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Hearing Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913315/speech-enhancement-based-on-neural-networks-improves-speech-intelligibility-in-noise-for-cochlear-implant-users
#1
Tobias Goehring, Federico Bolner, Jessica J M Monaghan, Bas van Dijk, Andrzej Zarowski, Stefan Bleeck
Speech understanding in noisy environments is still one of the major challenges for cochlear implant (CI) users in everyday life. We evaluated a speech enhancement algorithm based on neural networks (NNSE) for improving speech intelligibility in noise for CI users. The algorithm decomposes the noisy speech signal into time-frequency units, extracts a set of auditory-inspired features and feeds them to the neural network to produce an estimation of which frequency channels contain more perceptually important information (higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR)...
November 29, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913314/audiologic-characteristics-in-a-sample-of-recently-separated-military-veterans-the-noise-outcomes-in-servicemembers-epidemiology-study-noise-study
#2
J S Gordon, S E Griest, E J Thielman, K C Carlson, W J Helt, M S Lewis, C Blankenship, D Austin, S M Theodoroff, J A Henry
Military Service Members are often exposed to high levels of occupational noise, solvents, and other exposures that can be damaging to the auditory system. Little is known about hearing loss and how it progresses in Veterans following military service. This epidemiology study is designed to evaluate and monitor a cohort of Veterans for 20 years or more to determine how hearing loss changes over time and how those changes are related to noise exposure and other ototoxic exposures encountered during military service...
November 29, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890677/time-course-of-organ-of-corti-degeneration-after-noise-exposure
#3
Barbara A Bohne, Melissa Kimlinger, Gary W Harding
From our permanent collection of plastic-embedded flat preparations of chinchilla cochleae, 22 controls and 199 ears from noise-exposed animals were used to determine when, postexposure, hair cell (HC) and supporting cell (SC) degeneration were completed. The exposed ears were divided into four groups based on exposure parameters: 0.5- or 4-kHz octave band of noise at moderate (M) or high (H) intensities. Postexposure survival ranged from < 1 h to 2.5 y. Ears fixed ≤ 0-12 h postexposure were called ‛acute‛...
November 24, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888040/evidence-that-hidden-hearing-loss-underlies-amplitude-modulation-encoding-deficits-in-individuals-with-and-without-tinnitus
#4
Brandon T Paul, Ian C Bruce, Larry E Roberts
Damage to auditory nerve fibers that expresses with suprathreshold sounds but is hidden from the audiogram has been proposed to underlie deficits in temporal coding ability observed among individuals with otherwise normal hearing, and to be present in individuals experiencing chronic tinnitus with clinically normal audiograms. We tested whether these individuals may have hidden synaptic losses on auditory nerve fibers with low spontaneous rates of firing (low-SR fibers) that are important for coding suprathreshold sounds in noise while high-SR fibers determining threshold responses in quiet remain relatively unaffected...
November 22, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876480/noise-dosimetry-for-tactical-environments
#5
Christopher J Smalt, Joe Lacirignola, Shakti K Davis, Paul T Calamia, Paula P Collins
Noise exposure and the subsequent hearing loss are well documented aspects of military life. Numerous studies have indicated high rates of noise-induced hearing injury (NIHI) in active-duty service men and women, and recent statistics from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs indicate a population of veterans with hearing loss that is growing at an increasing rate. In an effort to minimize hearing loss, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) updated its Hearing Conservation Program in 2010, and also has recently revised the DoD Design Criteria Standard Noise Limits (MIL-STD-1474E) which defines allowable noise levels in the design of all military acquisitions including weapons and vehicles...
November 20, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864051/individual-differences-in-speech-in-noise-perception-parallel-neural-speech-processing-and-attention-in-preschoolers
#6
Elaine C Thompson, Kali Woodruff Carr, Travis White-Schwoch, Sebastian Otto-Meyer, Nina Kraus
From bustling classrooms to unruly lunchrooms, school settings are noisy. To learn effectively in the unwelcome company of numerous distractions, children must clearly perceive speech in noise. In older children and adults, speech-in-noise perception is supported by sensory and cognitive processes, but the correlates underlying this critical listening skill in young children (3-5 year olds) remain undetermined. Employing a longitudinal design (two evaluations separated by ∼12 months), we followed a cohort of 59 preschoolers, ages 3...
November 15, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847300/a-review-of-the-progress-and-pitfalls-of-fda-policy-process-planning-a-pathway-for-pharmaceutical-interventions-for-hearing-loss-development
#7
Tanisha L Hammill
The Federal Food and Drug Administration, or FDA is generally considered a powerful gatekeeper, able to deliver or withhold life-saving cures and create or destroy economic windfalls. As the decades go by, and technologies, diseases, public health demands, and politics evolve, we can identify patterns of change, action and inter-action among some of these traditional stakeholders in the FDA's policy sphere. A careful examination of this agency's colorful history can shed light on central features of the agency's policy process, which has been quite receptive to its stakeholders and adaptive to change over the decades and, in turn, show the way for development in lanes which do not fit neatly into the current paradigms offered by the agency...
November 12, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845260/an-integrated-model-of-pitch-perception-incorporating-place-and-temporal-pitch-codes-with-application-to-cochlear-implant-research
#8
Nafise Erfanian Saeedi, Peter J Blamey, Anthony N Burkitt, David B Grayden
Although the neural mechanisms underlying pitch perception are not yet fully understood, there is general agreement that place and temporal representations of pitch are both used by the auditory system. This paper describes a neural network model of pitch perception that integrates both codes of pitch and explores the contributions of, and the interactions between, the two representations in simulated pitch ranking trials in normal and cochlear implant hearing. The model can replicate various psychophysical observations including the perception of the missing fundamental pitch and sensitivity to pitch interval sizes...
November 12, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845259/masked-speech-perception-across-the-adult-lifespan-impact-of-age-and-hearing-impairment
#9
Tine Goossens, Charlotte Vercammen, Jan Wouters, Astrid van Wieringen
As people grow older, speech perception difficulties become highly prevalent, especially in noisy listening situations. Moreover, it is assumed that speech intelligibility is more affected in the event of background noises that induce a higher cognitive load, i.e., noises that result in informational versus energetic masking. There is ample evidence showing that speech perception problems in aging persons are partly due to hearing impairment and partly due to age-related declines in cognition and suprathreshold auditory processing...
November 12, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842215/reply-to-psychometric-properties-of-the-tinnitus-functional-index-tfi-assessment-in-a-uk-research-volunteer-population
#10
LETTER
J A Henry, E Thielman, T Zaugg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838373/serotonin-modulates-response-properties-of-neurons-in-the-dorsal-cochlear-nucleus-of-the-mouse
#11
Richard A Felix, Cameron J Elde, Alexander A Nevue, Christine V Portfors
The neurochemical serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is involved in a variety of behavioral functions including arousal, reward, and attention, and has a role in several complex disorders of the brain. In the auditory system, 5-HT fibers innervate a number of subcortical nuclei, yet the modulatory role of 5-HT in nearly all of these areas remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined spiking activity of neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) following iontophoretic application of 5-HT. The DCN is an early site in the auditory pathway that receives dense 5-HT fiber input from the raphe nuclei and has been implicated in the generation of auditory disorders marked by neuronal hyperexcitability...
November 9, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838372/a-physiologically-inspired-model-reproducing-the-speech-intelligibility-benefit-in-cochlear-implant-listeners-with-residual-acoustic-hearing
#12
Ladan Zamaninezhad, Volker Hohmann, Andreas Büchner, Marc-René Schädler, Tim Jürgens
This study introduces a speech intelligibility model for cochlear implant users with ipsilateral preserved acoustic hearing that aims at simulating the observed speech-in-noise intelligibility benefit when receiving simultaneous electric and acoustic stimulation (EA-benefit). The model simulates the auditory nerve spiking in response to electric and/or acoustic stimulation. The temporally and spatially integrated spiking patterns were used as the final internal representation of noisy speech. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in stationary noise were predicted for a sentence test using an automatic speech recognition framework...
November 9, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837652/dynamic-activation-of-basilar-membrane-macrophages-in-response-to-chronic-sensory-cell-degeneration-in-aging-mouse-cochleae
#13
Mitchell D Frye, Weiping Yang, Celia Zhang, Binbin Xiong, Bo Hua Hu
In the sensory epithelium, macrophages have been identified on the scala tympani side of the basilar membrane. These basilar membrane macrophages are the spatially closest immune cells to sensory cells and are able to directly respond to and influence sensory cell pathogenesis. While basilar membrane macrophages have been studied in acute cochlear stresses, their behavior in response to chronic sensory cell degeneration is largely unknown. Here we report a systematic observation of the variance in phenotypes, the changes in morphology and distribution of basilar membrane tissue macrophages in different age groups of C57BL/6J mice, a mouse model of age-related sensory cell degeneration...
November 9, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825859/lifetime-leisure-music-exposure-associated-with-increased-frequency-of-tinnitus
#14
David R Moore, Oliver Zobay, Robert C Mackinnon, William M Whitmer, Michael A Akeroyd
Tinnitus has been linked to noise exposure, a common form of which is listening to music as a leisure activity. The relationship between tinnitus and type and duration of music exposure is not well understood. We conducted an internet-based population study that asked participants questions about lifetime music exposure and hearing, and included a hearing test involving speech intelligibility in noise, the High Frequency Digit Triplets Test. 4950 people aged 17-75 years completed all questions and the hearing test...
November 5, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825021/abnormal-auditory-synchronization-in-stuttering-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#15
Yoshikazu Kikuchi, Tsuyoshi Okamoto, Katsuya Ogata, Koichi Hagiwara, Toshiro Umezaki, Masamutsu Kenjo, Takashi Nakagawa, Shozo Tobimatsu
In a previous magnetoencephalographic study, we showed both functional and structural reorganization of the right auditory cortex and impaired left auditory cortex function in people who stutter (PWS). In the present work, we reevaluated the same dataset to further investigate how the right and left auditory cortices interact to compensate for stuttering. We evaluated bilateral N100m latencies as well as indices of local and inter-hemispheric phase synchronization of the auditory cortices. The left N100m latency was significantly prolonged relative to the right N100m latency in PWS, while healthy control participants did not show any inter-hemispheric differences in latency...
November 5, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825860/damage-to-inner-ear-structure-during-cochlear-implantation-correlation-between-insertion-force-and-radio-histological-findings-in-temporal-bone-specimens
#16
Daniele De Seta, Renato Torres, Francesca Yoshie Russo, Evelyne Ferrary, Guillaume Kazmitcheff, Dominique Heymann, Jerome Amiaud, Olivier Sterkers, Daniele Bernardeschi, Yann Nguyen
Cochlear implant insertion should be as least traumatic as possible in order to reduce trauma to the cochlear sensory structures. The force applied to the cochlea during array insertion should be controlled to limit insertion-related damage. The relationship between insertion force and histological traumatism remains to be demonstrated. Twelve freshly frozen cadaveric temporal bones were implanted with a long straight electrodes array through an anterior extended round window insertion using a motorized insertion tool with real-time measurement of the insertion force...
November 4, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825858/visually-guided-auditory-attention-in-a-dynamic-cocktail-party-speech-perception-task-erp-evidence-for-age-related-differences
#17
Dr Stephan Getzmann, Edmund Wascher
Speech understanding in the presence of concurring sound is a major challenge especially for older persons. In particular, conversational turn-takings usually result in switch costs, as indicated by declined speech perception after changes in the relevant target talker. Here, we investigated whether visual cues indicating the future position of a target talker may reduce the costs of switching in younger and older adults. We employed a speech perception task, in which sequences of short words were simultaneously presented by three talkers, and analysed behavioural measures and event-related potentials (ERPs)...
November 4, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816500/maturation-of-middle-ear-transmission-in-children
#18
Srikanta K Mishra, Zoë Dinger, Lauren Renken
The goal of the current study was to characterize the normative features of wideband acoustic immittance in children for describing the functional maturation of the middle ear in 5 to 12-year-old children. Absorbance and group delay were measured in adults and three groups of children, 5-6, 7-9 and 10-12-year-olds, in a cross-sectional design. Absorbance showed significant effects of the age group in four out of ten center frequencies of one-half-octave bins from 211 to 6000 Hz, while there was no significant effect for group delay at any frequency...
November 3, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816499/effects-of-noise-exposure-on-young-adults-with-normal-audiograms-i-electrophysiology
#19
Garreth Prendergast, Hannah Guest, Kevin J Munro, Karolina Kluk, Agnès Léger, Deborah A Hall, Michael G Heinz, Christopher J Plack
Noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy has been demonstrated in numerous rodent studies. In these animal models, the disorder is characterized by a reduction in amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) to high-level stimuli, whereas the response at threshold is unaffected. The aim of the present study was to determine if this disorder is prevalent in young adult humans with normal audiometric hearing. One hundred and twenty six participants (75 females) aged 18-36 were tested. Participants had a wide range of lifetime noise exposures as estimated by a structured interview...
November 2, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815131/sensory-coding-and-cognitive-processing-of-sound-in-veterans-with-blast-exposure
#20
Scott Bressler, Hannah Goldberg, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham
Recent anecdotal reports from VA audiology clinics as well as a few published studies have identified a sub-population of Service Members seeking treatment for problems communicating in everyday, noisy listening environments despite having normal to near-normal hearing thresholds. Because of their increased risk of exposure to dangerous levels of prolonged noise and transient explosive blast events, communication problems in these soldiers could be due to either hearing loss (traditional or "hidden") in the auditory sensory periphery or from blast-induced injury to cortical networks associated with attention...
November 2, 2016: Hearing Research
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