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Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781373/subliminal-gender-stereotypes-who-can-resist
#1
Jolien A van Breen, Russell Spears, Toon Kuppens, Soledad de Lemus
We examine women's responses to subliminal gender stereotypes, that is, stereotypes present outside conscious awareness. Previous research suggests that subtle stereotypes elicit acceptance and assimilation, but we predict that subliminal exposure to gender stereotypes will trigger resistance in some women. Specifically, we expect resistance to occur among women who are relatively strongly identified with feminists, but not with the broader group of women. We predict that resistance takes the form of persistence in stereotypically masculine domains and (implicit) in-group bias...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756548/threat-to-the-group-s-image-can-motivate-high-identifiers-to-take-action-against-in-group-transgressions
#2
Eric Shuman, Dan Johnson, Tamar Saguy, Eran Halperin
When transgressions are committed by a group, those highly identified with the group are often least likely to recognize the transgressions, feel collective guilt, and engage in action to address them. We hypothesized that especially among high identifiers, demonstrating that in-group transgressions threaten the group's image can induce normative conflict and thus collective guilt and action. In the first study, we demonstrate that high (vs. low) image threat increases normative conflict among high identifiers...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756547/well-being-correlates-of-perceived-positivity-resonance-evidence-from-trait-and-episode-level-assessments
#3
Brett C Major, Khoa D Le Nguyen, Kristjen B Lundberg, Barbara L Fredrickson
Positivity resonance is a type of interpersonal connection characterized by shared positivity, mutual care and concern, and behavioral and biological synchrony. Perceived positivity resonance is hypothesized to be associated with well-being. In three studies ( N = 175, N = 120, N = 173), perceived positivity resonance was assessed at the trait level (Study 1) or the episode level, using the Day Reconstruction Method (Studies 2 and 3). Primary analyses reveal that perceived positivity resonance is associated with flourishing mental health, depressive symptoms, loneliness, and illness symptoms...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749289/more-about-when-i-s-meet-the-intergroup-ramifications-of-i-sharing-part-ii
#4
Elizabeth C Pinel, Anson E Long, Leslie C Johnson, Geneva C Yawger
Previous research on I-sharing (the belief that one has shared the same, in-the-moment subjective experience with another person) revealed its promise for improving intergroup relations. We expand on this research by (a) pursuing the mechanism underlying I-sharing's effects; (b) asking whether I-sharing promotes positive, behavioral intergroup outcomes; and (c) asking whether the effects of I-sharing generalize to the outgroup at large. Study 1 rules out the possibility that I-sharing promotes liking for an outgroup member via a process of subtyping...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742998/people-as-means-to-multiple-goals-implications-for-interpersonal-relationships
#5
Edward Orehek, Amanda L Forest, Sara Wingrove
The present research examines the implications of having relationship partners who serve as means to multiple goals. Specifically, we test the hypotheses that (a) partners who serve more goals will be evaluated as more interpersonally close, supportive, and responsive than those who serve fewer goals, and (b) partners who serve more goals will be less common in social networks than those who serve fewer goals. Three studies ( N = 1,064) found consistent support for these hypotheses while examining relationships with all members of participants' active social network and their full range of goal pursuits...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742997/effects-of-cultural-tightness-looseness-and-social-network-density-on-expression-of-positive-and-negative-emotions-a-large-scale-study-of-impression-management-by-facebook-users
#6
Pan Liu, David Chan, Lin Qiu, William Tov, Victor Joo Chuan Tong
Using data from 13,789 Facebook users across U.S. states, this study examined the main effects of societal-level cultural tightness-looseness and its interaction effects with individuals' social network density on impression management (IM) in terms of online emotional expression. Results showed that individuals from culturally tight (vs. loose) states were more likely to express positive emotions and less likely to express negative emotions. Meanwhile, for positive emotional expression, there was a tightness-looseness by social network density interaction effect...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742996/how-do-people-judge-meaning-in-goal-directed-behaviors-the-interplay-between-self-concordance-and-performance
#7
Hong Zhang, Kaiyuan Chen, Rebecca Schlegel
Perceived performance and self-concordance are two sources of information people may utilize to judge meaning in goal-directed behaviors. We contend that either variable can adequately support the presence of meaning, even in the absence of the other. This perspective suggests that non-self-concordant goal pursuits can feel meaningful as long as one feels successful at the goals, and that failed goal pursuits can feel meaningful as long as they are self-concordant. Five studies investigated this potential interaction between performance and self-concordance...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742995/how-the-distribution-of-member-expectations-influences-cooperation-and-competition-in-groups-a-social-relations-model-analysis-of-social-dilemmas
#8
Jared L Ladbury, Verlin B Hinsz
Group outcomes are difficult to model and predict using individual-level metrics. We use shared cognition concepts and the social relations model to predict cooperative group outcomes in two social dilemmas to test whether social projection or consensus among group members would best predict cooperation. Group-level variance components derived from the social relations model were used as indices of social projection and consensus. Groups played five rounds of two social dilemmas and predicted their partners' behavior on the following round...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742994/a-sense-of-obligation-cultural-differences-in-the-experience-of-obligation
#9
Emma E Buchtel, Leo C Y Ng, Ara Norenzayan, Steven J Heine, Jeremy C Biesanz, Sylvia Xiaohua Chen, Michael Harris Bond, Qin Peng, Yanjie Su
In this investigation of cultural differences in the experience of obligation, we distinguish between Confucian Role Ethics versus Relative Autonomy lay theories of motivation and illustrate them with data showing relevant cultural differences in both social judgments and intrapersonal experience. First, when judging others, Western European heritage culture (WEHC) participants (relative to Confucian heritage culture [CHC] participants) judged obligation-motivated actors more negatively than those motivated by agency (Study 1, N = 529)...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739296/the-ego-defensive-role-of-legitimacy-how-threat-based-justifications-protect-the-self-esteem-of-discriminators
#10
Cicero Roberto Pereira, José Luis Álvaro, Jorge Vala
This article analyzes the ego-defensive role played by legitimation, by examining the hypothesis that threat-based justifications attenuate the negative effect on an individual's self-esteem caused by his or her becoming aware of his or her own discriminatory behavior. Across three studies (including a pilot experiment), participants who were led to believe that they had acted in a discriminatory way experienced a decrease in their self-esteem. In Study 1 ( N = 116), this effect was nullified when discrimination was justified by either symbolic or realistic threat perceptions...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739295/name-norms-a-guide-to-casting-your-next-experiment
#11
Leonard S Newman, Mingxuan Tan, Tracy L Caldwell, Kimberley J Duff, E Samuel Winer
Psychologists often test hypotheses by constructing vignettes depicting people engaging in behavior and displaying characteristics designed to operationalize specific variables. People described in these vignettes are typically given names, but names have a variety of connotations that could lead to unwanted variance between conditions of an experiment and in other ways have implications for the results of a study. An up-to-date source of information to help guide the selection of names would be useful for researchers...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739294/the-mixed-outcomes-of-taking-ownership-for-implicit-racial-biases
#12
Erin Cooley, Ryan F Lei, Taylor Ellerkamp
One potential strategy for prejudice reduction is encouraging people to acknowledge, and take ownership for, their implicit biases. Across two studies, we explore how taking ownership for implicit racial bias affects the subsequent expression of overt bias. Participants first completed an implicit measure of their attitudes toward Black people. Then we either led participants to think of their implicit bias as their own or as stemming from external factors. Results revealed that taking ownership for high implicit racial bias had diverging effects on subsequent warmth toward Black people (Study 1) and donations to a Black nonprofit (Study 2) based on people's internal motivations to respond without prejudice (Internal Motivation Scale [IMS])...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739293/are-liberals-and-conservatives-equally-motivated-to-feel-empathy-toward-others
#13
Yossi Hasson, Maya Tamir, Kea S Brahms, J Christopher Cohrs, Eran Halperin
Do liberals and conservatives differ in their empathy toward others? This question has been difficult to resolve due to methodological constraints and common use of ideologically biased targets. To more adequately address this question, we examined how much empathy liberals and conservatives want to feel, how much empathy they actually feel, and how willing they are to help others. We used targets that are equivalent in the degree to which liberals and conservatives identify with, by setting either liberals, conservatives, or ideologically neutral members as social targets...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739292/the-power-in-being-yourself-feeling-authentic-enhances-the-sense-of-power
#14
Muping Gan, Daniel Heller, Serena Chen
Across five experiments (total N = 715), we propose that people can gain a subjective sense of power by being authentic-in other words, state authenticity breeds power. Supporting this, participants reported feeling more powerful when they visualized themselves behaving authentically versus inauthentically (Study 1), or recalled a time when they felt authentic versus inauthentic (Studies 2-4). Studies 3 and 4 revealed that authenticity (vs. inauthenticity) likely drives the authenticity-to-power effect. Finally, Study 5 showed that perceivers infer others' power and make important downstream judgments (i...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771201/attachment-and-jealousy-understanding-the-dynamic-experience-of-jealousy-using-the-response-escalation-paradigm
#15
Chloe O Huelsnitz, Allison K Farrell, Jeffry A Simpson, Vladas Griskevicius, Ohad Szepsenwol
Jealousy is a complex, dynamic experience that unfolds over time in relationship-threatening situations. Prior research has used retrospective reports that cannot disentangle initial levels and change in jealousy in response to escalating threat. In three studies, we examined responses to the Response Escalation Paradigm (REP)-a 5-stage hypothetical scenario in which individuals are exposed to increasing levels of relationship threat-as a function of attachment orientations. Highly anxious individuals exhibited hypervigilant, slow escalation response patterns, interfered earlier in the REP, felt more jealousy, sadness, and worry when they interfered, and wanted to engage in more vigilant, destructive, and passive behaviors aimed at their partner...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716423/risk-perceptions-after-receiving-multiple-risk-feedback
#16
Martina Gamp, Harald T Schupp, Britta Renner
How do people respond to multiple risk feedback in a real-life context? Based on theoretical assumptions, three different predictions for risk perceptions were tested: (a) relative accuracy in risk perceptions, (b) self-defensive responses according to self-affirmation theory, and (c) compensatory responses according to the compensatory health belief model. Participants of a community health screening ( N = 725) received multiple risk indicator feedback for actual blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid levels...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716422/using-power-as-a-negative-cue-how-conspiracy-mentality-affects-epistemic-trust-in-sources-of-historical-knowledge
#17
Roland Imhoff, Pia Lamberty, Olivier Klein
Classical theories of attitude change point to the positive effect of source expertise on perceived source credibility persuasion, but there is an ongoing societal debate on the increase in anti-elitist sentiments and conspiracy theories regarding the allegedly untrustworthy power elite. In one correlational ( N = 275) and three experimental studies ( N = 195, N = 464, N = 225), we tested the novel idea that people who endorse a conspiratorial mind-set (conspiracy mentality) indeed exhibit markedly different reactions to cues of epistemic authoritativeness than those who do not: Whereas the perceived credibility of powerful sources decreased with the recipients' conspiracy mentality, that of powerless sources increased independent of and incremental to other biases, such as the need to see the ingroup in particularly positive light...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716421/construing-the-essence-the-effects-of-construal-level-on-genetic-attributions-for-individual-and-social-group-differences
#18
Jaime L Napier, Jamie B Luguri, John F Dovidio, Kathleen A Oltman
The present research links a nonsocial, contextual influence (construal level) to the tendency to endorse genetic attributions for individual and social group differences. Studies 1 to 3 show that people thinking in an abstract (vs. concrete) mind-set score higher on a measure of genetic attributions for individual and racial group differences. Study 4 showed that abstract (vs. concrete) construal also increased genetic attributions for novel groups. Study 5 explored the potential downstream consequences of construal on intergroup attitudes, and found that abstract (vs...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716420/on-being-more-amenable-to-threatening-risk-messages-concerning-close-others-vis-%C3%A3-vis-the-self
#19
William M P Klein, Rebecca A Ferrer
People often respond defensively to risk messages impugning their own behavior. We explored whether people are more amenable to risk messages impugning a close other's behavior. In two experiments, participants learned how being overweight could influence their own cancer risk or that of an opposite-sex close other. As predicted, participants expressed higher affective risk perceptions (i.e., worry) and experiential risk perceptions for their close others than for themselves. Participants in the close other condition also reported greater interest in diagnostic testing and additional information (Experiment 1) and greater interest in consulting a provider and more plans for remediation (Experiment 2)...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699443/leveraging-the-social-role-of-dad-to-change-gender-stereotypes-of-men
#20
Bernadette Park, Sarah Banchefsky
Trait stereotypes of men tend to be more fixed and negative than those of women. The current studies test whether stereotypes of men can be shifted through leveraging their social role as fathers. Trait attributes perceived to characterize women and moms were highly redundant, but those of men and dads were less so; moreover, men were perceived more negatively than dads, women, and moms (Study 1). Perceivers for whom the social role father was made salient rated men more similarly to dads, and no less similarly to men, and rated men more positively relative to a control condition (Study 2)...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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