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Developmental Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214898/early-development-of-parvalbumin-somatostatin-and-cholecystokinin-expressing-neurons-in-rat-brain-following-prenatal-immune-activation-and-maternal-iron-deficiency
#1
Patricia Boksa, Ying Zhang, Dominique Nouel, Alice Wong, Tak Pan Wong
Prenatal maternal infection and maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy are 2 early environmental insults associated with increased risk for schizophrenia in offspring. Substantial evidence suggests that abnormalities in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneuron function, especially in the parvalbumin subtype of GABA interneuron, both developmentally and in adulthood, may contribute mechanistically to cognitive deficits and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This study used a rat model to test whether prenatal immune activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; at gestation days, GD, 15 and 16) or maternal iron deficiency (from GD2 to postnatal day P7) or the combination of both insults alters major subtypes of GABAergic interneurons (parvalbumin, somatostatin, cholecystokinin) in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia (medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus, ventral subiculum) in offspring at P14 or P28...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214871/restraint-stress-during-pregnancy-rapidly-raises-kynurenic-acid-levels-in-mouse-placenta-and-fetal-brain
#2
Francesca M Notarangelo, Robert Schwarcz
Stressful events during pregnancy adversely affect brain development and may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders later in life. Early changes in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) degradation, which contains several neuroactive metabolites, including kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and quinolinic acid (QUIN), may constitute a molecular link between prenatal stress and delayed pathological consequences. To begin testing this hypothesis experimentally, we examined the effects of a 2-h restraint stress on KP metabolism in pregnant FVB/N mice on gestational day 17...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196356/therapeutic-hypothermia-provides-variable-protection-against-behavioral-deficits-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-a-potential-role-for-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#3
Johana Diaz, Suleiman Abiola, Nancy Kim, Oliver Avaritt, Debra Flock, Jenny Yu, Frances J Northington, Raul Chavez-Valdez
BACKGROUND: Despite treatment with therapeutic hypothermia (TH), infants who survive hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) have persistent neurological abnormalities at school age. Protection by TH against HI brain injury is variable in both humans and animal models. Our current preclinical model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and TH displays this variability of outcomes in neuropathological and neuroimaging end points with some sexual dimorphism. The detailed behavioral phenotype of this model is unknown...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152539/hyperoxia-and-the-immature-brain
#4
Bettina Reich, Daniela Hoeber, Ivo Bendix, Ursula Felderhoff-Mueser
Despite major advances in obstetrics and neonatal intensive care, preterm infants frequently suffer from neurological impairments in later life. Preterm and also full-term neonates are generally susceptible to injury caused by reactive oxygen species due to the immaturity of endogenous radical scavenging systems. It is well known that high oxygen levels experienced during the critical phase of maturation can profoundly influence developmental processes. Supraphysiological oxygen concentrations used for resuscitation or in the care of critically ill infants are known to have deleterious effects on the developing lung and retina, contributing to the pathophysiology of neonatal diseases like bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity...
February 3, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132054/prenatal-cocaine-exposure-alters-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-the-embryonic-and-adult-brain
#5
Deirdre M McCarthy, Kaly A Mueller, Elisa N Cannon, Megan N Huizenga, Shayna B Darnell, Pradeep G Bhide, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili
Prenatal cocaine exposure remains a major public health concern because of its adverse effects on cognitive function. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment are not fully understood, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling via its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) is emerging as a potential candidate. We used a mouse model to examine the impact of ongoing cocaine exposure on BDNF expression in the dorsal forebrain on embryonic day 15 (E15) as well as the long-term effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on BDNF-TrkB signaling in the frontal cortex in early postnatal (postnatal day 16; P16) and adult (P60) male and female mice...
January 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103599/evaluations-of-intravenous-administration-of-cd34-human-umbilical-cord-blood-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#6
Makiko Ohshima, Akihiko Taguchi, Yoshiaki Sato, Yuko Ogawa, Satoshi Saito, Kenichi Yamahara, Masafumi Ihara, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Tomoaki Ikeda, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Masahiro Tsuji
Several cell therapies have been explored as novel therapeutic strategies for neonatal encephalopathy because the benefits of current treatments are limited. We previously reported that intravenous administration of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD34+ cells (hematopoietic stem cells/endothelial progenitor cells) at 48 h after insult exerts therapeutic effects in neonatal mice with stroke, i.e., permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Although neonatal stroke and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are grouped under the term "neonatal encephalopathy," their pathogenesis differs...
January 20, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095379/diffusion-tensor-imaging-detects-occult-cerebellar-injury-in-severe-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#7
Monica E Lemmon, Matthias W Wagner, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Kathryn A Carson, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of whole-body hypothermia therapy, many infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) die or have significant long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Prospectively identifying neonates at risk of poor outcome is essential but not straightforward. The cerebellum is not classically considered to be a brain region vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic insults; recent literature suggests, however, that the cerebellum may be involved in neonatal HIE. In this study, we aimed to assess the microstructural integrity of cerebellar and linked supratentorial structures in neonates with HIE compared to neurologically healthy neonatal controls...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081533/eeg-monitoring-technique-influences-the-management-of-hypoxic-ischemic-seizures-in-neonates-undergoing-therapeutic-hypothermia
#8
Saber Jan, Frances J Northington, Charlamaine M Parkinson, Carl E Stafstrom
Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring techniques for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are evolving over time, and the specific type of EEG utilized could influence seizure diagnosis and management. We examined whether the type of EEG performed affected seizure treatment decisions (e.g., the choice and number of antiseizure drugs [ASDs]) in therapeutic hypothermia-treated neonates with HI from 2007 to 2015 in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. During this period, 3 different EEG monitoring protocols were utilized: Period 1 (2007-2009), single, brief conventional EEG (1 h duration) at a variable time during therapeutic hypothermia treatment, i...
January 17, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030860/transcriptional-gene-silencing-of-the-autism-associated-long-noncoding-rna-msnp1as-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#9
Jessica J DeWitt, Patrick M Hecht, Nicole Grepo, Brent Wilkinson, Oleg V Evgrafov, Kevin V Morris, James A Knowles, Daniel B Campbell
The long noncoding RNA MSNP1AS (moesin pseudogene 1, antisense) is a functional element that was previously associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with genome-wide significance. Expression of MSNP1AS was increased 12-fold in the cerebral cortex of individuals with ASD and 22-fold in individuals with a genome-wide significantly associated ASD genetic marker on chromosome 5p14.1. Overexpression of MSNP1AS in human neuronal cells caused decreased expression of moesin protein, which is involved in neuronal process stability...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013305/development-of-the-corpus-callosum-an-mri-study
#10
Robert C Vannucci, Todd F Barron, Susan J Vannucci
The size and shape of the corpus callosum and its major components (genu, body, and splenium) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 118 normocephalic individuals aged from 1 postnatal week to 18.7 years. Genu, body, splenial, and total corpus callosal areas increased by 40-100% during the first year of life (p < 0.05). The genu expanded to a greater extent than the splenium during the first 6 years, while the splenium expanded to a greater extent between 7 and 18 years. The age-related difference in the maximal expansion of these structures indicated an anterior to posterior wave of corpus callosal enlargement during maturation, probably the consequence of differential axonal myelination...
December 24, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988510/in-the-era-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-how-well-do-studies-of-perinatal-neuroprotection-control-temperature
#11
Robert Galinsky, Justin M Dean, Christopher A Lear, Joanne O Davidson, Simerdeep Dhillon, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
In the era of therapeutic hypothermia, reliable preclinical studies are integral to successfully identify neuroprotective strategies to further improve outcomes of encephalopathy at term. We reviewed preclinical neuroprotection studies reported between January 2014 and June 2016 to assess the use of effective temperature monitoring and control. As a secondary measure, we examined whether studies addressed other methodological issues such as stage of brain development, sex differences, the timing of the treatment relative to the insult, and the histological and functional endpoints used after hypoxia-ischemia...
December 17, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978510/optimizing-cerebral-autoregulation-may-decrease-neonatal-regional-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#12
Jennifer K Lee, Andrea Poretti, Jamie Perin, Thierry A G M Huisman, Charlamaine Parkinson, Raul Chavez-Valdez, Matthew O'Connor, Michael Reyes, Jillian Armstrong, Jacky M Jennings, Maureen M Gilmore, Raymond C Koehler, Frances J Northington, Aylin Tekes
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We examined whether hemodynamic goals that support autoregulation are associated with decreased brain injury and whether these relationships are affected by birth asphyxia or vary by anatomic region. METHODS: Neonates cooled for HIE received near-infrared spectroscopy autoregulation monitoring to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulatory function (MAPOPT)...
December 16, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951531/reversal-learning-deficits-associated-with-increased-frontal-cortical-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-tyrosine-kinase-b-signaling-in-a-prenatal-cocaine-exposure-mouse-model
#13
Deirdre M McCarthy, Genevieve A Bell, Elisa N Cannon, Kaly A Mueller, Megan N Huizenga, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili, Debra A Fadool, Pradeep G Bhide
Prenatal cocaine exposure remains a major public health concern because of its adverse impact on cognitive function in children and adults. We report that prenatal cocaine exposure produces significant deficits in reversal learning, a key component of cognitive flexibility, in a mouse model. We used an olfactory reversal learning paradigm and found that the prenatally cocaine-exposed mice showed a marked failure to learn the reversed paradigm. Because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of cognitive functions, and because prenatal cocaine exposure increases the expression of BDNF and the phosphorylated form of its receptor, tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), we examined whether BDNF-TrkB signaling is involved in mediating the reversal learning deficit in prenatally cocaine-exposed mice...
December 13, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424035/alteration-of-energy-metabolism-and-antioxidative-processing-in-the-hippocampus-of-rats-reared-in-long-term-environmental-enrichment
#14
Hee Kang, Dong-Hee Choi, Su-Kang Kim, Jongmin Lee, Youn-Jung Kim
Environmental enrichment (EE) is a typical experimental method that promotes levels of novelty and complexity that enhance experience-dependent neuroplasticity and cognitive behavior function in laboratory animals. Early EE is associated with resilience in the face of later-life challenges. Since increased synaptic activity enhances endogenous neuronal antioxidant defenses, we hypothesized that long-term EE beginning at an early stage may alter the levels of oxidative stress. We investigated global protein expression and oxidative stress in hippocampal proteins from rats nurtured for a 6-month EE beginning in the prenatal period...
July 16, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372837/sex-specific-effects-of-prenatal-stress-on-memory-and-markers-of-neuronal-activity-in-juvenile-rats
#15
Yael Barbie-Shoshani, Shai Shoham, Corina Bejar, Marta Weinstock
Stress during pregnancy can increase the incidence of emotional problems, learning and language difficulties in human infants and pre-adolescents. Most preclinical studies in rats that attempted to find experimental support for these observations were performed in adult male offspring, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of prenatal stress on novel object recognition (NOR) and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) of juvenile rats of both sexes...
July 2, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788521/development-of-electrophysiological-properties-of-nucleus-gigantocellularis-neurons-correlated-with-increased-cns-arousal
#16
Xu Liu, Donald W Pfaff, Diany P Calderon, Inna Tabansky, Xin Wang, Yun Wang, Lee-Ming Kow
Many types of data have suggested that neurons in the nucleus gigantocellularis (NGC) in the medullary reticular formation are critically important for CNS arousal and behavioral responsiveness. To extend this topic to a developmental framework, whole-cell patch-recorded characteristics of NGC neurons in brainstem slices and measures of arousal-dependent locomotion of postnatal day 3 (P3) to P6 mouse pups were measured and compared. These neuronal characteristics developed in an orderly, statistically significant monotonic manner over the course of P3-P6: (1) proportion of neurons capable of firing action potential (AP) trains, (2) AP amplitude, (3) AP threshold, (4) amplitude of inward and outward currents, (5) amplitude of negative peak currents, and (6) steady state currents (in I-V plot)...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701168/serotonin-as-a-differentiation-signal
#17
Jean M Lauder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669335/iron-deficiency-impairs-developing-hippocampal-neuron-gene-expression-energy-metabolism-and-dendrite-complexity
#18
Thomas W Bastian, William C von Hohenberg, Daniel J Mickelson, Lorene M Lanier, Michael K Georgieff
Iron deficiency (ID), with and without anemia, affects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide. ID is particularly deleterious during early-life brain development, leading to long-term neurological impairments including deficits in hippocampus-mediated learning and memory. Neonatal rats with fetal/neonatal ID anemia (IDA) have shorter hippocampal CA1 apical dendrites with disorganized branching. ID-induced dendritic structural abnormalities persist into adulthood despite normalization of the iron status. However, the specific developmental effects of neuronal iron loss on hippocampal neuron dendrite growth and branching are unknown...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622292/hypothermia-and-rewarming-activate-a-macroglial-unfolded-protein-response-independent-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-piglets
#19
Jennifer K Lee, Bing Wang, Michael Reyes, Jillian S Armstrong, Ewa Kulikowicz, Polan T Santos, Jeong-Hoo Lee, Raymond C Koehler, Lee J Martin
Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain injury in neonates. We previously showed that cortical neuron and white matter apoptosis are promoted by hypothermia and early rewarming in a piglet model of HI. The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be one of the potential mediators of this cell death. Here, neonatal piglets underwent HI or sham surgery followed by 29 h of normothermia, 2 h of normothermia + 27 h of hypothermia or 18 h of hypothermia + rewarming...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614933/sildenafil-improves-brain-injury-recovery-following-term-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-male-rat-pups
#20
Armin Yazdani, Zehra Khoja, Aaron Johnstone, Laura Dale, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Pia Wintermark
Term asphyxiated newborns remain at risk of developing brain injury despite available neuropreventive therapies such as hypothermia. Neurorestorative treatments may be an alternative. This study investigated the effect of sildenafil on brain injury induced by neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at term-equivalent age. Neonatal HI was induced in male Long-Evans rat pups at postnatal day 10 (P10) by left common carotid ligation followed by a 2-hour exposure to 8% oxygen; sham-operated rat pups served as the control...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
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