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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442161/zurich-cementless-total-hip-replacement
#1
REVIEW
David Hummel
Total hip replacement (THR) is the gold standard treatment of intractable pain from hip dysplasia. THR procedures are divided into 2 main categories: cemented and cementless, with hybrid a combination. The Zurich Cementless THR system uses a combination of press-fit (acetabular component) and locking screw (femoral component) fixation designed to address the main challenge facing cemented systems (aseptic loosening) while providing the benefit of immediate stability with its novel locking screw implantation system for the femoral stem...
April 22, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434528/canine-hip-dysplasia-screening-within-the-united-states-pennsylvania-hip-improvement-program-and-orthopedic-foundation-for-animals-hip-elbow-database
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer K Reagan
Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a complex, polygenic disease radiographically associated with hip subluxation and development of osteoarthritis. Screening programs have been established with the goal of hip improvement, with the most common in the United States being OFA hip scoring and the PennHIP method. When evaluating the single hip-extended view used by OFA versus the 3 radiographic views and associated distraction index (DI) used by PennHIP for CHD screening, the scientific evidence supports the use of the DI and PennHIP method...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389035/hip-dysplasia-clinical-signs-and-physical-examination-findings
#3
REVIEW
Jason Syrcle
Hip dysplasia is a common developmental disorder of the dog, consisting of varying degrees of hip laxity, progressive remodeling of the structures of the hip, and subsequent development of osteoarthritis. It is a juvenile-onset condition, with clinical signs often first evident at 4 to 12 months of age. A tentative diagnosis of hip dysplasia can be made based on signalment, history, and physical examination findings. The Ortolani test is a valuable tool for identifying juvenile dogs affected with this condition...
April 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164838/preface
#4
EDITORIAL
Helio Autran de Morais, Stephen P DiBartola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164837/perioperative-fluid-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Denise Fantoni, Andre C Shih
Anesthesia can lead to pathophysiologic changes that dramatically alter the fluid balance of the body compartments and the intravascular space. Fluid administration can be monitored and evaluated using static and dynamic indexes. Guidelines for fluid rates during anesthesia begin with 3 mL/kg/h in cats and 5 mL/kg/h in dogs. If at all possible, patients should be stabilized and electrolyte disturbances should be corrected before general anesthesia.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164836/spurious-results-in-mineral-and-electrolyte-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Elena Gorman
Assessment of health status and the course of treatment of patients are often determined by results obtained from analysis of blood parameters. Errors in results can occur and cause inappropriate interpretation of laboratory data and, therefore, disease states. Electrolytes and minerals are particularly prone to spurious results; therefore, it is critical that factors influencing inappropriate resulting be recognized, and steps taken to minimize them.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164835/a-quick-reference-on-hyponatremia
#7
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
The article focuses on causes of hyponatremia, including hypovolemia, diabetes mellitus and others. Hypovolemia is a major cause of hyponatremia in veterinary medicine. Hypovolemia causes a decrease in effective circulating volume, triggering antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion and free water retention, and develops after gastrointestinal losses, renal losses, hemorrhagic shock, hypoadrenocorticism, and other causes of hypovolemia. The article reviews the clinical approach to diagnosing the cause of hyponatremia in critically ill patients, including recognition of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164834/a-quick-reference-on-hypernatremia
#8
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
Hypernatremia most commonly is associated with water loss in excess of sodium or salt gain (typically associated with restriction of access to water). Most of the signs of hypernatremia arise from the central nervous system; the more rapid the development of hypernatremia, the more severe the neurologic signs are likely to be. Anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, muscular weakness, behavioral changes, disorientation, ataxia, seizures, coma, and death have been identified in dogs and cats with hypernatremia and hypertonicity...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017410/disorders-of-sodium-and-water-homeostasis
#9
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
This review article discusses normal and abnormal sodium balance in small animals. The terms and concepts central to understanding normal sodium and water balance are presented as well as of the physiology of body fluid compartments and the movement of fluid between those compartments. As dysnatremia is a very common disorder across the spectrum of critically ill patients, the main focus of the article is to present several clinical examples of both acute and chronic hypernatremia and hyponatremia and their practical, clinical management...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017409/a-quick-reference-on-hyperchloremic-metabolic-acidosis
#10
REVIEW
Silvia Funes, Helio Autran de Morais
Metabolic acidosis results from an increase in the concentration of a strong anion. Metabolic acidosis is divided into hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and high anion gap acidosis based on the changes in the anion gap. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is the result of chloride retention, excessive loss of sodium relative to chloride, or excessive gain of chloride relative to sodium. Clinical signs are related to the underlying disease that accompanies the metabolic acidosis. Treatment of hyperchloremic acidosis is based on addressing the underlying disease process...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017408/a-quick-reference-on-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis
#11
REVIEW
Silvia Funes, Helio Autran de Morais
High anion gap (AG) metabolic acidoses can be identified by a decrease in pH, decrease in HCO3(-) or base excess, and an increased AG. The AG represents the difference between unmeasured cations and unmeasured anions; it increases secondary to the accumulation of anions other than bicarbonate and chloride. The most common causes of high AG acidosis are renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, and lactic acidosis. Severe increases in concentration of phosphorus can cause hyperphosphatemic acidosis.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017407/fluid-and-electrolyte-therapy-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth Thomovsky
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dynamic disease that requires regular reassessment of an affected patient. Typical treatment regimens include crystalloid fluid therapy, insulin, and supplementation of dextrose, phosphorus, and potassium. This article presents an approach to and considerations for treatment of a diabetic ketoacidotic dog or cat.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012787/a-quick-reference-on-hypercalcemia
#13
REVIEW
Joao Felipe de Brito Galvão, Patricia A Schenck, Dennis J Chew
In dogs, neoplasia is the most common cause of hypercalcemia, followed by primary hyperparathyroidism, chronic kidney disease, and hypoadrenocorticism. In cats, idiopathic hypercalcemia is the most common cause, followed by chronic kidney disease and then neoplasia. Prognosis and treatment ultimately depend on the cause of the hypercalcemia.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012786/a-quick-reference-on-hypocalcemia
#14
REVIEW
Joao Felipe de Brito Galvão, Patricia A Schenck, Dennis J Chew
Primary hypoparathyroidism should be considered in dogs with vague signs, including tremors, facial rubbing, and seizures. Ionized hypocalcemia should be considered in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, especially lymphangiectasia caused by hypovitaminosis D. Ionized hypocalcemia typically occurs only in advanced chronic kidney disease.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012785/compensation-for-acid-base-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Chiara De Caro Carella, Helio Autran de Morais
Hydrogen concentration is a critical determinant of many physiologic functions and is tightly regulated. Any alteration in acid-base equilibrium sets into motion a compensatory response by either the lungs or the kidneys. The compensatory response attempts to return the ratio between Pco2 and [HCO3(-)] to normal and thereby minimize the pH change. A primary increase or decrease in one component is associated with a predictable compensatory change in the same direction in the other component, and the expected compensation can be estimated clinically in dogs and cats...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007306/a-quick-reference-on-chloride
#16
REVIEW
Andrea A Bohn, Helio Autran de Morais
Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988050/a-quick-reference-on-phosphorus
#17
REVIEW
Ashley E Allen-Durrance
Phosphorus, or phosphate, is the body's major intracellular anion involved in numerous biological processes. Most phosphate is intracellular, with the remaining amount contained within soft tissues and the extracellular space. Parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, calcitonin, and phosphatonins regulate normal phosphate homeostasis by adjusting renal and/or gastrointestinal absorption and/or excretion. Hypophosphatemia occurs secondary to decreased gastrointestinal absorption, transcellular shifts, increased renal excretion, or some combination of these general mechanisms...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988049/update-on-feline-ionized-hypercalcemia
#18
REVIEW
Joao Felipe de Brito Galvão, Valerie Parker, Patricia A Schenck, Dennis J Chew
Hypercalcemia in cats is recognized with increased frequency, especially idiopathic hypercalcemia, which is the most common cause. Idiopathic hypercalcemia seems to be unique to the cat, not occurring in the dog as a specific syndrome. There are many causes of hypercalcemia, and diagnosis relies on evaluation of clinical signs, physical examination, diagnostic imaging, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, and evaluation of calcium metabolic hormones. With an accurate diagnosis, treatment options can be tailored to the individual...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939864/a-quick-reference-on-hypokalemia
#19
REVIEW
Márcia Mery Kogika, Helio Autran de Morais
Hypokalemia is more common than hyperkalemia and usually is caused by excessive losses of potassium from the kidneys or gastrointestinal tract. Serum potassium should be investigated in patients developing chronic or frequent vomiting or diarrhea, marked polyuria, muscle weakness, or unexpected cardiac arrhythmias, as well as in those undergoing therapy with insulin, diuretics, or total parenteral nutrition. Clinical signs develop when serum potassium deficit is moderate or severe.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939863/a-quick-reference-on-respiratory-alkalosis
#20
REVIEW
Rebecca A Johnson
Respiratory alkalosis, or primary hypocapnia, occurs when alveolar ventilation exceeds that required to eliminate the carbon dioxide produced by tissues. Concurrent decreases in Paco2, increases in pH, and compensatory decreases in blood HCO3(-) levels are associated with respiratory alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic, with metabolic compensation initially consisting of cellular uptake of HCO3(-) and buffering by intracellular phosphates and proteins. Chronic respiratory alkalosis results in longer-lasting decreases in renal reabsorption of HCO3(-); the arterial pH can approach near-normal values...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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