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American Journal of Chinese Medicine

Shu-Jing Yu, Rong Jiang, Ying Z Mazzu, Cai-Bing Wei, Zong-Liang Sun, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure. Disruption of the Th17/Treg balance can lead to hepatic inflammation, which causes the main symptoms of DILI. Here we investigate the protective mechanisms of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on triptolide (TP)-induced DILI that shows the Th17/Treg imbalance. Pretreatment with EGCG (5[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for 10 days before TP (0.5[Formula: see text]mg/kg) administration in mice significantly reduced the increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ([Formula: see text]) induced by TP treatment...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Kuo-Ching Liu, Ting-Ying Shih, Chao-Lin Kuo, Yi-Shih Ma, Jiun-Long Yang, Ping-Ping Wu, Yi-Ping Huang, Kuang-Chi Lai, Jing-Gung Chung
Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate, exists exclusively in cruciferous vegetables, and has been shown to possess potent antitumor and chemopreventive activity. However, there is no available information that shows SFN affecting human colon cancer HCT 116 cells. In the present study, we found that SFN induced cell morphological changes, which were photographed by contrast-phase microscopy, and decreased viability. SFN also induced G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis in HCT 116 cells, which were measured with flow cytometric assays...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Mon-Yuan Yang, Chia-Hung Hung, Chun-Hua Chang, Tsui-Hwa Tseng, Chau-Jong Wang
Solanum nigrum L., an edible plant and local dish, has been assigned anticancer activities. However, the anticancer mechanisms of S. nigrum are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether the water or polyphenol extracts of S. nigrum (SNWE or SNPE) could inhibit angiogenesis-mediated tumor growth. In nude mice bearing tumor xenografts, SNWE or SNPE significantly reduced the volume and weight of the tumors, and decreased the expression of CD31, a marker for angiogenesis. SNWE or SNPE was found to inhibit the VEGF-induced capillary structure formation of endothelial cells...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Ki-Shuk Shim, Chung-Jo Lee, Nam-Hui Yim, Min Jung Gu, Jin Yeul Ma
Alpinia officinarum rhizome has been used as a traditional herbal remedy to treat inflammatory and internal diseases. Based on the previously observed inhibitory effect of A. officinarum rhizome in an arthritis model, we evaluated whether a water extract of A. officinarum rhizome (WEAO) would enhance in vitro osteoblast mineralization using calvarial osteoblast precursor cells or would inhibit in vitro osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption using bone marrow derived macrophages. In osteoblasts, WEAO enhanced the mRNA levels of transcription factor (runt-related transcription factor 2, smad1, smad5, and junB) and marker (bone morphogenetic protein-2, collagen type 1alpha1, and osteocalcin) genes related to osteoblast mineralization, consistent with increased alizarin red S staining intensity...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Xiao-Li Dong, Si-Si Cao, Li-Ping Zhou, Liya Denney, Man-Sau Wong, Hao-Tian Feng
Our previous studies found that different extracts or fractions of Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL) played different roles in altering the regulation of bone and mineral metabolism in different animal models. The present study was designed to compare the actions of FLL ethanol (EE) and water extracts (WE) on bone and mineral metabolism in a 6-month-old mature ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. Our results showed that FLL extracts did not significantly improve systematic Ca balance in mature OVX rats. However, EE, but not WE treatment, significantly increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels in mature OVX rats...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Liying Tang, Fengli Yang, Zhirui Fang, Chengmu Hu
Alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) is early stage of alcoholic liver disease, which can progress to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis if alcohol consumption is continued. The pathogenesis of AFL is associated with excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Resveratrol (RES), a dietary polyphenol found in red wines and grapes, has been shown to have a hepatoprotective effect. Autophagy is a crucial physiological process in cellular catabolism that involves the regulation of lipid droplets. Autophagy maintains a balance between protein synthesis, degradation and self-recycling...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Guan-Yu Chen, Yu-Chieh Shu, Duen-Yau Chuang, Yuan-Chuen Wang
Helicobacter pylori infections induce host cell inflammation and apoptosis, however, they are conflicting. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of tanshinone IIA on H. pylori-induced inflammation and apoptosis in vitro. Tanshinone IIA treatments (13.6-54.4[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) significantly decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [p-38 and C-terminal Jun-kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2)] protein expressions and inflammatory substance [cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOX), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1[Formula: see text] (IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-6, and IL-8] production in the H...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Jessica Walker, Julia Maria Imboeck, Joel Michael Walker, Amarnath Maitra, Hady Haririan, Xiaohui Rausch-Fan, Michael Dodds, Taichi Inui, Veronika Somoza
Inflammatory diseases of the periodontal tissues are known health problems worldwide. Therefore, anti-inflammatory active compounds are used in oral care products to reduce long-term inflammation. In addition to inducing inflammation, pathogen attack leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract (MBE) has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in vitro. In the present study, the influence of MBE-fortified chewing gum on the resistance against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of oral epithelial cells was investigated in a four-armed parallel designed human intervention trial with 40 healthy volunteers...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Wonhwa Lee, Sae-Kwang Ku, Songhee Park, Kyung-Min Kim, Hyukjae Choi, Jong-Sup Bae
The nucleosomal protein high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), which has recently been established as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation, has a relatively wide therapeutic window for pharmacological interventions. Compounds produced by marine-derived microbes have been widely investigated for their potential use as bioactive natural products. Cyclic dipeptides, which are also known as diketopiperazines, are molecules that are frequently found in marine-derived microorganisms. While their pharmacological potential has been well established, their biological activities against septic responses have not yet been reported...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Min-Jee Kim, Yung-Choon Yoo, Nak-Yun Sung, Julim Lee, Seok-Rae Park, Eun-Jung Shon, Bo Dam Lee, Mee Ree Kim
In the present study, the anti-inflammatory and antisepticemic activities of a water extract of Liriope platyphylla (LP) were investigated. We first estimated the scavenging activity of DPPH and the hydroxyl radical and total phenolic contents of LP. Results indicated that LP, a rich source of phenolic compounds, showed a remarkable radical scavenging capacity. A MTT assay showed that LP treatment did not affect the toxicity against the RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, up to the concentration of 500[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Muhammad Jahangir Hossen, Mi-Yeon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae), a traditional Chinese medicine, is prescribed to treat arthritis, bronchitis, and rhinitis. Although the plant has been used for many years, the mechanism by which it ameliorates various inflammatory diseases is not yet fully understood. To explore the anti-inflammatory mechanism of methanol extracts of X. strumarium (Xs-ME) and its therapeutic potential, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells and human monocyte-like U937 cells as well as a LPS/D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced acute hepatitis mouse model...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
So Jin Bing, Danbee Ha, Insun Hwang, Eunjin Park, Ginnae Ahn, Jie-Young Song, Youngheun Jee
Bearing pathologic and clinical similarities to human multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is used as a murine model to test potential therapeutic agents for MS. Recently, we reported the protective effects of an acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng (APG) in C57BL/6 strain-dependent EAE, a model of primary progressive MS. In this study, we extend our previous findings on the therapeutic capacity of APG in relapsing-remitting EAE (rr-EAE), the animal model to closely mimic recurrent inflammatory demyelination lesions of relapsing-remitting MS...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Rafael Del-Pino-Casado, Esteban Obrero-Gaitán, Rafael Lomas-Vega
Tai Chi has frequently been used as a preventive measure against falling in at-risk populations. However, studies have yielded contradictory results, and literature reviews have considered only a small number of trials and have not addressed some key aspects, such as sources of heterogeneity and publication bias. This study includes 13 controlled trials published before June 2015 that analyzed the effectiveness of Tai Chi in fall prevention in populations of frail and at-risk adults. The effect measure used in this meta-analysis was absolute risk reduction (ARR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI)...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Chien-Liang Chao, Hui-Chi Huang, Hang-Ching Lin, Tsu-Chung Chang, Wen-Liang Chang
Baizhu, the dried rhizome of Atractylodes Macrocephala Koidz (Compositae), is one of the most important traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Baizhu is generally used to treat digestive disorders and diabetes in Asian countries. This study investigates the activity of two sesquiterpenes isolated from Baizhu, atractylenolide I (AT-I) and atractylenolide II (AT-II), for their effects on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, and the corresponding mechanism. These compounds show a significant stimulatory effect on glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Danyka Belanger, Michele D Calder, Alessandra Gianetto-Berruti, Edmund M Lui, Andrew J Watson, Valter Feyles
In North America, a high proportion of pregnant women use herbal medications including North American ginseng. This medicinal plant contains high amounts of triterpene saponins (ginsenosides), which are the main bioactive compounds. It is important to assess ginseng's impact on all reproductive functions to ensure the safety of pregnant women and fetuses. In this study, we defined the concentration-responsive effects of North American alcoholic and aqueous ginseng extracts on preimplantation development in vitro and on pregnancy and post-partum development in the mouse...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Jiaolin Bao, Renbo Ding, Lidi Zou, Chao Zhang, Kai Wang, Fang Liu, Peng Li, Meiwan Chen, Jian-Bo Wan, Huanxing Su, Yitao Wang, Chengwei He
Forsythiae Fructus, the fruits of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Lianqiao in Chinese, is one of the most fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is a typical heat-clearing and detoxicating herb, according to TCM theory. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of Forsythiae Fructus aqueous extract (FAE) on B16-F10 melanoma cells in vivo. The transplanted B16-F10 melanoma in C57BL/6 mice was established and used for the evaluation of the in vivo antitumor effect of FAE. FAE strongly inhibited the growth of B16-F10 cells in vitro and the tumor in vivo...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Eun-Yeong Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Mi-Ju Park, Yeon-Seop Jung, Syng-Ook Lee, Keuk-Jun Kim, Jung-Hye Choi, Tae-Wook Chung, Ki-Tae Ha
Most cancer cells predominantly produce ATP by maintaining a high rate of lactate fermentation, rather than by maintaining a comparatively low rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle, i.e., Warburg's effect. In the pathway, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted to lactic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Here, we demonstrated that water extracts from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (MF) inhibit the in vitro enzymatic activity of LDH. MF effectively suppressed cell growth and the overall Warburg effect in HT29 human colon cancer cells...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
In-Hu Hwang, Yong-Kyun Kwon, Chong-Kwan Cho, Yeon-Weol Lee, Jung-Suk Sung, Jong-Cheon Joo, Kyung-Bok Lee, Hwa-Seung Yoo, Ik-Soon Jang
Urokinase receptor (uPAR) is enhanced in many human cancer cells and is frequently an indicator of poor prognosis. Activation of [Formula: see text]1-integrin requires caveolin-1 and is regulated by uPAR. However, the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the interaction between uPAR and [Formula: see text]1-integrin remains obscure. We found that modified regular Panax ginseng extract (MRGX) had a negative modulating effect on the uPAR/[Formula: see text]1-integrin interaction, disrupted the uPAR/integrin interaction by modulating caveoline-1, and caused early apoptosis in cancer cells...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Thomas Friedemann, Yue Ying, Weigang Wang, Edgar R Kramer, Udo Schumacher, Jian Fei, Sven Schröder
The rhizome of Coptis chinensis is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine alone or in combination with other herbs to treat diseases characterized by causing oxidative stress including inflammatory diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, there is emerging evidence that Coptis chinensis is effective in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Coptis chinensis in vitro and in vivo using MPP[Formula: see text] and MPTP models of Parkinson's disease...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Yi Chang, Cheng Wei Lu, Tzu Yu Lin, Shu Kuei Huang, Su Jane Wang
Interest in the health benefits of flavonoids, particularly their effects on neurodegenerative disease, is increasing. This study evaluated the role of baicalein, a flavonoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria baicalensis, in glutamate release and glutamate neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus. In the rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes), baicalein inhibits depolarization-induced glutamate release, and this phenomenon is prevented by chelating the extracellular Ca[Formula: see text] ions and blocking presynaptic Cav2...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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