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Forensic Science International

Gregory S Doran, Ralph Deans, Carlo De Filippis, Chris Kostakis, Julia A Howitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ji Hye Park, Yu-Hoon Kim, Chan Seon Ham, Sang Eon Shin, Hyun Ju Lee, Kwang Soo Ko, Jinhyuk Choi, Gi Hoon Son, Seong Hwan Park
The application of insect evidence to forensic investigations is mainly based on the estimation of postmortem interval and the identification of insect species from samples that are collected from the crime scene. Due to the limited number of expert taxonomists, species identification is one of the major barriers for crime scene investigators to utilize forensic entomology. Therefore, the molecular identification of species, using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, has been suggested as an alternative strategy...
January 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
R Tse, J Garland, K Kesha, P Morrow, L Lam, H Elstub, A D Cala, C Palmiere, S Stables
BACKGROUND: The study of post mortem vitreous magnesium (Mg) is less common than sodium (Na), chloride (Cl) and potassium (K) in the forensic literature. There is no accepted normal range for post mortem vitreous Mg and the relationship between post mortem vitreous Mg levels and post mortem interval (PMI), other electrolyte levels, disease conditions, age and sex have not been fully established. AIM: To investigate the relationship of post mortem vitreous Mg with age, sex, PMI, vitreous electrolyte levels and diabetic status...
December 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
Hilde Erøy Edvardsen, Torill Tverborgvik, Joachim Frost, Sidsel Rogde, Inge Morild, Helge Waal, Thomas Clausen, Lars Slørdal, Vigdis Vindenes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
D G Norman, D G Watson, B Burnett, P M Fenne, M A Williams
Toolmark analysis involves examining marks created on an object to identify the likely tool responsible for creating those marks (e.g., a knife). Although a potentially powerful forensic tool, knife mark analysis is still in its infancy and the validation of imaging techniques as well as quantitative approaches is ongoing. This study builds on previous work by simulating real-world stabbings experimentally and statistically exploring quantitative toolmark properties, such as cut mark angle captured by micro-CT imaging, to predict the knife responsible...
December 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
R Tse, C X Wong, K Kesha, J Garland, Y Tran, S Anne, H Elstub, A D Cala, C Palmiere, K L Patchett
Serum mast cell tryptase is used to support the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. The recommended clinical cut-off for total tryptase (<11.4μg/L) appears unsuitable in the post mortem setting due to largely unknown processes which result in significantly elevated levels in these samples. Consequently there is no widely accepted tryptase cut-off level for diagnosing an anaphylactic death. This 5-year retrospective study compared total tryptase levels in post mortem femoral blood in anaphylactic deaths and control...
December 28, 2017: Forensic Science International
T M Binz, L Rietschel, F Streit, M Hofmann, J Gehrke, M Herdener, B B Quednow, N G Martin, M Rietschel, T Kraemer, M R Baumgartner
The measurement of hair cortisol is increasingly used to measure long-term cumulative cortisol levels and investigate its role as an important stress mediator. In this study a comparative statistical analysis of five independent studies (all analyzed in our laboratory) was performed to investigate baseline ranges of cortisol values in hair and evaluate potential influences of sex, age and hair color. Cortisol concentrations in hair of 554 subjects were measured and a comparative statistical analysis was performed...
December 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
Marc Luginbühl, Sytske Willem, Stefan Schürch, Wolfgang Weinmann
In the presence of alcohol, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is transformed to the direct alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth). This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) and dependent on substrate availability. As recent methods have solely focused on the determination of PEth, information about the PC composition was generally missing. To address this issue and monitor PC (16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2) and PEth (16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2) simultaneously, a reversed phase LC-MS/MS method based on a C8 core-shell column, coupled to a Sciex 5500 QTrap instrument was developed...
December 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
Elena Pilli, Stefania Vai, Marina Grazia Caruso, Giancarlo D'Errico, Andrea Berti, David Caramelli
One of the major challenges of molecular biology in anthropological analysis is the identification via DNA typing of bone or teeth samples that can be collected from archaeological site in order to investigate kinship relationships. Due to the difficulties of isolating and analysing DNA from such samples, several efforts have been made to solve these problems, but less work has been conducted to identify the proper type of bone samples for the DNA analysis. Therefore, following the promising results obtained from the DNA analysis of petrous bones by different groups of researchers, for the first time, here we investigated the possibility of using petrous bones as skeletal elements useful for short tandem repeat (STR) typing via capillary electrophoresis technique in ancient bone samples...
December 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
Corey R Pollock, James T Pokines, Jonathan D Bethard
Determining the depositional environment and the postmortem alterations to a set of remains are necessary aspects of a forensic investigation to explain the circumstances surrounding the death of an individual. The present study examines organic staining as a method for reconstructing the depositional environment of skeletal remains and the taphonomic agents with which they came into contact. Organic staining results largely from tannins leaching from plant materials and therefore can be seen on bone deposited in wooden coffin environments or on terrestrial surfaces...
December 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
Giuseppe Quaremba, Claudio Buccelli, Vincenzo Graziano, Alberto Laino, Luigi Laino, Mariano Paternoster, Pierpaolo Petrone
Nowadays, given the massive migration movements toward and across EU countries, age assessment can be highly useful for estimating the real age of asylum seekers or in medico-legal assessments of age-disputed children charged with criminal acts. Demirjian et al.'s dental maturity score is currently a dental scoring system universally adopted for age assessment of unidentified children. Here we explore the biological compatibility of Demirjian's scores with respect to the estimation of certain chronological ages of forensic interest through an algorithm based on the theory of constrained graphs integrated with combinatory analysis...
December 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
Valentine Sergeev, Frances Perry, Thomas M Roston, Shubhayan Sanatani, Glen F Tibbits, Thomas W Claydon
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is the most common cardiac ion channelopathy and has been found to be responsible for approximately 10% of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases. Despite increasing use of broad panels and now whole exome sequencing (WES) in the investigation of SIDS, the probability of identifying a pathogenic mutation in a SIDS victim is low. We report a family-based study who are afflicted by recurrent SIDS in which several members harbor a variant, p.Pro963Thr, in the C-terminal region of the human-ether-a-go-go (hERG) gene, published to be responsible for cases of LQTS type 2...
December 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
Ann-Sofie Ceciliason, M Gunnar Andersson, Anders Lindström, Håkan Sandler
This study's objective is to obtain accuracy and precision in estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) for decomposing human remains discovered in indoor settings. Data were collected prospectively from 140 forensic cases with a known date of death, scored according to the Total Body Score (TBS) scale at the post-mortem examination. In our model setting, it is estimated that, in cases with or without the presence of blowfly larvae, approximately 45% or 66% respectively, of the variance in TBS can be derived from Accumulated Degree-Days (ADD)...
December 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
Camilla Forr, Berit Schei, Lise Eilin Stene, Kari Ormstad, Cecilie Therese Hagemann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between victim, suspect and assault characteristics and (1) forensic analysis of trace evidence, (2) detection of spermatozoa and (3) DNA match in police-reported cases of rape/attempted rape. In addition, we explored whether DNA findings were associated with legal outcome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study based on police-reported rapes and attempted rapes of women  ≥16 years of age in Sør-Trøndelag Police District throughout 1997-2010...
December 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
Eduardo Novaes Benedicto, Alana Cássia Silva Azevedo, Edgard Michel-Crosato, Maria Gabriela Haye Biazevic
OBJECTIVE: To validate, analyse accuracy, and construct multiple regression formulae of three age estimation methods - Liliequist and Lundberg, Haavikko, and Mornstad - using mineralization stages of permanent teeth in Brazilians. METHODS: Panoramic radiographs of 1009 Brazilian children and adolescents (387 males and 622 females) aged 8-15.99 years were analysed using the aforementioned methodologies. RESULTS: The overall accuracy (absolute difference=AD and dental age-chronological age=DA-CA) of the methods was as follows: Liliequist and Lundberg, AD=0...
December 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
José Coelho Neto, Renata F P Faraco, Cíntia F Alves, Stela M M Castro, Yuri Machado
MDMA and sildenafil are two examples among many substances consumed in "raves", as well as in other types of "recreative" social events nowadays. During the first six months of 2017, five cases of supposedly MDMA tablets seized by local law enforcement forces in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and brought to our forensic laboratory for examination, attracted our attention among dozens of others, as the tablets apprehended in these cases were, in fact, colorfully painted versions of genuine, pentagon-shaped, sildenafil tablets, freely available for sale in local pharmacies and drugstores...
December 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
Romain Steiner, Andy Bécue
The use of vacuum metal deposition (VMD) for fingermark detection has been known for almost 40 years. The technique is applicable on a wide variety of substrates and on wetted items. Several publications compare the relative efficiency of VMD (conventionally based on a successive vaporization of gold followed by zinc) with other detection techniques, or its ability to detect marks on difficult substrates, but few are known about the application of monometallic VMDs and about the impact of immersion on the detection performances...
December 19, 2017: Forensic Science International
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison
In a 2017 New South Wales case, a forensic practitioner conducted a forensic voice comparison using a Gaussian mixture model - universal background model (GMM-UBM). The practitioner did not report the results of empirical tests of the performance of this system under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation. The practitioner trained the model for the numerator of the likelihood ratio using the known-speaker recording, but trained the model for the denominator of the likelihood ratio (the UBM) using high-quality audio recordings, not recordings which reflected the conditions of the known-speaker recording...
December 19, 2017: Forensic Science International
Cornelius Hess, Konrad Sydow, Theresa Kueting, Michael Kraemer, Alexandra Maas
The requirement for correct evaluation of forensic toxicological results in daily routine work and scientific studies is reliable analytical data based on validated methods. Validation of a method gives the analyst tools to estimate the efficacy and reliability of the analytical method. Without validation, data might be contested in court and lead to unjustified legal consequences for a defendant. Therefore, new analytical methods to be used in forensic toxicology require careful method development and validation of the final method...
December 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
Hao Guo, Huijun Wang, Jing Zheng, Wenwen Liu, Jian Zhong, Qingbiao Zhao
Phosphoric acid-containing amino acid pesticides, including glyphosate, glufosinate, and bialaphos, have been frequently encountered in human poisoning and suicidal cases, thus a quick and sensitive determination method for these compounds is very important. Herein we report a sensitive and rapid method for the determination of glyphosate, glufosinate, bialaphos and their metabolites, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (MPPA) in human blood samples. The method involves extraction using a modified Quick Polar Pesticides Extraction (QuPPe) method, cleanup with the PRiME HLB sorbents and detection with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)...
December 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
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