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Forensic Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544918/senior-driving-under-the-influence-a-five-year-retrospective-study-of-alcoholized-road-users-aged-70-and-over
#1
Benjamin Kirsch, Christoph G Birngruber, Reinhard Dettmeyer
The demographic development in Germany shows a steady increase to senior citizens. The driving suitability of older road-users is of large social and political concern, because awareness and reactivity can be influenced by age-related diseases and potential medication, particularly in combination with the consumption of alcohol. This study provides an overview of senior road-users under the influence of alcohol. Therefore, 404 cases of drunken-driving by road-users aged 70 and over within the purview of the Institute of Legal Medicine at Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, from the years 2009-2013 were evaluated in retrospect...
May 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526458/first-records-of-synthesiomyia-nudiseta-diptera-muscidae-from-forensic-cases-in-italy
#2
Sara Lo Pinto, Giorgia Giordani, Fabiola Tuccia, Francesco Ventura, Stefano Vanin
The knowledge of the fauna associated with carrions and cadavers for a specific region plays a fundamental role in the estimation of the time since death in forensic cases. In the last years global warming and globalization have affected the insect species distribution. This phenomenon is affecting also the species of forensic interest associated with the cadaver decomposition. The species distribution shift, in the forensic context, has been mainly observed in Diptera of different family: Calliphoridae, Stratiomyidae and Phoridae...
May 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535979/mirtazapine-fatal-poisoning
#3
Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi, Francesca Brandolini, Francesco Maria Avato, Anna Talarico, Rosa Maria Gaudio, Luca Morini
Mirtazapine is a noradrenergic and specific serotoninergic antidepressant agent that stimulates norepinephrine and serotonin release while also blocking serotonin receptors (5-HT2 and 5-HT3). Although the drug is used extensively, at present we do not know of any fatal cases due to mirtazapine alone. On the contrary, the published literature describes several fatal poisoning cases related to the intake of mirtazapine together with other drugs. Here we describe a fatal case of mirtazapine self-poisoning, since the other drug detected (lorazepam), was within the therapeutic range...
May 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525773/acetone-facilitated-dna-sampling-from-electrical-tapes-improves-dna-recovery-and-enables-latent-fingerprints-development
#4
Ilan Feine, Moshe Shpitzen, Boris Geller, Eran Salmon, Tsach Peleg, Jonathan Roth, Ron Gafny
Electrical tapes (ETs) are a common component of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) used by terrorists or criminal organizations and represent a valuable forensic resource for DNA and latent fingerprints recovery. However, DNA recovery rates are typically low and usually below the minimal amount required for amplification. In addition, most DNA extraction methods are destructive and do not allow further latent fingerprints development. In the present study a cell culture based touch DNA model was used to demonstrate a two-step acetone-water DNA recovery protocol from ETs...
May 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514700/a-comparative-in-situ-decomposition-study-using-still-born-piglets-and-leaf-litter-from-a-deciduous-forest
#5
Ayodeji O Olakanye, Andrew Nelson, T Komang Ralebitso-Senior
A cadaver and dead plant organic matter, or litter, are rich energy sources that undergo a complex decomposition process, which impact the surrounding environmental microbiota. Advances in molecular microbiology techniques, with study of the 16S RNA genes, in particular, have highlighted the application of forensic ecogenomics in addressing key knowledge gaps. To investigate subsurface microbiome shifts as a novel tool to establish "postmortem microbial clock" and augment postmortem interval (PMI) and time-since-burial estimations, an in situ study with triplicate underground burials of piglets as human taphonomic proxies and Quercus robur leaf litter was monitored for 270 days...
May 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528194/analysis-of-peg-oligomers-in-black-gel-inks-discrimination-and-ink-dating
#6
Qiran Sun, Yiwen Luo, Ping Xiang, Xu Yang, Min Shen
Carbon-based black gel inks are common samples in forensic practice of questioned document examination in China, but there are few analytical methods for this type of ink. In this study, a liquid chromatography-.high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was established for the analysis of PEG oligomers in carbon-based black gel ink entries. The coupled instruments achieve both the identification and quantification of PEG oligomers in ink entries with reproducible results. Twenty carbon-based black gel inks, whose Raman spectra appeared identical, were analyzed using the LC-HRMS method...
May 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528277/determining-the-number-of-test-fires-needed-to-represent-the-variability-present-within-9mm-luger-firearms
#7
Eric F Law, Keith B Morris, Casey M Jelsema
Many studies have been performed in recent years in the field of firearm examination with the goal of providing an objective method for comparisons of fired cartridge cases. No published research to support the number of test fires needed to represent the variability present within the impressions left on a cartridge case could be found. When a suspect firearm is submitted to a firearm examiner, typically two to four test fires are performed. The recovered cartridge cases are compared to each other to determine which characteristics from the firearm are reproducing, and then compared to any cartridge cases collected at a crime scene...
May 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535429/high-speed-video-analysis-of-forward-and-backward-spattered-blood-droplets
#8
P M Comiskey, A L Yarin, D Attinger
High-speed videos of blood spatter due to a gunshot taken by the Ames Laboratory Midwest Forensics Resource Center (MFRC) [1] are analyzed. The videos used in this analysis were focused on a variety of targets hit by a bullet which caused either forward, backward, or both types of blood spatter. The analysis process utilized particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle analysis software to measure drop velocities as well as the distributions of the number of droplets and their respective side view area. The results of this analysis revealed that the maximal velocity in the forward spatter can be about 47±5m/s and for the backward spatter - about 24±8m/s...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514996/post-autopsy-computed-tomography-pros-and-cons-in-a-firearm-death
#9
Sindi Visentin, Guido Pelletti, Caterina Dengo, Maria De Matteis, Massimo Montisci
Many studies have focused on the importance of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) prior to or in substitution of standard forensic autopsies in case of firearm death. However, due to the fact that PMCT is not routinely performed in all countries, in cases of death abroad it can happen that a CT scan is performed only after a first autopsy. A case of post-mortem re-examination, including the external examination and a post-autopsy computed tomography (PACT), of a gunshot victim of homicide in a foreign country is presented, and the pros and cons of imaging in post-autopsy setting are discussed...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514701/a-biased-opinion-demonstration-of-cognitive-bias-on-a-fingerprint-matching-task-through-knowledge-of-dna-test-results
#10
Sarah V Stevenage, Alice Bennett
One study is presented which explores the biasing effects of irrelevant contextual information on a fingerprint matching task. Bias was introduced by providing the outcomes of a DNA test relating to each fictitious case under consideration. This was engineered to suggest either a match, no match, or an inconclusive outcome, and was thus either consistent, misleading or unbiased depending on the ground truth of each fingerprint pair. The results suggested that, when the difficulty of the fingerprint matching task was measurably increased, participants became more vulnerable to the biasing information...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505551/the-80-joule-criterion-reconsidered-today
#11
Günter Rettinger
The 80 Joule or 58 ft-lb injury criterion first mentioned by Rohne was read in his textbook and analyzed in detail. Additional review of early literature to this topic was performed. Neither Rohne nor ballisticians ten years later gave an indication how the 8mkg value validates immobilization and how immobilization was defined. The penetration performance of the bullet M/88 was successfully demonstrated in the 80 Joule status when fired in the 100m/s domain from the Gewehr 88. The bullets were fired into ballistic soap under laboratory firing conditions of today...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502713/an-autopsy-case-of-fatal-acute-peritonitis-complicated-by-illegal-acupuncture-therapy
#12
DongJa Kim, SangHan Lee
Acupuncture is an alternative medical therapy and widely practiced in Northeast Asia. Although it is known as a safe procedure, complications including infection, pneumothorax, hemorrhage, and cardiac tamponade have been reported. The authors present a rare case of fatal acute peritonitis due to penetration of acupuncture needles directly into the abdominal and pelvic cavity. The victim was a 55-year-old woman who had a recent history of chemo-radiotherapy due to breast cancer. She was collapsed three days after receiving acupuncture...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500950/determining-the-effect-of-cartridge-case-coatings-on-gsr-using-post-fire-priming-cup-residue
#13
Molly Terry, Barry Fookes, Candice M Bridge
Ammunition is typically composed of a lead-based priming mixture which contributes to the characteristics most commonly used for the identification of gunshot residue (GSR). Due to the health risks often associated with lead, the use of lead-free primers in ammunitions is becoming more popular. Thus, the presence of GSR is becoming more difficult to discern based on the traditional means, i.e. the presence of lead (Pb), barium (Ba), and antimony (Sb). While research has been conducted on the differences between lead-based and lead-free muzzle discharge residue, few have researched other components of ammunition which may lead to other means of characterizing GSR...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514699/profiling-of-illicit-cocaine-seized-in-china-by-icp-ms-analysis-of-inorganic-elements
#14
Cuimei Liu, Zhendong Hua, Xin Meng
For the first time in China, the inorganic element profiling of cocaine specimens was performed at the National Narcotics Laboratory. An inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 26 inorganic elements, including sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminuim (Al), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in illicit cocaine samples...
April 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501360/cow-urine-indian-yellow-and-art-forgeries-an-update
#15
Gregory Dale Smith
In a recent technical note in this Journal, de Faria et al., 2017 [1] reported the Raman spectrum of authentic Indian yellow artists' pigment, correcting a decades old reference spectrum that has led to the misidentification of this pigment in artworks that actually contained tartrazine yellow. The present communication provides additional information and corrects important experimental details mentioned by de Faria et al. that should lead to further identifications of the authentic pigment in artworks. Despite their claim that the analysis of this naturally fluorescent colorant is only possible with Fourier transform (FT) instruments, the ready characterization of two authentic samples of historic Indian yellow pigment is demonstrated here using commonly available visible and near-infrared excitation sources on a dispersive Raman microspectrometer...
April 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499150/effect-of-yarn-structure-on-wicking-and-its-impact-on-bloodstain-pattern-analysis-bpa-on-woven-cotton-fabrics
#16
Xingyu Li, Jingyao Li, Stephen Michielsen
Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) of bloodstains on hard, non-porous surfaces has found widespread use in crime scene analysis and reconstruction for violent crimes in which bloodshed occurs. At many violent crime scenes, bloody clothing is also found and may be analyzed. However, to date, there are no definitive methods for analyzing bloodstains on textiles, even for simple drip stains. There are two major classes of textiles used for apparel and household textiles, weaves and knits. In this article, drip stains on two 100% cotton plain weave fabrics representative of bed sheets are analyzed...
April 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506720/sunlight-activated-near-infrared-phosphorescence-as-a-viable-means-of-latent-fingermark-visualisation
#17
Roberto S P King, Daniel A Skros
The chromium-doped zinc gallogermanate, Zn3Ga2Ge2O10:0.5%Cr(3+), was prepared and modified for use as a near-infrared (NIR) luminescent fingerprint dusting powder. The optical properties of this material are illustrated and have been shown to offer versatility and promise in terms of overcoming troublesome backgrounds during latent fingermark examination and imaging. The highly fluorescent NIR emission of the powder allows inherently fluorescent and patterned substrate backgrounds to be mitigated, whilst the phosphorescent nature of the material allows all conceivable background interference to be removed, whilst also constituting the first reported use of a NIR phosphor for latent fingermark enhancement and imaging...
April 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501359/the-ebola-epidemic-in-liberia-and-managing-the-dead-a-future-role-for-humanitarian-forensic-action
#18
Stephen Cordner, Heinrich Bouwer, Morris Tidball-Binz
With some of their economies, communities and health systems weakened by decades of war and poor governance, it was no accident that an epidemic of Ebola virus disease broke out in west Africa. Being spread in part by contact with body fluids of those who had died from the disease, funerary rites and the way dead bodies were managed were important modes of transmission. The Liberian Red Cross, supported by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross, undertook the challenging task of managing the dead bodies in Monrovia during the epidemic...
April 25, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458085/the-importance-of-optic-nerve-sheath-hemorrhage-as-a-postmortem-finding-in-cases-of-fatal-abusive-head-trauma-a-13-year-study-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#19
Supot Puanglumyai, Suree Lekawanvijit
Fatal abusive head trauma is a major cause of death in children and toddlers who suffer from cruel physical abuse. Postmortem differentiation of fatal abusive head trauma from accidental head trauma can be a complicated process. This consecutive case series study aimed to determine the role of subdural optic nerve sheath hemorrhage (ONSH) in 70 autopsy cases of children ≤3 years old in making this differentiation. The study took place over a 13 year period (between August 1st 2003 and July 31st 2016) at a tertiary hospital in Thailand...
April 19, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506719/two-fatalities-associated-with-synthetic-opioids-ah-7921-and-mt-45
#20
Helena Fels, Julia Krueger, Hans Sachs, Frank Musshoff, Matthias Graw, Gabriele Roider, Andreas Stoever
In this study, two fatalities associated with the synthetic opioids AH-7921 and MT-45 are reported. Within the last few years, both compounds have emerged on the recreational drug market and are sold as "research chemicals" on the internet. In the first case, a 22-year-old woman was found dead in the bedroom of her apartment by two of her friends. A plastic bag labeled "AH-7921" was found in the apartment and the two friends stated that the deceased had consumed AH-7921 prior to her death. The woman was a known drug addict...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
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