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Hearing Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238889/on-the-relation-between-pitch-and-level
#1
Yi Zheng, Romain Brette
Pitch is the perceptual dimension along which musical notes are ordered from low to high. It is often described as the perceptual correlate of the periodicity of the sound's waveform. Previous reports have shown that pitch can depend slightly on sound level. We wanted to verify that these observations reflect genuine changes in perceived pitch, and were not due to procedural factors or confusion between dimensions of pitch and level. We first conducted a systematic pitch matching task and confirmed that the pitch of low frequency pure tones, but not complex tones, decreases by an amount equivalent to a change in frequency of more than half a semitone when level increases...
February 23, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237547/the-auditory-evoked-gamma-response-and-its-relation-with-the-n1m
#2
Caroline Witton, Mark A Eckert, Ian M Stanford, Lauren E Gascoyne, Paul L Furlong, Siân F Worthen, Arjan Hillebrand
This study explored the patterns of oscillatory activity that underpin the N1m auditory evoked response. Evoked gamma activity is a small and relatively rarely-reported component of the auditory evoked response, and the objective of this work was to determine how this component relates to the larger and more prolonged changes in lower frequency bands. An event-related beamformer analysis of MEG data from monaural click stimulation was used to reconstruct volumetric images and virtual electrode time series. Group analysis of localisations showed that activity in the gamma band originated from a source that was more medial than those for activity in the theta-to-beta band, and virtual-electrode analysis showed that the source of the gamma activity could be statistically dissociated from the lower-frequency response...
February 22, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223190/association-of-tagsnp-in-lncrna-hotair-with-susceptibility-to-noise-induced-hearing-loss-in-a-chinese-population
#3
Boshen Wang, Enmin Ding, Huanxi Shen, Jianfeng Wang, Kai Sun, Shi Chen, Lei Han, Hengdong Zhang, Baoli Zhu, Ming Xu
BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a multifactorial disease, and dysregulation of oxidative stress is universally acknowledged as one crucial pathogenic factor for this disease. Recently studies have found the LncRNA HOTAIR is involved in the alteration of oxidative stress level, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Considering the effects of lncRNA HOTAIR in cellular oxidative stress, we sought to investigate the influence of lncRNA HOTAIR variants on the risk of NIHL...
February 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216125/population-responses-in-primary-auditory-cortex-simultaneously-represent-the-temporal-envelope-and-periodicity-features-in-natural-speech
#4
Daniel A Abrams, Trent Nicol, Travis White-Schwoch, Mitra Hartmann, Steven Zecker, Nina Kraus
Speech perception relies on a listener's ability to simultaneously resolve multiple temporal features in the speech signal. Little is known regarding neural mechanisms that enable the simultaneous coding of concurrent temporal features in the speech signal. Here we show that two categories of temporal features in speech, the low-frequency speech envelope and periodicity cues, are processed by distinct neural mechanisms within the same population of cortical neurons. We measured population activity in primary auditory cortex of anesthetized guinea pig in response to three variants of a naturally produced speech sentence...
February 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216124/the-pattern-and-degree-of-capsular-fibrous-sheaths-surrounding-cochlear-electrode-arrays
#5
Reuven Ishai, Barbara S Herrmann, Joseph B Nadol, Alicia M Quesnel
An inflammatory tissue reaction around the electrode array of a cochlear implant (CI) is common, in particular at the electrode insertion region (cochleostomy) where mechanical trauma often occurs. However, the factors determining the amount and causes of fibrous reaction surrounding the stimulating electrode, especially medially near the perimodiolar location, are unclear. Temporal bone (TB) specimens from patients who had undergone cochlear implantation during life with either Advanced Bionics (AB) Clarion (TM) or HiRes90K(TM) (Sylmar, CA, USA) devices that have a half-band and a pre-curved electrode, or Cochlear (TM) Nucleus (Sydney, Australia) device that have a full-band and a straight electrode were evaluated...
February 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216123/ablation-of-the-auditory-cortex-results-in-changes-in-the-expression-of-neurotransmission-related-mrnas-in-the-cochlea
#6
Verónica Lamas, José M Juiz, Miguel A Merchán
The auditory cortex (AC) dynamically regulates responses of the Organ of Corti to sound through descending connections to both the medial (MOC) and lateral (LOC) olivocochlear efferent systems. We have recently provided evidence that AC has a reinforcement role in the responses to sound of the auditory brainstem nuclei. In a molecular level, we have shown that descending inputs from AC are needed to regulate the expression of molecules involved in outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility control, such as prestin and the α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR)...
February 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216122/pitch-ranking-with-different-virtual-channel-configurations-in-electrical-hearing
#7
Monica Padilla, Natalia Stupak, David M Landsberger
Monopolar Virtual Channels (MPVCs) use current steering to increase the number of spectral channels provided to cochlear implant users beyond the physical number of electrodes. The current spread created with a current steered channel is similar to the spread found for monopolar stimulation, and this spread may be one of the bottlenecks for improved performance with an increased number of channels. Quadrupolar Virtual Channels (QPVCs) use current focusing in combination with steering in an attempt to increase the number of channels while reducing channel interaction...
February 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213135/genetic-variants-in-the-peripheral-auditory-system-significantly-affect-adult-cochlear-implant-performance
#8
A Eliot Shearer, Robert W Eppsteiner, Kathy Frees, Viral Tejani, Christina M Sloan-Heggen, Carolyn Brown, Paul Abbas, Camille Dunn, Marlan R Hansen, Bruce J Gantz, Richard J H Smith
BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation is an effective habilitation modality for adults with significant hearing loss. However, post-implant performance is variable. A portion of this variance in outcome can be attributed to clinical factors. Recent physiological studies suggest that the health of the spiral ganglion also impacts post-operative cochlear implant outcomes. The goal of this study was to determine whether genetic factors affecting spiral ganglion neurons may be associated with cochlear implant performance...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213134/speech-in-noise-perception-in-musicians-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Emily B J Coffey, Nicolette Mogilever, Robert J Zatorre
The ability to understand speech in the presence of competing sound sources is an important neuroscience question in terms of how the nervous system solves this computational problem. It is also a critical clinical problem that disproportionally affects the elderly, children with language-related learning disorders, and those with hearing loss. Recent evidence that musicians have an advantage on this multifaceted skill has led to the suggestion that musical training might be used to improve or delay the decline of speech-in-noise (SIN) function...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213133/the-relation-between-ecap-measurements-and-the-effect-of-rate-on-behavioral-thresholds-in-cochlear-implant-users
#10
Colette M McKay, Nicholas Smale
It has been shown that electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) thresholds are not sufficiently predictive of behavioral thresholds to allow their use as a totally objective method to program a cochlear implant. Previous animal studies have shown that two other ECAP parameters (the ECAP amplitude growth slope and the effect on ECAPs of changing the phase duration (PD) or interphase gap (IPG)), and the way that behavioral thresholds change with increasing rate of stimulation, are associated with cochlear health...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189838/auditory-perceptual-load-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Sandra Murphy, Charles Spence, Polly Dalton
Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information...
February 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189837/stapes-displacement-and-intracochlear-pressure-in-response-to-very-high-level-low-frequency-sounds
#12
Nathaniel T Greene, Herman A Jenkins, Daniel J Tollin, James R Easter
The stapes is held in the oval window by the stapedial annular ligament (SAL), which restricts total peak-to-peak displacement of the stapes. Previous studies have suggested that for moderate (<130 dB SPL) sound levels intracochlear pressure (PIC), measured at the base of the cochlea far from the basilar membrane, increases directly proportionally with stapes displacement (DStap), thus a current model of impulse noise exposure (the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans, or AHAAH) predicts that peak PIC will vary linearly with DStap up to some saturation point...
February 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188882/intelligibility-in-speech-maskers-with-a-binaural-cochlear-implant-sound-coding-strategy-inspired-by-the-contralateral-medial-olivocochlear-reflex
#13
Enrique A Lopez-Poveda, Almudena Eustaquio-Martín, Joshua S Stohl, Robert D Wolford, Reinhold Schatzer, José M Gorospe, Santiago Santa Cruz Ruiz, Fernando Benito, Blake S Wilson
We have recently proposed a binaural cochlear implant (CI) sound processing strategy inspired by the contralateral medial olivocochlear reflex (the MOC strategy) and shown that it improves intelligibility in steady-state noise (Lopez-Poveda et al., 2016, Ear Hear 37:e138-e148). The aim here was to evaluate possible speech-reception benefits of the MOC strategy for speech maskers, a more natural type of interferer. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in six bilateral and two single-sided deaf CI users with the MOC strategy and with a standard (STD) strategy...
February 7, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188881/abnormal-regional-activity-and-functional-connectivity-in-resting-state-brain-networks-associated-with-etiology-confirmed-unilateral-pulsatile-tinnitus-in-the-early-stage-of-disease
#14
Han Lv, Pengfei Zhao, Zhaohui Liu, Rui Li, Ling Zhang, Peng Wang, Fei Yan, Liheng Liu, Guopeng Wang, Rong Zeng, Ting Li, Cheng Dong, Shusheng Gong, Zhenchang Wang
Abnormal neural activities can be revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) using analyses of the regional activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the networks in the brain. This study was designed to demonstrate the functional network alterations in the patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT). In this study, we recruited 45 patients with unilateral PT in the early stage of disease (less than 48 months of disease duration) and 45 normal controls. We used regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based FC computational methods to reveal resting-state brain activity features associated with pulsatile tinnitus...
February 7, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167132/identification-of-induced-and-naturally-occurring-conductive-hearing-loss-in-mice-using-bone-conduction
#15
David Chhan, Melissa L McKinnon, John J Rosowski
While many mouse models of hearing loss have been described, a significant fraction of the genetic defects in these models affect both the inner ear and middle ears. A common method used to separate inner-ear (sensory-neural) from middle-ear (conductive) pathologies in the hearing clinic is the combination of air-conduction and bone-conduction audiometry. In this report, we investigate the use of air- and bone-conducted evoked auditory brainstem responses to perform a similar separation in mice. We describe a technique by which we stimulate the mouse ear both acoustically and via whole-head vibration...
February 4, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161584/analytical-and-numerical-modeling-of-the-hearing-system-advances-towards-the-assessment-of-hearing-damage
#16
REVIEW
Annalisa De Paolis, Marom Bikson, Jeremy T Nelson, J Alexander de Ru, Mark Packer, Luis Cardoso
Hearing is an extremely complex phenomenon, involving a large number of interrelated variables that are difficult to measure in vivo. In order to investigate such process under simplified and well-controlled conditions, models of sound transmission have been developed through many decades of research. The value of modeling the hearing system is not only to explain the normal function of the hearing system and account for experimental and clinical observations, but to simulate a variety of pathological conditions that lead to hearing damage and hearing loss, as well as for development of auditory implants, effective ear protections and auditory hazard countermeasures...
February 1, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159652/auditory-brainstem-response-latency-in-forward-masking-a-marker-of-sensory-deficits-in-listeners-with-normal-hearing-thresholds
#17
Golbarg Mehraei, Andreu Paredes Gallardo, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham, Torsten Dau
In rodent models, acoustic exposure too modest to elevate hearing thresholds can nonetheless cause auditory nerve fiber deafferentation, interfering with the coding of supra-threshold sound. Low-spontaneous rate nerve fibers, important for encoding acoustic information at supra-threshold levels and in noise, are more susceptible to degeneration than high-spontaneous rate fibers. The change in auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave-V latency with noise level has been shown to be associated with auditory nerve deafferentation...
February 1, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153668/prevalence-of-hearing-loss-and-tinnitus-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#18
A A Swan, J T Nelson, B Swiger, C A Jaramillo, B C Eapen, M Packer, M J Pugh
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in a cohort of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (IAV) with common post-deployment conditions, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other typical post-concussive conditions such as headaches and vertigo/dizziness. This retrospective observational study used data from the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) data repository from fiscal years 2001-2014. Veteran data was included if there were at least three years of VA care, with one or more years of care in 2007 or after...
January 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137699/frequency-dependent-fine-structure-in-the-frequency-following-response-the-byproduct-of-multiple-generators
#19
Parker Tichko, Erika Skoe
The frequency-following response (FFR) is an auditory-evoked response recorded at the scalp that captures the spectrotemporal properties of tonal stimuli. Previous investigations report that the amplitude of the FFR fluctuates as a function of stimulus frequency, a phenomenon thought to reflect multiple neural generators phase-locking to the stimulus with different response latencies. When phase-locked responses are offset by different latencies, constructive and destructive phase interferences emerge in the volume-conducted signals, culminating in an attenuation or amplification of the scalp-recorded response in a frequency-specific manner...
January 27, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115229/auditory-visual-integration-in-fields-of-the-auditory-cortex
#20
Michinori Kubota, Shunji Sugimoto, Yutaka Hosokawa, Hisayuki Ojima, Junsei Horikawa
While multimodal interactions have been known to exist in the early sensory cortices, the response properties and spatiotemporal organization of these interactions are poorly understood. To elucidate the characteristics of multimodal sensory interactions in the cerebral cortex, neuronal responses to visual stimuli with or without auditory stimuli were investigated in core and belt fields of guinea pig auditory cortex using real-time optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye. On average, visual responses consisted of short excitation followed by long inhibition...
January 21, 2017: Hearing Research
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