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Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

Cindel J M White, Mark Schaller
Conceptual analyses of moral cognition suggest that different variables may influence moral judgments depending upon the target's age. Five experiments (total N = 1,733) tested the implications for moral judgments about adults and young children. Results show that adults who were perceived to be more cognitively capable were judged to have greater moral rights and their transgressions were judged less harshly, but young children who were perceived to be more cognitively capable were judged to have fewer moral rights and their transgressions were judged more harshly...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Blake M Riek, Christin C DeWit
The current study examines age-related differences and similarities in forgiveness seeking. Students in third, seventh, and 12th grade imagined themselves committing various transgressions and the characteristics of these transgression (e.g., severity of consequences, type of offense) were manipulated. Across the age groups, forgiveness seeking was predicted by guilt, whereas withdrawal was predicted by shame. For all age groups, forgiveness seeking was more likely to occur when the offense was an active one rather than a failure to act...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Li Jiang, Aimee Drolet, Heejung S Kim
We examined age differences in the use of different types of social support and the reasons for these differences. We found that older adults (age 60+) seek explicit social support less compared with young adults (age 18-25), but there is no difference in implicit social support seeking. Concerns about the potential social costs of seeking explicit support mediate the age differences in explicit social support seeking. Whereas young adults view this strategy as conferring more benefits than costs, older adults have a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of explicit social support seeking...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Lydia F Emery, Wendi L Gardner, Kathleen L Carswell, Eli J Finkel
Attachment shapes people's experiences in their close relationships and their self-views. Although attachment avoidance and anxiety both undermine relationships, past research has primarily emphasized detrimental effects of anxiety on the self-concept. However, as partners can help people maintain stable self-views, avoidant individuals' negative views of others might place them at risk for self-concept confusion. We hypothesized that avoidance would predict lower self-concept clarity and that less self-verification from partners would mediate this association...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Annika Scholl, Frank de Wit, Naomi Ellemers, Adam K Fetterman, Kai Sassenberg, Daan Scheepers
Power usually lowers stress responses. In stressful situations, having high (vs. low) power heightens challenge and lowers threat. Yet, even power-holders may experience threat when becoming aware of the responsibility that accompanies their power. Power-holders can construe (i.e., understand) a high-power position primarily as opportunity to "make things happen" or as responsibility to "take care of things." Power-holders construing power as responsibility (rather than opportunity) may be more likely to experience demands-such as taking care of important decisions under their control-as outweighing their resources, resulting in less challenge and more threat...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Salvador Vargas-Salfate, Dario Paez, James H Liu, Felicia Pratto, Homero Gil de Zúñiga
This study tests specific competing hypotheses from social dominance theory/realistic conflict theory (RCT) versus system justification theory about the role of social status. In particular, it examines whether system justification belief and effects are stronger among people with low socioeconomic status, and in less socially developed and unequal nations than among better-off people and countries. A cross-national survey was carried out in 19 nations from the Americas, Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Oceania using representative online samples ( N = 14,936, 50...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Wijnand A P van Tilburg, Constantine Sedikides, Tim Wildschut
Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Dolores Albarracin, Wei Wang, Kathleen C McCulloch
Four experiments uncovered an action dominance error by which people's natural focus on actions hinders appropriate responses to social and nonsocial stimuli. This surprising error comprises higher rates of both omission (misses) and commission (false alarms) when, in responding to action and inaction demands, people have higher numbers of action targets. The action dominance error was verified over four experiments using an analog that required responses to words and to target individuals. Experiments 1 and 2 tested our hypotheses and distinguished the action error effect from the effects of practicing action or inaction responses...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Michael L Slepian, James N Kirby
Although prior work has examined secret keeping, no prior work has examined who gets told secrets. Five studies find compassion and assertiveness predict having secrets confided in oneself (as determined by both self- and peer reports), whereas enthusiasm and politeness were associated with having fewer secrets confided. These results bolster suggestions that interpersonal aspects of personality (which can fit a circumplex structure) are driven by distinct causal forces. While both related to agreeableness, compassion (empathy and desire to help) predicts being confided in more, whereas politeness (concern with social norms and social rules) predicts being confided in less...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jeremy Sawyer, Anup Gampa
Lab-based interventions have been ineffective in changing individuals' implicit racial attitudes for more than brief durations, and exposure to high-status Black exemplars like Obama has proven ineffective in shifting societal-level racial attitudes. Antiracist social movements, however, offer a potential societal-level alternative for reducing racial bias. Racial attitudes were examined before and during Black Lives Matter (BLM) and its high points of struggle with 1,369,204 participants from 2009 to 2016...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Thomas F Pettigrew
Social psychology experiences recurring so-called "crises." This article maintains that these episodes actually mark advances in the discipline; these "crises" have enhanced relevance and led to greater methodological and statistical sophistication. New statistical tools have allowed social psychologists to begin to achieve a major goal: placing psychological phenomena in their larger social contexts. This growing trend is illustrated with numerous recent studies; they demonstrate how cultures and social norms moderate basic psychological processes...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
David E Rast, Michael A Hogg, Daan van Knippenberg
Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Rebecca Littman
Heightened group identification motivates individuals to perpetrate violence, but can perpetrating violence-in and of itself-increase identification with violent groups? I test this idea using archival surveys of ex-combatants. In Liberia, where many combatants joined their violent group willingly, the data show a positive association between perpetrating violence and identification with one's violent group (Study 1). These results hold even when controlling for potentially confounding variables such as being abducted into the group versus joining willingly, length of time in the group, and personally experiencing violence...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Cynthia S Wang, Margaret Lee, Gillian Ku, Angela K-Y Leung
Research conducted in Western cultures indicates that perspective-taking is an effective social strategy for reducing stereotyping. The current article explores whether and why the effects of perspective-taking on stereotyping differ across cultures. Studies 1 and 2 established that perspective-taking reduces stereotyping in Western but not in East Asian cultures. Using a socioecological framework, Studies 2 and 3 found that relational mobility, that is, the extent to which individuals' social environments provide them opportunities to choose new relationships and terminate old ones, explained our effect: Perspective-taking was negatively associated with stereotyping in relationally mobile (Western) but not in relationally stable (East Asian) environments...
February 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Aleksandra Cislak, Aleksandra Cichocka, Adrian Dominik Wojcik, Natalia Frankowska
People seek high positions not to gain influence over others but to satisfy their need for personal control. Personal control tends to have positive interpersonal consequences. If this is the case, does power indeed corrupt? We argue that holding a high position is associated both with perceptions of power (influence over others) and personal control (influence over one's life). Three studies showed that these two aspects might have opposite consequences: Power over others positively predicted aggressiveness (Study 1, N = 793) and exploitativeness (Study 2, N = 445), whereas personal control predicted these outcomes negatively...
February 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Qi Xu, Patrick E Shrout
University students often experience high levels of stress and, in some cases, the stress leads to tragic outcomes. An important question is whether roommates can perceive the level and change in distress in their peers. We examined self- and other-reports of 187 same-sex undergraduate dyads at two times in a spring semester. Using the truth and bias model, we found that roommates tended to underestimate their partner's distress at both time points, and that ratings were equally influenced by truth and self-focus bias forces...
February 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Kurt Gray, Stephen Anderson, Cameron M Doyle, Neil Hester, Peter Schmitt, Andrew J Vonasch, Scott T Allison, Joshua C Jackson
Many people believe in immortality, but who is perceived to live on and how exactly do they live on? Seven studies reveal that good- and evil-doers are perceived to possess more immortality-albeit different kinds. Good-doers have "transcendent" immortality, with their souls persisting beyond space and time; evil-doers have "trapped" immortality, with their souls persisting on Earth, bound to a physical location. Studies 1 to 4 reveal bidirectional links between perceptions of morality and type of immortality...
February 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Kiki M M De Jonge, Eric F Rietzschel, Nico W Van Yperen
In the current research, we aimed to address the inconsistent finding in the brainstorming literature that cognitive stimulation sometimes results from novel input, yet other times from non-novel input. We expected and found, in three experiments, that the strength and valence of this relationship are moderated by people's psychological needs for structure and autonomy. Specifically, the effect of novel input (vs. non-novel input), through perceived creativity, on cognitive stimulation was stronger for people who were either low in need for structure or high in need for autonomy...
February 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Erin McPherson, Bernadette Park, Tiffany A Ito
Self-to-prototype matching is a strategy of mental comparisons between the self-concept and the typical or "representative" member of a group to make some judgment. Such a process might contribute to interest in pursuing a science career and, relatedly, women's underrepresentation in physical science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (pSTEM) fields. Across four studies, we measured self-scientist discrepancies on communal, agentic, and scientific dimensions, and assessed participants' interest in a science career...
February 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Sosja Prinsen, Catharine Evers, Leoniek Wijngaards, Renée van Vliet, Denise de Ridder
Self-licensing, employing reasons to justify indulgence, may help resolve the conflict between immediate temptations and long-term goals in favor of the former. It was hypothesized that this conflict-resolving potential of self-licensing may benefit self-regulation over time. With a momentary assessment design, we examined how self-licensing affects self-regulatory ability and the capacity to deal with subsequent self-regulatory conflicts. One hundred thirty-six female participants filled out surveys eight times per day for one week...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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