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Hearing Research

Stephen V David
For several decades, auditory neuroscientists have used spectro-temporal encoding models to understand how neurons in the auditory system represent sound. Derived from early applications of systems identification tools to the auditory periphery, the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF) and more sophisticated variants have emerged as an efficient means of characterizing representation throughout the auditory system. Most of these encoding models describe neurons as static sensory filters. However, auditory neural coding is not static...
December 31, 2017: Hearing Research
Paul B Manis, Luke Campagnola
Models of the auditory brainstem have been an invaluable tool for testing hypotheses about auditory information processing and for highlighting the most important gaps in the experimental literature. Due to the complexity of the auditory brainstem, and indeed most brain circuits, the dynamic behavior of the system may be difficult to predict without a detailed, biologically realistic computational model. Despite the sensitivity of models to their exact construction and parameters, most prior models of the cochlear nucleus have incorporated only a small subset of the known biological properties...
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
Silke Klawitter, David M Landsberger, Andreas Büchner, Waldo Nogueira
Phantom electrode (PE) stimulation is achieved by simultaneously stimulating out-of-phase from two adjacent intra-cochlear electrodes with different amplitudes. If the basal electrode stimulates with a smaller amplitude than the apical electrode of the pair, the resulting electrical field is pushed away from the basal electrode producing a lower pitch. There is great interest in using PE stimulation in a processing strategy as it can be used to provide stimulation to regions of the cochlea located more apically than the most apical contact on the electrode array...
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
Sharon E Miller, Kaci Wathen, Elizabeth Cash, Teresa Pitts, Lynzee Cornell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
Michelle L Hughes, Sangsook Choi, Erin Glickman
Modeling studies suggest that differences in neural responses between polarities might reflect underlying neural health. Specifically, large differences in electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) amplitudes and amplitude-growth-function (AGF) slopes between polarities might reflect poorer peripheral neural health, whereas more similar eCAP responses between polarities might reflect better neural health. The interphase gap (IPG) has also been shown to relate to neural survival in animal studies...
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
Liyan Peng, Ketao Mu, Aiguo Liu, Liangqiang Zhou, Yueyue Gao, Imrit Tejvansh Shenoy, Zhigang Mei, Qingguo Chen
The purpose of this study was to explore the central mechanism of transauricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) to human by fMRI and to find a suitable taVNS site for potential tinnitus treatment. 24 healthy subjects aged between 28 and 38 years were enrolled in the experiment. 8 subjects were stimulated in the auricular acupoints Kindey (CO10), Yidan (CO11), Liver (CO12) and Shenmen (TF4) in the left ear, 8 subjects were stimulated at the anterior wall of the auditory canal and left lower limb as an anterior stimulation group; 8 persons who were arranged in a sham group received taVNS at the left ear lobe and tail of the helix...
December 24, 2017: Hearing Research
Josefa Oberem, Julia Seibold, Iring Koch, Janina Fels
Using a well-established binaural-listening paradigm the ability to intentionally switch auditory selective attention was examined under anechoic, low reverberation (0.8 s) and high reverberation (1.75 s) conditions. Twenty-three young, normal-hearing subjects were tested in a within-subject design to analyze influences of the reverberation times. Spoken word pairs by two speakers were presented simultaneously to subjects from two of eight azimuth positions. The stimuli consisted of a single number word, (i...
December 22, 2017: Hearing Research
Renata Sisto, Christopher A Shera, Arturo Moleti
Long-delay components showing a symmetrical pattern with positive and negative delays can be observed in the time-frequency representation (or in the inverse Fourier transform) of distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Positive-only phase-gradient delays are predicted by place-fixed backscattering mechanisms, such as coherent reflection due to roughness, whereas the nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism should generate an almost null-delay component. The symmetrical delay pattern arises whenever spectral amplitude fluctuations are not fully correlated to phase fluctuations...
December 22, 2017: Hearing Research
John J Guinan
The anatomy and physiology of olivocochlear (OC) efferents are reviewed. To help interpret these, recent advances in cochlear mechanics are also reviewed. Lateral OC (LOC) efferents innervate primary auditory-nerve (AN) fiber dendrites. The most important LOC function may be to reduce auditory neuropathy. Medial OC (MOC) efferents innervate the outer hair cells (OHCs) and act to turn down the gain of cochlear amplification. Cochlear amplification had been thought to act only through basilar membrane (BM) motion, but recent reports show that motion near the reticular lamina (RL) is amplified more than BM motion, and that RL-motion amplification extends to several octaves below the local characteristic frequency...
December 21, 2017: Hearing Research
Bo Hua Hu, Celia Zhang, Mitchell D Frye
The cochlea has an immune environment dominated by macrophages under resting conditions. When stressed, circulating monocytes enter the cochlea. These immune mediators, along with cochlear resident cells, organize a complex defense response against pathological challenges. Since the cochlea has minimal exposure to pathogens, most inflammatory conditions in the cochlea are sterile. Although the immune response is initiated for the protection of the cochlea, off-target effects can cause collateral damage to cochlear cells...
December 20, 2017: Hearing Research
Alec N Salt, Keiko Hirose
The environment of the inner ear is highly regulated in a manner that some solutes are permitted to enter while others are excluded or transported out. Drug therapies targeting the sensory and supporting cells of the auditory and vestibular systems require the agent to gain entry to the fluid spaces of the inner ear, perilymph or endolymph, which surround the sensory organs. Access to the inner ear fluids from the vasculature is limited by the blood-labyrinth barriers, which include the blood-perilymph and blood-strial barriers...
December 19, 2017: Hearing Research
Martin Klein-Hennig, Mathias Dietz, Volker Hohmann
Both harmonic and binaural signal properties are relevant for auditory processing. To investigate how these cues combine in the auditory system, detection thresholds for an 800-Hz tone masked by a diotic (i.e., identical between the ears) harmonic complex tone were measured in six normal-hearing subjects. The target tone was presented either diotically or with an interaural phase difference (IPD) of 180° and in either harmonic or "mistuned" relationship to the diotic masker. Three different maskers were used, a resolved and an unresolved complex tone (fundamental frequency: 160 and 40 Hz) with four components below and above the target frequency and a broadband unresolved complex tone with 12 additional components...
December 14, 2017: Hearing Research
Fernando García-Alcántara, Silvia Murillo-Cuesta, Sara Pulido, Jose M Bermúdez-Muñoz, Raquel Martínez-Vega, Marta Milo, Isabel Varela-Nieto, Teresa Rivera
Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used widely in medicine despite their ototoxic side-effects. Oxidative stress and inflammation are key mechanisms determining the extent and severity of the damage. Here we evaluate the protective effect of a treatment with resveratrol plus N-acetylcysteine on the ototoxic actions of kanamycin and furosemide in the rat. Resveratrol (10 mg/kg) and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg/kg) were administered together to Wistar rats on 5 consecutive days. The second day, a concentrated solution of kanamycin and furosemide was placed on the round window to induce ototoxicity...
December 14, 2017: Hearing Research
Saskia M Waechter, Alejandro Lopez Valdes, Cristina Simoes-Franklin, Laura Viani, Richard B Reilly
With increasing numbers undergoing intervention for hearing impairment at a young age, the clinical need for objective assessment tools of auditory discrimination abilities is growing. Amplitude modulation (AM) sensitivity has been known to be an important factor for speech recognition particularly among cochlear implant (CI) users. It therefore would be useful to develop objective measures of AM detection for future clinical assessment of CI users; this study aimed to verify the feasibility of a neurophysiological approach studying a cohort of normal-hearing participants...
December 14, 2017: Hearing Research
Hui Nam, John J Guinan
Recent cochlear mechanical measurements show that active processes increase the motion response of the reticular lamina (RL) at frequencies more than an octave below the local characteristic frequency (CF) for CFs above 5 kHz. A possible correlate is that in high-CF (>5 kHz) auditory-nerve (AN) fibers, responses to frequencies 1-3 octaves below CF ("tail" frequencies) can be inhibited by medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents. These results indicate that active processes enhance the sensitivity of tail-frequency RL and AN responses...
December 14, 2017: Hearing Research
Maaike Van Eeckhoutte, Jan Wouters, Tom Francart
Loudness growth functions characterize how the loudness percept changes with current level between the threshold and most comfortable loudness level in cochlear implant users. Even though loudness growth functions are highly listener-dependent, currently default settings are used in clinical devices. This study investigated whether electrically-evoked auditory steady-state response amplitude growth functions correspond to behaviorally measured loudness growth functions. Seven cochlear implant listeners participated in two behavioral loudness growth tasks and an EEG recording session...
December 8, 2017: Hearing Research
Christopher Spankovich, Victoria B Gonzalez, Dan Su, Charles E Bishop
Perceived hearing difficulty (HD) and/or tinnitus in the presence of normal audiometric thresholds present a clinical challenge. Yet, there is limited data regarding prevalence and determinant factors contributing to HD. Here we present estimates generalized to the non-institutionalized population of the United States based on the cross-sectional population-based study, the National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2176 participants (20-69 years of age). Normal audiometric thresholds were defined by pure-tone average (PTA4) of 0...
December 7, 2017: Hearing Research
Jane A Burton, Margit E Dylla, Ramnarayan Ramachandran
The auditory system is thought to process complex sounds through overlapping bandpass filters. Frequency selectivity as estimated by auditory filters has been well quantified in humans and other mammalian species using behavioral and physiological methodologies, but little work has been done to examine frequency selectivity in nonhuman primates. In particular, knowledge of macaque frequency selectivity would help address the recent controversy over the sharpness of cochlear tuning in humans relative to other animal species...
November 28, 2017: Hearing Research
Mathias Dietz, Jean-Hugues Lestang, Piotr Majdak, Richard M Stern, Torsten Marquardt, Stephan D Ewert, William M Hartmann, Dan F M Goodman
Auditory research has a rich history of combining experimental evidence with computational simulations of auditory processing in order to deepen our theoretical understanding of how sound is processed in the ears and in the brain. Despite significant progress in the amount of detail and breadth covered by auditory models, for many components of the auditory pathway there are still different model approaches that are often not equivalent but rather in conflict with each other. Similarly, some experimental studies yield conflicting results which has led to controversies...
November 28, 2017: Hearing Research
Matthew G Wisniewski, Nandini Iyer, Eric R Thompson, Brian D Simpson
Recent studies demonstrate that frontal midline theta power (4-8 Hz) enhancements in the electroencephalogram (EEG) relate to effortful listening. It has been proposed that these enhancements reflect working memory demands. Here, the need to retain auditory information in working memory was manipulated in a 2-interval 2-alternative forced-choice delayed pitch discrimination task ("Which interval contained the higher pitch?"). On each trial, two square wave stimuli differing in pitch at an individual's ∼70...
November 27, 2017: Hearing Research
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