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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276098/vaccinology-and-immunology-current-knowledge-new-discoveries-and-future-directions
#1
EDITORIAL
Amy E S Stone, Philip H Kass
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248206/current-and-newly-emerging-autoimmune-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Laurel J Gershwin
There are many autoimmune diseases that are recognized in domestic animals. The descriptions of diseases provide examples of the magnitude of immune targets and the variable nature of autoimmune diseases. Other autoimmune diseases that are recognized in dogs, cats, and horses include immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, VKH (Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada) ocular disease (dogs), and Evans syndrome (which includes both immune-mediated anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia).
December 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224713/veterinary-oncology-immunotherapies
#3
REVIEW
Philip J Bergman
The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine...
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217317/recent-advances-in-vaccine-technologies
#4
REVIEW
Michael James Francis
This brief review discusses some recent advances in vaccine technologies with particular reference to their application within veterinary medicine. It highlights some of the key inactivated/killed approaches to vaccination, including natural split-product and subunit vaccines, recombinant subunit and protein vaccines, and peptide vaccines. It also covers live/attenuated vaccine strategies, including modified live marker/differentiating infected from vaccinated animals vaccines, live vector vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217316/prevention-of-feline-injection-site-sarcomas-is-there-a-scientific-foundation-for-vaccine-recommendations-at-this-time
#5
REVIEW
Philip H Kass
Recently published guidelines have made specific vaccine recommendations purported to potentially reduce the incidence of feline injection-site sarcomas (FISS). These recommendations have largely been based on experimental models of inflammation under different vaccine formulations. In none of these studies did sarcomas occur. It is scientifically untenable to address FISS risk based on propensity of vaccines to elicit differential inflammatory responses if none of those responses led to sarcoma development...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198906/vaccines-in-shelters-and-group-settings
#6
REVIEW
Richard A Squires
Dogs and cats entering animal shelters are at high risk of acquiring 1 or more contagious infectious diseases. Such animals may be severely stressed, exhausted, and unwell, as well as malnourished and parasitized. The typically high throughput of shelter animals, many of them young and of unknown vaccination status, plays a role. Vaccines are a crucially important part of the management approach to limiting morbidity, mortality, and spread of infection. Guidelines for the use of vaccines in shelters have been published and are reviewed and discussed in this article...
November 29, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198905/the-microbiota-regulates-immunity-and-immunologic-diseases-in-dogs-and-cats
#7
REVIEW
Ian R Tizard, Sydney W Jones
The complex commensal microbiota found on body surfaces controls immune responses and the development of allergic and inflammatory diseases. New genetic technologies permit investigators to determine the composition of the complex microbial populations found on these surfaces. Changes in the microbiota (dysbiosis) as a result of antibiotic use, diet, or other factors thus influence the development of many diseases in the dog and cat. The most important of these include chronic gastrointestinal disease; respiratory allergies, such as asthma; skin diseases, especially atopic dermatitis; and some autoimmune diseases...
November 29, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195925/another-look-at-the-dismal-science-and-jenner-s-experiment
#8
REVIEW
John A Elllis
The follow-up to Jenner's experiment, routine vaccination, has reduced more disease and saved more vertebrate lives than any other iatrogenic procedure by orders of magnitude. The unassailability of that potentially provocative cliché has been ciphered in human medicine, even if it is more difficult in our profession. Most public relations headaches concerning vaccines are a failure to communicate, often resulting in overly great expectations. Even in the throes of a tight appointment schedule remembering and synopsizing (for clients), some details of the dismal science can make practice great again...
November 29, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195924/adverse-reactions-to-vaccination-from-anaphylaxis-to-autoimmunity
#9
REVIEW
Laurel J Gershwin
Vaccines are important for providing protection from infectious diseases. Vaccination initiates a process that stimulates development of a robust and long-lived immune response to the disease agents in the vaccine. Side effects are sometimes associated with vaccination. These vary from development of acute hypersensitivity responses to vaccine components to local tissue reactions that are annoying but not significantly detrimental to the patient. The pathogenesis of these responses and the consequent clinical outcomes are discussed...
November 29, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153207/preface
#10
EDITORIAL
Sharon C Kerwin, Amanda R Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153206/erratum
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056398/transsphenoidal-surgery-for-pituitary-tumors-and-other-sellar-masses
#12
REVIEW
Tina J Owen, Linda G Martin, Annie V Chen
Transsphenoidal surgery is an option for dogs and cats with functional and nonfunctional pituitary masses or other sellar and parasellar masses. An adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting tumor causing Cushing disease is the most common clinically relevant pituitary tumor in dogs, and the most common pituitary tumor seen in cats is a growth hormone-secreting tumor causing acromegaly. Transsphenoidal surgery can lead to rapid resolution of clinical signs and provide a cure for these patients. Because of the risks associated with this surgery, it should only be attempted by a cohesive pituitary surgery group with a sophisticated medical and surgical team...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037435/feline-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Heidi Barnes Heller
Seizures occur commonly in cats and can be classified as idiopathic epilepsy, structural epilepsy, or reactive seizures. Pursuit of a diagnosis may include a complete blood count, serum biochemistry, brain MRI, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis as indicated. Antiepileptic drugs should be considered if a cat is having frequent seizures, or any 1 seizure longer than 5 minutes. Phenobarbital is often the drug of choice; however, levetiracetam may be more useful for certain types of epilepsy in cats. Long-term prognosis depends on the underlying diagnosis and response to therapy...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037433/minimally-invasive-spine-surgery-in-small-animals
#14
REVIEW
Bianca F Hettlich
Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) seems to have many benefits for human patients and is currently used for various minor and major spine procedures. For MISS, a change in access strategy to the target location is necessary and it requires intraoperative imaging, special instrumentation, and magnification. Few veterinary studies have evaluated MISS for canine patients for spinal decompression procedures. This article discusses the general requirements for MISS and how these can be applied to veterinary spinal surgery...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964544/acute-herniation-of-nondegenerate-nucleus-pulposus-acute-noncompressive-nucleus-pulposus-extrusion-and-compressive-hydrated-nucleus-pulposus-extrusion
#15
REVIEW
Steven De Decker, Joe Fenn
Acute herniation of nondegenerate nucleus pulposus material is an important and relative common cause of acute spinal cord dysfunction in dogs. Two types of herniation of nondegenerate or hydrated nucleus pulposus have been recognized: acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion (ANNPE) and acute compressive hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion (HNPE). Spinal cord contusion plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both conditions. Sustained spinal cord compression is not present in ANNPE, whereas varying degrees of compression are present in HNPE...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964353/wound-management
#16
EDITORIAL
Marije Risselada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807399/wound-closure-tension-relieving-techniques-and-local-flaps
#17
REVIEW
Laura C Cuddy
Wounds are often addressed by primary or delayed primary closure. Although many skin wounds could go on to heal by second intention, this results in a less cosmetic outcome, takes longer, and in the long run, is often more expensive. As a general rule, the simplest method of wound closure that is likely to succeed should be chosen. If tension is present at the wound edges, wound dehiscence is likely to occur. Using specific techniques to relieve tension on wound edges and recruiting local flaps from neighboring regions are useful ways to achieve wound closure...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802984/free-grafts-and-microvascular-anastomoses
#18
REVIEW
Valery F Scharf
Skin grafts and free skin flaps are useful options for closure of wounds in which primary closure or use of traditional skin flaps is not feasible. Grafts are classified by their morphology and host-donor relationship. Free skin flaps with microvascular anastomoses are developed from previously described axial pattern flaps and have the added advantage of reestablishing robust vascular supply to the flap, but require specialized equipment and a high degree of technical expertise. Despite intensive perioperative care and the risk of graft or flap failure, skin grafts and free skin flaps can serve as rewarding methods of closing difficult wounds...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802983/systemic-and-local-management-of-burn-wounds
#19
REVIEW
Alessio Vigani, Christine A Culler
Management of severe burn injury (SBI) requires prompt, complex, and aggressive care. Despite major advances in the management of SBI-including patient-targeted resuscitation, management of inhalation injuries, specific nutritional support, enhanced wound therapy, and infection control-the consequences of SBI often result in complex, multiorgan metabolic changes. Consensus guidelines and clinical evidence regarding specific management of small animal burn patients are lacking. This article aims to review updated therapeutic consideration for the systemic and local management of SBI that are proven effective to optimize outcomes in human burn patients and may translate to small animal patients...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801009/management-of-radiation-side-effects-to-the-skin
#20
REVIEW
Tracy Gieger, Michael Nolan
Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential component for management of many cancers. Veterinary health care professionals must counsel owners about the potential side effects of RT, the anticipated management plan, and associated costs. For most veterinary patients treated with RT, acute radiation side effects are mild; however, careful radiation treatment planning and appropriate management of acute side effects are essential to try to prevent chronic sequelae and the need for ongoing wound care. This article reviews acute and late side effects to the skin and their management...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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