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Hearing Research

R A Altschuler, A Kanicki, C Martin, D C Kohrman, R A Miller
Adding rapamycin or acarbose to diet at 9-10 months of age has been shown to significantly increase life span in both male and female UM-HET3 mice. The current study examined cochleae of male and female UM-HET3 mice at 22 months of age to determine if either treatment also influenced age-related loss of cochlear hair cells. A large loss of cochlear outer hair cells was observed at 22 months of age in untreated mice in both apical and basal halves of the cochlear spiral. Addition of acarbose to diet had no significant effect on the amount of outer hair cell loss at 22 months of age or in its pattern, with large loss in both apical and basal halves...
September 7, 2018: Hearing Research
Yixu Wang, Lin Han, Tongxiang Diao, Yuanyuan Jing, Lin Wang, Hongwei Zheng, Xin Ma, Jingcui Qi, Lisheng Yu
Different types of inner ear diseases can damage different cochlear subsites by different mechanisms. Steroids administered by different methods are commonly used for treating inner ear diseases. There is reason to believe that dexamethasone (Dex) may reach cochlear subsite targets via different pathways after administration by different methods: Intratympanic (IT), postaural (PA), and intraperitoneal (IP). The purpose of this study was to explore the cochlear concentration and distribution of Dex after administration by different methods...
September 7, 2018: Hearing Research
Daniel Duque, Rui Pais, Manuel S Malmierca
Neural responses to sensory inputs in a complex and natural environment must be weighted according to their relevance. To do so, the brain needs to be able to deal with sudden stimulus fluctuations in an ever-changing acoustic environment. Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is a phenomenon of some neurons along the auditory pathway that show a reduced response to repetitive sounds while responsive to those that occur rarely. SSA has been shown from the inferior colliculus to auditory cortex, but has not been detected in the cochlear nucleus...
August 31, 2018: Hearing Research
Dongshu Wang, Hui Shan, Jianbin Xin
Compared with machine audition, the human auditory system can recognize speech accurately and quickly. This paper proposes a new developmental network (DN) that simulates the human auditory system and constructs an artificial auditory model for speech recognition. The new model simulates each key element of the human auditory pathway as a deep network; in particular, an additional layer in the network is considered to simulate the function of the superior colliculus in the thalamus for speech context integration...
August 31, 2018: Hearing Research
Hanne Deprez, Robin Gransier, Michael Hofmann, Jan Wouters, Nicolas Verhaert
Acoustic hearing implants, such as direct acoustic cochlear implants (DACIs), can be used to treat profound mixed hearing loss. Electrophysiological responses in DACI subjects are of interest to confirm auditory processing intra-operatively, and to assist DACI fitting postoperatively. We present two related studies, focusing on DACI artifacts and electrophysiological measurements in DACI subjects, respectively. In the first study we aimed to characterize DACI artifacts, to study the feasibility of measuring frequency-specific electrophysiological responses in DACI subjects...
August 28, 2018: Hearing Research
K Vogt, H Frenzel, S A Ausili, D Hollfelder, B Wollenberg, A F M Snik, M J H Agterberg
Different amplification options are available for listeners with congenital unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL). For example, bone-conduction devices (BCDs) and middle ear implants. The present study investigated whether intervention with an active BCD, the Bonebridge, or a middle ear implant, the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB), affected sound-localization performance of listeners with congenital UCHL. Listening with a Bonebridge or VSB might provide access to binaural cues. However, when fitted with the Bonebridge, but not with a VSB, binaural processing might be affected through cross stimulation of the contralateral normal hearing ear, and could interfere with processing of binaural cues...
August 26, 2018: Hearing Research
S Paquette, G D Ahmed, M V Goffi-Gomez, A C H Hoshino, I Peretz, A Lehmann
Cochlear implants can successfully restore hearing in profoundly deaf individuals and enable speech comprehension. However, the acoustic signal provided is severely degraded and, as a result, many important acoustic cues for perceiving emotion in voices and music are unavailable. The deficit of cochlear implant users in auditory emotion processing has been clearly established. Yet, the extent to which this deficit and the specific cues that remain available to cochlear implant users are unknown due to several confounding factors...
August 25, 2018: Hearing Research
Adam J Peterson, Antoine Huet, Jérôme Bourien, Jean-Luc Puel, Peter Heil
Knowledge of the refractory properties of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) is required for understanding the transduction of the graded membrane potential of the receptor cells into spike trains. The refractory properties inferred when ANFs are excited by electrical stimulation might differ from those present when ANFs are excited naturally by transmitter release from receptor cells. As a proxy for the latter, we investigated the recovery of spike amplitude with time since the previous spike in long extracellular recordings of the activity of individual ANFs from anesthetized Mongolian gerbils...
August 25, 2018: Hearing Research
Lauren A Linker, Lissette Carlson, Donald A Godfrey, Judy A Parli, C David Ross
There is evidence for a function of acetylcholine in the cochlear nucleus, primarily in a feedback, modulatory effect on auditory processing. Using a microdissection and quantitative microassay approach, choline acetyltransferase activity was mapped in the trapezoid bodies of rats, in which the activity is relatively higher than in cats or hamsters. Maps of series of sections through the trapezoid body demonstrated generally higher choline acetyltransferase activity rostrally than caudally, particularly in its portion ventral to the medial part of the spinal trigeminal tract...
August 25, 2018: Hearing Research
Christopher John Pastras, Ian S Curthoys, Daniel John Brown
With the use of a commercially available Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) we have measured the velocity of the surgically exposed utricular macula in the dorsoventral plane, in anaesthetized guinea pigs, during Air Conducted Sound (ACS) or Bone Conducted Vibration (BCV) stimulation. We have also performed simultaneous measurements of otolithic function in the form of the Utricular Microphonic (UM) and the Vestibular short-latency Evoked Potential (VsEP). Based on the level of macular vibration measured with the LDV, the UM was most sensitive to ACS and BCV between 100 and 200 Hz...
August 24, 2018: Hearing Research
Daniel P Kumpik, Andrew J King
The capacity of the auditory system to extract spatial information relies principally on the detection and interpretation of binaural cues, i.e., differences in the time of arrival or level of the sound between the two ears. In this review, we consider the effects of unilateral or asymmetric hearing loss on spatial hearing, with a focus on the adaptive changes in the brain that may help to compensate for an imbalance in input between the ears. Unilateral hearing loss during development weakens the brain's representation of the deprived ear, and this may outlast the restoration of function in that ear and therefore impair performance on tasks such as sound localization and spatial release from masking that rely on binaural processing...
August 11, 2018: Hearing Research
Alexander L Francis, Jordan Oliver
When people make decisions about listening, such as whether to continue attending to a particular conversation or whether to wear their hearing aids to a particular restaurant, they do so on the basis of more than just their estimated performance. Recent research has highlighted the vital role of more subjective qualities such as effort, motivation, and fatigue. Here, we argue that the importance of these factors is largely mediated by a listener's emotional response to the listening challenge, and suggest that emotional responses to communication challenges may provide a crucial link between day-to-day communication stress and long-term health...
August 10, 2018: Hearing Research
Larissa McKetton, David Purcell, Victoria Stone, Jessica Grahn, Christopher Bergevin
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify the perceived pitch of a sound without an external reference. Relatively rare, with an incidence of approximately 1/10,000, the mechanisms underlying AP are not well understood. This study examined otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) to determine if there is evidence of a peripheral (i.e., cochlear) basis for AP. Two OAE types were examined: spontaneous emissions (SOAEs) and stimulus-frequency emissions (SFOAEs). Our motivations to explore a peripheral foundation for AP were several-fold...
August 8, 2018: Hearing Research
Deng-Ling Zhao, Adam Sheppard, Massimo Ralli, Xiaopeng Liu, Richard Salvi
Prolonged noise exposures presented at low to moderate intensities are often used to investigate neuroplastic changes in the central auditory pathway. A common assumption in many studies is that central auditory changes occur independent of any hearing loss or cochlear dysfunction. Since hearing loss from a long term noise exposure can only occur if the level of the noise exceeds a critical level, prolonged noise exposures that incrementally increase in intensity can be used to determine the critical level for any given species and noise spectrum...
August 8, 2018: Hearing Research
Tine Goossens, Charlotte Vercammen, Jan Wouters, Astrid van Wieringen
Peripheral hearing impairment cannot fully account for speech perception difficulties that emerge with advancing age. As the fluctuating speech envelope bears crucial information for speech perception, changes in temporal envelope processing are thought to contribute to degraded speech perception. Previous research has demonstrated changes in neural encoding of envelope modulations throughout the adult lifespan, either due to age or due to hearing impairment. To date, however, it remains unclear whether such age- and hearing-related neural changes are associated with impaired speech perception...
July 27, 2018: Hearing Research
Kohei Yamahara, Koji Nishimura, Hideaki Ogita, Juichi Ito, Takayuki Nakagawa, Ichiro Furuta, Tomoko Kita, Koichi Omori, Norio Yamamoto
The hybrid or electric-acoustic stimulation cochlear implant is indicated in patients with a residual hearing at low frequencies. It provides electric and acoustic stimulation for compensating for high- and low-frequency sounds, respectively. However, the implantation procedure damages the cochlea, resulting in loss of the residual-hearing and diminished effects of the acoustic-hearing in several patients. To prevent hearing loss after implantation, corticosteroids have been used clinically although their effects are limited...
July 6, 2018: Hearing Research
William P Shofner, Hayley Morris, Mackenzie Mills
When a wideband harmonic tone complex (wHTC) is passed through a noise vocoder, the resulting sounds can have spectra with large peak-to-valley ratios, but little or no periodicity strength in the autocorrelation functions. We measured judgments of pitch strength for normal-hearing listeners for noise-vocoded wideband harmonic tone complexes (NV-wHTCs) relative to standard and anchor stimuli. The standard was a 1-channel NV-wHTC and the anchor was either the unprocessed wHTC or an infinitely-iterated rippled noise (IIRN)...
July 4, 2018: Hearing Research
J Wiebe Horst, JoAnn McGee, Edward J Walsh
Input-output (IO) properties of cochlear transduction are frequently determined by analyzing the average discharge rates of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in response to relatively long tonal stimulation. The ANFs in cats have spontaneous discharge rates (SRs) that are bimodally distributed, peaking at low (<0.5 spikes/s) and high (∼60 spikes/s) rates, and rate-level characteristics differ depending upon SR. In an effort to assess the instantaneous IO properties of ANFs having different SRs, static IO-curves were constructed from period histograms based on phase-locking of spikes to the stimulus waveform...
September 2018: Hearing Research
Lori L Holt, Adam T Tierney, Giada Guerra, Aeron Laffere, Frederic Dick
The contribution of acoustic dimensions to an auditory percept is dynamically adjusted and reweighted based on prior experience about how informative these dimensions are across the long-term and short-term environment. This is especially evident in speech perception, where listeners differentially weight information across multiple acoustic dimensions, and use this information selectively to update expectations about future sounds. The dynamic and selective adjustment of how acoustic input dimensions contribute to perception has made it tempting to conceive of this as a form of non-spatial auditory selective attention...
September 2018: Hearing Research
Blake E Butler, Yale E Cohen, Stephen G Lomber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Hearing Research
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