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Progress in Lipid Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871883/importance-of-phosphatidylcholine-on-the-chloroplast-surface
#1
REVIEW
Botella César, Jouhet Juliette, Maryse A Block
In plant cells, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major glycerolipid of most membranes but practically lacking from the plastid internal membranes. In chloroplasts, PC is absent from the thylakoids and the inner envelope membrane. It is however the main component of the outer envelope membrane, where it exclusively distributes in the outer monolayer. This unique distribution is likely related with operational compartmentalization of plant lipid metabolism. In this review, we summarize the different mechanisms involved in homeostasis of PC in plant cells...
November 18, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793658/best-practices-for-design-and-implementation-of-human-clinical-trials-studying-dietary-oils
#2
REVIEW
Dylan S Mackay, Stephanie Jew, Peter J H Jones
Dietary oils are a significant contributor to overall energy and fatty acid intakes. Changes in the amount and/or type of dietary oils consumed have the potential to impact human health. Clinical trials represent the gold standard for testing the health impacts of such changes in dietary oils. The objective of this review is to explore best practices for clinical trials examining impacts of dietary oils including 1) pre-clinical topics such as research question generation, study design, participant population, outcome measures and intervention product selection and/or preparation; 2) clinical trial implementation topics such as recruitment, trial management, record keeping and compliance monitoring; and 3) post-clinical trial topics dealing with sample analysis and storage as well as management, publication and data access...
October 26, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746199/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-dyslipidaemia-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Kim V E Braun, Trudy Voortman, Klodian Dhana, Jenna Troup, Wichor M Bramer, John Troup, Rajiv Chowdhury, Abbas Dehghan, Taulant Muka, Oscar H Franco
Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, might be involved in the regulation of blood lipid concentration variability and may thereby affect cardiovascular health. We aimed to systematically review studies investigating the association between epigenetic marks and plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Six medical databases were searched until September 3rd 2015, reference lists were screened, and experts in the field were contacted...
October 13, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743997/a-brief-glimpse-at-ctrp3-and-ctrp9-in-lipid-metabolism-and-cardiovascular-protection
#4
REVIEW
Yang Yang, Yue Li, Zhiqiang Ma, Shuai Jiang, Chongxi Fan, Wei Hu, Dongjin Wang, Shouyin Di, Yang Sun, Wei Yi
Adipose tissue is now known to express and secrete numerous adipokines that not only regulate lipid metabolism but also function in a wide array of physiological or pathological processes. C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 (CTRP3, also known as CORS26/cartducin) and CTRP9, novel members of the adipokine family, have intersecting functions in the regulation of lipid metabolism and contribute to cardiovascular protection. Here, we focus on the novel advances concerning the roles of CTRP3 and CTRP9 in these processes and review the general mechanisms...
October 12, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702594/structure-and-functionality-of-nanostructured-triacylglycerol-crystal-networks
#5
REVIEW
Pere R Ramel, Edmund D Co, Nuria C Acevedo, Alejandro G Marangoni
In this review, recent advances in the characterization of the nanoscale structure of fat crystal networks are outlined. The effect of different factors on the properties of crystalline nanoplatelets (CNPs) is comprehensively described. These are discussed together with the observed changes in polymorphism and micro- or mesostructural properties so as to have a complete understanding of the influence of different internal and external factors on the material properties of fats. The relationship between the nanostructure and the material properties of fats (i...
October 1, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702593/lipids-and-flaviviruses-present-and-future-perspectives-for-the-control-of-dengue-zika-and-west-nile-viruses
#6
REVIEW
Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease, tick-borne encephalitis, or Zika disease. This viral genus groups >50 viral species of small enveloped plus strand RNA virus that are phylogenetically closely related to hepatitis C virus. Importantly, the flavivirus life cycle is intimately associated to host cell lipids. Along this line, flaviviruses rearrange intracellular membranes from the endoplasmic-reticulum of the infected cells to develop adequate platforms for viral replication and particle biogenesis...
October 1, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697512/dhcr7-a-vital-enzyme-switch-between-cholesterol-and-vitamin-d-production
#7
REVIEW
Anika V Prabhu, Winnie Luu, Dianfan Li, Laura J Sharpe, Andrew J Brown
The conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, the final step of cholesterol synthesis in the Kandutsch-Russell pathway, is catalyzed by the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7). Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in DHCR7 lead to the developmental disease Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, which can also result in fetal mortality, highlighting the importance of this enzyme in human development and survival. Besides serving as a substrate for DHCR7, 7-dehydrocholesterol is also a precursor of vitamin D via the action of ultraviolet light on the skin...
September 30, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697511/liposomal-systems-as-viable-drug-delivery-technology-for-skin-cancer-sites-with-an-outlook-on-lipid-based-delivery-vehicles-and-diagnostic-imaging-inputs-for-skin-conditions
#8
REVIEW
Naseem Akhtar, Riaz A Khan
Skin cancer is among one of the most common human malignancies wide-spread world-over with mortality statistics rising continuously at an alarming rate. The increasing frequency of these malignancies has marked the need for adopting effective treatment plan coupled with better and site-specific delivery options for the desired therapeutic agent's availability at the affected site. The concurrent delivery approaches to cancerous tissues are under constant challenge and, as a result, are evolving and gaining advancements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents and site-specificity of the therapeutics delivery...
September 30, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687912/oxysterols-from-cholesterol-metabolites-to-key-mediators
#9
REVIEW
Valentin Mutemberezi, Owein Guillemot-Legris, Giulio G Muccioli
Oxysterols are cholesterol metabolites that can be produced through enzymatic or radical processes. They constitute a large family of lipids (i.e. the oxysterome) involved in a plethora of physiological processes. They can act through GPCR (e.g. EBI2, SMO, CXCR2), nuclear receptors (LXR, ROR, ERα) and through transporters or regulatory proteins. Their physiological effects encompass cholesterol, lipid and glucose homeostasis. Additionally, they were shown to be involved in other processes such as immune regulatory functions and brain homeostasis...
September 26, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665713/transcriptional-control-of-physiological-and-pathological-processes-by-the-nuclear-receptor-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE
#10
REVIEW
Nguan Soon Tan, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera, Alexandra Montagner, Ming Keat Sng, Hervé Guillou, Walter Wahli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528189/lipid-somersaults-uncovering-the-mechanisms-of-protein-mediated-lipid-flipping
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Günther Pomorski, Anant K Menon
Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support diverse aspects of cellular life. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which rapid flip-flop occurs, and what role lipid flipping plays in membrane homeostasis and cell growth. We focus on conceptual aspects, highlighting mechanistic insights from biochemical and in silico experiments, and the recent, ground-breaking identification of a number of lipid scramblases...
October 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568643/evolution-of-the-diacylglycerol-lipases
#12
REVIEW
Dongjuan Yuan, Zhongdao Wu, Yonghua Wang
Diacylglycerol lipases (DGLs) mainly catalyze "on-demand" biosynthesis of bioactive monoacylglycerols (MAGs) with different long fatty acyl chains, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), 2-linoleoylglycerol (2-LG), 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) and 2-palmitoylglycerol (2-PG). Enzymatic characterization of DGLs, their expression and distribution, and functional features has been elucidated from microorganisms to mammals in some extent. In mammals, biosynthesis, degradation and metabolism of these bioactive lipids intertwine and form a complicated biochemical pathway to affect the mammal neuromodulation of central nervous system and also other physiological processes in most peripheral organs and non-nervous tissue cells, and yet we still do not know if the neuromodulatory role of mammal DGL and MAGs is similar to invertebrates...
August 26, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497855/fat-type-in-phytosterol-products-influence-their-cholesterol-lowering-potential-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-rcts
#13
REVIEW
Jessica J A Ferguson, Elizabeth Stojanovski, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Manohar L Garg
The most common form of phytosterol (PS) fortified foods are fat spreads and dairy products. The predominant fats used are soybean/sunflower (SS) or rapeseed/canola (RC) oils and animal fat (D) in dairy products. This review aimed to investigate whether the carrier fat is a determinant of the hypocholesterolaemic effects of PS fortified foods. Databases were searched using relevant keywords and published RCTs from 1990 investigating the effects of dietary PS intervention (≥1.5g per day) on total cholesterol and LDL-C were included...
August 4, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497512/lipases-from-the-genus-rhizopus-characteristics-expression-protein-engineering-and-application
#14
REVIEW
Xiao-Wei Yu, Yan Xu, Rong Xiao
Lipases are versatile catalysts that hydrolyze ester bonds of water-insoluble glycerides or carry out reversible reactions at the water/lipid interface. The remarkable characteristics of lipases from the genus Rhizopus are their high sn-1,3-positional specificity, enantioselectivity and activity in nonaqueous media, which make them one of the most desirable enzymes for many applications, including lipid modification and biodiesel and chiral organic compound synthesis. sn-1,3-Position-specific Rhizopus lipases are particularly useful for the production of structured triacylglycerols...
August 4, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496755/metabolism-and-functional-effects-of-plant-derived-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-humans
#15
REVIEW
Ella J Baker, Elizabeth A Miles, Graham C Burdge, Parveen Yaqoob, Philip C Calder
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the substrate for the synthesis of longer-chain, more unsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA and DHA are associated with human health benefits. The primary source of EPA and DHA is seafood. There is a need for sustainable sources of biologically active ω-3 fatty acids. Certain plants contain high concentrations of ALA and stearidonic acid (SDA). Here we review the literature on the metabolism of ALA and SDA in humans, the impact of increased ALA and SDA consumption on concentrations of EPA and DHA in blood and cell lipid pools, and the extent to which ALA and SDA might have health benefits...
August 3, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448687/phospholipids-and-glycolipids-mediate-proton-containment-and-circulation-along-the-surface-of-energy-transducing-membranes
#16
REVIEW
Marcos Y Yoshinaga, Matthias Y Kellermann, David L Valentine, Raymond C Valentine
Proton bioenergetics provides the energy for growth and survival of most organisms in the biosphere ranging from unicellular marine phytoplankton to humans. Chloroplasts harvest light and generate a proton electrochemical gradient (proton motive force) that drives the production of ATP needed for carbon dioxide fixation and plant growth. Mitochondria, bacteria and archaea generate proton motive force to energize growth and other physiologies. Energy transducing membranes are at the heart of proton bioenergetics and are responsible for catalyzing the conversion of energy held in high-energy electrons→electron transport chain→proton motive force→ATP...
July 20, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368137/plant-acyl-coa-binding-proteins-an-emerging-family-involved-in-plant-development-and-stress-responses
#17
REVIEW
Zhi-Yan Du, Tatiana Arias, Wei Meng, Mee-Len Chye
Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) was first identified in mammals as a neuropeptide, and was demonstrated to belong to an important house-keeping protein family that extends across eukaryotes and some prokaryotes. In plants, the Arabidopsis ACBP family consists of six AtACBPs (AtACBP1 to AtACBP6), and has been investigated using gene knock-out mutants and overexpression lines. Herein, recent findings on the AtACBPs are examined to provide an insight on their functions in various plant developmental processes, such as embryo and seed development, seed dormancy and germination, seedling development and cuticle formation, as well as their roles under various environmental stresses...
July 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301784/engineering-and-application-of-enzymes-for-lipid-modification-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Katja Zorn, Isabel Oroz-Guinea, Henrike Brundiek, Uwe T Bornscheuer
This review first provides a brief introduction into the most important tools and strategies for protein engineering (i.e. directed evolution and rational protein design combined with high-throughput screening methods) followed by examples from literature, in which enzymes have been optimized for biocatalytic applications. This covers engineered lipases with altered fatty acid chain length selectivity, fatty acid specificity and improved performance in esterification reactions. Furthermore, recent achievements reported for phospholipases, lipoxygenases, P450 monooxygenases, decarboxylating enzymes, fatty acid hydratases and the use of enzymes in cascade reactions are treated...
July 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27233110/fatty-acylation-of-proteins-the-long-and-the-short-of-it
#19
REVIEW
Marilyn D Resh
Long, short and medium chain fatty acids are covalently attached to hundreds of proteins. Each fatty acid confers distinct biochemical properties, enabling fatty acylation to regulate intracellular trafficking, subcellular localization, protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. Myristate and palmitate represent the most common fatty acid modifying groups. New insights into how fatty acylation reactions are catalyzed, and how fatty acylation regulates protein structure and function continue to emerge. Myristate is typically linked to an N-terminal glycine, but recent studies reveal that lysines can also be myristoylated...
July 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216485/global-survey-of-the-omega-3-fatty-acids-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-eicosapentaenoic-acid-in-the-blood-stream-of-healthy-adults
#20
REVIEW
Ken D Stark, Mary E Van Elswyk, M Roberta Higgins, Charli A Weatherford, Norman Salem
Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3...
July 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
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