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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941216/interventional-radiology-management-of-tracheal-and-bronchial-collapse
#1
REVIEW
Dana Lynn Clarke
Chondromalacia of the tracheal and bronchial cartilages and redundancy of the dorsal tracheal membrane result in collapse of the large airways, leading to coughing and airway obstruction. It most commonly affects small-breed dogs, although larger-breed dogs, cats, and miniature horses are also sporadically reported. Dynamic airway imaging is used to confirm the diagnosis. The primary goal of medical management is to control clinical signs attributable to coughing and airway inflammation. When this is no longer effective, tracheal stents provide a minimally invasive, rapid way to restore airway patency...
June 22, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933945/interventional-management-of-urethral-obstructions
#2
REVIEW
Matthew W Beal
Lower urinary tract (LUT) emergencies are common reasons for small animal patients to be presented to their veterinarians. Patient stabilization and management of life threatening problems is a priority in this population. Urethral obstruction is a common LUT emergency. Urethral stent placement has gained popularity over the past decade allowing for a minimally invasive, image-guided method for relief of urethral obstruction in some patient populations. This article focuses on candidate selection, diagnostic workup, stent placement technique, and the expected outcome and complications for patients undergoing urethral stent placement and addresses some additional strategies for interventional management of LUT emergencies...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933944/interventional-radiology-management-of-vascular-malformations-portosystemic-shunts-and-vascular-fistulae-malformations
#3
REVIEW
William T N Culp, Maureen A Griffin
Vascular malformations are abnormal connections between blood vessels that can have various endothelial characteristics. Although uncommon, these malformations can present challenging diagnostic and therapeutic scenarios. The use of interventional radiology techniques in the management of various vascular malformations is an attractive option because of the ability to treat these malformations at the most appropriate anatomic location and in the most effective manner. Techniques such as coil embolization of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts and liquid embolization of arteriovenous fistulae/malformations have shown tremendous potential as treatments for these challenging diseases...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914694/cardiac-interventions-in-small-animals-areas-of-uncertainty
#4
REVIEW
Brian A Scansen
There remain areas of uncertainty in optimal technique, preferred candidates, and expected outcome for small animal patients undergoing cardiac intervention. This article highlights issues within interventional cardiology that are in need of study and offers the author's opinion and experience on topics such as variants of pulmonary valve anatomy and alternatives to conventional balloon dilation for pulmonary valve stenosis, patient selection for cutting or high-pressure balloon dilation of aortic valvar or subaortic stenosis, occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus in very small dogs, ductal stenting in conditions with reduced pulmonary blood flow, and alternative considerations for vascular access and closure...
June 16, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909930/interventional-radiology-management-of-vascular-obstruction
#5
REVIEW
Marilyn Dunn, Brian A Scansen
Vascular obstructions in small animals have numerous etiologies and variable signs depending on location and chronicity. The decision to treat and by which method (medical, interventional, surgical) can be challenging. A combined approach of catheter-directed thrombolysis, angioplasty, or vascular stenting may be most appropriate for acute thrombosis, though optimal therapeutic strategies are undefined in this population. The role of embolic trapping devices in animals is uncertain. Chronic cases of vascular obstruction, with collateral flow and neither ischemia nor venous congestion manifest, may be conservatively managed...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909929/perspectives-from-human-interventional-radiology
#6
REVIEW
Jeffrey I Mondschein
Interventional radiology is a subspecialty of diagnostic radiology that uses minimally invasive techniques performed under imaging guidance. Interventional radiology has its roots in angiography, which is the radiologic examination of blood vessels after the introduction of a contrast medium that allows them to be imaged. Going forward, the collaboration between human and veterinary interventional radiologists will persist as a two-way street and will continue to innovate together and learn from each other and from the patients...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909932/interventional-radiology-and-interventional-endoscopy-in-treatment-of-nephroureteral-disease-in-the-dog-and-cat
#7
REVIEW
Alexander Gallagher
Interventional endoscopy and interventional radiology have led to the development of minimally invasive techniques for management of kidney and ureteral diseases in the dog and cat including idiopathic renal hematuria, ureteral obstruction, and ectopic ureters. Sclerotherapy is a renal-sparing chemical cauterization technique used in cases of idiopathic renal hematuria. Diagnosis of ureteral obstruction is challenging in some cases based on ultrasound alone and antegrade pyelography should be considered. Treatment options for obstructions include nephrostomy tubes, ureteral stents, and subcutaneous ureteral bypass devices...
June 14, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909931/interventional-radiology-management-of-nonresectable-neoplasia
#8
REVIEW
William T N Culp
Whenever possible, surgical removal of tumors should be pursued because this likely allows for the best possible outcome for a particular patient; however, this may not be pursued for various reasons. In those situations, interventional radiology (IR) options can be considered as definitive therapy or palliation. Locoregional therapies such as intra-arterial chemotherapy and embolization/chemoembolization, while rarely reported in veterinary medicine, offer an alternative minimally invasive treatment option...
June 14, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709316/estrous-cycle-manipulation-in-dogs
#9
REVIEW
Michelle Anne Kutzler
Since 1939, scientists have studied estrous cycle manipulation in dogs resulting in more articles published in this field that any other area of canine reproduction. Estrous cycle manipulation in dogs must be safe and reliable. Dopamine agonists, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, and gonadotropins are hormones that have been used for estrus induction in bitches but each treatment has advantages and disadvantages. Despite widespread availability of these medications throughout the rest of the world, there are no drugs currently labeled for canine estrus induction in the United States...
April 27, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699831/breeding-soundness-examination-of-the-bitch
#10
REVIEW
Carla Barstow, Robyn Wilborn, Aime Johnson
A breeding soundness examination is a vital part of any breeding program. These examinations are not performed as frequently in the bitch as they are in the male dog. They allow clinicians to identify any problems at an early stage in a bitch's breeding career and to screen for any genetic abnormalities. A thorough physical examination and accurate history guide the choice of which diagnostics tests are most useful. Ultrasound, culture, cytology, and biopsies (surgical and nonsurgical techniques) are discussed...
April 23, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685519/contraception-in-dogs-and-cats
#11
REVIEW
Cheryl S Asa
Although surgical sterilization is the most common approach to reproductive management of dogs and cats in North America and many other places, there is growing interest in nonsurgical and reversible methods. This review summarizes the methods currently available for use as reversible contraception in dogs and cats, along with cautions about reported side effects. The products covered include synthetic steroid hormones, peptide hormone agonists, vaccines, and a barrier method.
April 20, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685518/periparturient-diseases-in-the-dam
#12
REVIEW
Kristine Gonzales
This article provides an overview of some of the most common diseases affecting the dam in the periparturient period, including disorders of lactation, inappropriate maternal behavior, mastitis, metritis, and eclampsia. The dam experiences hormonal, physiologic, and physical changes during pregnancy, parturition, and lactation. Obtaining a detailed history and performing a thorough physical examination are essential for accurately diagnosing and treating the dam during this unique time. A particular challenge exists when identifying problems in the periparturient period, because all medications and aspects of management impact the health of both the dam and her offspring...
April 20, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680455/current-review-of-artificial-insemination-in-dogs
#13
REVIEW
Stuart J Mason
Artificial insemination is the collection of semen from the male and the subsequent insertion of the collected semen into the female. Artificial insemination may be requested for several reasons, including inability to achieve a mating or due to the use of fresh chilled or frozen semen. A good understanding of the cycle of the bitch is imperative for maximizing pregnancy rates, as poor timing of insemination is the most common cause of subfertility in the bitch. Insemination techniques commonly undertaken in the bitch include vaginal insemination, surgical intrauterine insemination, and transcervical insemination...
April 18, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678334/evaluation-of-canine-sperm-and-management-of-semen-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Kara A Kolster
Semen evaluation of the male dog is a critical step in any canine infertility work-up. Assessment of total sperm count, sperm viability, and sperm morphology are the mainstay of breeding soundness evaluation. Adjunct tests, such as ultrasonography and serum hormone levels, can aid in diagnosis. Pharmacologic treatments, dietary supplements, and management practices may help improve breeding success in subfertile dogs. This article discusses a clinically practical approach to assessing sperm abnormalities and fertility in male dogs...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678333/small-animal-neonatal-health
#15
REVIEW
Robyn R Wilborn
Although most veterinarians have been caring for neonates successfully for several years, it is often good to review our methods and aim to incorporate new practices that will increase survivability, especially of the weaker neonates. These tips are easy to incorporate and do not require radical change by the doctors or staff. Armed with some key pearls of neonatal knowledge and basic clinical skills, one can successfully prevent and treat the most common clinical presentations of neonatal puppies and kittens...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678332/gestational-aging-and-determination-of-parturition-date-in-the-bitch-and-queen-using-ultrasonography-and-radiography
#16
REVIEW
Cheryl Lopate
This article provides a complete understanding of how radiography and ultrasound imaging can be used to determine gestational age when inadequate breeding data are available. Formulas for calculation of gestational age using both fetal and extrafetal structures are presented. Ultrasonographic descriptions of organ development and their use in determining gestational age are discussed. This information may be used to monitor the health and development of the fetuses and may be useful when the need to plan an elective or emergency Cesarean section occurs...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933769/helping-miracles-happen
#17
EDITORIAL
Bruce W Christensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933768/canine-prostate-disease
#18
REVIEW
Bruce W Christensen
All intact, male dogs will experience benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, usually by around 6 years old. Although these dogs will be predisposed to prostatic infections, only a small subset will actually develop infections or show clinical signs of discomfort or subfertility. Neutered male dogs have a higher incidence of neoplasia associated with the prostate. Updated diagnostic tests, including canine prostate-specific arginine esterase, are discussed. Castration is compared with medical treatment options...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933767/pyometra-in-small-animals
#19
REVIEW
Ragnvi Hagman
Pyometra is a common disease in dogs and cats. Hormones and opportunistic bacteria are fundamental in the development, with progesterone playing a key role. The disease should be suspected in intact bitches and queens presenting with illness, and particularly if within 4 months after estrus. Early diagnosis and treatment are vital to increase chances of survival as endotoxemia and sepsis often are induced. Typical clinical signs include vaginal discharge, depression, anorexia, polyuria and polydipsia, fever and gastrointestinal disturbances...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709317/estrus-suppression-in-dogs
#20
REVIEW
Michelle Anne Kutzler
Since 1952, scientists have studied estrus suppression in dogs. Estrus suppression in dogs must be safe and reliable. Medications used for estrus suppression in bitches include gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, GnRH antagonists, progestogens, and androgens. Despite widespread availability of these medications throughout the rest of the world, there are no drugs currently labeled for canine estrus induction in the United States.
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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