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Forensic Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095345/forensic-assignment-to-geographic-origin-a-useful-tool-in-seafood-fraud-control
#1
J L Horreo, G Machado-Schiaffino, E García-Vázquez
Seafood fraud is an economically motivated and widely spread problem encompassing drastic consequences in both public health and species conservation. In Northern Spain, only the first Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) catch of the angling season (named Campanu) can be sold. In the year 2011, an angler denounced it on regional Court claiming that the Campanu (which was sold in 6000€) was fraudulent because it had been caught from another river than the fisherman ("the seller") stated. Here, we report the first judicial case of application of geographical genetic assignment in a fish species in Spain...
January 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089299/the-non-sense-of-routinely-analysing-beta-hydroxybutyric-acid-in-forensic-toxicology-casework
#2
Nele Sadones, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) is a ketone body which is generated from fatty acids as an alternative energy source when glucose is not available. Determination of this compound may be relevant in the forensic laboratory as ketoacidosis - an elevated level of ketone bodies - may contribute to the cause of death. In this study, we aimed at determining the relevance of routinely implementing BHB analysis in the forensic toxicological laboratory, as BHB analysis typically requires an additional workload. We therefore performed an unbiased retrospective analysis of BHB in 599 cases, comprising 553 blood, 232 urine and 62 vitreous humour samples...
January 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108144/postmortem-in-vitro-ethanol-production-it-could-be-more-common-than-we-think
#3
Maria José Quintas, Pedro Costa, Paula Melo, André Castro, João Miguel Franco, Helena M Teixeira
The blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the most frequent determination in a Forensic Toxicology Laboratory. Despite its apparent simplicity, the results interpretation can be complex and always have relevant social and legal implications, particularly in postmortem analysis. In the present report we describe the case of a 55-year-old male with an apparent natural death by myocardial infarction, whose initial BAC was 0.18g/L but, in repeated determinations prompted by discrepancies observed in the first two, it rapidly increased to 0...
January 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089298/gunshot-wound-trajectory-analysis-using-forensic-animation-to-establish-relative-positions-of-shooter-and-victim
#4
Aisling A Galligan, Craig Fries, Judy Melinek
Forensic pathologists who autopsy the victims of gun violence are often called upon to answer questions in both criminal and civil proceedings about the relative position of the shooter and the victim. In this case report of an officer-involved shooting incident, the statement of the police officer appeared to be in direct contradiction to the statements of other eyewitnesses, the evidence at the scene, and the final resting position of the decedent's body. Trajectory analysis of two gunshot wound pathways (only one of which was instantaneously incapacitating) was performed to assess the veracity of the officer's statement and forensic animation was used to create a court exhibit...
January 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086167/genetic-analysis-in-post-mortem-samples-with-micro-ischemic-alterations
#5
Oscar Campuzano, Olallo Sanchez-Molero, Irene Mademont-Soler, Monica Coll, Catarina Allegue, Carles Ferrer-Costa, Jesus Mates, Alexandra Perez-Serra, Bernat Del Olmo, Anna Iglesias, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Josep Brugada, Juan Carlos Borondo, Josep Castella, Jordi Medallo, Ramon Brugada
Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death worldwide. Most cardiac arrests happen in patients who have previously suffered a myocardial infarct. The risk of sudden death after infarction may increase in people who carry a pathogenic genetic alteration in cardiac ion channels. We hypothesized that micro-ischemia could trigger lethal arrhythmogenesis, thus we sought to identify genetic alterations in cardiac ion channels in patients with micro-ischemic disease. We studied a cohort of 56 post-mortem samples...
January 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088710/short-range-shooting-distance-estimation-using-variable-pressure-sem-images-of-the-surroundings-of-bullet-holes-in-textiles
#6
Ruth Hinrichs, Paulo Ricardo Ost Frank, M A Z Vasconcellos
Modifications of cotton and polyester textiles due to shots fired at short range were analyzed with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Different mechanisms of fiber rupture as a function of fiber type and shooting distance were detected, namely fusing, melting, scorching, and mechanical breakage. To estimate the firing distance, the approximately exponential decay of GSR coverage as a function of radial distance from the entrance hole was determined from image analysis, instead of relying on chemical analysis with EDX, which is problematic in the VP-SEM...
December 29, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068574/insect-succession-on-remains-of-human-and-animals-in-shenzhen-china
#7
Yu Wang, Meng-Yun Ma, Xin-Yu Jiang, Jiang-Feng Wang, Liang-Liang Li, Xiao-Jun Yin, Min Wang, Yue Lai, Lu-Yang Tao
Most forensic entomological succession studies have been carried out using pig or rabbit carcasses; however, there have been few studies on the differences between insect succession patterns on human cadavers and on animal carcasses. In order to clarify the differences between decomposition and insect succession patterns of human cadavers and animal carcasses, one 49.5kg human cadaver, two large pig carcasses (45 and 48kg), two small pig carcasses (23 and 25kg) and two rabbit carcasses (both 1.75kg) were placed in the same field conditions in Shenzhen, China for a comparative study on August, 2013...
December 28, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089301/time-since-discharge-of-9mm-cartridges-by-headspace-analysis-part-2-ageing-study-and-estimation-of-the-time-since-discharge-using-multivariate-regression
#8
M Gallidabino, F S Romolo, C Weyermann
Estimating the time since discharge of spent cartridges can be a valuable tool in the forensic investigation of firearm-related crimes. To reach this aim, it was previously proposed that the decrease of volatile organic compounds released during discharge is monitored over time using non-destructive headspace extraction techniques. While promising results were obtained for large-calibre cartridges (e.g., shotgun shells), handgun calibres yielded unsatisfying results. In addition to the natural complexity of the specimen itself, these can also be attributed to some selective choices in the methods development...
December 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076838/identification-of-mdmb-fubinaca-in-commercially-available-e-liquid-formulations-sold-for-use-in-electronic-cigarettes
#9
Michelle R Peace, Rose I Krakowiak, Carl E Wolf, Alphonse Poklis, Justin L Poklis
MDMB-FUBINACA (aka MDMB(N)-Bz-F), chemical name Methyl (S)-2-(1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate, a designer drug or a new psychoactive substance (NPS), was identified in three commercially available e-liquids formulated for electronic cigarette use. The e-liquids were evaluated using direct analysis in real time ion source attached to a time of flight mass spectrometer (DART-MS) and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to identify active ingredients/drugs, flavorants, and other possible constituents...
December 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094153/development-and-validation-of-a-fast-ionic-liquid-based-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-procedure-combined-with-lc-ms-ms-analysis-for-the-quantification-of-benzodiazepines-and-benzodiazepine-like-hypnotics-in-whole-blood
#10
Marieke De Boeck, Sophie Missotten, Wim Dehaen, Jan Tytgat, Eva Cuypers
To date, thorough clean-up of complex biological samples remains an essential part of the analytical process. The solid phase extraction (SPE) technique is the well-known standard, however, its main weaknesses are the labor-intensive and time-consuming protocols. In this respect, dispersive liquid-liquid microextractions (DLLME) seem to offer less complex and more efficient extraction procedures. Furthermore, ionic liquids (ILs) - liquid salts - are emerging as new promising extraction solvents, thanks to their non-flammable nature, negligible vapor pressure and easily adaptable physiochemical properties...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076837/possible-influences-on-bullet-trajectory-deflection-in-ballistic-gelatine
#11
Fabiano Riva, Wim Kerkhoff, Annabel Bolck, Erwin J A T Mattijssen
The influence of the distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots on a bullet's trajectory, when passing through ballistic gelatine, was studied. No significant difference in deflection was found when trajectories of 9mm Luger bullets, fired at a 3.5cm distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots, were compared to trajectories of bullets fired 7cm or more away from any of the aforementioned aspects...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065555/stability-of-endogenous-ghb-in-vitreous-humor-vs-peripheral-blood-in-dead-bodies
#12
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Giulio Mannocchi, Raffaele Giorgetti, Manuela Pellegrini, Giovanni Baglio, Simona Zaami, Enrico Marinelli, Simona Pichini
For the first time, the stability of GHB was tested in post-mortem peripheral blood and vitreous humor samples, collected from 22 dead bodies at two different times: at the external body examination at the place of death and then during autopsy. An ad hoc method for the detection and quantification of GHB in vitreous humor by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and validated, with a good linearity between 0.1 and 50μg/mL (r(2)=0.991) and a precision and accuracy always better than 10% and an analytical recovery higher than 90%...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057371/3-meo-pcp-intoxication-in-two-young-men-first-in-vivo-detection-in-italy
#13
Elisabetta Bertol, Jennifer Pascali, Diego Palumbo, Valeria Catalani, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Alessia Fioravanti, Francesco Mari, Fabio Vaiano
3-MeO-PCP or 3-methoxyphencyclidine is a derivative of phencyclidine. It acts as a dissociative anesthetic and it has allegedly hallucinogenic and sedative effects. There are almost no documented intoxication cases and references about its pharmacology and toxicity in literature. This study presents two concomitant intoxication cases due to consumption of 3-MeO-PCP and alcohol. A 19 (A) and a 21 years old (B) men were brought to Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in a comatose state (Glasgow score 3). They showed respiratory acidosis, right anisocoria with mydriatic pupils and hypothermia...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089297/time-since-discharge-of-9mm-cartridges-by-headspace-analysis-part-1-comprehensive-optimisation-and-validation-of-a-headspace-sorptive-extraction-hsse-method
#14
M Gallidabino, F S Romolo, C Weyermann
Estimating the time since discharge of spent cartridges can be a valuable tool in the forensic investigation of firearm-related crimes. To reach this aim, it was previously proposed that the decrease of volatile organic compounds released during discharge is monitored over time using non-destructive headspace extraction techniques. While promising results were obtained for large-calibre cartridges (e.g., shotgun shells), handgun calibres yielded unsatisfying results. In addition to the natural complexity of the specimen itself, these can also be attributed to some selective choices in the methods development...
December 24, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089300/mitragynine-concentrations-in-two-fatalities
#15
Olwen Domingo, Gabriele Roider, Andreas Stöver, Matthias Graw, Frank Musshoff, Hans Sachs, Wolfgang Bicker
Two cases of fatalities are reported of which the recreational use of Mitragyna speciosa ("kratom") could be confirmed. One of these cases presents with one of the highest postmortem mitragynine concentrations published to date. Our results show that even extremely high mitragynine blood concentrations following the consumption of kratom do not necessarily have to be the direct cause of death in such fatalities as a result of an acute overdose. The two cases are compared with regard to the differences in mitragynine concentrations detected and the role of mitragynine in the death of the subjects...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081518/development-of-a-biometric-method-to-estimate-age-on-hand-radiographs
#16
Floriane Remy, Gabriela Hossu, Romain Cendre, Emilien Micard, Laurence Mainard-Simard, Jacques Felblinger, Laurent Martrille, Loïc Lalys
Age estimation of living individuals aged less than 13, 18 or 21 years, which are some relevant legal ages in most European countries, is currently problematic in the forensic context. Thus, numerous methods are available for legal authorities, although their efficiency can be discussed. For those reasons, we aimed to propose a new method, based on the biometric analysis of hand bones. 451 hand radiographs of French individuals under the age of 21 were retrospectively analyzed. This total sample was divided into three subgroups bounded by the relevant legal ages previously mentioned: 0-13, 13-18 and 18-21 years...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069428/high-concentrations-of-lead-and-barium-in-hair-of-the-rural-population-caused-by-water-pollution-in-the-thar-jath-oilfields-in-south-sudan
#17
Fritz Pragst, Klaus Stieglitz, Hella Runge, Klaus-Dietrich Runow, David Quig, Robert Osborne, Christian Runge, John Ariki
In the oil fields of Thar Jath, South Sudan, increasing salinity of drinking water was observed together with human incompatibilities and rise in livestock mortalities. Hair analysis was used to characterize the toxic exposure of the population. Hair samples of volunteers from four communities with different distance from the center of the oil field (Koch 23km, n=24; Leer 50km, n=26; Nyal 110km, n=21; and Rumbek 220km, n=25) were analyzed for altogether 39 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064063/a-new-approach-to-obtain-metric-data-from-video-surveillance-preliminary-evaluation-of-a-low-cost-stereo-photogrammetric-system
#18
Paolo Russo, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo, Alberto Pellegrinelli, Juri Balboni, Alessio Furini
Using an interdisciplinary approach the authors demonstrate the possibility to obtain reliable anthropometric data of a subject by means of a new video surveillance system. In general the use of current video surveillance systems provides law enforcement with useful data to solve many crimes. Unfortunately the quality of the images and the way in which they are taken often makes it very difficult to judge the compatibility between suspect and perpetrator. In this paper, the authors present the results obtained with a low-cost photogrammetric video surveillance system based on a pair of common surveillance cameras synchronized with each other...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063635/determination-of-cocaine-and-its-derivatives-in-hair-samples-by-liquid-phase-microextraction-lpme-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-gc-ms
#19
A M F Pego, F L Roveri, R Y Kuninari, V Leyton, I D Miziara, M Yonamine
Hair testing is a recognized approach when it comes to accessing historical drug use. According to the World Drug Report of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 2015, Brazil is the largest cocaine (COC) market in South America. New analytical methodologies to detect crack/cocaine analytes in hair samples are highly desirable. Here, a method consisting of a liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) as a clean-up step, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis has been proposed. The new validated method consisted of a washing step; an overnight incubation with methanol and a quick derivatization with butylchloroformate...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068573/guidelines-for-reproducing-geometrical-aspects-of-intra-oral-radiographs-images-on-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#20
Janaina Paiva Curi, Thiago Leite Beaini, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani, Israel Chilvarquer, Edgard Michel Crosato
Human identification requires comparison of individual traits of a person, depending on the availability and reproduction of antemortem (AM) records. If there is no presumed identity or AM exams are not available for comparison, the production of postmortem (PM) records is impaired. The purpose of this research is to describe and test standards to enable the comparison of antemortem periapical radiographs to images extracted from the manipulation of postmortem CBCT exams in multiple identification simulations in a randomized blind study...
December 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
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