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Family & Community Health

Donna-Jean P Brock, Paul A Estabrooks, Jennie L Hill, Morgan L Barlow, Ramine C Alexander, Bryan E Price, Ruby Marshall, Jamie M Zoellner
Guided by a community-based participatory research and systems-based approach, this 3-year mixed-methods case study describes the experiences and capacity development of a Community-Academic Advisory Board (CAB) formed to adapt, implement, and evaluate an evidence-based childhood obesity treatment program in a medically underserved region. The CAB included community, public health, and clinical (n = 9) and academic partners (n = 9). CAB members completed capacity evaluations at 4 points. Partners identified best practices that attributed to the successful execution and continued advancement of project goals...
January 2019: Family & Community Health
Leanne Kosowan, Javier Mignone, Mariette Chartier, Caroline Piotrowski
Experiences during infancy create durable and heritable patterns of social deprivation and illness producing health disparities. This retrospective cohort study of 71 836 infants from Winnipeg, Manitoba, assessed associations between maternal social and economic factors and infant mortality, morbidity, and congenital anomaly. This study found that newborn and postneonatal hospital readmissions are inversely associated with geography. Additionally, social context, including maternal history of child abuse, is associated with infant postneonatal hospital readmissions...
January 2019: Family & Community Health
Candace Forbes Bright, Thometta Cozart, Braden Bagley, Hannah Scott, Jonathan Dennis
Despite the growing emphasis on collaboration in public health, there remains a dearth of literature providing tools for the evaluation of coalitions and councils. This study employed social network gap analysis as an evaluation tool. Survey data collected from the Southeastern Health Equity Council members were used to assess connections among members as a whole, by committee, by state, and by health specialty area. Analysis of how well Southeastern Health Equity Council met the representation outlined in its strategic plan was also conducted...
January 2019: Family & Community Health
Nelson Varas-Díaz, Elba Betancourt-Díaz, Alicia J Lozano, Liming Huang, Lucia DiNapoli, Alexandra Hanlon, Antonia M Villarruel
This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of a Web-based intervention to increase sexual communication between parents and adolescents. Parent/adolescent dyads (n = 660) were recruited from communities in the San Juan area and randomly assigned to the Cuídalos sexual communication or physical activity program. Parent assessments were obtained preintervention and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Parents in the experimental group reported significantly more sexual communication (ie, peer pressure, sexual prevention, protection, risk) over time than parents in the control group...
January 2019: Family & Community Health
Emilia H De Marchis, Jacqueline M Torres, Caroline Fichtenberg, Laura M Gottlieb
This systematic scoping review explores evidence on food insecurity (FI) screening measures, acceptability, and program implementation in health care settings. Validation studies on brief screening tools suggest that instruments exist that adequately measure the construct of FI. Patients and clinicians found FI screening acceptable in a range of clinical settings, though studies are not high quality and rarely reflect substantial patient diversity. Targeted interventions successfully increased screening rates and reduced screening barriers...
January 2019: Family & Community Health
Jean Butel, Kathryn L Braun
Many improvements in health equity are spearheaded by community collaborations working to change policy and social norms. But how can collective efficacy (CE), defined as the willingness and ability of a group to work toward a common good, be increased? Eight articles reporting on interventions aiming to reduce health disparities by improving CE were found for this systematic literature review. All studies showed improvements in CE and most found reduction in disparities, but operationalization of CE varied...
January 2019: Family & Community Health
Ursula Running Bear, Zaneta M Thayer, Calvin D Croy, Carol E Kaufman, Spero M Manson
This study investigated the relationship of American Indian boarding school attendance and chronic physical health. We hypothesized boarding school attendance would be associated with an increased number of chronic physical health problems. We also examined the relationship between boarding school attendance and the 15 chronic health problems that formed the count of the chronic health conditions. American Indian attendees had a greater count of chronic physical health problems compared with nonattendees. Father's attendance was independently associated with chronic physical health problems...
January 2019: Family & Community Health
Yi-Ling Lin, Judith Ortiz, Celeste Boor
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Medicare Shared Savings Program Accountable Care Organizations (SSP ACOs), along with other factors, on diabetes-related hospitalization rates for rural older adults. Using an early year of the SSP ACO program, we conducted multiple linear regressions to examine the effect of ACO participation on African American and white older adults. In neither model was ACO affiliation found to have a statistically significant impact on diabetes-related hospitalization rates...
October 2018: Family & Community Health
Kenneth J Fawcett, Raymond K Neff, Christina M Freese Decker, Josephine E Faber
Utilizing a nurse/community health worker team model, a Midwest institution's community health care division developed a 12-month managed care program for underserved individuals diagnosed with heart failure and/or diabetes. A study of 277 patients was conducted to determine whether this model could be utilized in rural settings. The program was evaluated using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Triple Aim criteria; HEDIS measures and other health indicators quantified each patient's performance. Study participants showed improved outcomes and a reduction in the total cost of care...
October 2018: Family & Community Health
Adam Hege, Lanae Ball, Richard W Christiana, Conner Wallace, Cami Hubbard, Danielle Truesdale, Jennifer Hege, Howard Fleming
Recent evidence highlights health disparities among rural communities. The purpose of this study was to learn from members of 2 Appalachia communities in North Carolina about barriers to health and well-being. Researchers conducted 3 focus groups (n = 24), which were coded and analyzed by a team of researchers to identify themes. Researchers identified 5 themes: (1) poverty/lack of economic opportunity; (2) access to health care and health resources; (3) social/mental health challenges; (4) food insecurity/hunger; and (5) youth/older adults being most vulnerable to health disparities...
October 2018: Family & Community Health
Ai Yue, Nianrui Zhang, Xueyang Liu, Lei Tang, Renfu Luo, Meredith Yang, Scott Rozelle, Alexis Medina
The overall goal of this study is to examine whether infant feeding practices differ between mothers and grandmothers in rural China. We randomly sampled 1383 caregivers of infants aged 18 to 30 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally designated poverty counties in rural areas. Results show that a high fraction of caregivers of 18- to 30-month-old children living in low-income areas of rural China do not regularly engage in positive infant feeding practices. Only 30% of children in our sample achieved adequate dietary diversity...
October 2018: Family & Community Health
Mary Lehman Held, Lisa C Lindley
This study examined how country of origin (Mexico or Guatemala) correlates with prenatal care utilization among unauthorized Latina immigrants, who encounter disparate access to health care. Logistic regression and negative binomial regression analyses were used to examine prenatal care adequacy and number of visits among a sample of 4188 unauthorized Latina immigrants. Findings suggest that originating from Guatemala predicted increased likelihood of inadequate prenatal care and fewer prenatal care visits...
October 2018: Family & Community Health
Samantha Teixeira, Anita Zuberi
Despite the knowledge that children in low-income neighborhoods are particularly vulnerable to asthma, few studies of child asthma focus on variation among low-income neighborhoods. We examined the relationship between child asthma and features associated with neighborhood poverty including safety, social cohesion, informal social control, collective efficacy, and disorder, across a sample of children from low-income neighborhoods (N = 3010; 2005-2007). Results show that the relationship between asthma and poverty is accounted for by family-level characteristics, but informal social control remains significantly and positively related to asthma after accounting for family-level characteristics...
October 2018: Family & Community Health
David O Fakunle, Raimee Eck, Adam J Milam, Roland J Thorpe, Debra M Furr-Holden
There is limited research on e-cigarette availability despite increased use. E-cigarette availability within Baltimore alcohol outlets was analyzed for disparities among residential neighborhoods. Data were obtained via field surveys of alcohol outlets, and then spatially merged with sociodemographic data; 18.8% of alcohol outlets had any e-cigarette availability. Regression models showed greater odds ratios for e-cigarette availability when cigarettes, cigars, or hookah paraphernalia were sold, and lower odds ratios when alcohol outlets had an on-site consumption license...
October 2018: Family & Community Health
LaToya J OʼNeal, Lori Brand Bateman, Theolishia Smith, Yufeng Li, Chen Dai, Theresa A Wynn, Mona N Fouad
Understanding obesity-related health disparities among low-income African Americans in the south requires further research investigating the range of factors influencing health behaviors. This study sought to examine the relationship between meeting the minimum recommendation for moderate physical activity and multilevel, including policy, systems, and environmental, strategies thought to influence health behaviors. We utilize preintervention community survey data from a sample of 256 low-income, predominantly, African Americans in 3 southeastern cities...
October 2018: Family & Community Health
Marino A Bruce, Derek M Griffith, Roland J Thorpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Family & Community Health
Joseph Ramsey, Brandii Mayes
A prenatal, evidenced-based education program was implemented in 7 rural counties and provided by trained staff at the Texas Department of State Health Services. This was implemented to address health disparities, in regard to birth outcomes, in rural minorities of Southeast Texas. The participants were given a preassessment (N = 382) and a postassessment (N = 326) of relevant health knowledge and a follow-up assessment (N = 149) to document the outcomes of their birth as well as health practices they were employing as new parents...
July 2018: Family & Community Health
Susan J Andreae, Lynn J Andreae, Andrea L Cherrington, Marquita Lewis, Ethel Johnson, Debra Clark, Monika M Safford
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) programs have the potential to improve quality of life in individuals with chronic pain and diabetes. Rural communities often lack the infrastructure necessary to implement such programs. CBT traditionally requires trained therapists, who are rarely available in these areas. An alternative may be programs delivered by community health workers (CHWs). We present an iterative developmental approach that combined program adaptation, pretesting, and CHW training processes for a CBT-based diabetes self-care program for individuals living with diabetes and chronic pain...
July 2018: Family & Community Health
Carolyn M Tucker, Julia Roncoroni, Guillermo M Wippold, Michael Marsiske, Delphia J Flenar, Kristin Hultgren
Health Self-Empowerment Theory asserts that 5 controllable psychological variables predict engagement in health-promoting behaviors. This study tests the theoretical integrity of Health Self-Empowerment Theory and its usefulness in predicting health-promoting behaviors and body mass index. Results from surveying 189 predominantly low-income, overweight/obese, and culturally diverse adults showed that most Health Self-Empowerment Theory variables were positively correlated. Structural equation modeling showed that 4 variables significantly predicted engagement in health-promoting behaviors, which mediated the relationships between body mass index and (a) motivation, (b) health self-efficacy, and (c) self-praise...
July 2018: Family & Community Health
Morgan E Cooley, Heather M Thompson, Heather Murray
Medically and economically vulnerable adults experience various challenges that can impact their health. Within this vulnerable population, there may be individuals who are even more vulnerable, those who have a history of involvement with the foster care system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference of reported health-related problems between adults with previous foster care experience and other vulnerable adults. Physical, mental, and relational health was evaluated in this study. Practice and policy implications for mental health and medical professionals are discussed...
July 2018: Family & Community Health
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