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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390794/small-animal-dermatology-clinical-updates-emerging-diseases-and-treatment-advances
#1
EDITORIAL
Christine L Cain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390793/canine-acute-eosinophilic-dermatitis-with-edema-wells-like-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Mauldin
Canine acute eosinophilic dermatitis with edema is an uncommon syndromic disorder in dogs with a unique clinical presentation. Most but not all dogs have a history of gastrointestinal upset preceding or concomitant with skin lesion onset. Affected dogs present with macular to generalized erythema that is most evident on the glabrous skin of the abdomen. Although the etiology is not known, an adverse drug reaction or a systemic type I hypersensitivity reaction may play a role. Some cases can be difficult to distinguish from canine sterile neutrophilic dermatosis due to overlapping clinical criteria and eosinophil degranulation in tissue section...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390792/sterile-pyogranulomatous-dermatitis-and-panniculitis
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer Schissler
Canine sterile pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis is an infrequently described syndrome. No autoantigen, or exogenous antigen, inflammatory stimulus has been identified. This syndrome is characterized by pyogranulomatous nodules, plaques, and ulcers of variable extent and severity. Prodromal and concurrent nonspecific clinical and hematologic signs of inflammation may occur. This waxing and waning condition is typically responsive to systemic immunomodulation. Lifelong therapy may be required to prevent relapse...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268424/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-canine-acral-lick-dermatitis
#4
REVIEW
Amy K Shumaker
Acral lick dermatitis is a common, frustrating disease. It is characterized by incessant licking behavior resulting in raised, thickened, ulcerative plaques, most commonly affecting the lower extremities of dogs. Underlying primary diseases, such as allergic disorders (atopic dermatitis, food allergy, flea allergy), orthopedic or neurologic disorders, parasitic diseases (eg, demodicosis), infections (fungal, bacterial), neoplasia or psychogenic disorders (compulsive/obsessive-compulsive disorder), and perpetuating factors (especially secondary infections) drive the itch-lick cycle...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30262146/therapies-in-canine-atopic-dermatitis-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Domenico Santoro
Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases in dogs. The pathogenesis is complex and not completely understood. Many therapeutic options are available; however, because of cost, side effects, or a long lag phase, new compounds are constantly produced. This article provides a comprehensive review of the latest compounds for the treatment of canine AD. In addition, a brief review of new studies on conventional medications is provided. For a successful long-term therapeutic approach, it is important to considerate the status of the disease, as well as the patients' and their owners' needs...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30262145/canine-and-feline-cutaneous-epitheliotropic-lymphoma-and-cutaneous-lymphocytosis
#6
REVIEW
Kathryn A Rook
Cutaneous lymphomas are divided into categories based on histologic evaluation of the skin and location of neoplastic lymphocytes. Epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma, also known as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, is diagnosed when neoplastic lymphocytes show tropism for the epidermis and these cells infiltrate the epidermis and adnexae. In diagnosis of nonepitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma, neoplastic lymphocytes are found mostly in the dermis and/or subcutis. Neoplastic cells are of either B-cell or T-cell origin...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227972/feline-pemphigus-foliaceus
#7
REVIEW
Diane E Preziosi
Feline pemphigus foliaceus is an uncommon skin disorder in cats but still the most common autoimmune skin disorder seen in this species. It is a crusting dermatosis involving the ears, head, paws, and ungual folds primarily. Although cytology is helpful in supporting a diagnosis, biopsy of pustules or crusts for histopathology is required for a definitive diagnosis. Therapy has evolved over the years as we have learned more about the different ways cats respond to drugs and as new drugs became available. Most cats will respond to proper therapy, although it may be needed long term for control...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227971/canine-cutaneous-lupus-erythematosus-newly-discovered-variants
#8
REVIEW
Frane Banovic
As the spectrum of canine cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) variants has expanded markedly in the recent 2 decades, veterinarians are encouraged to become familiar with the characteristic clinical features of CLE variants to permit early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. This article describes the signalment, clinical signs, treatment outcome, and laboratory and histopathology findings of 2 new canine CLE variants, generalized discoid lupus erythematosus and mucocutaneous lupus erythematosus.
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227970/update-on-allergen-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Ralf S Mueller
Allergen immunotherapy has been used for many years in dogs and cats and is the only specific treatment of atopic dermatitis that changes the patho-mechanisms of disease by stimulating allergen tolerance. Subcutaneous administration of allergens is the most commonly used administration route, typically in increasing concentrations (induction period) followed by long-term injection of allergen extract (maintenance therapy). Rush protocols with an abbreviated induction period have been reported and shown to be safe in dogs...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213533/canine-perianal-fistulas-clinical-presentation-pathogenesis-and-management
#10
REVIEW
Christine L Cain
Canine perianal fistulas are painful sinus tracts and ulcers that spontaneously develop in the skin around the anus. Middle-aged German shepherd dogs are most commonly affected and may have a genetic susceptibility. Although the disease was once believed related to conformational factors and primarily managed surgically, an immune-mediated pathogenesis is now recognized. Long-term medical management with immunomodulatory agents has become standard of care for canine perianal fistulas. Perianal fistulas can be debilitating and have a negative impact on quality of life of dogs and owners...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213532/assessing-quality-of-life-for-pets-with-dermatologic-disease-and-their-owners
#11
REVIEW
Chiara Noli
Quality of life (QoL) is defined as "the degree to which an individual enjoys his or her life." In canine dermatology, 2 research groups have developed and validated questionnaires for QoL assessment in dogs with dermatologic conditions, the first being limited to canine atopic dermatitis, and the second one applicable to all skin conditions. A third group is working on the validation of a different QoL questionnaire coupled with a treatment success assessment tool. In general, there is an inverse correlation between QoL and pruritus...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342566/an-overview-of-trends-in-animal-poisoning-cases-in-the-united-states-2011-to-2017
#12
REVIEW
Charlotte Means, Tina Wismer
Each year the Animal Poison Control Center of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals receives thousands of reports of suspected animal poisonings. By using an electronic medical record database maintained by the Animal Poison Control Center, data on current trends in animal poisoning cases are mined and analyzed This article explores recent trends in veterinary toxicology including the types of animals and breeds that are most commonly exposed to different toxicants, seasonal and geographic distribution of poisoning incidents, the therapies that are most commonly administered, and trends in agents that are most frequently involved in poisonings...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342565/toxicology-of-marijuana-synthetic-cannabinoids-and-cannabidiol-in-dogs-and-cats
#13
REVIEW
Ahna Brutlag, Holly Hommerding
Pet exposure to marijuana-containing products-both recreational and medicinal-along with exposure to extracts such as cannabidiol is increasing in conjunction with greater accessibility. Cannabis products are even sold for use in pets. In addition, exposure to illegal synthetic cannabinoids remains concerning. Veterinarians need to be able to recognize associated clinical signs and understand when cases have the potential for severity. This article provides a brief history of cannabis along with a review of the endocannabinoid system, common cannabis products, expected clinical signs, and medical treatment approaches associated with cannabis exposure in pets...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342564/common-reversal-agents-antidotes-in-small-animal-poisoning
#14
REVIEW
Safdar A Khan
This article provides a quick source of information for practicing veterinarians for using various antidotes in small animal poisoning cases. For easy access, this information is included in the form of a table. The first column includes common names and/or brand names of different antidotes. In the second column, names of different toxicants or indications for which these antidotes can be used are described. The third column is the comment section that briefly describes salient points or cautions for using these antidotes...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342563/differential-diagnosis-of-common-acute-toxicologic-versus-nontoxicologic-illness
#15
REVIEW
Safdar A Khan
This article provides a display table laying out the differential diagnosis of common acute toxicologic versus nontoxicologic illnesses in small animals. Major clinical abnormalities are listed, along with common toxicologic rule outs and nontoxicologic rule outs. Further readings are also provided.
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190115/toxicology-of-explosives-and-fireworks-in-small-animals
#16
REVIEW
Patti Gahagan, Tina Wismer
Exposure to explosives and fireworks in dogs can result in variable severity of clinical signs depending on the presence of different chemicals and the amount. The risk can be lessened by proper education of dog handlers and owners about the seriousness of the intoxications. Most animals will recover within 24 to 72 hours with supportive care. Cyclonite, barium, and chlorate ingestion carries a risk of more severe clinical signs.
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173927/common-rodenticide-toxicoses-in-small-animals
#17
REVIEW
Camille DeClementi, Brandy R Sobczak
This article focuses on the 3 most commonly used rodenticide types: anticoagulants, bromethalin, and cholecalciferol. It is important to verify the active ingredient in any rodenticide exposure. Many owners use the term D-con to refer to any rodenticide regardless of the brand or type of rodenticide. The Environmental Protection Agency released their final ruling on rodenticide risk mitigation measures in 2008 and all products sold had to be compliant by June 2011, changing to consumer products containing either first-generation anticoagulants or nonanticoagulants, including bromethalin and cholecalciferol...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173926/pet-food-recalls-and-pet-food-contaminants-in-small-animals-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Karyn Bischoff, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Commercial pet foods are usually safe, but incidents of contamination can have a devastating impact on companion animals and their owners. There are numerous possible contaminants ranging from natural contaminants to nutrient imbalances to chemical adulteration, making it impossible to predict what will cause the next pet food recall. Veterinarians involvement with pet food recalls includes examining and treating affected animals, documentation and sample collection, and communicating with pet food manufacturers and regulatory agencies...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172446/management-of-attention-deficit-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-drug-intoxication-in-dogs-and-cats-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Laura Stern, Mary Schell
Amphetamines and the nonamphetamine atomoxetine are commonly used in the treatment of attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in humans. Because these medications are often found in homes, dog and cat exposure to these medications is a common intoxication. Amphetamine intoxication can cause life-threatening central nervous system and cardiovascular stimulation, even when small amounts are ingested.
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166216/investigative-diagnostic-toxicology-and-the-role-of-the-veterinarian-in-pet-food-related-outbreaks-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Christina R Wilson-Frank, Stephen B Hooser
Although most commercial pet foods are safe, there have been a few instances in which chemical or bacterial contamination have caused outbreaks of illness in animals. Because of concerns regarding cases of contaminated commercial pet food that have been reported over the past several years, some pet owners may be choosing to feed noncommercial, home-prepared diets. When pet food contamination is suspected, pet owners often seek advice from their veterinarian regarding its health impact and subsequent diagnosis...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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