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Developmental Neuroscience

Makiko Ohshima, Akihiko Taguchi, Yoshiaki Sato, Yuko Ogawa, Satoshi Saito, Kenichi Yamahara, Masafumi Ihara, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Tomoaki Ikeda, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Masahiro Tsuji
Several cell therapies have been explored as novel therapeutic strategies for neonatal encephalopathy because the benefits of current treatments are limited. We previously reported that intravenous administration of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD34+ cells (hematopoietic stem cells/endothelial progenitor cells) at 48 h after insult exerts therapeutic effects in neonatal mice with stroke, i.e., permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Although neonatal stroke and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are grouped under the term "neonatal encephalopathy," their pathogenesis differs...
January 20, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
Monica E Lemmon, Matthias W Wagner, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Kathryn A Carson, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of whole-body hypothermia therapy, many infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) die or have significant long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Prospectively identifying neonates at risk of poor outcome is essential but not straightforward. The cerebellum is not classically considered to be a brain region vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic insults; recent literature suggests, however, that the cerebellum may be involved in neonatal HIE. In this study, we aimed to assess the microstructural integrity of cerebellar and linked supratentorial structures in neonates with HIE compared to neurologically healthy neonatal controls...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
Saber Jan, Frances J Northington, Charlamaine M Parkinson, Carl E Stafstrom
Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring techniques for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are evolving over time, and the specific type of EEG utilized could influence seizure diagnosis and management. We examined whether the type of EEG performed affected seizure treatment decisions (e.g., the choice and number of antiseizure drugs [ASDs]) in therapeutic hypothermia-treated neonates with HI from 2007 to 2015 in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. During this period, 3 different EEG monitoring protocols were utilized: Period 1 (2007-2009), single, brief conventional EEG (1 h duration) at a variable time during therapeutic hypothermia treatment, i...
January 17, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
Jessica J DeWitt, Patrick M Hecht, Nicole Grepo, Brent Wilkinson, Oleg V Evgrafov, Kevin V Morris, James A Knowles, Daniel B Campbell
The long noncoding RNA MSNP1AS (moesin pseudogene 1, antisense) is a functional element that was previously associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with genome-wide significance. Expression of MSNP1AS was increased 12-fold in the cerebral cortex of individuals with ASD and 22-fold in individuals with a genome-wide significantly associated ASD genetic marker on chromosome 5p14.1. Overexpression of MSNP1AS in human neuronal cells caused decreased expression of moesin protein, which is involved in neuronal process stability...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Robert C Vannucci, Todd F Barron, Susan J Vannucci
The size and shape of the corpus callosum and its major components (genu, body, and splenium) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 118 normocephalic individuals aged from 1 postnatal week to 18.7 years. Genu, body, splenial, and total corpus callosal areas increased by 40-100% during the first year of life (p < 0.05). The genu expanded to a greater extent than the splenium during the first 6 years, while the splenium expanded to a greater extent between 7 and 18 years. The age-related difference in the maximal expansion of these structures indicated an anterior to posterior wave of corpus callosal enlargement during maturation, probably the consequence of differential axonal myelination...
December 24, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Robert Galinsky, Justin M Dean, Christopher A Lear, Joanne O Davidson, Simerdeep Dhillon, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
In the era of therapeutic hypothermia, reliable preclinical studies are integral to successfully identify neuroprotective strategies to further improve outcomes of encephalopathy at term. We reviewed preclinical neuroprotection studies reported between January 2014 and June 2016 to assess the use of effective temperature monitoring and control. As a secondary measure, we examined whether studies addressed other methodological issues such as stage of brain development, sex differences, the timing of the treatment relative to the insult, and the histological and functional endpoints used after hypoxia-ischemia...
December 17, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Jennifer K Lee, Andrea Poretti, Jamie Perin, Thierry A G M Huisman, Charlamaine Parkinson, Raul Chavez-Valdez, Matthew O'Connor, Michael Reyes, Jillian Armstrong, Jacky M Jennings, Maureen M Gilmore, Raymond C Koehler, Frances J Northington, Aylin Tekes
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We examined whether hemodynamic goals that support autoregulation are associated with decreased brain injury and whether these relationships are affected by birth asphyxia or vary by anatomic region. METHODS: Neonates cooled for HIE received near-infrared spectroscopy autoregulation monitoring to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulatory function (MAPOPT)...
December 16, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Deirdre M McCarthy, Genevieve A Bell, Elisa N Cannon, Kaly A Mueller, Megan N Huizenga, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili, Debra A Fadool, Pradeep G Bhide
Prenatal cocaine exposure remains a major public health concern because of its adverse impact on cognitive function in children and adults. We report that prenatal cocaine exposure produces significant deficits in reversal learning, a key component of cognitive flexibility, in a mouse model. We used an olfactory reversal learning paradigm and found that the prenatally cocaine-exposed mice showed a marked failure to learn the reversed paradigm. Because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of cognitive functions, and because prenatal cocaine exposure increases the expression of BDNF and the phosphorylated form of its receptor, tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), we examined whether BDNF-TrkB signaling is involved in mediating the reversal learning deficit in prenatally cocaine-exposed mice...
December 13, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Hee Kang, Dong-Hee Choi, Su-Kang Kim, Jongmin Lee, Youn-Jung Kim
Environmental enrichment (EE) is a typical experimental method that promotes levels of novelty and complexity that enhance experience-dependent neuroplasticity and cognitive behavior function in laboratory animals. Early EE is associated with resilience in the face of later-life challenges. Since increased synaptic activity enhances endogenous neuronal antioxidant defenses, we hypothesized that long-term EE beginning at an early stage may alter the levels of oxidative stress. We investigated global protein expression and oxidative stress in hippocampal proteins from rats nurtured for a 6-month EE beginning in the prenatal period...
July 16, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Yael Barbie-Shoshani, Shai Shoham, Corina Bejar, Marta Weinstock
Stress during pregnancy can increase the incidence of emotional problems, learning and language difficulties in human infants and pre-adolescents. Most preclinical studies in rats that attempted to find experimental support for these observations were performed in adult male offspring, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of prenatal stress on novel object recognition (NOR) and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) of juvenile rats of both sexes...
July 2, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Ryan T Lacy, Russell W Brown, Amanda J Morgan, Charles F Mactutus, Steven B Harrod
In the USA, approximately 15% of women smoke tobacco cigarettes during pregnancy. In utero tobacco smoke exposure produces somatic growth deficits like intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight in offspring, but it can also negatively influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in later stages of life, such as an increased incidence of obesity and drug abuse. Animal models demonstrate that prenatal nicotine (PN) alters the development of the mesocorticolimbic system, which is important for organizing goal-directed behavior...
June 11, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Xu Liu, Donald W Pfaff, Diany P Calderon, Inna Tabansky, Xin Wang, Yun Wang, Lee-Ming Kow
Many types of data have suggested that neurons in the nucleus gigantocellularis (NGC) in the medullary reticular formation are critically important for CNS arousal and behavioral responsiveness. To extend this topic to a developmental framework, whole-cell patch-recorded characteristics of NGC neurons in brainstem slices and measures of arousal-dependent locomotion of postnatal day 3 (P3) to P6 mouse pups were measured and compared. These neuronal characteristics developed in an orderly, statistically significant monotonic manner over the course of P3-P6: (1) proportion of neurons capable of firing action potential (AP) trains, (2) AP amplitude, (3) AP threshold, (4) amplitude of inward and outward currents, (5) amplitude of negative peak currents, and (6) steady state currents (in I-V plot)...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Jean M Lauder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Thomas W Bastian, William C von Hohenberg, Daniel J Mickelson, Lorene M Lanier, Michael K Georgieff
Iron deficiency (ID), with and without anemia, affects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide. ID is particularly deleterious during early-life brain development, leading to long-term neurological impairments including deficits in hippocampus-mediated learning and memory. Neonatal rats with fetal/neonatal ID anemia (IDA) have shorter hippocampal CA1 apical dendrites with disorganized branching. ID-induced dendritic structural abnormalities persist into adulthood despite normalization of the iron status. However, the specific developmental effects of neuronal iron loss on hippocampal neuron dendrite growth and branching are unknown...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Jennifer K Lee, Bing Wang, Michael Reyes, Jillian S Armstrong, Ewa Kulikowicz, Polan T Santos, Jeong-Hoo Lee, Raymond C Koehler, Lee J Martin
Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain injury in neonates. We previously showed that cortical neuron and white matter apoptosis are promoted by hypothermia and early rewarming in a piglet model of HI. The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be one of the potential mediators of this cell death. Here, neonatal piglets underwent HI or sham surgery followed by 29 h of normothermia, 2 h of normothermia + 27 h of hypothermia or 18 h of hypothermia + rewarming...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Armin Yazdani, Zehra Khoja, Aaron Johnstone, Laura Dale, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Pia Wintermark
Term asphyxiated newborns remain at risk of developing brain injury despite available neuropreventive therapies such as hypothermia. Neurorestorative treatments may be an alternative. This study investigated the effect of sildenafil on brain injury induced by neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at term-equivalent age. Neonatal HI was induced in male Long-Evans rat pups at postnatal day 10 (P10) by left common carotid ligation followed by a 2-hour exposure to 8% oxygen; sham-operated rat pups served as the control...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Pablo Vázquez-Borsetti, Elena Peña, Catalina Rico, Mariana Noto, Nathalie Miller, Diego Cohon, Juan Manuel Acosta, Mariano Ibarra, Fabián C Loidl
Obstetrical complications of perinatal asphyxia (PA) can often induce lesions that, in the long-term, manifest as schizophrenia. A deterioration of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a reduction in the number of GABAergic neurons are commonly observed in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the link between PA, reelin and calbindin diminution and psychiatric diseases that involve social interaction deficits. This was achieved by observing the effect of 19 min of asphyxia on both subpopulations of GABAergic neurons...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Bridgette D Semple, Raha Sadjadi, Jaclyn Carlson, Yiran Chen, Duan Xu, Donna M Ferriero, Linda J Noble-Haeusslein
Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries (rmTBIs) culminate in neurological impairments and chronic neurodegeneration, which have wide-ranging implications for patient management and return-to-play decisions for athletes. Adolescents show a high prevalence of sports-related head injuries and may be particularly vulnerable to rmTBIs due to ongoing brain maturation. However, it remains unclear whether rmTBIs, below the threshold for acute neuronal injury or symptomology, influence long-term outcomes...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Rachel K Rowe, Jenna M Ziebell, Jordan L Harrison, L Matthew Law, P David Adelson, Jonathan Lifshitz
Development and aging are influenced by external factors with the potential to impact health throughout the life span. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can initiate and sustain a lifetime of physical and mental health symptoms. Over 1.7 million TBIs occur annually in the USA alone, with epidemiology suggesting a higher incidence for young age groups. Additionally, increasing life spans mean more years to age with TBI. While there is ongoing research of experimental pediatric and adult TBI, few studies to date have incorporated animal models of pediatric, adolescent, and adult TBI to understand the role of age at injury across the life span...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Fu-Sun Lo, Reha S Erzurumlu
The whisker-sensory trigeminal central pathway of rodents is an established model for studies of activity-dependent neural plasticity. The first relay station of the pathway is the trigeminal principal nucleus (PrV), the ventral part of which receives sensory inputs mainly from the infraorbital branch of the maxillary trigeminal nerve (ION). Whisker-sensory afferents play an important role in the development of the morphological and physiological properties of PrV neurons. In neonates, deafferentation by ION transection leads to the disruption of whisker-related neural patterns (barrelettes) and cell death within a specific time window (critical period), as revealed by morphological studies...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
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