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Developmental Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343228/focal-brain-injury-associated-with-a-model-of-severe-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-nonhuman-primates
#1
Ryan M McAdams, Ronald J McPherson, Raj P Kapur, Sandra E Juul
Worldwide, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. To better understand the mechanisms contributing to brain injury and improve outcomes in neonates with HIE, better preclinical animal models that mimic the clinical situation following birth asphyxia in term newborns are needed. In an effort to achieve this goal, we modified our nonhuman primate model of HIE induced by in utero umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) to include postnatal hypoxic episodes, in order to simulate apneic events in human neonates with HIE...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343223/sildenafil-enhances-quantity-of-immature-neurons-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-the-developing-ischemic-mouse-brain
#2
Jonas Engels, Natalie Elting, Lisa Braun, Ivo Bendix, Josephine Herz, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Mark Dzietko
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the developing brain occurs in 1 out of 1,000 live births and remains a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality. A large number of survivors suffer from long-term sequelae including seizures and neurological deficits. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of recovery after HI insult are not clearly understood, and preventive measures or clinical treatments are nonexistent or not sufficiently effective in the clinical setting...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343216/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-identifies-iron-oxide-labeled-human-neural-stem-cells-automated-computational-detection
#3
Mohsen Baghchechi, Amy Plaia, Mary Hamer, Nirmalya Ghosh, Stephen Ashwal, Andre Obenaus
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HII) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation. Human neural stem cell (hNSC) therapy provides new hope for the treatment of neonatal HII. These multipotent cells can aid in HII recovery by activating multiple reparative mechanisms including secretion of neurotrophic factors that enhance brain repair and plasticity. For clinical use of implanted hNSCs, methods are required to identify, quantify, track, and visualize migration and replication in an automated and reproducible fashion...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343214/moderate-grade-germinal-matrix-haemorrhage-activates-cell-division-in-the-neonatal-mouse-subventricular-zone
#4
William J Dawes, Xinyu Zhang, Stephen P J Fancy, David Rowitch, Silvia Marino
Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315866/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-parenchymal-brain-development-and-growth-in-the-healthy-fetus
#5
Nickie N Andescavage, Adre DuPlessis, Robert McCarter, Gilbert Vezina, Richard Robertson, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to apply quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to characterize absolute cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) development, as well as its relative development to fetal brain parenchyma in the healthy human fetus. DESIGN: We created three-dimensional high-resolution reconstructions of the developing brain for healthy fetuses between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation, segmented the parenchymal and CSF spaces, and calculated the volumes for the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles; extra-axial CSF space; and the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315865/proteomic-analysis-of-mouse-cortex-postsynaptic-density-following-neonatal-brain-hypoxia-ischemia
#6
Guo Shao, Yongqiang Wang, Shenheng Guan, Alma L Burlingame, Fuxin Lu, Renatta Knox, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
Proteomics of the synapses and postsynaptic densities (PSDs) have provided a deep understanding of protein composition and signal networks in the adult brain, which underlie neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the architecture and organization of PSDs in the immature brain, and how it is modified by brain injury in an early developing stage. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis was performed on PSDs prepared from cortices of postnatal day 9 naïve mice or pups which had suffered hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273662/dedifferentiated-fat-cells-as-a-novel-source-for-cell-therapy-to-target-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#7
Alkisti Mikrogeorgiou, Yoshiaki Sato, Taiki Kondo, Tetsuo Hattori, Yuichiro Sugiyama, Miharu Ito, Akiko Saito, Keiko Nakanishi, Masahiro Tsuji, Tomohiko Kazama, Koichiro Kano, Taro Matsumoto, Masahiro Hayakawa
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) remains a major cause of mortality and persistent neurological disabilities in affected individuals. At present, hypothermia is considered to be the only applicable treatment option, although growing evidence suggests that cell-based therapy might achieve better outcomes. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are derived from mature adipocytes via a dedifferentiation strategy called ceiling culture. Their abundance and ready availability might make them an ideal therapeutic tool for the treatment of HIE...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273661/early-versus-late-onset-fetal-growth-restriction-differentially-affects-the-development-of-the-fetal-sheep-brain
#8
Anna Karynna Alves de Alencar Rocha, Beth J Allison, Tamara Yawno, Graeme R Polglase, Amy E Sutherland, Atul Malhotra, Graham Jenkin, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Suzanne L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy, principally caused by suboptimal placental function, and is associated with high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Clinical studies suggest that the time of onset of placental insufficiency is an important contributor towards the neurodevelopmental impairments that are evident in children who had FGR. It is however currently unknown how early-onset and late-onset FGR differentially affect brain development. The aim of this study was to examine neuropathology in early-onset and late-onset FGR fetal sheep and to determine whether they differentially alter brain development...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214871/restraint-stress-during-pregnancy-rapidly-raises-kynurenic-acid-levels-in-mouse-placenta-and-fetal-brain
#9
Francesca M Notarangelo, Robert Schwarcz
Stressful events during pregnancy adversely affect brain development and may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders later in life. Early changes in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) degradation, which contains several neuroactive metabolites, including kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and quinolinic acid (QUIN), may constitute a molecular link between prenatal stress and delayed pathological consequences. To begin testing this hypothesis experimentally, we examined the effects of a 2-h restraint stress on KP metabolism in pregnant FVB/N mice on gestational day 17...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196356/therapeutic-hypothermia-provides-variable-protection-against-behavioral-deficits-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-a-potential-role-for-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#10
Johana Diaz, Suleiman Abiola, Nancy Kim, Oliver Avaritt, Debra Flock, Jenny Yu, Frances J Northington, Raul Chavez-Valdez
BACKGROUND: Despite treatment with therapeutic hypothermia (TH), infants who survive hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) have persistent neurological abnormalities at school age. Protection by TH against HI brain injury is variable in both humans and animal models. Our current preclinical model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and TH displays this variability of outcomes in neuropathological and neuroimaging end points with some sexual dimorphism. The detailed behavioral phenotype of this model is unknown...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095379/diffusion-tensor-imaging-detects-occult-cerebellar-injury-in-severe-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#11
Monica E Lemmon, Matthias W Wagner, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Kathryn A Carson, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of whole-body hypothermia therapy, many infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) die or have significant long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Prospectively identifying neonates at risk of poor outcome is essential but not straightforward. The cerebellum is not classically considered to be a brain region vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic insults; recent literature suggests, however, that the cerebellum may be involved in neonatal HIE. In this study, we aimed to assess the microstructural integrity of cerebellar and linked supratentorial structures in neonates with HIE compared to neurologically healthy neonatal controls...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081533/eeg-monitoring-technique-influences-the-management-of-hypoxic-ischemic-seizures-in-neonates-undergoing-therapeutic-hypothermia
#12
Saber Jan, Frances J Northington, Charlamaine M Parkinson, Carl E Stafstrom
Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring techniques for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are evolving over time, and the specific type of EEG utilized could influence seizure diagnosis and management. We examined whether the type of EEG performed affected seizure treatment decisions (e.g., the choice and number of antiseizure drugs [ASDs]) in therapeutic hypothermia-treated neonates with HI from 2007 to 2015 in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. During this period, 3 different EEG monitoring protocols were utilized: Period 1 (2007-2009), single, brief conventional EEG (1 h duration) at a variable time during therapeutic hypothermia treatment, i...
January 17, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013305/development-of-the-corpus-callosum-an-mri-study
#13
Robert C Vannucci, Todd F Barron, Susan J Vannucci
The size and shape of the corpus callosum and its major components (genu, body, and splenium) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 118 normocephalic individuals aged from 1 postnatal week to 18.7 years. Genu, body, splenial, and total corpus callosal areas increased by 40-100% during the first year of life (p < 0.05). The genu expanded to a greater extent than the splenium during the first 6 years, while the splenium expanded to a greater extent between 7 and 18 years. The age-related difference in the maximal expansion of these structures indicated an anterior to posterior wave of corpus callosal enlargement during maturation, probably the consequence of differential axonal myelination...
December 24, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988510/in-the-era-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-how-well-do-studies-of-perinatal-neuroprotection-control-temperature
#14
Robert Galinsky, Justin M Dean, Christopher A Lear, Joanne O Davidson, Simerdeep Dhillon, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
In the era of therapeutic hypothermia, reliable preclinical studies are integral to successfully identify neuroprotective strategies to further improve outcomes of encephalopathy at term. We reviewed preclinical neuroprotection studies reported between January 2014 and June 2016 to assess the use of effective temperature monitoring and control. As a secondary measure, we examined whether studies addressed other methodological issues such as stage of brain development, sex differences, the timing of the treatment relative to the insult, and the histological and functional endpoints used after hypoxia-ischemia...
December 17, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978510/optimizing-cerebral-autoregulation-may-decrease-neonatal-regional-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#15
Jennifer K Lee, Andrea Poretti, Jamie Perin, Thierry A G M Huisman, Charlamaine Parkinson, Raul Chavez-Valdez, Matthew O'Connor, Michael Reyes, Jillian Armstrong, Jacky M Jennings, Maureen M Gilmore, Raymond C Koehler, Frances J Northington, Aylin Tekes
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We examined whether hemodynamic goals that support autoregulation are associated with decreased brain injury and whether these relationships are affected by birth asphyxia or vary by anatomic region. METHODS: Neonates cooled for HIE received near-infrared spectroscopy autoregulation monitoring to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulatory function (MAPOPT)...
December 16, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424035/alteration-of-energy-metabolism-and-antioxidative-processing-in-the-hippocampus-of-rats-reared-in-long-term-environmental-enrichment
#16
Hee Kang, Dong-Hee Choi, Su-Kang Kim, Jongmin Lee, Youn-Jung Kim
Environmental enrichment (EE) is a typical experimental method that promotes levels of novelty and complexity that enhance experience-dependent neuroplasticity and cognitive behavior function in laboratory animals. Early EE is associated with resilience in the face of later-life challenges. Since increased synaptic activity enhances endogenous neuronal antioxidant defenses, we hypothesized that long-term EE beginning at an early stage may alter the levels of oxidative stress. We investigated global protein expression and oxidative stress in hippocampal proteins from rats nurtured for a 6-month EE beginning in the prenatal period...
July 16, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372837/sex-specific-effects-of-prenatal-stress-on-memory-and-markers-of-neuronal-activity-in-juvenile-rats
#17
Yael Barbie-Shoshani, Shai Shoham, Corina Bejar, Marta Weinstock
Stress during pregnancy can increase the incidence of emotional problems, learning and language difficulties in human infants and pre-adolescents. Most preclinical studies in rats that attempted to find experimental support for these observations were performed in adult male offspring, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of prenatal stress on novel object recognition (NOR) and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) of juvenile rats of both sexes...
July 2, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226317/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-brain-injury-in-rats
#18
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Xin Lu, Rao P Gullapalli, Mary C McKenna, Jaylyn Waddell
Perinatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) is a significant cause of brain injury in surviving infants. Although hypothermia improves outcomes in some infants, additional therapies are needed since about 40% of infants still have a poor outcome. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), an acetylated derivative of L-carnitine, protected against early changes in brain metabolites and mitochondrial function after HI on postnatal day (PND) 7 in a rat pup model of near-term HI injury. However, its efficacy in long-term structural and functional outcomes remains unexplored...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214898/early-development-of-parvalbumin-somatostatin-and-cholecystokinin-expressing-neurons-in-rat-brain-following-prenatal-immune-activation-and-maternal-iron-deficiency
#19
Patricia Boksa, Ying Zhang, Dominique Nouel, Alice Wong, Tak Pan Wong
Prenatal maternal infection and maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy are 2 early environmental insults associated with increased risk for schizophrenia in offspring. Substantial evidence suggests that abnormalities in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneuron function, especially in the parvalbumin subtype of GABA interneuron, both developmentally and in adulthood, may contribute mechanistically to cognitive deficits and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This study used a rat model to test whether prenatal immune activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; at gestation days, GD, 15 and 16) or maternal iron deficiency (from GD2 to postnatal day P7) or the combination of both insults alters major subtypes of GABAergic interneurons (parvalbumin, somatostatin, cholecystokinin) in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia (medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus, ventral subiculum) in offspring at P14 or P28...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152539/hyperoxia-and-the-immature-brain
#20
Bettina Reich, Daniela Hoeber, Ivo Bendix, Ursula Felderhoff-Mueser
Despite major advances in obstetrics and neonatal intensive care, preterm infants frequently suffer from neurological impairments in later life. Preterm and also full-term neonates are generally susceptible to injury caused by reactive oxygen species due to the immaturity of endogenous radical scavenging systems. It is well known that high oxygen levels experienced during the critical phase of maturation can profoundly influence developmental processes. Supraphysiological oxygen concentrations used for resuscitation or in the care of critically ill infants are known to have deleterious effects on the developing lung and retina, contributing to the pathophysiology of neonatal diseases like bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
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