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Hearing Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633959/characterization-of-the-superior-olivary-complex-of-canis-lupus-domesticus
#1
Tatiana Fech, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Randy J Kulesza
The superior olivary complex (SOC) is a collection of brainstem auditory nuclei which play essential roles in the localization of sound sources, temporal coding of vocalizations and descending modulation of the cochlea. Notwithstanding, the SOC nuclei vary considerably between species in accordance with the auditory needs of the animal. The canine SOC was subjected to anatomical and physiological examination nearly 50 years ago and was then virtually forgotten. Herein, we aimed to characterize the nuclei of the canine SOC using quantitative morphometrics, estimation of neuronal number, histochemistry for perineuronal nets and immunofluorescence for the calcium binding proteins calbindin and calretinin...
June 15, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633960/effect-of-stimulus-level-on-the-temporal-response-properties-of-the-auditory-nerve-in-cochlear-implants
#2
Michelle L Hughes, Sarah A Laurello
Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) have been used to examine temporal response patterns of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. ECAP responses to individual pulses in a pulse train vary across stimulation rates for individual CI users. For very slow rates, auditory neurons have ample time to discharge, recover, and respond to each pulse in the train. As the pulse rate increases, an alternating ECAP-amplitude pattern occurs. As the stimulation rate increases further, the alternating pattern eventually ceases and the overall ECAP amplitudes are diminished, yielding a relatively stochastic state that presumably reflects a combination of adaptation, desynchronization, and facilitation across fibers...
June 13, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637591/salicylate-induced-frequency-map-reorganization-in-four-subfields-of-the-mouse-auditory-cortex
#3
Yasutaka Yanagawa, Kengo Takasu, Hisayuki Osanai, Takashi Tateno
Salicylate is the active ingredient in aspirin, and in high-doses it is used as an experimental tool to induce transient hearing loss, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. These salicylate-induced perceptual disturbances are associated with tonotopic-map reorganization and neural activity modulation, and such neural correlates have been examined in the central auditory pathway, including the auditory cortex (AC). Although previous studies have reported that salicylate induces increases in noise-burst-evoked neural responses and reorganization of tonotopic maps in the primary AC, little is known about the effects of salicylate on other frequency-organized AC subfields such as the anterior auditory, secondary auditory, and dorsomedial fields...
June 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610719/altered-attentional-filters-in-subjects-with-graded-levels-of-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#4
Christofer W Bester, Donald Robertson, Dunay Taljaard, Geoff Hammond
Near-threshold tones (targets) in noise that are preceded by cues of the same frequency or occur with a high probability are detected better than tones of other frequencies that may occur with a lower probability (probes); the better detection of targets than probes defines the attentional filter. We measured attentional filters using a cued probe-signal procedure with a two-interval forced-choice (2IFC) method in normal-hearing subjects (N = 15) and subjects with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL; N = 14) with a range of hearing levels...
June 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601531/sheep-as-a-large-animal-ear-model-middle-ear-ossicular-velocities-and-intracochlear-sound-pressure
#5
Dominik Péus, Ivo Dobrev, Lukas Prochazka, Konrad Thoele, Adrian Dalbert, Andreas Boss, Nicolas Newcomb, Rudolf Probst, Christof Röösli, Jae Hoon Sim, Alexander Huber, Flurin Pfiffner
Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices...
June 7, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601530/spectro-temporal-cues-enhance-modulation-sensitivity-in-cochlear-implant-users
#6
Yi Zheng, Monty Escabí, Ruth Y Litovsky
Although speech understanding is highly variable amongst cochlear implants (CIs) subjects, the remarkably high speech recognition performance of many CI users is unexpected and not well understood. Numerous factors, including neural health and degradation of the spectral information in the speech signal of CIs, likely contribute to speech understanding. We studied the ability to use spectro-temporal modulations, which may be critical for speech understanding and discrimination, and hypothesize that CI users adopt a different perceptual strategy than normal-hearing (NH) individuals, whereby they rely more heavily on joint spectro-temporal cues to enhance detection of auditory cues...
May 26, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578877/progression-of-changes-in-the-sensorial-elements-of-the-cochlear-and-peripheral-vestibular-systems-the-otitis-media-continuum
#7
Rafael da Costa Monsanto, Patricia Schachern, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu, Norma de Oliveira Penido
Our study aimed to evaluate pathologic changes in the cochlear (inner and outer hair cells and stria vascularis) and vestibular (vestibular hair cells, dark, and transitional cells) sensorial elements in temporal bones from donors who had otitis media. We studied 40 temporal bones from such donors, which were categorized in serous otitis media (SOM), serous-purulent otitis media (SPOM), mucoid/mucoid-purulent otitis media (MOM/MPOM), and chronic otitis media (COM); control group comprised 10 nondiseased temporal bones...
May 26, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622894/impact-of-stimulus-related-factors-and-hearing-impairment-on-listening-effort-as-indicated-by-pupil-dilation
#8
Barbara Ohlenforst, Adriana A Zekveld, Thomas Lunner, Dorothea Wendt, Graham Naylor, Yang Wang, Niek J Versfeld, Sophia E Kramer
Previous research has reported effects of masker type and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as indicated by the peak pupil dilation (PPD) relative to baseline during speech recognition. At about 50% correct sentence recognition performance, increasing SNRs generally results in declining PPDs, indicating reduced effort. However, the decline in PPD over SNRs has been observed to be less pronounced for hearing-impaired (HI) compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. The presence of a competing talker during speech recognition generally resulted in larger PPDs as compared to the presence of a fluctuating or stationary background noise...
May 25, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578876/noise-and-pitch-interact-during-the-cortical-segregation-of-concurrent-speech
#9
Gavin M Bidelman, Anusha Yellamsetty
Behavioral studies reveal listeners exploit intrinsic differences in voice fundamental frequency (F0) to segregate concurrent speech sounds-the so-called "F0-benefit." More favorable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the environment, an extrinsic acoustic factor, similarly benefits the parsing of simultaneous speech. Here, we examined the neurobiological substrates of these two cues in the perceptual segregation of concurrent speech mixtures. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while listeners performed a speeded double-vowel identification task...
May 25, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571617/brain-activity-underlying-the-recovery-of-meaning-from-degraded-speech-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-study
#10
Pramudi Wijayasiri, Douglas E H Hartley, Ian M Wiggins
The purpose of this study was to establish whether functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an emerging brain-imaging technique based on optical principles, is suitable for studying the brain activity that underlies effortful listening. In an event-related fNIRS experiment, normally-hearing adults listened to sentences that were either clear or degraded (noise vocoded). These sentences were presented simultaneously with a non-speech distractor, and on each trial participants were instructed to attend either to the speech or to the distractor...
May 25, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571616/advances-in-translational-inner-ear-stem-cell-research
#11
REVIEW
Athanasia Warnecke, Adam J Mellott, Ariane Römer, Thomas Lenarz, Hinrich Staecker
Stem cell research is expanding our understanding of developmental biology as well as promising the development of new therapies for a range of different diseases. Within hearing research, the use of stem cells has focused mainly on cell replacement. Stem cells however have a broad range of other potential applications that are just beginning to be explored in the ear. Mesenchymal stem cells are an adult derived stem cell population that have been shown to produce growth factors, modulate the immune system and can differentiate into a wide variety of tissue types...
May 25, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625417/modeled-auditory-nerve-responses-to-amplitude-modulated-cochlear-implant-stimulation
#12
M J van Gendt, J J Briaire, R K Kalkman, J H M Frijns
Cochlear implants encode speech information by stimulating the auditory nerve with amplitude-modulated pulse trains. A computer model of the auditory nerve's response to electrical stimulation can be used to evaluate different approaches to improving CI patients' perception. In this paper a computationally efficient stochastic and adaptive auditory nerve model was used to investigate full nerve responses to amplitude-modulated electrical pulse trains. The model was validated for nerve responses to AM pulse trains via comparison with animal data...
May 19, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527538/masking-release-with-changing-fundamental-frequency-electric-acoustic-stimulation-resembles-normal-hearing-subjects
#13
Alice Barbara Auinger, Dominik Riss, Rudolfs Liepins, Tobias Rader, Tilman Keck, Thomas Keintzel, Alexandra Kaider, Wolf-Dieter Baumgartner, Wolfgang Gstoettner, Christoph Arnoldner
It has been shown that patients with electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) perform better in noisy environments than patients with a cochlear implant (CI). One reason for this could be the preserved access to acoustic low-frequency cues including the fundamental frequency (F0). Therefore, our primary aim was to investigate whether users of EAS experience a release from masking with increasing F0 difference between target talker and masking talker. The study comprised 29 patients and consisted of three groups of subjects: EAS users, CI users and normal-hearing listeners (NH)...
May 11, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552493/speak-on-time-effects-of-a-musical-rhythmic-training-on-children-with-hearing-loss
#14
Céline Hidalgo, Simone Falk, Daniele Schön
This study investigates temporal adaptation in speech interaction in children with normal hearing and in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs). We also address the question of whether musical rhythmic training can improve these skills in children with hearing loss (HL). Children named pictures presented on the screen in alternation with a virtual partner. Alternation rate (fast or slow) and the temporal predictability (match vs mismatch of stress occurrences) were manipulated. One group of children with normal hearing (NH) and one with HL were tested...
May 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505526/peripheral-hearing-loss-reduces-the-ability-of-children-to-direct-selective-attention-during-multi-talker-listening
#15
Emma Holmes, Padraig T Kitterick, A Quentin Summerfield
Restoring normal hearing requires knowledge of how peripheral and central auditory processes are affected by hearing loss. Previous research has focussed primarily on peripheral changes following sensorineural hearing loss, whereas consequences for central auditory processing have received less attention. We examined the ability of hearing-impaired children to direct auditory attention to a voice of interest (based on the talker's spatial location or gender) in the presence of a common form of background noise: the voices of competing talkers (i...
May 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505527/amino-acid-and-acetylcholine-chemistry-in-the-central-auditory-system-of-young-middle-aged-and-old-rats
#16
Donald A Godfrey, Kejian Chen, Thomas R O'Toole, Abdurrahman I A A Mustapha
Older adults generally experience difficulties with hearing. Age-related changes in the chemistry of central auditory regions, especially the chemistry underlying synaptic transmission between neurons, may be of particular relevance for hearing changes. In this study, we used quantitative microchemical methods to map concentrations of amino acids, including the major neurotransmitters of the brain, in all the major central auditory structures of young (6 months), middle-aged (22 months), and old (33 months old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats...
May 4, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495019/response-to-letter-psychometric-properties-of-the-tinnitus-functional-index-tfi-assessment-in-a-uk-research-volunteer-population
#17
LETTER
Kathryn Fackrell, Deborah A Hall, Johanna G Barry, Derek J Hoare
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505528/acuity-in-ranging-based-on-delay-tuned-combination-sensitive-neurons-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-mustached-bats
#18
Masakiyo Suzuki, Nobuo Suga
A 1.0-ms echo delay from an emitted bio-sonar pulse at 25 °C corresponds to a 17.3-cm target distance. In the auditory cortex of the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii, neurons tuned to a specific delay (best delay) of an echo from an emitted pulse are clustered in the FF, dorsal fringe and ventral fringe areas. ("FF" stands for the frequency-modulated components of a pulse and its echo.) Those delay-tuned neurons are systematically arranged in the FF area according to their best delays and form a 18-ms-long delay axis...
May 2, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494386/effect-of-efferent-activation-on-binaural-frequency-selectivity
#19
Jesko L Verhey, Monika Kordus, Vit Drga, Ifat Yasin
Binaural notched-noise experiments indicate a reduced frequency selectivity of the binaural system compared to monaural processing. The present study investigates how auditory efferent activation (via the medial olivocochlear system) affects binaural frequency selectivity in normal-hearing listeners. Thresholds were measured for a 1-kHz signal embedded in a diotic notched-noise masker for various notch widths. The signal was either presented in phase (diotic) or in antiphase (dichotic), gated with the noise...
May 2, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478300/chronic-tinnitus-and-unipolar-brush-cell-alterations-in-the-cerebellum-and-dorsal-cochlear-nucleus
#20
Thomas Brozoski, Daniel Brozoski, Kurt Wisner, Carol Bauer
Animal model research has shown that the central features of tinnitus, the perception of sound without an acoustic correlate, include elevated spontaneous and stimulus-driven activity, enhanced burst-mode firing, decreased variance of inter-spike intervals, and distortion of tonotopic frequency representation. Less well documented are cell-specific correlates of tinnitus. Unipolar brush cell (UBC) alterations in animals with psychophysical evidence of tinnitus has recently been reported. UBCs are glutamatergic interneurons that appear to function as local-circuit signal amplifiers...
May 2, 2017: Hearing Research
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