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Progress in Lipid Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778473/implications-of-glycerol-metabolism-for-lipid-production
#1
REVIEW
Lu-Lu Xue, Hao-Hong Chen, Jian-Guo Jiang
Triacylglycerol (TAG) is an important product in oil-producing organisms. Biosynthesis of TAG can be completed through either esterification of fatty acids to glycerol backbone, or through esterification of 2-monoacylglycerol. This review will focus on the former pathway in which two precursors, fatty acid and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), are required for TAG formation. Tremendous progress has been made about the enzymes or genes that regulate the biosynthetic pathway of TAG. However, much attention has been paid to the fatty acid provision and the esterification process, while the possible role of G3P is largely neglected...
August 1, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778472/beyond-liposomes-recent-advances-on-lipid-based-nanostructures-for-poorly-soluble-poorly-permeable-drug-delivery
#2
REVIEW
M C Teixeira, C Carbone, E B Souto
Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and hybrid nanoparticles, have gained increasing interest as drug delivery systems because of their potential to load and release drugs from the Biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) of class II (low solubility and high permeability) and of class IV (low solubility and low permeability). Lipid properties (e.g. high solubilizing potential, biocompatibility, biotolerability, biodegradability and distinct route of absorption) contribute for the improvement of the bioavailability of these drugs for a set of administration routes...
August 1, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666916/emerging-roles-for-conjugated-sterols-in-plants
#3
REVIEW
Albert Ferrer, Teresa Altabella, Montserrat Arró, Albert Boronat
In plants, sterols are found in free form (free sterols, FSs) and conjugated as steryl esters (SEs), steryl glycosides (SGs) and acyl steryl glycosides (ASGs). Conjugated sterols are ubiquitously found in plants but their relative contents highly differ among species and their profile may change in response to developmental and environmental cues. SEs play a central role in membrane sterol homeostasis and also represent a storage pool of sterols in particular plant tissues. SGs and ASGs are main components of the plant plasma membrane (PM) that specifically accumulate in lipid rafts, PM microdomains known to mediate many relevant cellular processes...
July 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606467/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-pioneer-member-of-the-basic-helix-loop-helix-per-arnt-sim-bhlh-pas-family-of-sensors-of-foreign-and-endogenous-signals
#4
REVIEW
Daniel W Nebert
The basic-helix/loop/helix per-Arnt-sim (bHLH/PAS) family comprises many transcription factors, found throughout all three kingdoms of life; bHLH/PAS members "sense" innumerable intracellular and extracellular "signals" - including endogenous compounds, foreign chemicals, gas molecules, redox potential, photons (light), gravity, heat, and osmotic pressure. These signals then initiate downstream signaling pathways involved in responding to that signal. The term "PAS", abbreviation for "per-Arnt-sim" was first coined in 1991...
July 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506805/hdl-abnormalities-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-focus-on-biological-functions
#5
REVIEW
Shiva Ganjali, Amir Abbas Momtazi, Maciej Banach, Petri T Kovanen, Evan A Stein, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Although a selective strong elevation in the plasma level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is the hallmark of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), also other plasma lipoprotein and lipid subspecies are changed in these patients. Several studies in FH patients have pointed to the qualitative abnormalities of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, including their triglyceride and sphingomyelin enrichment, reduced capacity to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages, impaired anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, and reduced plasma levels of miRs regulating HDL-dependent cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, typical of atherosclerotic lesions...
July 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389247/oleic-acid-derived-oleoylethanolamide-a-nutritional-science-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Kate J Bowen, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Gregory C Shearer, Sheila G West, Lavanya Reddivari, Peter J H Jones
The fatty acid ethanolamide oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator derived from the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid. OEA is synthesized from membrane glycerophospholipids and is a high-affinity agonist of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α). Dietary intake of oleic acid elevates circulating levels of OEA in humans by increasing substrate availability for OEA biosynthesis. Numerous clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial relationship between high-oleic acid diets and body composition, with emerging evidence to suggest OEA may mediate this response through modulation of lipid metabolism and energy intake...
July 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392405/prostaglandin-synthases-molecular-characterization-and-involvement-in-prostaglandin-biosynthesis
#7
REVIEW
Min-Ju Seo, Deok-Kun Oh
Prostaglandins (PGs) belong to a subclass of eicosanoids and are classified based on the structures of the cyclopentane ring and their number of double bonds in their hydrocarbon structures. PGs are important lipid mediators that are involved in inflammatory response. The biosynthesis of diverse PGs from unsaturated C20 fatty acids containing at least three double bonds such as dihomo-γ-linoleic acid (20:3(Δ8Z,11Z,14Z)), arachidonic acid (20:4(Δ5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(Δ5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)) is enables by various PG synthases, including prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS), 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-HPGD), PGES, PGDS, PGFS, PGIS, and thromboxane A synthase (TXAS)...
April 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392404/a-global-perspective-on-foxo1-in-lipid-metabolism-and-lipid-related-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Yue Li, Zhiqiang Ma, Shuai Jiang, Wei Hu, Tian Li, Shouyin Di, Dongjin Wang, Yang Yang
Lipid metabolism is a complex physiological process that is involved in nutrient adjustment, hormone regulation, and homeostasis. An unhealthy lifestyle and chronic nutrient overload can cause lipid metabolism disorders, which may lead to serious lipid-related diseases, including obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, tools for preventing dysfunctional lipid metabolism are urgently needed. The transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) is involved in lipid metabolism and plays a critical role in the development of lipid-related diseases...
April 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342835/lipids-in-exosomes-current-knowledge-and-the-way-forward
#9
REVIEW
Tore Skotland, Kirsten Sandvig, Alicia Llorente
Lipids are essential components of exosomal membranes, and it is well-known that specific lipids are enriched in exosomes compared to their parent cells. In this review we discuss current knowledge about the lipid composition of exosomes. We compare published data for different lipid classes in exosomes, and what is known about their lipid species, i.e. lipid molecules with different fatty acyl groups. Moreover, we elaborate on the hypothesis about hand-shaking between the very-long-chain sphingolipids in the outer leaflet and PS 18:0/18:1 in the inner leaflet, and we propose this to be an important mechanism in membrane biology, not only for exosomes...
April 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104532/sphingolipids-and-glycerophospholipids-the-ying-and-yang-of-lipotoxicity-in-metabolic-diseases
#10
REVIEW
S Rodriguez-Cuenca, V Pellegrinelli, M Campbell, M Oresic, A Vidal-Puig
Sphingolipids in general and ceramides in particular, contribute to pathophysiological mechanisms by modifying signalling and metabolic pathways. Here, we present the available evidence for a bidirectional homeostatic crosstalk between sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids, whose dysregulation contributes to lipotoxicity induced metabolic stress. The initial evidence for this crosstalk originates from simulated models designed to investigate the biophysical properties of sphingolipids in plasma membrane representations...
April 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069365/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-recurrent-mood-disorders-phenomenology-mechanisms-and-clinical-application
#11
REVIEW
Erik Messamore, Daniel M Almeida, Ronald J Jandacek, Robert K McNamara
A body of evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of recurrent mood disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. Cross-national and cross-sectional evidence suggests that greater habitual intake of n-3 PUFA is associated with reduced risk for developing mood symptoms. Meta-analyses provide strong evidence that patients with mood disorders exhibit low blood n-3 PUFA levels which are associated with increased risk for the initial development of mood symptoms in response to inflammation...
April 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939295/shedding-light-on-the-puzzle-of-drug-membrane-interactions-experimental-techniques-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#12
REVIEW
Daniela Lopes, Sven Jakobtorweihen, Cláudia Nunes, Bruno Sarmento, Salette Reis
Lipid membranes work as barriers, which leads to inevitable drug-membrane interactions in vivo. These interactions affect the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs, such as their diffusion, transport, distribution, and accumulation inside the membrane. Furthermore, these interactions also affect their pharmacodynamic properties with respect to both therapeutic and toxic effects. Experimental membrane models have been used to perform in vitro assessment of the effects of drugs on the biophysical properties of membranes by employing different experimental techniques...
January 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871883/importance-of-phosphatidylcholine-on-the-chloroplast-surface
#13
REVIEW
César Botella, Juliette Jouhet, Maryse A Block
In plant cells, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major glycerolipid of most membranes but practically lacking from the plastid internal membranes. In chloroplasts, PC is absent from the thylakoids and the inner envelope membrane. It is however the main component of the outer envelope membrane, where it exclusively distributes in the outer monolayer. This unique distribution is likely related with operational compartmentalization of plant lipid metabolism. In this review, we summarize the different mechanisms involved in homeostasis of PC in plant cells...
January 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793658/best-practices-for-design-and-implementation-of-human-clinical-trials-studying-dietary-oils
#14
REVIEW
Dylan S Mackay, Stephanie Jew, Peter J H Jones
Dietary oils are a significant contributor to overall energy and fatty acid intakes. Changes in the amount and/or type of dietary oils consumed have the potential to impact human health. Clinical trials represent the gold standard for testing the health impacts of such changes in dietary oils. The objective of this review is to explore best practices for clinical trials examining impacts of dietary oils including 1) pre-clinical topics such as research question generation, study design, participant population, outcome measures and intervention product selection and/or preparation; 2) clinical trial implementation topics such as recruitment, trial management, record keeping and compliance monitoring; and 3) post-clinical trial topics dealing with sample analysis and storage as well as management, publication and data access...
January 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746199/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-dyslipidaemia-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Kim V E Braun, Trudy Voortman, Klodian Dhana, Jenna Troup, Wichor M Bramer, John Troup, Rajiv Chowdhury, Abbas Dehghan, Taulant Muka, Oscar H Franco
Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, might be involved in the regulation of blood lipid concentration variability and may thereby affect cardiovascular health. We aimed to systematically review studies investigating the association between epigenetic marks and plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Six medical databases were searched until September 3rd 2015, reference lists were screened, and experts in the field were contacted...
October 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743997/a-brief-glimpse-at-ctrp3-and-ctrp9-in-lipid-metabolism-and-cardiovascular-protection
#16
REVIEW
Yang Yang, Yue Li, Zhiqiang Ma, Shuai Jiang, Chongxi Fan, Wei Hu, Dongjin Wang, Shouyin Di, Yang Sun, Wei Yi
Adipose tissue is now known to express and secrete numerous adipokines that not only regulate lipid metabolism but also function in a wide array of physiological or pathological processes. C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 (CTRP3, also known as CORS26/cartducin) and CTRP9, novel members of the adipokine family, have intersecting functions in the regulation of lipid metabolism and contribute to cardiovascular protection. Here, we focus on the novel advances concerning the roles of CTRP3 and CTRP9 in these processes and review the general mechanisms...
October 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702594/structure-and-functionality-of-nanostructured-triacylglycerol-crystal-networks
#17
REVIEW
Pere R Ramel, Edmund D Co, Nuria C Acevedo, Alejandro G Marangoni
In this review, recent advances in the characterization of the nanoscale structure of fat crystal networks are outlined. The effect of different factors on the properties of crystalline nanoplatelets (CNPs) is comprehensively described. These are discussed together with the observed changes in polymorphism and micro- or mesostructural properties so as to have a complete understanding of the influence of different internal and external factors on the material properties of fats. The relationship between the nanostructure and the material properties of fats (i...
October 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702593/lipids-and-flaviviruses-present-and-future-perspectives-for-the-control-of-dengue-zika-and-west-nile-viruses
#18
REVIEW
Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease, tick-borne encephalitis, or Zika disease. This viral genus groups >50 viral species of small enveloped plus strand RNA virus that are phylogenetically closely related to hepatitis C virus. Importantly, the flavivirus life cycle is intimately associated to host cell lipids. Along this line, flaviviruses rearrange intracellular membranes from the endoplasmic-reticulum of the infected cells to develop adequate platforms for viral replication and particle biogenesis...
October 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697512/dhcr7-a-vital-enzyme-switch-between-cholesterol-and-vitamin-d-production
#19
REVIEW
Anika V Prabhu, Winnie Luu, Dianfan Li, Laura J Sharpe, Andrew J Brown
The conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, the final step of cholesterol synthesis in the Kandutsch-Russell pathway, is catalyzed by the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7). Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in DHCR7 lead to the developmental disease Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, which can also result in fetal mortality, highlighting the importance of this enzyme in human development and survival. Besides serving as a substrate for DHCR7, 7-dehydrocholesterol is also a precursor of vitamin D via the action of ultraviolet light on the skin...
October 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697511/liposomal-systems-as-viable-drug-delivery-technology-for-skin-cancer-sites-with-an-outlook-on-lipid-based-delivery-vehicles-and-diagnostic-imaging-inputs-for-skin-conditions
#20
REVIEW
Naseem Akhtar, Riaz A Khan
Skin cancer is among one of the most common human malignancies wide-spread world-over with mortality statistics rising continuously at an alarming rate. The increasing frequency of these malignancies has marked the need for adopting effective treatment plan coupled with better and site-specific delivery options for the desired therapeutic agent's availability at the affected site. The concurrent delivery approaches to cancerous tissues are under constant challenge and, as a result, are evolving and gaining advancements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents and site-specificity of the therapeutics delivery...
October 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
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