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Forensic Science International

Fei Fan, Kui Zhang, Zhao Peng, Jing-Hui Cui, Na Hu, Zhen-Hua Deng
To perform a study to clarify how strong the chronological age relates to ossification of the knee in Chinese on X-rays and the MRI when a similar four-stage grading system was used. 322 individuals with conventional radiographs and MRI were collected from routine medical investigations and evaluated retrospectively. Bland Altman plots were performed to reveal the agreement of grading of MRI and radiograph. Regression analysis was conducted to establish a mathematical model for age estimation. The ossification process of the knee occurs earlier in females than in males for about 1-2 years...
October 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
M V Nair, G M Miskelly
Clandestine laboratories pose a serious health risk to first responders, investigators, decontamination companies, and the public who may be inadvertently exposed to methamphetamine and other chemicals used in its manufacture. Therefore there is an urgent need for reliable methods to detect and measure methamphetamine at such sites. The most common method for determining methamphetamine contamination at former clandestine laboratory sites is selected surface wipe sampling, followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 3, 2016: Forensic Science International
Luísa Nogueira, Gérald Quatrehomme, Christophe Rallon, Pascal Adalian, Véronique Alunni
This experimental study examined false starts because these are seldom discussed in the forensic literature and usually concern animal bones rather than human bones. We created 170 experimental false starts (50 on pig femurs and 120 on human femurs) using five different saws (4 with an alternating set of teeth, and one with a wavy set). Teeth per inch (TPI) ranged from 7 to 24. Saws were classified as either rip saws or universal saws. The bone lesions were studied using stereomicroscopy. This study focused on three features that are easily observed with a stereomicroscope: the minimum width of the kerf, the profile of the lesions (concave or convex), and the shape of the edges (narrow-wide pattern, necking in the middle, or straight pattern)...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science International
Hun Joo Lee, Eunyoung Han, Jaesin Lee, Heesun Chung, Sung-Gi Min
The aim of this study is to improve resolution of impurity peaks using a newly devised normalization algorithm for multi-internal standards (ISs) and to describe a visual peak selection system (VPSS) for efficient support of impurity profiling. Drug trafficking routes, location of manufacture, or synthetic route can be identified from impurities in seized drugs. In the analysis of impurities, different chromatogram profiles are obtained from gas chromatography and used to examine similarities between drug samples...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science International
Thomas Pineau, Adrien Schopfer, Lionel Grossrieder, Julian Broséus, Pierre Esseiva, Quentin Rossy
Despite the predominant role played by Internet in the distribution of doping substances, little is currently known about the online offer of doping products. Therefore, the study focuses on the detection of doping substances and suppliers discussed in Internet forums. It aims at having a comprehensive understanding of products and sellers to lead an operational monitoring of the online doping market. Thirteen community forums on the Internet were investigated and one million topics were extracted with source code scrappers...
September 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
Gilles Clavier, Jérémy Malinge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
Alicia Khuu, Scott Chadwick, Xanthe Spindler, Rolanda Lam, Sébastien Moret, Claude Roux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
Lynn R LaMotte, Jeffrey D Wells
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
Imed Gaaloul, Samira Riabi, Mark Evans, Timothy Hunter, Sally Huber, Mahjoub Aouni
Coxsackieviruses B (CV B) are known as the most common viral cause of human heart infections. Cardiac inflammations contribute to sudden unexpected death (SUD) significantly. The diagnosis remains difficult with the traditional diagnostic tests and must be substantially improved. This has prompted health professionals to seek new diagnostic procedures which may provide important clues regarding underlying etiology. The present study is based on patients with infectious heart diseases and SUD victims with no relevant pathologies...
September 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
Kylie Jones, Sarah Benson, Claude Roux
For casework applications, understanding the source processes used to create a material and the effects of those sources on the results obtained by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) of a bulk material is important. Likewise, understanding the effect of environment, home/office printing processes and some forensic testing in at least a basic context, ensures that in casework, enough information on the effects of these variables is available during comparison and interpretation. In this study, which focuses on oxygen isotopic abundance measurements, both fractionation and mixing effects were observed within the pulping and production process...
September 21, 2016: Forensic Science International
Daniel Moreira, Sandra Avila, Mauricio Perez, Daniel Moraes, Vanessa Testoni, Eduardo Valle, Siome Goldenstein, Anderson Rocha
As web technologies and social networks become part of the general public's life, the problem of automatically detecting pornography is into every parent's mind - nobody feels completely safe when their children go online. In this paper, we focus on video-pornography classification, a hard problem in which traditional methods often employ still-image techniques - labeling frames individually prior to a global decision. Frame-based approaches, however, ignore significant cogent information brought by motion...
September 21, 2016: Forensic Science International
Hannah E Moore, John B Butcher, Craig D Adam, Charles R Day, Falko P Drijfhout
Cuticular hydrocarbons were extracted daily from the larvae of two closely related blowflies Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The hydrocarbons were then analysed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of observing changes within their chemical profiles in order to determine the larval age. The hydrocarbons were examined daily for each species from 1day old larvae until pupariation. The results show significant chemical changes occurring from the younger larvae to the post-feeding larvae...
September 20, 2016: Forensic Science International
Susan Hayes
In August 2011, a 2D facial approximation was undertaken of remains discovered in Australia's Belanglo State Forrest; in October 2015, the young woman was identified. Referencing three photographs of the young woman as she appeared in life and a database of 64 sex, age, head pose and population matched images, the facial approximation is evaluated for relative shape accuracy through the application of geometric morphometrics. The results are that the facial approximation is significantly similar to the images of the young woman in facial morphology (p=0...
September 19, 2016: Forensic Science International
Percy Bondallaz, Bernard Favrat, Haïthem Chtioui, Eleonora Fornari, Philippe Maeder, Christian Giroud
Traffic policies show growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis, since cannabinoids are one of the most frequently encountered psychoactive substances in the blood of drivers who are drug-impaired and/or involved in accidents, and in the context of a legalization of medical marijuana and of recreational use. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of cannabis on safe driving remain poorly understood. In order to better understand its acute and long-term effects on psychomotor functions involved in the short term ability and long-term fitness to drive, experimental research has been conducted based on laboratory, simulator or on-road studies, as well as on structural and functional brain imaging...
September 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
Lena Kramer, Markus Große Perdekamp, Dorothee Geisenberger, Rebecca Pircher, Stefan Pollak, Ulrike Schmidt
A 50-year-old man was found hanged on the concrete dam of a water reservoir. The ligature, a braided rope made of synthetic fibres, was attached to a lamp on the dam crest. The length of the rope between the fastening point and the noose was about 4m. At autopsy, stretchmark-like intimal tears of the carotid arteries were found, but the full pattern of (internal) decapitation and severance of the cervical spine was not present. The right wrist showed two almost circular, ribbon-like abrasions initially suggesting that the man had been tied before hanging...
September 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
Gudrun Høiseth, Silja Skogstad Tuv, Ritva Karinen
INTRODUCTION: A number of new designer benzodiazepines have reached the illegal drug market over the past years. Toxicological interpretation of concentrations of these drugs in blood is quite challenging as very limited human data have previously been published. The aim of this study was to report blood concentrations of new designer benzodiazepines in a population of drugged drivers as well as some other criminal offenders, and to relate this to clinical impairment. METHODS: The present material represents cases involving new designer benzodiazepines (clonazolam, diclazepam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam and pyrazolam) and etizolam, submitted for analyses during the period July 1, 2013-May 31, 2016...
September 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
F Z Mokrane, R Colleter, S Duchesne, P Gerard, F Savall, E Crubezy, C Guilbeau-Frugier, R Moreno, A Sewonu, H Rousseau, N Telmon, F Dedouit
INTRODUCTION: Among 800 burials dated between the 15th and 18th centuries and found in the center of Rennes (Brittany, France), a collection of five heart-shaped lead urns was discovered. This material was studied using classical methods (external study, autopsy and histology), and also modern imaging like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) before and after coronary opacification. The aim of this manuscript is to describe different steps of ancient soft tissues study, especially using imaging techniques...
September 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
Cyril Muehlethaler, Marco Leona, John R Lombardi
In order for a new analytical technique such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to be used in a routine manner, data and studies on the validation of the method are required. In that context, we performed a systematic study of the variability observed at different levels of the analytical procedure (i.e. respectively measurement, sampling, colloids aliquots, colloids batches, laboratories). Our goal is to provide data towards a qualitative validation of the technique for identification purposes. Three molecules of forensic interest were used as probes, respectively crystal violet, methamphetamine and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)...
September 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
Talia G Newland, Sebastien Moret, Andy Bécue, Simon W Lewis
Single metal deposition (SMD II), a recently proposed method for the development of latent fingermarks, was investigated by systematically altering aspects of the procedure to assess their effect on the level of development and contrast achieved. Gold nanoparticle size, temperature of the deposition solution bath, and orbital shaking during detection were shown to affect the levels of development and contrast obtained. Gold nanoparticles of diameter 15-21nm were found to be most effective for satisfactory visualisation of latent fingermarks, while solutions that were applied at room temperature were found to adequately balance the ratio between the contrast of the fingermark ridge detail and the level of background staining achieved...
September 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
Louise Skov, Karen Marie Dollerup Holm, Kristian Linnet
Reference concentrations are needed to evaluate postmortem toxicology results and usually femoral blood is the specimen of choice. However, brain tissue has been suggested as a viable alternative specimen, since postmortem blood concentrations can be difficult to interpret due to postmortem redistribution, among other factors. Here we present reference concentrations of postmortem brain and femoral blood of the nitrobenzodiazepines clonazepam, flunitrazepam, and nitrazepam that are of particular interest since they commonly are converted to their corresponding 7-aminometabolites in the postmortem situation...
September 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
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