-drug-intelligence-and-the-rise-of-cryptomarkets-part-i-studying-the-australian-virtual-market
#1
Julian Broséus, Marie Morelato, Mark Tahtouh, Claude Roux
Analysing and understanding cryptomarkets is essential to become proactive in the fight against the illicit drug trade. Such a research seeks to combine a diversity of indicators related to the virtual (darknet markets) and physical (the traditional "offline" market) aspects of the illicit drug trade to provide information on the distribution and consumption as well as to assess similarities/differences between the virtual and physical markets. This study analysed data that had previously been collected on cryptomarkets from December 2013 to March 2015...
September 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926779/cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-associated-injuries-in-still-newborns-infants-and-toddlers-in-a-german-forensic-collective
#2
B Ondruschka, C Baier, M Siekmeyer, C Buschmann, J Dreßler, M Bernhard
INTRODUCTION: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may lead to injuries. Forensic experts are sometimes confronted with claims that fatal injuries were caused by chest compressions during CPR rather than by assaults. We want to answer, how often CPR-associated injuries are present in younger children and if they may mimic injuries caused by abuse. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All autopsy records of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Leipzig, Germany in a 6-year study period were used (2011-2016)...
September 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934683/histological-transformations-of-the-dental-pulp-as-possible-indicator-of-post-mortem-interval-a-pilot-study
#3
Patricio A Carrasco, Claudia I Brizuela, Ismael A Rodriguez, Samuel Muñoz, Marianela E Godoy, Carolina Inostroza
BACKGROUND: The correct estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) can be crucial on the success of a forensic investigation. Diverse methods have been used to estimate PMI, considering physical changes that occur after death, such as mortis algor, livor mortis, among others. Degradation after death of dental pulp is a complex process that has not yet been studied thoroughly. It has been described that pulp RNA degradation could be an indicator of PMI, however this study is limited to 6 days...
September 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926780/validation-of-a-standard-forensic-anthropology-examination-protocol-by-measurement-of-applicability-and-reliability-on-exhumed-and-archive-samples-of-known-biological-attribution
#4
Raffaela Arrabaça Francisco, Martin Paul Evison, Moacyr Lobo da Costa Junior, Teresa Cristina Pantozzi Silveira, José Marcelo Secchieri, Marco Aurelio Guimarães
Forensic anthropology makes an important contribution to human identification and assessment of the causes and mechanisms of death and body disposal in criminal and civil investigations, including those related to atrocity, disaster and trafficking victim identification. The methods used are comparative, relying on assignment of questioned material to categories observed in standard reference material of known attribution. Reference collections typically originate in Europe and North America, and are not necessarily representative of contemporary global populations...
September 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910664/the-analysis-of-132-novel-psychoactive-substances-in-human-hair-using-a-single-step-extraction-by-tandem-lc-ms
#5
Vassiliki A Boumba, Matthew Di Rago, Melissa Peka, Olaf H Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos
A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the targeted screening of 132 NPS in hair is described. Drugs include cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids, as well as amphetamine-type stimulants, piperazines and other hallucinogenic compounds. This method utilizes hair pulverization in acidified methanol followed by analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS. The limit of detection varied from 0.001 to 0.1ng/mg hair among the various analytes. The method was validated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability and stability...
September 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893436/death-after-25c-nbome-and-25h-nbome-consumption
#6
Luca Morini, Marzia Bernini, Sara Vezzoli, Mario Restori, Matteo Moretti, Stefano Crenna, Pietro Papa, Carlo Locatelli, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi
A teenager male was found dead in a waterway after he was spotted jumping off into the water stream. The boy looked agitated and confused after a party with friends. At the gathering place, investigators seized packages of blotter papers. A complete autopsy and a histological evaluation of the main tissues were performed; although the death occurred by drowning, the prosecutor requested toxicological exams, in order to evaluate the potential role of drugs of abuse in the episode. Blood (both peripheral and central) and urine samples as well as seized blotter papers were collected and analyzed as follows...
September 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910665/influence-of-the-axial-rotation-angle-on-tool-mark-striations
#7
Derrel Louis Garcia, René Pieterman, Martin Baiker
A tool's axial rotation influences the geometric properties of a tool mark. The larger the axial rotation angle, the larger the compression of structural details like striations. This complicates comparing tool marks at different axial rotations. Using chisels, tool marks were made from 0° to 75° axial rotation and compared using an automated approach Baiker et al. [10]. In addition, a 3D topographic surface of a chisel was obtained to generate virtual tool marks and to test whether the axial rotation angle of a mark could be predicted...
September 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923667/large-scale-forensic-investigations-into-the-missing-challenges-and-considerations
#8
Mercedes Salado Puerto, Hugh Tuller
Large-scale forensic investigations may follow episodes of mass violence and disasters where hundreds or thousands of people have died or are missing. A number of unique challenges for forensic science, different from domestic investigations, arise in these contexts. The setting and situation of these investigations regularly force forensic scientists into practices not regularly encountered while working in a standard criminal justice system. These practices can entail activities not specific to a practitioner's particular field or necessarily be scientific in nature, but are still needed in order for the investigation to move forward...
September 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890242/asphyxiation-death-caused-by-oxygen-depleting-cargo-on-a-ship
#9
Marjana Kjetland Sundal, Peer Kaare Lilleng, Hans Barane, Inge Morild, Merete Vevelstad
The extreme danger associated with entering enclosed spaces loaded with oxygen-depleting organic cargo in ships and tanks is obviously underestimated, both among crew and management. We present a case report to highlight this occupational hazard and to increase the knowledge about the imperative precautions, in order to prevent future accidents. An experienced customs officer was found lifeless at the bottom of the unattended cargo hold on a ship loaded with woodchips. The oxygen content in the cargo atmosphere was below 2%, which is incompatible with life...
September 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934684/scientific-evidence-for-the-identification-of-an-aboriginal-massacre-at-the-sturt-creek-sites-on-the-kimberley-frontier-of-north-western-australia
#10
Pamela A Smith, Mark D Raven, Keryn Walshe, Robert W Fitzpatrick, F Donald Pate
Archival research into episodes of frontier violence in the Kimberley region of Western Australia indicate that the bodies of Aboriginal victims of massacres were frequently incinerated following the event. This paper presents the results of a scientific investigation of a reported massacre at Sturt Creek where burnt bone fragments were identified in two adjacent sites and documents the archaeological signatures associated with the sites. The methodology used to undertake the project brought together three systems of knowledge: the oral testimonies of the descent group originating from a sole adult survivor of the massacre; archival, historical and scientific research...
August 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892761/ethyl-glucuronide-in-keratinous-matrices-as-biomarker-of-alcohol-use-a-correlation-study-between-hair-and-nails
#11
Delphine Cappelle, Hugo Neels, Steven De Keukeleire, Erik Fransen, Geert Dom, Annemie Vermassen, Adrian Covaci, Cleo L Crunelle, Alexander L N van Nuijs
To quantify alcohol use, objective, specific and sensitive long-term alcohol markers are necessary. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a direct metabolite of alcohol, accumulates in keratinous matrices such as hair and nails, and is a specific and sensitive long-term biomarker for the detection of chronic alcohol consumption. So far, research has primarily focused on the detection of EtG in hair, and studies on its measurement in nails are scarce. In this article, we assessed EtG concentrations in hair, finger- and toenails from the same individuals in order to evaluate the direct correlation between the matrices...
August 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869822/potential-of-ghb-phase-ii-metabolites-to-complement-current-approaches-in-ghb-post-administration-detection
#12
Thomas Piper, Lena-Maria Mehling, Annika Spottke, Anna Heidbreder, Peter Young, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
Recently, phase-II-metabolites of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), namely GHB-β-O-glucuronide and GHB-4-sulfate, were implemented in the scope of drug testing methods The clearance of GHB from the circulation is extremely fast due to its incorporation into the metabolic pathway of the citrate cycle. The elimination half-life of GHB from blood was reported to be dose dependent between 30 and 50min resulting in narrow detection windows of less than 12h after illicit administration or cases of drug facilitated sexual assault regardless of the biological matrix used...
August 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886411/a-preliminary-investigation-of-textile-fibers-in-smothering-scenarios-and-alternative-legitimate-activities
#13
Michael Schnegg, Morgane Turchany, Marie Deviterne, Line Gueissaz, Sabine Hess, Geneviève Massonnet
Was this group of target fibers transferred during a criminal action? Is it possible that it was transferred during another legitimate activity? Acquiring knowledge about the activity, whether legitimate or criminal, leading to the transfer of a group of fibers is a recurring challenge encountered throughout the evidence interpretation process. Trace evidence such as fibers may assist with generating a reasoning of the activity which produced the trace, but this assumes that one already has a thorough understanding of the transfer phenomenon...
August 25, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888988/canine-human-scent-matching-the-limitations-of-systematic-pseudo-matching-to-sample-procedures
#14
Ellen Hale
Here transfer performance is contrasted with baseline training performance to determine whether a relational solution strategy is learned from the systematic pseudo matching-to-sample procedures commonly used to train human-scent-matching dogs. Evidence indicates that due to the lack of constraints to control against simple discrimination solutions, dogs trained with systematic pseudo matching-to-sample arrangements do not learn to use the scent sample as a signaling cue and do not learn about the matching relationship between the scent sample and matching comparison...
August 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869821/composition-and-abundance-of-particles-present-on-powder-free-examination-gloves
#15
Duncan Pirrie, Alistair R Pirrie
Seven widely available brands of powder free nitrile gloves, commonly used in forensic laboratories during the handling of exhibits were examined. Samples were collected from the outer surfaces of the gloves and the particle types present were characterised using automated mineral analysis. Particles less than 10μm in diameter are abundant on the surface of all of the gloves examined. Although the particles are dominated by common compounds/minerals (e.g. calcite, gypsum, NaCl, Fe oxides/carbonates, Al oxides, quartz, plagioclase, kaolinite) each glove brand analysed has a distinct population of particles present which allows the samples to be differentiated from each other...
August 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866240/an-investigation-into-artefacts-formed-during-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-firearms-propellant-that-contains-diphenylamine-as-the-stabiliser
#16
Paul Pigou, Genevieve H Dennison, Martin Johnston, Hilton Kobus
In the course of providing assistance to legal counsel in a matter that involved the analysis of firearms propellant by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry it was noticed that phenoxazine was reported as a component of 0.22 calibre propellant that contained diphenylamine as the stabiliser. The research was conducted to find how phenoxazine was formed. The results showed that the compound was not phenoxazine but a diphenylamine derivative 4-(phenylimino) cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one that formed in the injection port of the gas chromatograph...
August 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863404/an-examination-of-the-spatial-distribution-of-the-tissue-fragments-created-during-a-single-explosive-attack
#17
E DuBois, K Bowers, C Rando
Throughout the course of a forensic investigation following an explosive attack, the identification and recovery of tissue fragments is of extreme importance. There are few universally accepted methods to achieve this end. This project aims to explore this issue through the examination of the spatial distribution of the tissue fragments resulting from an explosive event. To address this, a two stage pilot study was conducted: first, a series of controlled explosions on porcine carcases was undertaken. Second, the data produced from these explosions were used to chart the spatial distribution of the tissue debris...
August 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858678/integrated-hierarchical-geo-environmental-survey-strategy-applied-to-the-detection-and-investigation-of-an-illegal-landfill-a-case-study-in-the-campania-region-southern-italy
#18
Vincenzo Di Fiore, Giuseppe Cavuoto, Michele Punzo, Daniela Tarallo, Marco Casazza, Silvio Marco Guarriello, Massimiliano Lega
This paper describes an approach to detect and investigate the main characteristics of a solid waste landfill through the integration of geological, geographical and geophysical methods. In particular, a multi-temporal analysis of the landfill morphological evolution was carried out using aerial and satellite photos, since there were no geological and geophysical data referring to the study area. Subsequently, a surface geophysical prospection was performed through geoelectric and geomagnetic methods. In particular, the combination of electrical resistivity, induced polarization and magnetic measurements removed some of the uncertainties, generally associated with a separate utilization of these techniques...
August 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846915/humanitarian-forensic-action-its-origins-and-future
#19
Stephen Cordner, Morris Tidball-Binz
Humanitarian forensic action is the application of the knowledge and skills of forensic medicine and science to humanitarian action, especially following conflicts or disasters. It has its early roots in the experience of the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team and that of the Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo in Argentina, is moulded by International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law and was developed by the International Committee of the Red Cross. Having demonstrated its worth, this new field of application of forensic medicine and science needs further development, integration and research...
August 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866239/an-evaluation-of-soil-chemistry-in-human-cadaver-decomposition-islands-potential-for-estimating-postmortem-interval-pmi
#20
J P Fancher, J A Aitkenhead-Peterson, T Farris, K Mix, A P Schwab, D J Wescott, M D Hamilton
Soil samples from the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, were analyzed for multiple soil characteristics from cadaver decomposition islands to a depth of 5centimeters (cm) from 63 human decomposition sites, as well as depths up to 15cm in a subset of 11 of the cadaver decomposition islands plus control soils. Postmortem interval (PMI) of the cadaver decomposition islands ranged from 6 to 1752 days. Some soil chemistry, including nitrate-N (NO3-N), ammonium-N (NH4-N), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), peaked at early PMI values and their concentrations at 0-5cm returned to near control values over time likely due to translocation down the soil profile...
August 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
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