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Developmental Neuroscience

Hidenori Ito, Rika Morishita, Makoto Mizuno, Noriko Kawamura, Hidenori Tabata, Koh-Ichi Nagata
MACRO Domain Containing 2 (MacroD2) is a neurodevelopmental disorder-related mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase. Molecular features of this protein in neural tissues are largely unknown. In this study, we generated a specific antibody against MacroD2, and carried out expression and morphological analyses of the molecule during mouse brain development. In Western blotting, 2 MacroD2 isoforms with molecular masses of ∼70 and ∼75 kDa started to be expressed at embryonic day 16.5, reached the maximal level at postnatal day 8, and then gradually decreased through P30...
September 18, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Marc P O'Sullivan, Klaudia M Sikora, Caroline Ahearne, Deirdre M Twomey, Mikael Finder, Geraldine B Boylan, Boubou Hallberg, Deirdre M Murray
The role of inflammation is an important factor in the progression of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). We have previously shown that interleukin-16 (IL-16) is increased in infants with moderate and severe HIE and relates to poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. We aimed to validate IL-16 as a cord blood-based biomarker for HIE and to examine its relationship to long-term outcomes. The study sample consisted of 105 full-term infants who experienced perinatal asphyxia (PA) (with and without an encephalopathy) along with healthy, gestational age-matched newborn controls...
September 11, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Madison C B Paton, Beth J Allison, Jingang Li, Michael C Fahey, Amy E Sutherland, Ilias Nitsos, Robert J Bischof, Justin M Dean, Timothy J M Moss, Graeme R Polglase, Graham Jenkin, Courtney A McDonald, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: Infants born preterm following exposure to in utero inflammation/chorioamnionitis are at high risk of brain injury and life-long neurological deficits. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of early intervention umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell therapy in a large animal model of preterm brain inflammation and injury. We hypothesised that UCB treatment would be neuroprotective for the preterm brain following subclinical fetal inflammation. METHODS: Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0...
September 4, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Xiaodi Chen, Aparna Patra, Grazyna B Sadowska, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental morbidities in preterm and full-term infants. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction represents an important component of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a vital component of the blood-brain barrier. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are important ECM components. They contribute to brain development, blood-brain barrier maintenance, and to regenerative and repair processes after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury...
July 26, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Chao Tang, Yuqing Wei, Jiajia Zhao, Jingxin Nie
There are distinct symptoms for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at different ages. To explore the developmental mechanism of ADHD from childhood to adolescence, patients from different age groups with ADHD drawn from a large dataset should be investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that there are significant differences in the developmental patterns of local and global brain activities between ADHD and typically developing (TD) individuals. Three voxel-based measurements and the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain networks were extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of both ADHD and TD participants 7-16 years of age...
July 13, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Arcangela Anna Cera, Emanuele Cacci, Camilla Toselli, Silvia Cardarelli, Alessandra Bernardi, Roberta Gioia, Mauro Giorgi, Giancarlo Poiana, Stefano Biagioni
In adult mammals, neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches at the level of selected CNS regions, such as the subventricular zone (SVZ). The signaling pathways that reg-ulate NSC proliferation and differentiation remain poorly understood. Early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) is an important transcription factor, widely studied in the adult mammalian brain, mediating the activation of target genes by a variety of extracellular stimuli. In our study, we aimed at testing how Egr-1 regulates adult NSCs derived from mouse SVZ and, in particular, the interplay between Egr-1 and the proliferative factor EGF...
July 5, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Kulpreet Cheema, Jacqueline Cummine
Reading requires efficient communication between brain regions that are situated all over the cortex. These brain areas are structurally connected by white-matter pathways that develop over the period of reading acquisition. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between white-matter tracts and reading performance across the lifespan. METHODS: Behavioral (reading performance) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging [DTI]) data were collected from participants aged 3-21 years as a part of the multi-site project called the pediatric imaging neurocognition genetics study...
June 25, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Anders Brunse, Afrouz Abbaspour, Per Torp Sangild
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) increases the risk of brain injury and impaired neurodevelopment. Rapid brain maturation prior to birth may explain why preterm brains are particularly vulnerable to serious infections. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that preterm birth was associated with altered blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) function and cerebral structural deficits, and that NEC was associated with systemic inflammation, BCSFB disruption, and neuroinflammation. First, cesarean-delivered preterm and term pigs (n = 43-44) were euthanized at birth to investigate BCSFB function and markers of brain structural maturation, or on day 5 to measure markers of blood-brain barrier maturation in the hippocampus and striatum (experiment 1)...
June 6, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Mari Falck, Damjan Osredkar, Elke Maes, Torun Flatebø, Thomas Ragnar Wood, Lars Walløe, Hemmen Sabir, Marianne Thoresen
BACKGROUND: Preclinical research on the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia (HT) after perinatal asphyxia has shown variable results, depending on comorbidities and insult severity. Exposure to inflammation increases vulnerability of the neonatal brain to hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) injury, and could be one explanation for those neonates whose injury is unexpectedly severe. Gram-negative type inflammatory exposure by lipopolysaccharide administration prior to a mild HI insult results in moderate brain injury, and hypothermic neuroprotection is negated...
June 1, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Michael J Hylin, Ryan C Holden, Aidan C Smith, Aric F Logsdon, Rabia Qaiser, Brandon P Lucke-Wold
The leading cause of death in the juvenile population is trauma, and in particular neurotrauma. The juvenile brain response to neurotrauma is not completely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to contribute to injury expansion and behavioral deficits in adult rodents and furthermore has been seen in adult postmortem human brains diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in juveniles with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly delineated...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Mary Tolcos, Annie McDougall, Amy Shields, Yoonyoung Chung, Rachael O'Dowd, Ann Turnley, Megan Wallace, Sandra Rees
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae in postnatal life. However, the effects of IUGR on the cerebellum are still to be fully elucidated. A major determinant of growth and development of the cerebellum is proliferation and subsequent migration of cerebellar granule cells. Our objective was to determine whether IUGR, induced by chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) in guinea pigs, results in abnormal cerebellar development due to deficits suggestive of impaired granule cell proliferation and/or migration...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Birger Victor Dieriks, Justin M Dean, Eleonora Aronica, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L M Faull, Maurice A Curtis
Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of transport proteins that facilitate intracellular transport of fatty acids. Despite abundant expression in the brain, the role that FABPs play in the process of cell proliferation and migration in the subventricular zone (SVZ) remains unclear. Our results provide a detailed characterisation of FABP3, 5, and 7 expression in adult and fetal human and sheep SVZ. High FABP5 expression was specifically observed in the adult human SVZ and co-labelled with polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), GFAPδ, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), indicating a role for FABP5 throughout the full maturation process of astrocytes and neuroblasts...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Yuqian Wang, Yuxia Qin, Tingwen Guo, Chuanxi Tang, Liyun Liu, Dianshuai Gao
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that astrocytes play an important role in a variety of biological processes, so damage to astrocytes can cause a series of related diseases. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has always been considered a protective factor for dopamine neurons. However, it remains unclear whether GDNF has a protective effect on glial cells, especially astrocytes. In this study, we put forward the hypothesis that a high concentration of GDNF in the microenvironment of astrocytes exerts an inhibitory effect on the apoptosis of astrocytes by DNA-damaging reagents...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Yiran Xu, Yanyan Sun, Kai Zhou, Tao Li, Cuicui Xie, Yaodong Zhang, Juan Rodriguez, Yanling Wu, Min Hu, Linus R Shao, Xiaoyang Wang, Changlian Zhu
Cranial radiotherapy is one of the most effective tools for treating children with brain tumors. However, radiotherapy-induced late-onset side effects have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of irradiation on metabolism and the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms behind such effects. Female Wistar rats were subjected to a single dose of 6-Gy whole-brain irradiation on postnatal day 11. The animals were sacrificed 6 h or 20 weeks after irradiation...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Adrienne M Antonson, Bindu Balakrishnan, Emily C Radlowski, Geraldine Petr, Rodney W Johnson
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk of neurobehavioral problems in offspring. Evidence from rodent models indicates that the maternal immune response to infection can alter fetal brain development, particularly in the hippocampus. However, information on the effects of maternal viral infection on fetal brain development in gyrencephalic species is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess several effects of maternal viral infection in the last one-third of gestation on hippocampal gene expression and development in fetal piglets...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Silvana Regina de Melo, Caren Tatiane de David Antoniazzi, Shakhawat Hossain, Bryan Kolb
The long-lasting effects of early stress on brain development have been well studied. Recent evidence indicates that males and females respond differently to the same stressor. We examined the chronic effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on behavior and cerebral morphology in both male and female rats. Cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated, and neuroplastic changes in 2 subregions of the prefrontal cortex (dorsal agranular insular cortex [AID] and cingulate cortex [Cg3]) and hippocampus (CA1 and dentate gyrus) were measured in adult male and female rats...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Byong Sop Lee, Dong-Cheol Woo, Chul-Woong Woo, Ki-Soo Kim
β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is a representative ketone body that may play a role in the mitigation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy by altering energy metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of exogenous BHB administration in a suckling rat model after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups were subjected to 120 min of hypoxia according to the Rice-Vannucci model. BHB (5.0 mmol/kg, HI-BHB) or vehicle (0.9% saline, HI-Veh) was administered 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after HI induction...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Russell W Brown, Marjorie A Schlitt, Alex S Owens, Caitlynn C DePreter, Elizabeth D Cummins, Seth L Kirby, W Drew Gill, Katherine C Burgess
The current study analyzed the effects of environmental enrichment versus isolation housing on the behavioral sensitization to nicotine in the neonatal quinpirole (NQ; dopamine D2-like agonist) model of dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity, a rodent model of schizophrenia. NQ treatment in rats increases dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity throughout the animal's lifetime, consistent with schizophrenia. Animals were administered NQ (1 mg/kg) or saline (NS) from postnatal day (P)1 to P21, weaned, and immediately placed into enriched housing or isolated in wire cages throughout the experiment...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Ingran Lingam, Nicola J Robertson
Magnesium is an intracellular cation essential for many en-zymatic processes and cellular functions. Magnesium sulfate acts as an endogenous calcium channel antagonist at neuronal synapses, thought to prevent excessive activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate, and by downregulation of proinflammatory pathways. Early intervention is essential in the prevention of the secondary phase of neuronal injury. The immature brain is particularly prone to excitotoxicity, and inflammation has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Masae Naruse, Koji Shibasaki, Hiroya Shimauchi-Ohtaki, Yasuki Ishizaki
Neuroblasts derived from neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate along the rostral migratory stream into the olfactory bulb to generate interneurons under normal physiological conditions. When demyelination occurs, NSCs or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the SVZ provide newly formed oligodendrocytes to demyelinated lesions. The plasticity of NSC/NPC lineages may tend to oligodendrogenesis under the influence of demyelinated lesions. The mechanisms, however, still remain unknown. This study revealed that focal demyelination in the corpus callosum caused activation of the microglia, not only at the site of demyelination but also in the SVZ, and dramatically increased the generation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the SVZ...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
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