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Developmental Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787734/neuroprotective-effects-of-intranasal-igf-1-against-neonatal-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neurobehavioral-deficits-and-neuronal-inflammation-in-the-substantia-nigra-and-locus-coeruleus-of-juvenile-rats
#1
Lu-Tai Tien, Yih-Jing Lee, Yi Pang, Silu Lu, Jonathan W Lee, Chih-Hsueh Tseng, Abhay J Bhatt, Renate D Savich, Lir-Wan Fan
Neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure-induced brain inflammation resulted in motor dysfunction and brain dopaminergic neuronal injury, and increased the risks of neurodegenerative disorders in adult rats. Our previous studies showed that intranasal administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) protects against LPS-induced white matter injury in the developing rat brain. To further examine whether IGF-1 protects against LPS-induced brain neuronal injury and neurobehavioral dysfunction, recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) at a dose of 50 µg/pup was administered intranasally 1 h following intracerebral injection of LPS (1 mg/kg) in postnatal day 5 (P5) Sprague-Dawley rat pups...
August 5, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772264/development-of-auditory-evoked-responses-in-normally-developing-preschool-children-and-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Julia M Stephen, Dina E Hill, Amanda Peters, Lucinda Flynn, Tongsheng Zhang, Yoshio Okada
The cortical responses to auditory stimuli undergo rapid and dramatic changes during the first 3 years of life in normally developing (ND) children, with decreases in latency and changes in amplitude in the primary peaks. However, most previous studies have focused on children >3 years of age. The analysis of data from the early stages of development is challenging because the temporal pattern of the evoked responses changes with age (e.g., additional peaks emerge with increasing age) and peak latency decreases with age...
August 4, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750400/a-dopamine-hypothesis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Denis Pavăl
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits and stereotyped behaviors. While several theories have emerged, the pathogenesis of ASD remains unknown. Although studies report dopamine signaling abnormalities in autistic patients, a coherent dopamine hypothesis which could link neurobiology to behavior in ASD is currently lacking. In this paper, we present such a hypothesis by proposing that autistic behavior arises from dysfunctions in the midbrain dopaminergic system...
July 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750368/changes-in-white-matter-integrity-following-intensive-voice-treatment-lsvt-loud%C3%A2-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-and-motor-speech-disorders
#4
Alesha Reed, Jacqueline Cummine, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Cynthia M Fox, Carol A Boliek
Preliminary evidence suggests that intensive voice and speech treatment based on activity-dependent neuroplasticity principles holds promise for affecting positive change in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and motor speech disorders. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows researchers to make inferences about the integrity of white matter tracks and provides a sensitive measure of neuroplasticity. Previous treatment studies looking at the effects of training on white matter integrity have shown positive results, but these studies have been limited to gross motor function...
July 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651252/combined-diffusion-tensor-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging-methodology-for-automated-regional-brain-analysis-application-in-a-normal-pediatric-population
#5
Nirmalya Ghosh, Barbara Holshouser, Udo Oyoyo, Stanley Barnes, Karen Tong, Stephen Ashwal
During human brain development, anatomic regions mature at different rates. Quantitative anatomy-specific analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data may improve our ability to quantify and categorize these maturational changes. Computational tools designed to quickly fuse and analyze imaging information from multiple, technically different datasets would facilitate research on changes during normal brain maturation and for comparison to disease states...
June 27, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591754/changes-in-sleep-architecture-under-sustained-pain-in-adult-male-rats-subjected-to-neonatal-short-lasting-local-inflammatory-insult
#6
Cheryl C H Yang, Shiang-Suo Huang, Chun-Ting Lai, Terry B J Kuo, Ya-Chun Chu
Neonatal, short-lasting, local, nociceptive insult by carrageenan can cause long-term alterations in somatosensory and neurohumoral systems. We previously revealed hyporesponsiveness of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) after painful stimulation of adult rats in a neonatal carrageenan-induced pain model. Sleep disturbance has been highly correlated with pain and ANS activity. In the present study, adult rats that had received an intraplantar injection of carrageenan on postnatal day 1 were investigated to determine if there were alterations in their sleep architecture upon the stimulation of pain...
June 8, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490020/maternal-inflammation-results-in-altered-tryptophan-metabolism-in-rabbit-placenta-and-fetal-brain
#7
Monica Williams, Zhi Zhang, Elizabeth Nance, Julia L Drewes, Wojciech G Lesniak, Sarabdeep Singh, Diane C Chugani, Kannan Rangaramanujam, David R Graham, Sujatha Kannan
Maternal inflammation has been linked to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders such as cerebral palsy, schizophrenia, and autism. We had previously shown that intrauterine inflammation resulted in a decrease in serotonin, one of the tryptophan metabolites, and a decrease in serotonin fibers in the sensory cortex of newborns in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy. In this study, we hypothesized that maternal inflammation results in alterations in tryptophan pathway enzymes and metabolites in the placenta and fetal brain...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490013/sulfatase-2-modulates-fate-change-from-motor-neurons-to-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-through-coordinated-regulation-of-shh-signaling-with-sulfatase-1
#8
Wen Jiang, Yugo Ishino, Hirokazu Hashimoto, Kazuko Keino-Masu, Masayuki Masu, Kenji Uchimura, Kenji Kadomatsu, Takeshi Yoshimura, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Sulfatases (Sulfs) are a group of endosulfatases consisting of Sulf1 and Sulf2, which specifically remove sulfate from heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Although several studies have shown that Sulf1 acts as a regulator of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling during embryonic ventral spinal cord development, the detailed expression pattern and function of Sulf2 in the spinal cord remains to be determined. In this study, we found that Sulf2 also modulates the cell fate change from motor neurons (MNs) to oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) by regulating Shh signaling in the mouse ventral spinal cord in coordination with Sulf1...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472809/developmental-changes-in-expression-of-gabaa-receptor-subunits-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-3-in-the-pig-brain
#9
Stephanie M Miller, Viskasari P Kalanjati, Paul B Colditz, Stella Tracey Björkman
GABA is a major neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. In the mature brain GABA exerts inhibitory actions via the GABAA receptor (GABAAR); however, in the immature brain GABA provides much of the excitatory drive. We examined the expression of 3 predominant GABAA α-subunit proteins in the pig brain at various pre- and postnatal ages. Brain tissue was collected from piglets born via caesarean section at preterm ages 91, 97, 100, and 104 days' gestational age (GA), at term equivalent (114 days' GA, caesarean section) and at term, postnatal day 0 (P0) (spontaneous delivery, term = 115 days)...
May 5, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628913/age-dependent-effects-of-alk5-inhibition-and-mechanism-of-neuroprotection-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#10
Brian H Kim, Mariano Guardia Clausi, Michelle Frondelli, Israel C Nnah, Chaitali Saqcena, Radek Dobrowolski, Steven W Levison
Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury triggers a wave of neuroinflammatory events attributed to causing the progressive degeneration and functional deficits seen weeks after the initial insult. In a recent set of studies, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a small molecule antagonist for ALK5 (activin-like kinase 5 ), TGF-β receptor in a rat model of moderate perinatal HI and found significant improvements in neurologic outcomes. Here, we have extended those studies to evaluate the efficacy of delayed TGF-β receptor antagonism on postnatal day (P) 6 and P9 HI rat pups with and without hypothermia...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591757/special-issue-dedicated-to-susan-j-vannucci-and-robert-c-vannucci
#11
Steven W Levison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511187/the-differential-effects-of-erythropoietin-exposure-to-oxidative-stress-on-microglia-and-astrocytes-in-vitro
#12
Praneeti Pathipati, Donna M Ferriero
The neonatal brain is especially susceptible to oxidative stress owing to its reduced antioxidant capacity. Following hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, for example, there is a prolonged elevation in levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the immature brain compared to the adult brain, resulting in lasting injury that can lead to life-long disability or morbidity. Erythropoietin (Epo) is one of few multifaceted treatment options that have been promising enough to trial in the clinic for both term and preterm brain injury...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494460/persistently-altered-metabolic-phenotype-following-perinatal-excitotoxic-brain-injury
#13
Benjamin J Blaise, Leslie Schwendimann, Vibol Chhor, Vincent Degos, Mark P Hodson, Guido Dallmann, Matthias Keller, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
Excitotoxicity plays a key role during insults to the developing brain such as neonatal encephalopathy, stroke, and encephalopathy of prematurity. Such insults affect many thousands of infants each year. Excitotoxicity causes frank lesions due to cell death and gliosis and disturbs normal developmental process, leading to deficits in learning, memory, and social integration that persist into adulthood. Understanding the underlying processes of the acute effects of excitotoxicity and its persistence during brain maturation provides an opportunity to identify mechanistic or diagnostic biomarkers, thus enabling and designing possible therapies...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490023/cord-blood-il-16-is-associated-with-3-year-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-perinatal-asphyxia-and-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy
#14
Caroline E Ahearne, Ruby Y Chang, Brian H Walsh, Geraldine B Boylan, Deirdre M Murray
Activation of the inflammatory pathway is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of injury following neonatal asphyxia and encephalopathy. This process may contribute to the poor prognosis seen in some cases, despite therapeutic hypothermia. Our group has previously identified raised interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-16, measured in umbilical cord blood at birth, to be predictive of grade of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our aim in this study was to examine the ability of these cytokines to predict the 3-year neurodevelopmental outcome in the same cohort...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486224/long-term-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-cerebral-palsy-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#15
Ryan M McAdams, Bobbi Fleiss, Christopher Traudt, Leslie Schwendimann, Jessica M Snyder, Robin L Haynes, Niranjana Natarajan, Pierre Gressens, Sandra E Juul
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood, with a worldwide prevalence of 1.5-4/1,000 live births. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) contributes to the burden of CP, but the long-term neuropathological findings of this association remain limited. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-four term Macaca nemestrina macaques were included in this long-term neuropathological study: 9 control animals delivered by cesarean section and 25 animals with perinatal asphyxia delivered by cesarean section after 15-18 min of umbilical cord occlusion (UCO)...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467985/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-treatment-on-the-cerebral-vasculature-in-an-ovine-model-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#16
Margie Castillo-Melendez, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Graham Jenkin, Euan M Wallace, Suzanne L Miller
Chronic moderate hypoxia, such as occurs in fetal growth restriction (FGR) during gestation, compromises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and results in structural abnormalities of the cerebral vasculature. We have previously determined the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of maternal administration of melatonin (MLT) on growth-restricted newborn lambs. The potential of maternal MLT therapy for the treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction-associated developmental hypoxia has also been demonstrated in newborn lambs...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448983/intrauterine-growth-restriction-alters-the-postnatal-development-of-the-rat-cerebellum
#17
Annie R A McDougall, Vanny Wiradjaja, Aminath Azhan, Anqi Li, Nadia Hale, Mary E Wlodek, Stuart B Hooper, Megan J Wallace, Mary Tolcos
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of antenatal brain injury. We aimed to characterize cerebellar deficits following IUGR and to investigate the potential underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. At embryonic day 18, pregnant rats underwent either sham surgery (controls; n = 23) or bilateral uterine vessel ligation to restrict blood flow to fetuses (IUGR; n = 20). Offspring were collected at postnatal day 2 (P2), P7, and P35. Body weights were reduced at P2, P7, and P35 in IUGR offspring (p < 0...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448965/neuroprotective-treatments-after-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-evaluated-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#18
Hester Rijkje Berger, Eva Brekke, Marius Widerøe, Tora S Morken
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a major health problem. Adjuvant treatments that improve the neuroprotective effect of the current treatment, therapeutic hypothermia, are urgently needed. The growing knowledge about the complex pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) has led to the discovery of several important targets for neuroprotection. Early interventions should focus on the preservation of energy metabolism, the reduction of glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, and the prevention of apoptosis...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445874/erythropoietin-treatment-exacerbates-moderate-injury-after-hypoxia-ischemia-in-neonatal-superoxide-dismutase-transgenic-mice
#19
R Ann Sheldon, Christine Windsor, Byong Sop Lee, Olatz Arteaga Cabeza, Donna M Ferriero
The neonatal brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress as developing endogenous antioxidant mechanisms are overwhelmed. In the neonate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) overexpression worsens hypoxic-ischemic injury due to H2O2 accumulation in the brain. Erythropoietin (EPO) is upregulated in 2 phases after HI, early (4 h) and late (7 days), and exogenous EPO has been effective in reducing the injury, possibly through reducing oxidative stress. We hypothesized that exogenous EPO would limit injury from excess H2O2 seen in SOD1-overexpressing mice, and thus enhance recovery after HI...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434009/hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-neonates
#20
Wei Ling Amelia Lee, Adina T Michael-Titus, Divyen K Shah
This review aims to highlight a possible relationship between hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inflammatory reactions perpetuate a large proportion of cerebral injury. The extent of injury noted in HIE is not only determined by the biochemical cascades that trigger the apoptosis-necrosis continuum of cell death in the brain parenchyma, but also by the breaching of the BBB by pro-inflammatory factors. We examine the changes that contribute to the breakdown of the BBB that occur during HIE at a macroscopic, cellular, and molecular level...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
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