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Progress in Lipid Research

Marc P Baggelaar, Mauro Maccarrone, Mario van der Stelt
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a signaling lipid in the central nervous system that is a key regulator of neurotransmitter release. 2-AG is an endocannabinoid that activates the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. It is involved in a wide array of (patho)physiological functions, such as emotion, cognition, energy balance, pain sensation and neuroinflammation. In this review, we describe the biosynthetic and metabolic pathways of 2-AG and how chemical and genetic perturbation of these pathways has led to insight in the biological role of this signaling lipid...
May 8, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Joaquim Trigo Marquês, H Susana Marinho, Rodrigo Freire Martins de Almeida
This review is focused on sphingolipid backbone hydroxylation, a small but widespread structural feature, with profound impact on membrane biophysical properties. We start by summarizing sphingolipid metabolism in mammalian cells, yeast and plants, focusing on how distinct hydroxylation patterns emerge in different eukaryotic kingdoms. Then, a comparison of the biophysical properties in membrane model systems and cellular membranes from diverse organisms is made. From an integrative perspective, these results can be rationalized considering that superficial hydroxyl groups in the backbone of sphingolipids (by intervening in the H-bond network) alter the balance of favorable interactions between membrane lipids...
May 7, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Manuel Rodriguez Concepcion, Javier Avalos, M Luisa Bonet, Albert Boronat, Lourdes Gomez-Gomez, Damaso Hornero-Mendez, M Carmen Limon, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez, Begoña Olmedilla-Alonso, Andreu Palou, Joan Ribot, Maria J Rodrigo, Lorenzo Zacarias, Changfu Zhu
Carotenoids are lipophilic isoprenoid compounds synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi. With some notable exceptions, animals (including humans) do not produce carotenoids de novo but take them in their diets. In photosynthetic systems carotenoids are essential for photoprotection against excess light and contribute to light harvesting, but perhaps they are best known for their properties as natural pigments in the yellow to red range. Carotenoids can be associated to fatty acids, sugars, proteins, or other compounds that can change their physical and chemical properties and influence their biological roles...
April 18, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Vinicius Fernandes, Kaian Teles, Camyla Ribeiro, Werner Treptow, Guilherme Santos
Structural changes in chromatin regulate gene expression and define phenotypic outcomes. Molecules that bind to the nucleosome, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, are key modulators of chromatin structure. Most recently, the formation of condensed chromatin regions based on phase-separation in the cell, a basic physical mechanism, was proposed. Increased understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between chromatin and lipids suggest that small lipid molecules, such as cholesterol and short-chain fatty acids, can regulate important nuclear functions...
April 17, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Wei Hu, Jianjun Lv, Mengzhen Han, Zhi Yang, Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Yang Yang
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that has recently attracted increased attention. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that STAT3 plays an important role in various diseases, such as cancer and ischemic injury. In light of the distinctive effects of STAT3 on the regulation of metabolism and immune responses, we present the elaborate network of STAT3 in obesity. In this review, we first introduce the general background of STAT3, including a discussion regarding the STAT family and the characterization and regulation of STAT3...
April 7, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Robert A Moreau, Laura Nyström, Bruce D Whitaker, Jill K Winkler-Moser, David J Baer, Sarah K Gebauer, Kevin B Hicks
Phytosterols (plant sterols) occur in the cells of all plants. They are important structural components that stabilize the biological membranes of plants. Sterols can occur in the "free" unbound form or they can be covalently bound via an ester or glycosidic bond. Since our previous 2002 review on phytosterols and phytosterol conjugates, phytosterol glucosides have been found to be important structural components in the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane of plant cells, where they are thought to be essential to the function of plasma membrane enzymes and perhaps other proteins...
April 5, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Nodumo Nokulunga Zulu, Krzysztof Zienkiewicz, Katharina Vollheyde, Ivo Feussner
Diatoms are the most dominant phytoplankton species in oceans and they continue to receive a great deal of attention because of their significant contributions in ecosystems and the environment. Due to triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles that are abundant in medium-chain fatty acids, diatoms have emerged to be better feed stocks for biofuel production, in comparison to the commonly studied green microalgal species (chlorophytes). Importantly, diatoms are also known for their high levels of the essential ω3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are considered to be a promising alternative source of these components...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Charlotte P J Talbot, Jogchum Plat, Andreas Ritsch, Ronald P Mensink
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) play an important role in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway, contributing to the efflux of excess cellular cholesterol. However, the classic hypothesis that raising HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has been challenged by recent intervention studies. Nowadays, improving cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL particles is considered to be a better target for the prevention of CVD. We will first briefly summarize assays that have been developed in order to quantify HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages...
January 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Junjeong Choi, Yoon Jin Cha, Ja Seung Koo
Adipocytes account for the largest proportion among the cells that comprise breast tissue; therefore, they are considered to be a critical cell type in the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer. In breast cancer, adipocytes are not only found adjacent to cancer cells, but they also play an active role in the entire process of cancer development, progression, metastasis, and treatment response. Factors including the secretion of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, as well as autotaxin, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and hepatic growth factor, metabolic remodeling that supports the growth of breast cancer by transfer of fatty acids to increase mitochondrial β-oxidation, extracellular matrix remodeling and endotrophin production from type IV collagen, and cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype changes have all been implicated in this comprehensive process...
January 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Gaurav Singh, Yogeshwar Vikram Dhar, Mehar Hasan Asif, Pratibha Misra
Steroidal alkaloids (SAs) are widely synthesized and distributed in plants manifesting as natural produce endowed with potential for medicinal, pesticidal and other high-value usages. Glycosylation of these SAs raises complex and diverse glycosides in plant cells that indeed govern numerous functional aspects. During the glycosylation process of these valuable metabolites, the addition of carbohydrate molecule(s) is catalyzed by enzymes known as sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs), commonly referred to as UGTs, leading to the production of steryl glycosides (SGs)...
January 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Long Xu, Andrew J Sinclair, Muniba Faiza, Daoming Li, Xianlin Han, Huiyong Yin, Yonghua Wang
Furan fatty acids are found in plants, algae, and fish, and reported to have some positive health benefits, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and inhibition of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation. A major metabolite of furan fatty acids, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF), has been reported to be increased in patients who progress from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes, although CMPF is not necessarily associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Other studies report that CMPF levels are lower in subjects with diabetes than control subjects...
October 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
Qing Guo, Aiqian Ye, Nick Bellissimo, Harjinder Singh, Dérick Rousseau
Dietary fats and oils are an important component of our diet and a significant contributor to total energy and intake of lipophilic nutrients and bioactives. We discuss their fate in a wide variety of engineered, processed and naturally-occurring foods as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract and the implicit role of the food matrix within which they reside. Important factors that control fat and oil digestion include: 1) Their physical state (liquid or solid); 2) Dispersion of oil as emulsion droplets and control of the interfacial structure of emulsified oils; 3) The structure and rheology of the food matrix surrounding dispersed oil droplets; and 4) Alteration of emulsified oil droplet size and concentration...
October 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
Jingbo Li, Thomas Vosegaard, Zheng Guo
The role of lipids in cell, tissue, and organ physiology is crucial; as many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative, and infectious diseases, are closely related to absorption and metabolism of lipids. Mass spectrometry (MS) based methods are the most developed powerful tools to study the synthetic pathways and metabolic networks of cellular lipids in biological systems; leading to the birth of an emerging subject lipidomics, which has been extensively reviewed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), another powerful analytical tool, which allows the visualization of single atoms and molecules, is receiving increasing attention in lipidomics analyses...
October 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
Bo Yang, He Gao, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross, Hao Zhang, Yong Q Chen, Haiqin Chen, Wei Chen
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to exert various potential physiological properties including anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, anti-cardiovascular and anti-diabetic activities, and consequently has been considered as a promising food supplement. Bacterial biosynthesis of CLA is an attractive approach for commercial production due to its high isomer-selectivity and convenient purification process. Many bacterial species have been reported to convert free linoleic acid (LA) to CLA, hitherto only the precise CLA-producing mechanisms in Propionibacterium acnes and Lactobacillus plantarum have been illustrated completely, prompting the development of recombinant technology used in CLA production...
October 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
Katrina L Ellis, Michael B Boffa, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Marlys L Koschinsky, Gerald F Watts
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a highly heritable cardiovascular risk factor. Although discovered more than 50 years ago, Lp(a) has recently re-emerged as a major focus in the fields of lipidology and preventive cardiology owing to findings from genetic studies and the possibility of lowering elevated plasma concentrations with new antisense therapy. Data from genetic, epidemiological and clinical studies have provided compelling evidence establishing Lp(a) as a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease...
October 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
Lu-Lu Xue, Hao-Hong Chen, Jian-Guo Jiang
Triacylglycerol (TAG) is an important product in oil-producing organisms. Biosynthesis of TAG can be completed through either esterification of fatty acids to glycerol backbone, or through esterification of 2-monoacylglycerol. This review will focus on the former pathway in which two precursors, fatty acid and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), are required for TAG formation. Tremendous progress has been made about the enzymes or genes that regulate the biosynthetic pathway of TAG. However, much attention has been paid to the fatty acid provision and the esterification process, while the possible role of G3P is largely neglected...
October 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
Jean-Marie Galano, Yiu Yiu Lee, Camille Oger, Claire Vigor, Joseph Vercauteren, Thierry Durand, Martin Giera, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
Since the beginning of the 1990's diverse types of metabolites originating from polyunsaturated fatty acids, formed under autooxidative conditions were discovered. Known as prostaglandin isomers (or isoprostanoids) originating from arachidonic acid, neuroprostanes from docosahexaenoic acid, and phytoprostanes from α-linolenic acid proved to be prevalent in biology. The syntheses of these compounds by organic chemists and the development of sophisticated mass spectrometry methods has boosted our understanding of the isoprostanoid biology...
September 18, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
M C Teixeira, C Carbone, E B Souto
Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and hybrid nanoparticles, have gained increasing interest as drug delivery systems because of their potential to load and release drugs from the Biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) of class II (low solubility and high permeability) and of class IV (low solubility and low permeability). Lipid properties (e.g. high solubilizing potential, biocompatibility, biotolerability, biodegradability and distinct route of absorption) contribute for the improvement of the bioavailability of these drugs for a set of administration routes...
August 1, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
Albert Ferrer, Teresa Altabella, Montserrat Arró, Albert Boronat
In plants, sterols are found in free form (free sterols, FSs) and conjugated as steryl esters (SEs), steryl glycosides (SGs) and acyl steryl glycosides (ASGs). Conjugated sterols are ubiquitously found in plants but their relative contents highly differ among species and their profile may change in response to developmental and environmental cues. SEs play a central role in membrane sterol homeostasis and also represent a storage pool of sterols in particular plant tissues. SGs and ASGs are main components of the plant plasma membrane (PM) that specifically accumulate in lipid rafts, PM microdomains known to mediate many relevant cellular processes...
July 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
Daniel W Nebert
The basic-helix/loop/helix per-Arnt-sim (bHLH/PAS) family comprises many transcription factors, found throughout all three kingdoms of life; bHLH/PAS members "sense" innumerable intracellular and extracellular "signals" - including endogenous compounds, foreign chemicals, gas molecules, redox potential, photons (light), gravity, heat, and osmotic pressure. These signals then initiate downstream signaling pathways involved in responding to that signal. The term "PAS", abbreviation for "per-Arnt-sim" was first coined in 1991...
July 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
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