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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108035/feline-hepatic-lipidosis
#1
REVIEW
Chiara Valtolina, Robert P Favier
Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies...
January 18, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081863/canine-breed-specific-hepatopathies
#2
REVIEW
Penny Watson
Canine hepatopathies, both congenital and acquired, arise from an interaction between genes and environment. Many show increased breed prevalences. This article reviews the current understanding on breed predispositions for congenital portosystemic shunts; microvascular dysplasia and portal vein hypoplasia; ductal plate abnormalities (congenital hepatic fibrosis and Caroli disease); chronic hepatitis (both copper associated and idiopathic); vacuolar hepatopathies; and gallbladder mucocele. Although all these diseases can occur in many breeds and crossbreeds, understanding breed predispositions helps recognition and will guide future research to improve understanding of causes and treatments...
January 9, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081862/getting-the-most-out-of-liver-biopsy
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan A Lidbury
Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsy specimens yields information that is not otherwise obtainable and is frequently essential for diagnosing hepatic disease. Percutaneous needle biopsy, laparoscopic biopsy, and surgical biopsy each have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. Care should be taken to ensure an adequate amount of tissue is collected for meaningful histologic evaluation. Because sampling error is a limitation of hepatic biopsy, multiple liver lobes should be biopsied. This article discusses the indications for liver biopsy, associated risks, advantages, and disadvantages of different biopsy techniques, and strategies to get the most useful information possible out of this process...
January 9, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069288/diagnostic-imaging-of-the-hepatobiliary-system-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Angela J Marolf
Recent advances in diagnostic imaging of the hepatobiliary system include MRI, computed tomography (CT), contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and ultrasound elastography. With the advent of multislice CT scanners, sedated examinations in veterinary patients are feasible, increasing the utility of this imaging modality. CT and MRI provide additional information for dogs and cats with hepatobiliary diseases due to lack of superimposition of structures, operator dependence, and through intravenous contrast administration...
January 6, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069287/feline-cholangitis
#5
REVIEW
Lara Boland, Julia Beatty
Cholangitis is common in felines, including neutrophilic, lymphocytic, and chronic cholangitis (liver fluke). History, physical examination, laboratory testing, and abdominal ultrasound support a diagnosis. Diagnosis using hepatic histopathology and/or bile analysis is ideal but not always practical. Neutrophilic cholangitis is associated with bacterial cholecystitis, pancreatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The typical presentation is a short illness with lethargy, inappetence, pyrexia, and jaundice. Lymphocytic cholangitis, suspected to be immune-mediated, can have a prolonged clinical course with weight loss and ascites as the predominant features...
January 6, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069286/hepatic-encephalopathy
#6
REVIEW
Adam G Gow
This article reviews hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in companion animals. Clinical signs and categories of hepatic disease likely to cause HE are discussed. Ammonia has a key role in pathogenesis and current concepts in body ammonia metabolism are reviewed. Inflammation and manganese accumulation are also thought to be important in pathogenesis. Treatment of HE in acute and chronic cases is discussed along with the rationale for current treatment recommendations. Potential avenues for new treatments and human treatments, which may be transferable to companion animals, are reviewed...
January 6, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065578/acute-liver-injury-and-failure
#7
REVIEW
Vincent Thawley
Acute liver injury and acute liver failure are syndromes characterized by a rapid loss of functional hepatocytes in a patient with no evidence of pre-existing liver disease. A variety of inciting causes have been identified, including toxic, infectious, neoplastic, and drug-induced causes. This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical approach to the acute liver injury/acute liver failure patient, with a particular emphasis on the diagnostic evaluation and care in the acute setting.
January 5, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063745/canine-copper-associated-hepatitis
#8
REVIEW
Karen Dirksen, Hille Fieten
Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper quantification in a liver biopsy. Treatment with the copper chelator d-penicillamine is the most commonly used treatment. In addition, a low-copper/high-zinc diet can help prevent accumulation or reaccumulation of hepatic copper...
January 5, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063743/hepatobiliary-neoplasia
#9
REVIEW
Laura E Selmic
Older companion animals may be uncommonly affected with hepatobiliary neoplasia. If clinical signs are shown they are often nonspecific. Animals may have increased liver enzyme activities detected on serum biochemistry. Ultrasound imaging can help to characterize liver lesions and guide sampling with fine needle aspiration. Treatment for massive liver tumor morphology involves liver lobectomy. Prognosis depends on the tumor morphology, type, and stage, but can be good for cats and dogs with massive hepatocellular tumors, with animals experiencing prolonged survival and low recurrence rates...
January 5, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063746/canine-idiopathic-chronic-hepatitis
#10
REVIEW
Nick Bexfield
The World Small Animal Veterinary Association's Liver Standardization Group produced standardized criteria for the histologic diagnosis of canine chronic hepatitis (CH). They define CH by the presence of hepatocellular apoptosis or necrosis, a variable mononuclear or mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, regeneration, and fibrosis. There are variations in histologic appearance between breeds. Hepatic copper accumulation is an important cause of canine CH. However, where copper accumulation has been ruled out, dogs are said to have idiopathic CH...
January 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063744/laboratory-evaluation-of-the-liver
#11
REVIEW
Yuri A Lawrence, Jörg M Steiner
Laboratory evaluation of the hepatobiliary system has an important role in the diagnosis, monitoring, and assessment of patients with hepatobiliary diseases. Serum liver enzyme activities can be divided into markers of hepatocellular injury and cholestasis. Liver function can be assessed in several ways, including assessment of synthetic capacity, measurement of ammonia, and measurement of bile acids. It is essential to have an understanding of the performance characteristics and limitations of these tests in order to use them appropriately...
January 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164838/preface
#12
EDITORIAL
Helio Autran de Morais, Stephen P DiBartola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164837/perioperative-fluid-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Denise Fantoni, Andre C Shih
Anesthesia can lead to pathophysiologic changes that dramatically alter the fluid balance of the body compartments and the intravascular space. Fluid administration can be monitored and evaluated using static and dynamic indexes. Guidelines for fluid rates during anesthesia begin with 3 mL/kg/h in cats and 5 mL/kg/h in dogs. If at all possible, patients should be stabilized and electrolyte disturbances should be corrected before general anesthesia.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164836/spurious-results-in-mineral-and-electrolyte-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Elena Gorman
Assessment of health status and the course of treatment of patients are often determined by results obtained from analysis of blood parameters. Errors in results can occur and cause inappropriate interpretation of laboratory data and, therefore, disease states. Electrolytes and minerals are particularly prone to spurious results; therefore, it is critical that factors influencing inappropriate resulting be recognized, and steps taken to minimize them.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164835/a-quick-reference-on-hyponatremia
#15
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
The article focuses on causes of hyponatremia, including hypovolemia, diabetes mellitus and others. Hypovolemia is a major cause of hyponatremia in veterinary medicine. Hypovolemia causes a decrease in effective circulating volume, triggering antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion and free water retention, and develops after gastrointestinal losses, renal losses, hemorrhagic shock, hypoadrenocorticism, and other causes of hypovolemia. The article reviews the clinical approach to diagnosing the cause of hyponatremia in critically ill patients, including recognition of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164834/a-quick-reference-on-hypernatremia
#16
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
Hypernatremia most commonly is associated with water loss in excess of sodium or salt gain (typically associated with restriction of access to water). Most of the signs of hypernatremia arise from the central nervous system; the more rapid the development of hypernatremia, the more severe the neurologic signs are likely to be. Anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, muscular weakness, behavioral changes, disorientation, ataxia, seizures, coma, and death have been identified in dogs and cats with hypernatremia and hypertonicity...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017410/disorders-of-sodium-and-water-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
This review article discusses normal and abnormal sodium balance in small animals. The terms and concepts central to understanding normal sodium and water balance are presented as well as of the physiology of body fluid compartments and the movement of fluid between those compartments. As dysnatremia is a very common disorder across the spectrum of critically ill patients, the main focus of the article is to present several clinical examples of both acute and chronic hypernatremia and hyponatremia and their practical, clinical management...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017409/a-quick-reference-on-hyperchloremic-metabolic-acidosis
#18
REVIEW
Silvia Funes, Helio Autran de Morais
Metabolic acidosis results from an increase in the concentration of a strong anion. Metabolic acidosis is divided into hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and high anion gap acidosis based on the changes in the anion gap. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is the result of chloride retention, excessive loss of sodium relative to chloride, or excessive gain of chloride relative to sodium. Clinical signs are related to the underlying disease that accompanies the metabolic acidosis. Treatment of hyperchloremic acidosis is based on addressing the underlying disease process...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017408/a-quick-reference-on-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis
#19
REVIEW
Silvia Funes, Helio Autran de Morais
High anion gap (AG) metabolic acidoses can be identified by a decrease in pH, decrease in HCO3(-) or base excess, and an increased AG. The AG represents the difference between unmeasured cations and unmeasured anions; it increases secondary to the accumulation of anions other than bicarbonate and chloride. The most common causes of high AG acidosis are renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, and lactic acidosis. Severe increases in concentration of phosphorus can cause hyperphosphatemic acidosis.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017407/fluid-and-electrolyte-therapy-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth Thomovsky
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dynamic disease that requires regular reassessment of an affected patient. Typical treatment regimens include crystalloid fluid therapy, insulin, and supplementation of dextrose, phosphorus, and potassium. This article presents an approach to and considerations for treatment of a diabetic ketoacidotic dog or cat.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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