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Hearing Research

Chandan H Suresh, Ananthanarayan Krishnan, Jackson T Gandour
Long-term experience enhances neural representation of temporal attributes of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex in favorable listening conditions. Herein we examine whether cortical pitch mechanisms shaped by language experience are more resilient to degradation in background noise, and exhibit greater binaural release from masking (BRM). Cortical pitch responses (CPR) were recorded from Mandarin- and English-speaking natives using a Mandarin word exhibiting a high rising pitch (/yi(2)/). Stimuli were presented diotically in Quiet, and in noise at +5, and 0 dB SNR...
September 14, 2017: Hearing Research
Guo-Peng Wang, Ishani Basu, Lisa A Beyer, Hiu Tung Wong, Donald L Swiderski, Shu-Sheng Gong, Yehoash Raphael
The damaged vestibular sensory epithelium of mammals has a limited capacity for spontaneous hair cell regeneration, which largely depends on the transdifferentiation of surviving supporting cells. Little is known about the response of vestibular supporting cells to a severe insult. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a severe ototoxic insult on the histology of utricular supporting cells and the changes in innervation that ensued. We infused a high dose of streptomycin into the mouse posterior semicircular canal to induce a severe lesion in the utricle...
September 11, 2017: Hearing Research
Nathan Weisz, Chrysoula Lithari
Periodic modulations of an acoustic feature, such as amplitude over a certain frequency range, leads to phase locking of neural responses to the envelope of the modulation. Using electrophysiological methods this neural activity pattern, also called the auditory steady-state response (aSSR), is visible following frequency transformation of the evoked response as a clear spectral peak at the modulation frequency. Despite several studies employing the aSSR that show, for example, strongest responses for ∼40 Hz and an overall right-hemispheric dominance, it has not been investigated so far to what extent within auditory cortex different modulation frequencies elicit aSSRs at a homogenous source or whether the localization of the aSSR is topographically organized in a systematic manner...
September 11, 2017: Hearing Research
Emmanuèle Ambert-Dahan, Anne-Lise Giraud, Halima Mecheri, Olivier Sterkers, Isabelle Mosnier, Séverine Samson
Visual processing has been extensively explored in deaf subjects in the context of verbal communication, through the assessment of speech reading and sign language abilities. However, little is known about visual emotional processing in adult progressive deafness, and after cochlear implantation. The goal of our study was thus to assess the influence of acquired post-lingual progressive deafness on the recognition of dynamic facial emotions that were selected to express canonical fear, happiness, sadness, and anger...
August 31, 2017: Hearing Research
Thomas Koelewijn, Niek J Versfeld, Sophia E Kramer
For people with hearing difficulties, following a conversation in a noisy environment requires substantial cognitive processing, which is often perceived as effortful. Recent studies with normal hearing (NH) listeners showed that the pupil dilation response, a measure of cognitive processing load, is affected by 'attention related' processes. How these processes affect the pupil dilation response for hearing impaired (HI) listeners remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated the effect of auditory attention on various pupil response parameters for 15 NH adults (median age 51 yrs...
August 30, 2017: Hearing Research
William J Doyle
INTRODUCTION: Middle ear (ME) pressure-regulation (MEPR) is a homeostatic mechanism that maintains the ME-environment pressure-gradient (MEEPG) within a range optimized for "normal" hearing. OBJECTIVE: Describe MEPR using equations applicable to passive, inter-compartmental gas-exchange and determine if the predictions of that description include the increasing ME pressure observed under certain conditions and interpreted by some as evidencing gas-production by the ME mucosa...
August 24, 2017: Hearing Research
Junfeng Liang, Zachery A Yokell, Don U Nakmaili, Rong Z Gan, Hongbing Lu
The rupture of tympanic membrane (TM) has long been viewed as an indicator of blast injury, especially for hearing loss. However, little is known about damage to the TM caused by blast with pressure lower than the rupture threshold. In this paper, we present our study on the effect of blast overpressure on the static mechanical properties of TM. Chinchilla was used as the animal model and exposed to multiple blasts with pressures lower than the rupture threshold of the TM. Using a micro-fringe projection method, we observed the alteration of the static mechanical properties of post-blast chinchilla's TMs as compared to those of control TMs...
August 18, 2017: Hearing Research
James L Sinclair, Margaret Barnes-Davies, Conny Kopp-Scheinpflug, Ian D Forsythe
This investigation compared the development of neuronal excitability in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB) between two strains of mice with differing progression rates for age-related hearing loss. In contrast to CBA/Ca (CBA) mice, the C57BL/6J (C57) strain are subject to hearing loss from a younger age and are more prone to damage from sound over-exposure. Higher firing rates in the medial olivocochlear system (MOC) are associated with protection from loud sounds and these cells are located in the VNTB...
August 18, 2017: Hearing Research
Sang-Yeon Lee, Dong Woo Nam, Ja-Won Koo, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste, Jae-Jin Song
Recent studies have adopted the Bayesian brain model to explain the generation of tinnitus in subjects with auditory deafferentation. That is, as the human brain works in a Bayesian manner to reduce environmental uncertainty, missing auditory information due to hearing loss may cause auditory phantom percepts, i.e., tinnitus. This type of deafferentation-induced auditory phantom percept should be preceded by auditory experience because the fill-in phenomenon, namely tinnitus, is based upon auditory prediction and the resultant prediction error...
August 15, 2017: Hearing Research
Mai Elfarnawany, Seyed Alireza Rohani, Soroush Ghomashchi, Daniel G Allen, Ning Zhu, Sumit K Agrawal, Hanif M Ladak
High resolution images are used as a basis for finite-element modeling of the middle-ear structures to study their biomechanical function. Commonly used imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (CT) and optical microscopy require extensive sample preparation, processing or staining using contrast agents to achieve sufficient soft-tissue contrast. We compare imaging of middle-ear structures in unstained, non-decalcified human temporal bones using conventional absorption-contrast micro-CT and using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI)...
August 5, 2017: Hearing Research
Marcin Stachurski, Robert J Summers, Brian Roberts
Repeating a recorded word produces verbal transformations (VTs); perceptual regrouping of acoustic-phonetic elements may contribute to this effect. The influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and lateralization grouping cues was explored by presenting two concurrent sequences of the same word resynthesized on different F0s (100 and 178 Hz). In experiment 1, listeners monitored both sequences simultaneously, reporting for each any change in stimulus identity. Three lateralization conditions were used - diotic, ±680-μs interaural time difference, and dichotic...
August 2, 2017: Hearing Research
Tobias Neher, Kirsten C Wagener, Matthias Latzel
Hearing aid (HA) users can differ markedly in their benefit from directional processing (or beamforming) algorithms. The current study therefore investigated candidacy for different bilateral directional processing schemes. Groups of elderly listeners with symmetric (N = 20) or asymmetric (N = 19) hearing thresholds for frequencies below 2 kHz, a large spread in the binaural intelligibility level difference (BILD), and no difference in age, overall degree of hearing loss, or performance on a measure of selective attention took part...
July 29, 2017: Hearing Research
Wally Grant, Ian Curthoys
Vestibular otolithic organs are recognized as transducers of head acceleration and they function as such up to their corner frequency or undamped natural frequency. It is well recognized that these organs respond to frequencies above their corner frequency up to the 2-3 kHz range (Curthoys et al., 2016). A mechanics model for the transduction of these organs is developed that predicts the response below the undamped natural frequency as an accelerometer and above that frequency as a seismometer. The model is converted to a transfer function using hair cell bundle deflection...
July 27, 2017: Hearing Research
Laurent Demany, Yann Bayle, Emilie Puginier, Catherine Semal
Four experiments investigated change detection in acoustic scenes consisting of a sum of five amplitude-modulated pure tones. As the tones were about 0.7 octave apart and were amplitude-modulated with different frequencies (in the range 2-32 Hz), they were perceived as separate streams. Listeners had to detect a change in the frequency (experiments 1 and 2) or the shape (experiments 3 and 4) of the modulation of one of the five tones, in the presence of an informative cue orienting selective attention either before the scene (pre-cue) or after it (post-cue)...
July 27, 2017: Hearing Research
Antoine Verger, Stéphane Roman, Rose-May Chaudat, Olivier Felician, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Mira Didic, Eric Guedj
Hearing loss is known to impact brain function. The aim of this study was to characterize cerebral metabolic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) changes in elderly patients fulfilling criteria for cochlear implant and investigate the impact of hearing loss on functional connectivity. Statistical Parametric Mapping-T-scores-maps comparisons of (18)F-FDG-PET of 27 elderly patients fulfilling criteria for cochlear implant for hearing loss (best-aided speech intelligibility lower or equal to 50%) and 27 matched healthy subjects (p < 0...
July 27, 2017: Hearing Research
C J Pastras, I S Curthoys, D J Brown
BACKGROUND: The Vestibular Microphonic (VM) has only featured in a handful of publications, mostly involving non-mammalian and ex vivo models. The VM is the extracellular analogue of the vestibular hair cell receptor current, and offers a tool to monitor vestibular hair cell activity in vivo. OBJECTIVE: To characterise features of the VM measured in vivo in guinea pigs, using a relatively simple experimental setup. METHODS: The VM, evoked by bone-conducted vibration (BCV), was recorded from the basal surface of either the utricular or saccular macula after surgical removal of the cochlea, in 27 guinea pigs...
July 26, 2017: Hearing Research
Wasil H M Salih, Pieter G G Muyshondt, Joris J J Dirckx
Deformation of the tympanic membrane is known to contribute to the pressure regulation processes in the middle ear cleft. In this paper we investigated pressure variations in the rabbit middle ear in response to sinusoidal varying pressures applied to the ear canal, with frequencies ranging from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz and pressure amplitudes ranging between 0.25 kPa and 1 kPa. The transtympanic pressure difference was found to be smallest in the quasi-static range, and quickly increased as a function of frequency...
July 26, 2017: Hearing Research
Rajeev Mathew, Jaime Undurraga, Guoping Li, Leah Meerton, Patrick Boyle, Azhar Shaida, David Selvadurai, Dan Jiang, Deborah Vickers
The spatial auditory change complex (ACC) is a cortical response elicited by a change in place of stimulation. There is growing evidence that it provides a useful objective measure of electrode discrimination in cochlear implant (CI) users. To date, the spatial ACC has only been measured in relatively experienced CI users with one type of device. Early assessment of electrode discrimination could allow auditory stimulation to be optimized during a potentially sensitive period of auditory rehabilitation. In this study we used a direct stimulation paradigm to measure the spatial ACC in both pre- and post-lingually deafened adults...
July 23, 2017: Hearing Research
Per Muhr, Ann-Christin Johnson, Ulf Rosenhall
OBJECTIVE: To analyze time trends in prevalence of hearing impairment in almost complete birth cohorts of 18-year old Swedish men from 1970s up to 2010. STUDY GROUPS: Before 1999, all 18-year old men, in Sweden, were called for a compulsory conscription examination. In 1971-1999, the participation rate in audiometry was 73-95%. After 1999, when exemption from conscription was allowed, the participation rate gradually declined to 52% in 2004. Samples with participation rates below 50% (2005-2010) were considered non-representative and excluded from the analyses...
July 23, 2017: Hearing Research
Risto Näätänen, Bjørn Petersen, Ritva Torppa, Eila Lonka, Peter Vuust
In the present article, we review the studies on the use of the mismatch negativity (MMN) as a tool for an objective assessment of cochlear-implant (CI) functioning after its implantation and as a function of time of CI use. The MMN indexes discrimination of different sound stimuli with a precision matching with that of behavioral discrimination and can therefore be used as its objective index. Importantly, these measurements can be reliably carried out even in the absence of attention and behavioral responses and therefore they can be extended to populations that are not capable of behaviorally reporting their perception such as infants and different clinical patient groups...
July 20, 2017: Hearing Research
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