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Progress in Lipid Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237084/the-evolutionary-hypothesis-of-reaction-specificity-of-mammalian-alox15-orthologs
#1
REVIEW
Hartmut Kuhn, Lia Humeniuk, Nikita Kozlov, Sophie Roigas, Susan Adel, Dagmar Heydeck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196008/roles-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-stem-cell-biology
#2
REVIEW
Grace E Lidgerwood, Stuart M Pitson, Claudine Bonder, Alice Pébay
Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types. Because of these features, stem cells are key to the formation of organisms and play fundamental roles in tissue regeneration and repair. Mechanisms controlling their fate are thus fundamental to the development and homeostasis of tissues and organs. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are bioactive phospholipids that play a wide range of roles in multiple cell types, during developmental and pathophysiological events...
September 6, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149090/properties-metabolism-and-roles-of-sulfogalactosylglycerolipid-in-male-reproduction
#3
REVIEW
Nongnuj Tanphaichitr, Kessiri Kongmanas, Kym F Faull, Julian Whitelegge, Federica Compostella, Naoko Goto-Inoue, James-Jules Linton, Brendon Doyle, Richard Oko, Hongbin Xu, Luigi Panza, Arpornrad Saewu
Sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG, aka seminolipid) is selectively synthesized in high amounts in mammalian testicular germ cells (TGCs). SGG is an ordered lipid and directly involved in cell adhesion. SGG is indispensable for spermatogenesis, a process that greatly depends on interaction between Sertoli cells and TGCs. Spermatogenesis is disrupted in mice null for Cgt and Cst, encoding two enzymes essential for SGG biosynthesis. Sperm surface SGG also plays roles in fertilization. All of these results indicate the significance of SGG in male reproduction...
August 25, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099045/lipid-storage-myopathies-current-treatments-and-future-directions
#4
REVIEW
Emily R Vasiljevski, Matthew A Summers, David G Little, Aaron Schindeler
Lipid storage myopathies (LSMs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that present with abnormal lipid storage in multiple body organs, typically muscle. Patients can clinically present with cardiomyopathy, skeletal muscle weakness, myalgia, and extreme fatigue. An early diagnosis is crucial, as some LSMs can be managed by simple nutraceutical supplementation. For example, high dosage l-carnitine is an effective intervention for patients with Primary Carnitine Deficiency (PCD). This review discusses the clinical features and management practices of PCD as well as Neutral Lipid Storage Disease (NLSD) and Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD)...
August 9, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017715/innovations-in-improving-lipid-production-algal-chemical-genetics
#5
REVIEW
Nishikant Wase, Paul Black, Concetta DiRusso
Perturbation of a biological system with small molecules to achieve a desired phenotype or activity is commonly referred as chemical genetics. In pharmaceutical discovery, this approach is most often employed in target-based screening but in plants systems the focus is primarily on phenotypic selection for commercially relevant phenotype generation such as crop improvement or disease and pathogen resistance. Likewise, algae are considered feedstock organisms for viable and sustainable biofuels and other high value products with commercial applications...
July 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959947/contemporary-lipidomic-analytics-opportunities-and-pitfalls
#6
REVIEW
Corey Giles, Ryusuke Takechi, Virginie Lam, Satvinder S Dhaliwal, John C L Mamo
Recent advances in analytical techniques have greatly enhanced the depth of coverage, however lipidomic studies are still restricted to analysing only a subset of known lipids. Numerous complementary techniques are used for investigation of cellular lipidomes, including mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopy. The development in electrospray ionization (ESI) MS has accelerated lipidomics research in the past two decades and represents one of the most widely used technique...
July 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935222/milk-lipidomics-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t
#7
REVIEW
Zhiqian Liu, Simone Rochfort, Ben Cocks
Bovine milk contains 3-5% of fat, of which the dominant portion (about 98%) is in the form of triacylglycerols, whereas polar lipids such as glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are minor components (0.5-1%) of milk fat. Milk fat is thought to contain several thousand lipid species, making it the most complex material in nature in terms of lipid composition. Significant progress has been made in the past two decades in the identification and quantification of lipid species of milk thanks to the advance in analytical tools especially high-resolution mass spectrometers (MS)...
July 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879431/high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-cancer-marker-or-causative
#8
REVIEW
Matteo Pirro, Biagio Ricciuti, Daniel J Rader, Alberico L Catapano, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maciej Banach
The relationship between high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), HDL-cholesterol (HDLC) and cancer incidence and mortality is controversial. Although most studies conducted so far, including well-designed prospective studies and meta-analyses, have revealed a significant inverse association between HDL-C levels and cancer risk, several confounding factors and opposite results showing either a direct or an inverse association between HDL-C levels and cancer mortality have hindered the possibility to derive definitive conclusions...
July 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842906/the-phosphatidic-acid-paradox-too-many-actions-for-one-molecule-class-lessons-from-plants
#9
REVIEW
Igor Pokotylo, Volodymyr Kravets, Jan Martinec, Eric Ruelland
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a simple phospholipid observed in most organisms. PA acts as a key metabolic intermediate and a second messenger that regulates many cell activities. In plants, PA is involved in numerous cell responses induced by hormones, stress inputs and developmental processes. Interestingly, PA production can be triggered by opposite stressors, such as cold and heat, or by hormones that are considered to be antagonistic, such as abscisic acid and salicylic acid. This property questions the specificity of the responses controlled by PA...
July 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751000/2-arachidonoylglycerol-a-signaling-lipid-with-manifold-actions-in-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Marc P Baggelaar, Mauro Maccarrone, Mario van der Stelt
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a signaling lipid in the central nervous system that is a key regulator of neurotransmitter release. 2-AG is an endocannabinoid that activates the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. It is involved in a wide array of (patho)physiological functions, such as emotion, cognition, energy balance, pain sensation and neuroinflammation. In this review, we describe the biosynthetic and metabolic pathways of 2-AG and how chemical and genetic perturbation of these pathways has led to insight in the biological role of this signaling lipid...
July 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746894/sphingolipid-hydroxylation-in-mammals-yeast-and-plants-an-integrated-view
#11
REVIEW
Joaquim Trigo Marquês, H Susana Marinho, Rodrigo F M de Almeida
This review is focused on sphingolipid backbone hydroxylation, a small but widespread structural feature with profound impact on membrane biophysical properties. We start by summarizing sphingolipid metabolism in mammalian cells, yeast and plants, focusing on how distinct hydroxylation patterns emerge in different eukaryotic kingdoms. Then, a comparison of the biophysical properties in membrane model systems and cellular membranes from diverse organisms is made. From an integrative perspective, these results can be rationalized considering that superficial hydroxyl groups in the backbone of sphingolipids (by intervening in the H-bond network) alter the balance of favorable interactions between membrane lipids...
July 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679619/a-global-perspective-on-carotenoids-metabolism-biotechnology-and-benefits-for-nutrition-and-health
#12
REVIEW
Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion, Javier Avalos, M Luisa Bonet, Albert Boronat, Lourdes Gomez-Gomez, Damaso Hornero-Mendez, M Carmen Limon, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez, Begoña Olmedilla-Alonso, Andreu Palou, Joan Ribot, Maria J Rodrigo, Lorenzo Zacarias, Changfu Zhu
Carotenoids are lipophilic isoprenoid compounds synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and some non-photosynthetic prokaryotes and fungi. With some notable exceptions, animals (including humans) do not produce carotenoids de novo but take them in their diets. In photosynthetic systems carotenoids are essential for photoprotection against excess light and contribute to light harvesting, but perhaps they are best known for their properties as natural pigments in the yellow to red range. Carotenoids can be associated to fatty acids, sugars, proteins, or other compounds that can change their physical and chemical properties and influence their biological roles...
April 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678609/fat-nucleosome-role-of-lipids-on-chromatin
#13
REVIEW
Vinicius Fernandes, Kaian Teles, Camyla Ribeiro, Werner Treptow, Guilherme Santos
Structural changes in chromatin regulate gene expression and define phenotypic outcomes. Molecules that bind to the nucleosome, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, are key modulators of chromatin structure. Most recently, the formation of condensed chromatin regions based on phase-separation in the cell, a basic physical mechanism, was proposed. Increased understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between chromatin and lipids suggest that small lipid molecules, such as cholesterol and short-chain fatty acids, can regulate important nuclear functions...
April 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635003/stat3-the-art-of-multi-tasking-of-metabolic-and-immune-functions-in-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Wei Hu, Jianjun Lv, Mengzhen Han, Zhi Yang, Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Yang Yang
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that has recently attracted increased attention. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that STAT3 plays an important role in various diseases, such as cancer and ischemic injury. In light of the distinctive effects of STAT3 on the regulation of metabolism and immune responses, we present the elaborate network of STAT3 in obesity. In this review, we first introduce the general background of STAT3, including a discussion regarding the STAT family and the characterization and regulation of STAT3...
April 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627611/phytosterols-and-their-derivatives-structural-diversity-distribution-metabolism-analysis-and-health-promoting-uses
#15
REVIEW
Robert A Moreau, Laura Nyström, Bruce D Whitaker, Jill K Winkler-Moser, David J Baer, Sarah K Gebauer, Kevin B Hicks
Phytosterols (plant sterols) occur in the cells of all plants. They are important structural components that stabilize the biological membranes of plants. Sterols can occur in the "free" unbound form or they can be covalently bound via an ester or glycosidic bond. Since our previous 2002 review on phytosterols and phytosterol conjugates, phytosterol glucosides have been found to be important structural components in the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane of plant cells, where they are thought to be essential to the function of plasma membrane enzymes and perhaps other proteins...
April 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524459/current-trends-to-comprehend-lipid-metabolism-in-diatoms
#16
REVIEW
Nodumo Nokulunga Zulu, Krzysztof Zienkiewicz, Katharina Vollheyde, Ivo Feussner
Diatoms are the most dominant phytoplankton species in oceans and they continue to receive a great deal of attention because of their significant contributions in ecosystems and the environment. Due to triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles that are abundant in medium-chain fatty acids, diatoms have emerged to be better feed stocks for biofuel production, in comparison to the commonly studied green microalgal species (chlorophytes). Importantly, diatoms are also known for their high levels of the essential ω3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are considered to be a promising alternative source of these components...
April 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269048/determinants-of-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-in-humans
#17
REVIEW
Charlotte P J Talbot, Jogchum Plat, Andreas Ritsch, Ronald P Mensink
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) play an important role in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway, contributing to the efflux of excess cellular cholesterol. However, the classic hypothesis that raising HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has been challenged by recent intervention studies. Nowadays, improving cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL particles is considered to be a better target for the prevention of CVD. We will first briefly summarize assays that have been developed in order to quantify HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages...
January 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175445/adipocyte-biology-in-breast-cancer-from-silent-bystander-to-active-facilitator
#18
REVIEW
Junjeong Choi, Yoon Jin Cha, Ja Seung Koo
Adipocytes account for the largest proportion among the cells that comprise breast tissue; therefore, they are considered to be a critical cell type in the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer. In breast cancer, adipocytes are not only found adjacent to cancer cells, but they also play an active role in the entire process of cancer development, progression, metastasis, and treatment response. Factors including the secretion of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, as well as autotaxin, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and hepatic growth factor, metabolic remodeling that supports the growth of breast cancer by transfer of fatty acids to increase mitochondrial β-oxidation, extracellular matrix remodeling and endotrophin production from type IV collagen, and cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype changes have all been implicated in this comprehensive process...
January 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170003/exploring-the-functional-significance-of-sterol-glycosyltransferase-enzymes
#19
REVIEW
Gaurav Singh, Yogeshwar Vikram Dhar, Mehar Hasan Asif, Pratibha Misra
Steroidal alkaloids (SAs) are widely synthesized and distributed in plants manifesting as natural produce endowed with potential for medicinal, pesticidal and other high-value usages. Glycosylation of these SAs raises complex and diverse glycosides in plant cells that indeed govern numerous functional aspects. During the glycosylation process of these valuable metabolites, the addition of carbohydrate molecule(s) is catalyzed by enzymes known as sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs), commonly referred to as UGTs, leading to the production of steryl glycosides (SGs)...
January 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051014/furan-fatty-acids-beneficial-or-harmful-to-health
#20
REVIEW
Long Xu, Andrew J Sinclair, Muniba Faiza, Daoming Li, Xianlin Han, Huiyong Yin, Yonghua Wang
Furan fatty acids are found in plants, algae, and fish, and reported to have some positive health benefits, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and inhibition of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation. A major metabolite of furan fatty acids, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF), has been reported to be increased in patients who progress from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes, although CMPF is not necessarily associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Other studies report that CMPF levels are lower in subjects with diabetes than control subjects...
October 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
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