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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460694/etiopathogenesis-of-canine-hip-dysplasia-prevalence-and-genetics
#1
REVIEW
Michael D King
First identified in 1935, canine hip dysplasia is thought to be the most common orthopedic condition diagnosed in the dog. It is most prevalent in large and giant breed dogs, with a complex polygenic mode of inheritance, and relatively low heritability. External factors including caloric intake when growing have a significant effect on phenotypic expression. Initial joint laxity progresses to osteoarthritis due to subluxation and abnormal wearing. Selective breeding programs to attempt to decrease prevalence have shown modest results so far...
April 28, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460693/triple-pelvic-osteotomy-and-double-pelvic-osteotomy
#2
REVIEW
Francisco Guevara, Samuel P Franklin
Triple and double pelvic osteotomy (TPO, DPO) are performed with the goal of increasing acetabular ventro-version, increasing femoral head coverage, and decreasing femoral head subluxation. Since the first descriptions of TPO, there have been modifications in technique, most notably omission of the ischial osteotomy for DPO, and improvements in the implants, including availability of locking TPO/DPO bone plates. Associated complication rates seem to have declined accordingly. The most salient questions regarding these procedures remain what selection criteria should be used to identify candidates and whether halting or preventing osteoarthritis is necessary to consider these surgeries clinically beneficial...
April 28, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442161/zurich-cementless-total-hip-replacement
#3
REVIEW
David Hummel
Total hip replacement (THR) is the gold standard treatment of intractable pain from hip dysplasia. THR procedures are divided into 2 main categories: cemented and cementless, with hybrid a combination. The Zurich Cementless THR system uses a combination of press-fit (acetabular component) and locking screw (femoral component) fixation designed to address the main challenge facing cemented systems (aseptic loosening) while providing the benefit of immediate stability with its novel locking screw implantation system for the femoral stem...
April 22, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434528/canine-hip-dysplasia-screening-within-the-united-states-pennsylvania-hip-improvement-program-and-orthopedic-foundation-for-animals-hip-elbow-database
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer K Reagan
Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a complex, polygenic disease radiographically associated with hip subluxation and development of osteoarthritis. Screening programs have been established with the goal of hip improvement, with the most common in the United States being OFA hip scoring and the PennHIP method. When evaluating the single hip-extended view used by OFA versus the 3 radiographic views and associated distraction index (DI) used by PennHIP for CHD screening, the scientific evidence supports the use of the DI and PennHIP method...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389035/hip-dysplasia-clinical-signs-and-physical-examination-findings
#5
REVIEW
Jason Syrcle
Hip dysplasia is a common developmental disorder of the dog, consisting of varying degrees of hip laxity, progressive remodeling of the structures of the hip, and subsequent development of osteoarthritis. It is a juvenile-onset condition, with clinical signs often first evident at 4 to 12 months of age. A tentative diagnosis of hip dysplasia can be made based on signalment, history, and physical examination findings. The Ortolani test is a valuable tool for identifying juvenile dogs affected with this condition...
April 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108035/feline-hepatic-lipidosis
#6
REVIEW
Chiara Valtolina, Robert P Favier
Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069288/diagnostic-imaging-of-the-hepatobiliary-system-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Angela J Marolf
Recent advances in diagnostic imaging of the hepatobiliary system include MRI, computed tomography (CT), contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and ultrasound elastography. With the advent of multislice CT scanners, sedated examinations in veterinary patients are feasible, increasing the utility of this imaging modality. CT and MRI provide additional information for dogs and cats with hepatobiliary diseases due to lack of superimposition of structures, operator dependence, and through intravenous contrast administration...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063746/canine-idiopathic-chronic-hepatitis
#8
REVIEW
Nick Bexfield
The World Small Animal Veterinary Association's Liver Standardization Group produced standardized criteria for the histologic diagnosis of canine chronic hepatitis (CH). They define CH by the presence of hepatocellular apoptosis or necrosis, a variable mononuclear or mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, regeneration, and fibrosis. There are variations in histologic appearance between breeds. Hepatic copper accumulation is an important cause of canine CH. However, where copper accumulation has been ruled out, dogs are said to have idiopathic CH...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063744/laboratory-evaluation-of-the-liver
#9
REVIEW
Yuri A Lawrence, Jörg M Steiner
Laboratory evaluation of the hepatobiliary system has an important role in the diagnosis, monitoring, and assessment of patients with hepatobiliary diseases. Serum liver enzyme activities can be divided into markers of hepatocellular injury and cholestasis. Liver function can be assessed in several ways, including assessment of synthetic capacity, measurement of ammonia, and measurement of bile acids. It is essential to have an understanding of the performance characteristics and limitations of these tests in order to use them appropriately...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164838/preface
#10
EDITORIAL
Helio Autran de Morais, Stephen P DiBartola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164837/perioperative-fluid-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Denise Fantoni, Andre C Shih
Anesthesia can lead to pathophysiologic changes that dramatically alter the fluid balance of the body compartments and the intravascular space. Fluid administration can be monitored and evaluated using static and dynamic indexes. Guidelines for fluid rates during anesthesia begin with 3 mL/kg/h in cats and 5 mL/kg/h in dogs. If at all possible, patients should be stabilized and electrolyte disturbances should be corrected before general anesthesia.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164836/spurious-results-in-mineral-and-electrolyte-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Elena Gorman
Assessment of health status and the course of treatment of patients are often determined by results obtained from analysis of blood parameters. Errors in results can occur and cause inappropriate interpretation of laboratory data and, therefore, disease states. Electrolytes and minerals are particularly prone to spurious results; therefore, it is critical that factors influencing inappropriate resulting be recognized, and steps taken to minimize them.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164835/a-quick-reference-on-hyponatremia
#13
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
The article focuses on causes of hyponatremia, including hypovolemia, diabetes mellitus and others. Hypovolemia is a major cause of hyponatremia in veterinary medicine. Hypovolemia causes a decrease in effective circulating volume, triggering antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion and free water retention, and develops after gastrointestinal losses, renal losses, hemorrhagic shock, hypoadrenocorticism, and other causes of hypovolemia. The article reviews the clinical approach to diagnosing the cause of hyponatremia in critically ill patients, including recognition of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164834/a-quick-reference-on-hypernatremia
#14
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
Hypernatremia most commonly is associated with water loss in excess of sodium or salt gain (typically associated with restriction of access to water). Most of the signs of hypernatremia arise from the central nervous system; the more rapid the development of hypernatremia, the more severe the neurologic signs are likely to be. Anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, muscular weakness, behavioral changes, disorientation, ataxia, seizures, coma, and death have been identified in dogs and cats with hypernatremia and hypertonicity...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017410/disorders-of-sodium-and-water-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
This review article discusses normal and abnormal sodium balance in small animals. The terms and concepts central to understanding normal sodium and water balance are presented as well as of the physiology of body fluid compartments and the movement of fluid between those compartments. As dysnatremia is a very common disorder across the spectrum of critically ill patients, the main focus of the article is to present several clinical examples of both acute and chronic hypernatremia and hyponatremia and their practical, clinical management...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017409/a-quick-reference-on-hyperchloremic-metabolic-acidosis
#16
REVIEW
Silvia Funes, Helio Autran de Morais
Metabolic acidosis results from an increase in the concentration of a strong anion. Metabolic acidosis is divided into hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and high anion gap acidosis based on the changes in the anion gap. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is the result of chloride retention, excessive loss of sodium relative to chloride, or excessive gain of chloride relative to sodium. Clinical signs are related to the underlying disease that accompanies the metabolic acidosis. Treatment of hyperchloremic acidosis is based on addressing the underlying disease process...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017408/a-quick-reference-on-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis
#17
REVIEW
Silvia Funes, Helio Autran de Morais
High anion gap (AG) metabolic acidoses can be identified by a decrease in pH, decrease in HCO3(-) or base excess, and an increased AG. The AG represents the difference between unmeasured cations and unmeasured anions; it increases secondary to the accumulation of anions other than bicarbonate and chloride. The most common causes of high AG acidosis are renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, and lactic acidosis. Severe increases in concentration of phosphorus can cause hyperphosphatemic acidosis.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017407/fluid-and-electrolyte-therapy-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth Thomovsky
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dynamic disease that requires regular reassessment of an affected patient. Typical treatment regimens include crystalloid fluid therapy, insulin, and supplementation of dextrose, phosphorus, and potassium. This article presents an approach to and considerations for treatment of a diabetic ketoacidotic dog or cat.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012787/a-quick-reference-on-hypercalcemia
#19
REVIEW
Joao Felipe de Brito Galvão, Patricia A Schenck, Dennis J Chew
In dogs, neoplasia is the most common cause of hypercalcemia, followed by primary hyperparathyroidism, chronic kidney disease, and hypoadrenocorticism. In cats, idiopathic hypercalcemia is the most common cause, followed by chronic kidney disease and then neoplasia. Prognosis and treatment ultimately depend on the cause of the hypercalcemia.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012786/a-quick-reference-on-hypocalcemia
#20
REVIEW
Joao Felipe de Brito Galvão, Patricia A Schenck, Dennis J Chew
Primary hypoparathyroidism should be considered in dogs with vague signs, including tremors, facial rubbing, and seizures. Ionized hypocalcemia should be considered in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, especially lymphangiectasia caused by hypovitaminosis D. Ionized hypocalcemia typically occurs only in advanced chronic kidney disease.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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