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Hearing Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323019/comparison-of-perceptual-properties-of-auditory-streaming-between-spectral-and-amplitude-modulation-domains
#1
Shimpei Yamagishi, Sho Otsuka, Shigeto Furukawa, Makio Kashino
The two-tone sequence (ABA_), which comprises two different sounds (A and B) and a silent gap, has been used to investigate how the auditory system organizes sequential sounds depending on various stimulus conditions or brain states. Auditory streaming can be evoked by differences not only in the tone frequency ("spectral cue": ΔFTONE, TONE condition) but also in the amplitude modulation rate ("AM cue": ΔFAM, AM condition). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the perceptual properties of auditory streaming for the TONE and AM conditions...
March 17, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323018/modulation-of-auditory-percepts-by-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation
#2
Margarete Anna Ueberfuhr, Amalia Braun, Lutz Wiegrebe, Benedikt Grothe, Markus Drexl
Transcutaneous, electrical stimulation with electrodes placed on the mastoid processes represents a specific way to elicit vestibular reflexes in humans without active or passive subject movements, for which the term galvanic vestibular stimulation was coined. It has been suggested that galvanic vestibular stimulation mainly affects the vestibular periphery, but whether vestibular hair cells, vestibular afferents, or a combination of both are excited, is still a matter of debate. Galvanic vestibular stimulation has been in use since the late 18(th) century, but despite the long-known and well-documented effects on the vestibular system, reports of the effect of electrical stimulation on the adjacent cochlea or the ascending auditory pathway are surprisingly sparse...
March 17, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286233/speech-intelligibility-and-subjective-benefit-in-single-sided-deaf-adults-after-cochlear-implantation
#3
Mareike Finke, Angelika Strauß-Schier, Eugen Kludt, Andreas Büchner, Angelika Illg
Treatment with cochlear implants (CIs) in single-sided deaf individuals started less than a decade ago. CIs can successfully reduce incapacitating tinnitus on the deaf ear and allow, so some extent, the restoration of binaural hearing. Until now, systematic evaluations of subjective CI benefit in post-lingually single-sided deaf individuals and analyses of speech intelligibility outcome for the CI in isolation have been lacking. For the prospective part of this study, the Bern Benefit in Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire (BBSS) was administered to 48 single-sided deaf CI users to evaluate the subjectively perceived CI benefit across different listening situations...
March 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284736/contributions-of-sensory-tuning-to-auditory-vocal-interactions-in-marmoset-auditory-cortex
#4
Steven J Eliades, Xiaoqin Wang
During speech, humans continuously listen to their own vocal output to ensure accurate communication. Such self-monitoring is thought to require the integration of information about the feedback of vocal acoustics with internal motor control signals. The neural mechanism of this auditory-vocal interaction remains largely unknown at the cellular level. Previous studies in naturally vocalizing marmosets have demonstrated diverse neural activities in auditory cortex during vocalization, dominated by a vocalization-induced suppression of neural firing...
March 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284735/isolating-spectral-cues-in-amplitude-and-quasi-frequency-modulation-discrimination-by-reducing-stimulus-duration
#5
Ewa Borucki, Bruce G Berg
This study investigated the psychophysical effects of distortion products in a listening task traditionally used to estimate the bandwidth of phase sensitivity. For a 2000 Hz carrier, estimates of modulation depth necessary to discriminate amplitude modulated (AM) tones and quasi-frequency modulated (QFM) were measured in a two interval forced choice task as a function modulation frequency. Temporal modulation transfer functions were often non-monotonic at modulation frequencies above 300 Hz. This was likely to be due to a spectral cue arising from the interaction of auditory distortion products and the lower sideband of the stimulus complex...
March 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286100/the-gap-prepulse-inhibition-deficit-of-the-cortical-n1-p2-complex-in-patients-with-tinnitus-the-effect-of-gap-duration
#6
Yunseo Ku, Joong Woo Ahn, Chiheon Kwon, Do Youn Kim, Myung-Whan Suh, Moo Kyun Park, Jun Ho Lee, Seung Ha Oh, Hee Chan Kim
The present study aimed to investigate whether gap-prepulse inhibition (GPI) deficit in patients with tinnitus occurred in the N1-P2 complex of the cortical auditory evoked potential. Auditory late responses to the intense sound of the GPI paradigm were obtained from 16 patients with tinnitus and 18 age- and hearing loss-matched controls without tinnitus. The inhibition degrees of the N1-P2 complex were assessed at 100-, 50-, and 20-ms gap durations with tinnitus-pitch-matched and non-matched frequency background noises...
March 7, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286099/tinnitus-and-hyperacusis-contributions-of-paraflocculus-reticular-formation-and-stress
#7
Yu-Chen Chen, Guang-Di Chen, Ben Auerbach, Senthilvelan Manohar, Kelly Radziwon, Richard Salvi
Tinnitus and hyperacusis are common and potentially serious hearing disorders associated with noise-, age- or drug-induced hearing loss. Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus and hyperacusis are linked to excessive neural activity in a distributed brain network that not only includes the central auditory pathway, but also brain regions involved in arousal, emotion, stress and motor control. Here we examine electrophysiological changes in two novel non-auditory areas implicated in tinnitus and hyperacusis: the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC), involved in arousal, and the paraflocculus lobe of the cerebellum (PFL), implicated in head-eye coordination and gating tinnitus and we measure the changes in corticosterone stress hormone levels...
March 7, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263850/laser-capture-micro-dissection-combined-with-next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-cell-type-specific-deafness-gene-expression-in-the-mouse-cochlea
#8
Shin-Ya Nishio, Yutaka Takumi, Shin-Ichi Usami
Cochlear implantation (CI), which directly stimulates the cochlear nerves, is the most effective and widely used medical intervention for patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The etiology of the hearing loss is speculated to have a major influence of CI outcomes, particularly in cases resulting from mutations in genes preferentially expressed in the spiral ganglion region. To elucidate precise gene expression levels in each part of the cochlea, we performed laser-capture micro dissection in combination with next-generation sequencing analysis and determined the expression levels of all known deafness-associated genes in the organ of Corti, spiral ganglion, lateral wall, and spiral limbs...
March 3, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246030/indexing-cortical-entrainment-to-natural-speech-at-the-phonemic-level-methodological-considerations-for-applied-research
#9
Giovanni M Di Liberto, Edmund C Lalor
Speech is central to human life. As such, any delay or impairment in receptive speech processing can have a profoundly negative impact on the social and professional life of a person. Thus, being able to assess the integrity of speech processing in different populations is an important goal. Current standardized assessment is mostly based on psychometric measures that do not capture the full extent of a person's speech processing abilities and that are difficult to administer in some subjects groups. A potential alternative to these tests would be to derive "direct", objective measures of speech processing from cortical activity...
February 25, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238889/on-the-relation-between-pitch-and-level
#10
Yi Zheng, Romain Brette
Pitch is the perceptual dimension along which musical notes are ordered from low to high. It is often described as the perceptual correlate of the periodicity of the sound's waveform. Previous reports have shown that pitch can depend slightly on sound level. We wanted to verify that these observations reflect genuine changes in perceived pitch, and were not due to procedural factors or confusion between dimensions of pitch and level. We first conducted a systematic pitch matching task and confirmed that the pitch of low frequency pure tones, but not complex tones, decreases by an amount equivalent to a change in frequency of more than half a semitone when level increases...
February 23, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237547/the-auditory-evoked-gamma-response-and-its-relation-with-the-n1m
#11
Caroline Witton, Mark A Eckert, Ian M Stanford, Lauren E Gascoyne, Paul L Furlong, Siân F Worthen, Arjan Hillebrand
This study explored the patterns of oscillatory activity that underpin the N1m auditory evoked response. Evoked gamma activity is a small and relatively rarely-reported component of the auditory evoked response, and the objective of this work was to determine how this component relates to the larger and more prolonged changes in lower frequency bands. An event-related beamformer analysis of MEG data from monaural click stimulation was used to reconstruct volumetric images and virtual electrode time series. Group analysis of localisations showed that activity in the gamma band originated from a source that was more medial than those for activity in the theta-to-beta band, and virtual-electrode analysis showed that the source of the gamma activity could be statistically dissociated from the lower-frequency response...
February 22, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223190/association-of-tagsnp-in-lncrna-hotair-with-susceptibility-to-noise-induced-hearing-loss-in-a-chinese-population
#12
Boshen Wang, Enmin Ding, Huanxi Shen, Jianfeng Wang, Kai Sun, Shi Chen, Lei Han, Hengdong Zhang, Baoli Zhu, Ming Xu
BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a multifactorial disease, and dysregulation of oxidative stress is universally acknowledged as one crucial pathogenic factor for this disease. Recently studies have found the LncRNA HOTAIR is involved in the alteration of oxidative stress level, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Considering the effects of lncRNA HOTAIR in cellular oxidative stress, we sought to investigate the influence of lncRNA HOTAIR variants on the risk of NIHL...
February 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216122/pitch-ranking-with-different-virtual-channel-configurations-in-electrical-hearing
#13
Monica Padilla, Natalia Stupak, David M Landsberger
Monopolar Virtual Channels (MPVCs) use current steering to increase the number of spectral channels provided to cochlear implant users beyond the physical number of electrodes. The current spread created with a current steered channel is similar to the spread found for monopolar stimulation, and this spread may be one of the bottlenecks for improved performance with an increased number of channels. Quadrupolar Virtual Channels (QPVCs) use current focusing in combination with steering in an attempt to increase the number of channels while reducing channel interaction...
February 17, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216125/population-responses-in-primary-auditory-cortex-simultaneously-represent-the-temporal-envelope-and-periodicity-features-in-natural-speech
#14
Daniel A Abrams, Trent Nicol, Travis White-Schwoch, Mitra Hartmann, Steven Zecker, Nina Kraus
Speech perception relies on a listener's ability to simultaneously resolve multiple temporal features in the speech signal. Little is known regarding neural mechanisms that enable the simultaneous coding of concurrent temporal features in the speech signal. Here we show that two categories of temporal features in speech, the low-frequency speech envelope and periodicity cues, are processed by distinct neural mechanisms within the same population of cortical neurons. We measured population activity in primary auditory cortex of anesthetized guinea pig in response to three variants of a naturally produced speech sentence...
February 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216124/the-pattern-and-degree-of-capsular-fibrous-sheaths-surrounding-cochlear-electrode-arrays
#15
Reuven Ishai, Barbara S Herrmann, Joseph B Nadol, Alicia M Quesnel
An inflammatory tissue reaction around the electrode array of a cochlear implant (CI) is common, in particular at the electrode insertion region (cochleostomy) where mechanical trauma often occurs. However, the factors determining the amount and causes of fibrous reaction surrounding the stimulating electrode, especially medially near the perimodiolar location, are unclear. Temporal bone (TB) specimens from patients who had undergone cochlear implantation during life with either Advanced Bionics (AB) Clarion (TM) or HiRes90K(TM) (Sylmar, CA, USA) devices that have a half-band and a pre-curved electrode, or Cochlear (TM) Nucleus (Sydney, Australia) device that have a full-band and a straight electrode were evaluated...
February 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213135/genetic-variants-in-the-peripheral-auditory-system-significantly-affect-adult-cochlear-implant-performance
#16
A Eliot Shearer, Robert W Eppsteiner, Kathy Frees, Viral Tejani, Christina M Sloan-Heggen, Carolyn Brown, Paul Abbas, Camille Dunn, Marlan R Hansen, Bruce J Gantz, Richard J H Smith
BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation is an effective habilitation modality for adults with significant hearing loss. However, post-implant performance is variable. A portion of this variance in outcome can be attributed to clinical factors. Recent physiological studies suggest that the health of the spiral ganglion also impacts post-operative cochlear implant outcomes. The goal of this study was to determine whether genetic factors affecting spiral ganglion neurons may be associated with cochlear implant performance...
February 15, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213134/speech-in-noise-perception-in-musicians-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Emily B J Coffey, Nicolette Mogilever, Robert J Zatorre
The ability to understand speech in the presence of competing sound sources is an important neuroscience question in terms of how the nervous system solves this computational problem. It is also a critical clinical problem that disproportionally affects the elderly, children with language-related learning disorders, and those with hearing loss. Recent evidence that musicians have an advantage on this multifaceted skill has led to the suggestion that musical training might be used to improve or delay the decline of speech-in-noise (SIN) function...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189837/stapes-displacement-and-intracochlear-pressure-in-response-to-very-high-level-low-frequency-sounds
#18
Nathaniel T Greene, Herman A Jenkins, Daniel J Tollin, James R Easter
The stapes is held in the oval window by the stapedial annular ligament (SAL), which restricts total peak-to-peak displacement of the stapes. Previous studies have suggested that for moderate (<130 dB SPL) sound levels intracochlear pressure (PIC), measured at the base of the cochlea far from the basilar membrane, increases directly proportionally with stapes displacement (DStap), thus a current model of impulse noise exposure (the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans, or AHAAH) predicts that peak PIC will vary linearly with DStap up to some saturation point...
February 9, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189838/auditory-perceptual-load-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Sandra Murphy, Charles Spence, Polly Dalton
Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information...
February 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188882/intelligibility-in-speech-maskers-with-a-binaural-cochlear-implant-sound-coding-strategy-inspired-by-the-contralateral-medial-olivocochlear-reflex
#20
Enrique A Lopez-Poveda, Almudena Eustaquio-Martín, Joshua S Stohl, Robert D Wolford, Reinhold Schatzer, José M Gorospe, Santiago Santa Cruz Ruiz, Fernando Benito, Blake S Wilson
We have recently proposed a binaural cochlear implant (CI) sound processing strategy inspired by the contralateral medial olivocochlear reflex (the MOC strategy) and shown that it improves intelligibility in steady-state noise (Lopez-Poveda et al., 2016, Ear Hear 37:e138-e148). The aim here was to evaluate possible speech-reception benefits of the MOC strategy for speech maskers, a more natural type of interferer. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in six bilateral and two single-sided deaf CI users with the MOC strategy and with a standard (STD) strategy...
February 7, 2017: Hearing Research
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