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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709317/estrus-suppression-in-dogs
#1
REVIEW
Michelle Anne Kutzler
Since 1952, scientists have studied estrus suppression in dogs. Estrus suppression in dogs must be safe and reliable. Medications used for estrus suppression in bitches include gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, GnRH antagonists, progestogens, and androgens. Despite widespread availability of these medications throughout the rest of the world, there are no drugs currently labeled for canine estrus induction in the United States.
April 27, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709316/estrous-cycle-manipulation-in-dogs
#2
REVIEW
Michelle Anne Kutzler
Since 1939, scientists have studied estrous cycle manipulation in dogs resulting in more articles published in this field that any other area of canine reproduction. Estrous cycle manipulation in dogs must be safe and reliable. Dopamine agonists, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, and gonadotropins are hormones that have been used for estrus induction in bitches but each treatment has advantages and disadvantages. Despite widespread availability of these medications throughout the rest of the world, there are no drugs currently labeled for canine estrus induction in the United States...
April 27, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699831/breeding-soundness-examination-of-the-bitch
#3
REVIEW
Carla Barstow, Robyn Wilborn, Aime Johnson
A breeding soundness examination is a vital part of any breeding program. These examinations are not performed as frequently in the bitch as they are in the male dog. They allow clinicians to identify any problems at an early stage in a bitch's breeding career and to screen for any genetic abnormalities. A thorough physical examination and accurate history guide the choice of which diagnostics tests are most useful. Ultrasound, culture, cytology, and biopsies (surgical and nonsurgical techniques) are discussed...
April 23, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685519/contraception-in-dogs-and-cats
#4
REVIEW
Cheryl S Asa
Although surgical sterilization is the most common approach to reproductive management of dogs and cats in North America and many other places, there is growing interest in nonsurgical and reversible methods. This review summarizes the methods currently available for use as reversible contraception in dogs and cats, along with cautions about reported side effects. The products covered include synthetic steroid hormones, peptide hormone agonists, vaccines, and a barrier method.
April 20, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685518/periparturient-diseases-in-the-dam
#5
REVIEW
Kristine Gonzales
This article provides an overview of some of the most common diseases affecting the dam in the periparturient period, including disorders of lactation, inappropriate maternal behavior, mastitis, metritis, and eclampsia. The dam experiences hormonal, physiologic, and physical changes during pregnancy, parturition, and lactation. Obtaining a detailed history and performing a thorough physical examination are essential for accurately diagnosing and treating the dam during this unique time. A particular challenge exists when identifying problems in the periparturient period, because all medications and aspects of management impact the health of both the dam and her offspring...
April 20, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680455/current-review-of-artificial-insemination-in-dogs
#6
REVIEW
Stuart J Mason
Artificial insemination is the collection of semen from the male and the subsequent insertion of the collected semen into the female. Artificial insemination may be requested for several reasons, including inability to achieve a mating or due to the use of fresh chilled or frozen semen. A good understanding of the cycle of the bitch is imperative for maximizing pregnancy rates, as poor timing of insemination is the most common cause of subfertility in the bitch. Insemination techniques commonly undertaken in the bitch include vaginal insemination, surgical intrauterine insemination, and transcervical insemination...
April 18, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678334/evaluation-of-canine-sperm-and-management-of-semen-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Kara A Kolster
Semen evaluation of the male dog is a critical step in any canine infertility work-up. Assessment of total sperm count, sperm viability, and sperm morphology are the mainstay of breeding soundness evaluation. Adjunct tests, such as ultrasonography and serum hormone levels, can aid in diagnosis. Pharmacologic treatments, dietary supplements, and management practices may help improve breeding success in subfertile dogs. This article discusses a clinically practical approach to assessing sperm abnormalities and fertility in male dogs...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678333/small-animal-neonatal-health
#8
REVIEW
Robyn R Wilborn
Although most veterinarians have been caring for neonates successfully for several years, it is often good to review our methods and aim to incorporate new practices that will increase survivability, especially of the weaker neonates. These tips are easy to incorporate and do not require radical change by the doctors or staff. Armed with some key pearls of neonatal knowledge and basic clinical skills, one can successfully prevent and treat the most common clinical presentations of neonatal puppies and kittens...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678332/gestational-aging-and-determination-of-parturition-date-in-the-bitch-and-queen-using-ultrasonography-and-radiography
#9
REVIEW
Cheryl Lopate
This article provides a complete understanding of how radiography and ultrasound imaging can be used to determine gestational age when inadequate breeding data are available. Formulas for calculation of gestational age using both fetal and extrafetal structures are presented. Ultrasonographic descriptions of organ development and their use in determining gestational age are discussed. This information may be used to monitor the health and development of the fetuses and may be useful when the need to plan an elective or emergency Cesarean section occurs...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656773/assisted-reproduction-in-the-male-cat
#10
REVIEW
Aime K Johnson
The demand for feline semen collection, evaluation, and subsequent use is growing as a way to preserve important genetic materials. This article describes semen collection methods using a variety of techniques that can be applicable in almost any setting. Also discussed are cryopreservation methods that optimize sperm survival.
April 12, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656772/mismating-diagnosis-and-protocols
#11
REVIEW
Natalie S Fraser
Mismating, or termination of pregnancy, is a commonly requested reproductive procedure for bitches and queens. Surgical treatment via ovariohysterectomy is the preferred choice when bitches or queens are not desired for future breeding purposes. Animals that are reproductively valuable can be treated with a variety of drugs to terminate the pregnancy. The choice of specific medical therapy is based on safety, efficacy, availability of the drug, and gestational age of the pregnancy. Currently, there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment of mismating in North America for dogs or cats...
April 12, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656771/been-there-done-that-a-practical-primer-for-veterinarians-considering-inclusion-of-small-animal-theriogenology-services-in-their-practice
#12
REVIEW
Jane Barber, Katherine Settle, Will Schultz
Broadening your scope of practice to include theriogenology services offers a myriad of advantages. Theriogenology services are profitable, offer new revenue streams, and optimize the use of support staff and hospital. Offering reproductive services sets your practice apart from competitor practices. Breeder clients are demanding but loyal and return for repeat services; they also request and follow recommendations for "high-end" services. Your theriogenology clients often refer locally placed puppies and kittens to you for primary care and you gain new general practice clients...
April 12, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656770/assisted-reproduction-in-the-female-cat
#13
REVIEW
Aime K Johnson
Assisted reproduction in the queen can range from simple ovulation induction to more advanced techniques such as in vitro fertilization. This article describes techniques available and the success associated with each.
April 12, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656769/population-control-in-small-animals
#14
REVIEW
Margaret V Root Kustritz
Optimal age for ovariohysterectomy or castration has not been defined in the scientific literature. Bitches and queens are significantly less likely to develop mammary neoplasia, which has a high incidence and potentially high morbidity and mortality, if spayed when young. Tom cats exhibit undesirable behaviors that preclude them being good pets and should be castrated young. There is no compelling reason to castrate male dogs when young unless it is needed to control reproductive behaviors or prevent indiscriminate breeding...
April 12, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604957/behavior-as-illness-indicator
#15
EDITORIAL
Elizabeth Stelow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429601/managing-canine-aggression-in-the-home
#16
REVIEW
Amy Pike
Canine aggression occurring in the home can be a dangerous diagnosis with costly consequences to all members of the household. Management is a key modality in the treatment of canine aggression in the home. A thorough history will detail each trigger, target, and context and allow for the veterinary team to put together a comprehensive management plan. Management allows for the avoidance of future aggressive episodes and minimizes the risks associated with living with a patient with these diagnoses. Although risk cannot be mitigated 100%, thorough management can create a safe environment for the implementation of the behavior treatment plan...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429600/diagnosing-behavior-problems-a-guide-for-practitioners
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth Stelow
Clinicians play an important role in diagnosing problem behaviors as a precursor to treating them. This requires a protocol for gathering historical behavioral and health information, direct observation and examination of the animal, and a broad knowledge base of medical and behavioral differential diagnoses for those findings. Aggression and anxiety are the most commonly reported behavior problems in dogs. In cats, elimination problems and aggression are the most prevalent. Other important diagnoses for these species are cognitive dysfunction and abnormal repetitive behaviors...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429599/behavioral-nutraceuticals-and-diets
#18
REVIEW
Jillian M Orlando
Behavioral problems of companion animals are becoming more widely recognized. As a result, there are a growing number of behavioral nutraceuticals and diets on the market. These products may be useful for the treatment of mild conditions, for clients who are hesitant to give their pet a psychopharmacologic agent, or sometimes in conjunction with psychopharmacologic agents. Veterinarians should critically review the research associated with nutraceuticals and diets, and have an understanding of the functional ingredients and their mechanisms of action before prescribing treatment...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422408/special-considerations-for-diagnosing-behavior-problems-in-older-pets
#19
REVIEW
Eranda Rajapaksha
Aging is a complex process that involves changes in sensory perception, cognition, and physical strength. Physiologic, metabolic, and emotional changes of the aging process can lead to behavioral problems in older pets. Treatment of behavior problems in older pets requires a multimodal therapeutic approach. Frequent follow-up visits are required to monitor pets and comment on prognosis. Clients should be informed of the prognosis and should be educated to evaluate pain, discomfort, and general quality of life of the aging pet...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415813/advances-in-behavioral-psychopharmacology
#20
REVIEW
Leslie Sinn
Recent studies have led to some groundbreaking findings regarding the use of medications for the support of behavioral health in dogs and cats. Despite tantalizing results, these studies should be viewed in light of their limitations. Consequently, the results of these studies should be applied in the clinical setting with caution and with a full understanding of the potential pros and cons of using these medications. A review of the research available on trazodone, clonidine, detomidine, dexmedetomidine, propranolol, pindolol, maropitant, memantine, venlafaxine, and gabapentin discusses these pros and cons and highlights key points regarding their clinical use and application...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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