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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213533/canine-perianal-fistulas-clinical-presentation-pathogenesis-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Christine L Cain
Canine perianal fistulas are painful sinus tracts and ulcers that spontaneously develop in the skin around the anus. Middle-aged German shepherd dogs are most commonly affected and may have a genetic susceptibility. Although the disease was once believed related to conformational factors and primarily managed surgically, an immune-mediated pathogenesis is now recognized. Long-term medical management with immunomodulatory agents has become standard of care for canine perianal fistulas. Perianal fistulas can be debilitating and have a negative impact on quality of life of dogs and owners...
September 11, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213532/assessing-quality-of-life-for-pets-with-dermatologic-disease-and-their-owners
#2
REVIEW
Chiara Noli
Quality of life (QoL) is defined as "the degree to which an individual enjoys his or her life." In canine dermatology, 2 research groups have developed and validated questionnaires for QoL assessment in dogs with dermatologic conditions, the first being limited to canine atopic dermatitis, and the second one applicable to all skin conditions. A third group is working on the validation of a different QoL questionnaire coupled with a treatment success assessment tool. In general, there is an inverse correlation between QoL and pruritus...
September 11, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190115/toxicology-of-explosives-and-fireworks-in-small-animals
#3
REVIEW
Patti Gahagan, Tina Wismer
Exposure to explosives and fireworks in dogs can result in variable severity of clinical signs depending on the presence of different chemicals and the amount. The risk can be lessened by proper education of dog handlers and owners about the seriousness of the intoxications. Most animals will recover within 24 to 72 hours with supportive care. Cyclonite, barium, and chlorate ingestion carries a risk of more severe clinical signs.
September 3, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173927/common-rodenticide-toxicoses-in-small-animals
#4
REVIEW
Camille DeClementi, Brandy R Sobczak
This article focuses on the 3 most commonly used rodenticide types: anticoagulants, bromethalin, and cholecalciferol. It is important to verify the active ingredient in any rodenticide exposure. Many owners use the term D-con to refer to any rodenticide regardless of the brand or type of rodenticide. The Environmental Protection Agency released their final ruling on rodenticide risk mitigation measures in 2008 and all products sold had to be compliant by June 2011, changing to consumer products containing either first-generation anticoagulants or nonanticoagulants, including bromethalin and cholecalciferol...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173926/pet-food-recalls-and-pet-food-contaminants-in-small-animals-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Karyn Bischoff, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Commercial pet foods are usually safe, but incidents of contamination can have a devastating impact on companion animals and their owners. There are numerous possible contaminants ranging from natural contaminants to nutrient imbalances to chemical adulteration, making it impossible to predict what will cause the next pet food recall. Veterinarians involvement with pet food recalls includes examining and treating affected animals, documentation and sample collection, and communicating with pet food manufacturers and regulatory agencies...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172446/management-of-attention-deficit-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-drug-intoxication-in-dogs-and-cats-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Laura Stern, Mary Schell
Amphetamines and the nonamphetamine atomoxetine are commonly used in the treatment of attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in humans. Because these medications are often found in homes, dog and cat exposure to these medications is a common intoxication. Amphetamine intoxication can cause life-threatening central nervous system and cardiovascular stimulation, even when small amounts are ingested.
August 29, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166216/investigative-diagnostic-toxicology-and-the-role-of-the-veterinarian-in-pet-food-related-outbreaks-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Christina R Wilson-Frank, Stephen B Hooser
Although most commercial pet foods are safe, there have been a few instances in which chemical or bacterial contamination have caused outbreaks of illness in animals. Because of concerns regarding cases of contaminated commercial pet food that have been reported over the past several years, some pet owners may be choosing to feed noncommercial, home-prepared diets. When pet food contamination is suspected, pet owners often seek advice from their veterinarian regarding its health impact and subsequent diagnosis...
August 27, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149970/toxicology-of-newer-insecticides-in-small-animals
#8
REVIEW
Tina Wismer, Charlotte Means
In the broadest definition, a pesticide (from fly swatters to chemicals) is a substance used to eliminate a pest. Newer insecticides are much safer to the environment, humans, and nontarget species. These insecticides are able to target physiologic differences between insects and mammals, resulting in greater mammalian safety. This article briefly reviews toxicity information of both older insecticides such as organophosphates, carbamates, permethrins, and pyrethroids, as well as some newer insecticides.
August 24, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149969/radiation-emergencies-dogs-and-cats
#9
REVIEW
Stephen B Hooser
Exposure of dogs and cats to clinically significant amounts of ionizing radiation is unlikely. However, accidental release of radiation has occurred and nuclear terrorism is possible. If an incident occurs, early reaction will be by first responders, followed by state and federal emergency personnel. It is possible that veterinarians will be called upon to assist to evaluate animals for contamination and/or exposure, perform initial lifesaving tasks, and decontaminate people's pets. Therefore, veterinary professionals should understand radiation exposure, what is happening, the possible effects on animals, and how to provide veterinary care and assistance in a radiation emergency...
August 24, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149968/toxicology-of-frequently-encountered-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-dogs-and-cats-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Mary Kay McLean, Safdar A Khan
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used for their antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. Although most NSAIDs consist of a range of pharmacologically active agents with diverse chemical structures and properties, they have similar therapeutic and adverse effects associated with their use. Each year, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) receives hundreds of cases involving acute accidental ingestion/overdose of NSAIDs in dogs and cats...
August 24, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139545/toxicology-of-avermectins-and-milbemycins-macrocyclic-lactones-and-the-role-of-p-glycoprotein-in-dogs-and-cats
#11
REVIEW
Valentina M Merola, Paul A Eubig
Overdoses of macrocyclic lactones in dogs and cats can result in such signs as tremors, ataxia, seizures, coma, and blindness. Dogs with the ABCB1-1Δ gene defect are predisposed to macrocyclic lactone toxicosis at lower dosages than dogs without the defect. Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy has been suggested for treatment of macrocyclic lactone toxicosis but evidence of efficacy is limited. Initial decontamination and supportive care remain the mainstays of therapy for macrocyclic lactone toxicosis.
August 21, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139544/an-update-on-calcium-channel-blocker-toxicity-in-dogs-and-cats
#12
REVIEW
Cristine L Hayes
The widespread use and availability of calcium channel blockers in human and veterinary medicine pose a risk for inadvertent pet exposure to these medications. Clinical signs of toxicosis can be delayed by many hours after exposure, with lethargy, hypotension, and cardiac rhythm changes as the predominant signs. Prompt decontamination and aggressive treatment using a variety of modalities may be necessary to treat patients exposed to calcium channel blockers. The prognosis of an exposed patient depends on the dose of the ingested calcium channel blockers, promptness of decontamination and other treatment measures, severity of clinical signs, and response to treatment...
August 21, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115370/intravenous-lipid-emulsions-in-veterinary-clinical-toxicology
#13
REVIEW
Sharon Gwaltney-Brant, Irina Meadows
Use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) as an antidote for severe cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity has expanded in the veterinary world in the past decade. Despite advances in understanding of potential mechanisms of action of antidotal ILE, knowledge gaps remain in efficacy, appropriate dosing rates for various toxicants, and potential adverse reactions. Use of ILE in management of toxicoses of veterinary patients should be considered investigational, and should not be first-line treatment of most toxicoses, especially where established treatment protocols have good likelihood of positive outcomes...
August 14, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077439/mushroom-poisoning-cases-in-dogs-and-cats-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hepatotoxic-neurotoxic-gastroenterotoxic-nephrotoxic-and-muscarinic-mushrooms
#14
REVIEW
Birgit Puschner, Colette Wegenast
Ingestion of poisonous mushrooms by small animals can lead to liver failure, neurotoxicity, or gastrointestinal irritation. Although amanita poisoning can be lethal, ingestion of other toxic mushrooms is generally self-limiting and not life threatening. Most cases are undiagnosed, as routine diagnostic tests only exist for amanitins and psilocin. Early detection of amanitin exposure can greatly aid in the therapeutic intervention by allowing veterinarians to make timely decisions regarding patient management...
August 1, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064708/xylitol-toxicosis-in-dogs-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Lisa A Murphy, Eric K Dunayer
Xylitol ingestions in dogs may result in severe hypoglycemia followed by acute hepatic failure and associated coagulopathies. Aggressive treatment may be needed, but the prognosis is generally expected to be good for dogs developing uncomplicated hypoglycemia. Because of increased availability of xylitol-containing products in the market and in the dog's environment, it is likely that there will continue to be increased exposures and toxicity in dogs.
July 28, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098647/minimally-invasive-management-of-uroliths-in-cats-and-dogs
#16
REVIEW
Andréanne Cléroux
Urolithiasis commonly affects cats and dogs. The American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine established guidelines for the treatment of uroliths that reflect modern techniques prioritizing minimally invasive procedures with an emphasis on prevention strategies to limit morbidity and mortality. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and endoscopic nephrolithotomy constitute some of the minimally invasive treatment modalities available for upper urinary tract uroliths. Cystoscopic-guided basket retrieval, cystoscopic-guided laser lithotripsy, and percutaneous cystolithotomy are minimally invasive options for the management of lower urinary tract uroliths...
September 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098646/interventional-equipment-and-radiation-safety
#17
REVIEW
Andréanne Cléroux, Rebecca Hersh-Boyle, Dana L Clarke
Interventional radiology in veterinary medicine was adapted from techniques developed in human medicine, and has a variety of applications to treat disease in multiple body systems. Fluoroscopy is required for almost all interventional procedures, requiring knowledge of proper safety techniques for working with ionizing radiation. There are a wide variety of catheters, wires, sheaths, stents, and embolics used in veterinary medicine. Familiarity with their indications and sizing compatibility is essential for procedural success...
September 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049553/-unknown-title
#18
EDITORIAL
Dana L Clarke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941216/interventional-radiology-management-of-tracheal-and-bronchial-collapse
#19
REVIEW
Dana L Clarke
Chondromalacia of the tracheal and bronchial cartilages and redundancy of the dorsal tracheal membrane result in collapse of the large airways, leading to coughing and airway obstruction. It most commonly affects small-breed dogs, although larger-breed dogs, cats, and miniature horses are also sporadically reported. Dynamic airway imaging is used to confirm the diagnosis. The primary goal of medical management is to control clinical signs attributable to coughing and airway inflammation. When this is no longer effective, tracheal stents provide a minimally invasive, rapid way to restore airway patency...
September 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933945/interventional-management-of-urethral-obstructions
#20
REVIEW
Matthew W Beal
Lower urinary tract (LUT) emergencies are common reasons for small animal patients to be presented to their veterinarians. Patient stabilization and management of life threatening problems is a priority in this population. Urethral obstruction is a common LUT emergency. Urethral stent placement has gained popularity over the past decade allowing for a minimally invasive, image-guided method for relief of urethral obstruction in some patient populations. This article focuses on candidate selection, diagnostic workup, stent placement technique, and the expected outcome and complications for patients undergoing urethral stent placement and addresses some additional strategies for interventional management of LUT emergencies...
September 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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