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Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993325/the-cynical-genius-illusion-exploring-and-debunking-lay-beliefs-about-cynicism-and-competence
#1
Olga Stavrova, Daniel Ehlebracht
Cynicism refers to a negative appraisal of human nature-a belief that self-interest is the ultimate motive guiding human behavior. We explored laypersons' beliefs about cynicism and competence and to what extent these beliefs correspond to reality. Four studies showed that laypeople tend to believe in cynical individuals' cognitive superiority. A further three studies based on the data of about 200,000 individuals from 30 countries debunked these lay beliefs as illusionary by revealing that cynical (vs. less cynical) individuals generally do worse on cognitive ability and academic competency tasks...
July 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985107/cognitive-reflection-and-the-2016-u-s-presidential-election
#2
Gordon Pennycook, David G Rand
We present a large exploratory study ( N = 15,001) investigating the relationship between cognitive reflection and political affiliation, ideology, and voting in the 2016 Presidential Election. We find that Trump voters are less reflective than Clinton voters or third-party voters. However, much (although not all) of this difference was driven by Democrats who chose Trump. Among Republicans, conversely, Clinton and Trump voters were similar, whereas third-party voters were more reflective. Furthermore, although Democrats/liberals were somewhat more reflective than Republicans/conservatives overall, political moderates and nonvoters were least reflective, whereas libertarians were most reflective...
July 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984632/closeness-discrepancies-and-intimacy-interference-motivations-for-hiv-prevention-behavior-in-primary-romantic-relationships
#3
Kristi E Gamarel, Sarit A Golub
Relational closeness has been positively associated with relationship quality and mental health; however, desire for closeness and intimacy in a relationship may also motivate sexual risk-taking, that is, forgoing condom use. This study examined the impact of desiring more closeness with a primary partner (i.e., motivation for reducing closeness discrepancies) on HIV prevention behavior. Using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a case study, we examined the extent to which closeness discrepancies motivate behavioral intentions (Study 1) and actual behavior (Study 2)...
July 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969946/a-darker-side-of-hope-harmony-focused-hope-decreases-collective-action-intentions-among-the-disadvantaged
#4
Siwar Hasan-Aslih, Ruthie Pliskin, Martijn van Zomeren, Eran Halperin, Tamar Saguy
Hope is viewed as a positive emotion associated with the motivation to change existing conditions. As such, it is highly relevant for social change, particularly when considering disadvantaged groups. We propose that, in the context of unequal intergroup relations, hope may actually undermine motivation for change among disadvantaged group members. Specifically, we distinguish between hope targeted at harmony with the outgroup and hope targeted at social equality between groups. Drawing on insights regarding the consequences of positive intergroup interactions, we predict that hope for harmony with the outgroup can undermine the constructive tension that motivates the disadvantaged toward equality...
July 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957149/benevolent-sexism-and-mate-preferences-why-do-women-prefer-benevolent-men-despite-recognizing-that-they-can-be-undermining
#5
Pelin Gul, Tom R Kupfer
Benevolent sexism (BS) has detrimental effects on women, yet women prefer men with BS attitudes over those without. The predominant explanation for this paradox is that women respond to the superficially positive appearance of BS without being aware of its subtly harmful effects. We propose an alternative explanation drawn from evolutionary and sociocultural theories on mate preferences: Women find BS men attractive because BS attitudes and behaviors signal that a man is willing to invest. Five studies showed that women prefer men with BS attitudes (Studies 1a, 1b, and 3) and behaviors (Studies 2a and 2b), especially in mating contexts, because BS mates are perceived as willing to invest (protect, provide, and commit)...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952244/who-cares-effects-of-social-approach-and-avoidance-motivation-on-responsiveness-to-others
#6
Jana Nikitin, Alexandra M Freund
Responsiveness to others (i.e., our understanding, validation, and support of important aspects of others) significantly contributes to positive social relationships. In the present research, we found evidence that responsiveness has motivational origins. In two experiments, participants who were approaching positive social outcomes had a higher level of responsiveness compared with participants who were avoiding negative social outcomes. A third experiment disentangled the roles of motivation and situation valence...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952232/when-people-co-occur-with-good-or-bad-events-graded-effects-of-relational-qualifiers-on-evaluative-conditioning
#7
Sean Hughes, Yang Ye, Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer
Studies on evaluative conditioning show that a change in liking can occur whenever stimuli are paired. Such instances of attitude change are known to depend on the type of relation established between stimuli (e.g., "Bob is a friend of Mike" vs. "Bob is an enemy of Mike"). Research has so far only compared assimilative and contrastive relational qualifiers (e.g., friend vs. enemy). For the first time, we compared the effect of nonoppositional qualifiers on attitude change in an evaluative conditioning procedure (e...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947580/who-is-most-likely-to-wear-rose-colored-glasses-how-regulatory-mode-moderates-self-flattery
#8
Svetlana Komissarouk, Marina Chernikova, Arie W Kruglanski, E Tory Higgins
In general, people prefer to view themselves positively. But some individuals are more prone to self-flattery than others, that is, holding an unjustifiably high opinion of oneself. Applying regulatory mode theory, we identify motivational factors that predict which individuals are and are not prone to self-flattery. In four studies, using both chronic (Studies 1-3) and experimental (Study 4) conditions, we found that those with high locomotion concerns about effecting change (control) are more inclined to flatter themselves, whereas those with high assessment concerns about making the right choices (truth) are less inclined to flatter themselves...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947571/best-practices-for-testing-the-predictive-validity-of-ideal-partner-preference-matching
#9
Paul W Eastwick, Eli J Finkel, Jeffry A Simpson
Many psychological hypotheses require testing whether the similarity between two variables predicts important outcomes. For example, the ideal standards model posits that the match between (A) a participant's ideal partner preferences, and (B) the traits of a current/potential partner, predicts (C) evaluative outcomes (e.g., the decision to date someone, relationship satisfaction, breakup); tests of the predictive validity of ideal-matching require A × B → C analytic strategies. However, recent articles have incorrectly suggested that documenting a positive samplewide correlation between a participant's ideals and a current partner's traits (an A-B correlation) implies that participants pursued, selected, or desired partners with traits that matched their ideals...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938609/who-is-less-likely-to-ostracize-higher-trait-mindfulness-predicts-more-inclusionary-behavior
#10
Eric E Jones, James H Wirth, Alex T Ramsey, Rebecca L Wynsma
Despite the pain ostracism (being excluded and ignored) causes, researchers have minimally investigated factors related to reducing its occurrence. We investigated the association between higher trait mindfulness (the tendency to be attentive to the present moment) and lower engagement in ostracism. In Study 1, employed adults scoring higher on trait mindfulness reported ostracizing coworkers less. In Study 2, participants possessing higher levels of trait mindfulness demonstrated greater inclusion of a fellow group member being ostracized by others in the group...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938585/the-retrospective-evaluation-of-positive-and-negative-affect
#11
Yoav Ganzach, Einat Yaor
A vast amount of literature examined the relationship between retrospective affective evaluations and evaluations of affective experiences. This literature has focused on simple momentary experiences, and was based on a unidimensional concept of affect. The current article examines the relationships between evaluations of complex experiences, experiences involving both positive and negative feelings, and the retrospective evaluation of these experiences. Based on the idea that negative information is better remembered than positive information, we predict that in comparison with negative retrospective evaluations, positive evaluations have a stronger correlation with end affect and a weaker correlation with peak affect...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923785/exploring-cultural-differences-in-the-extent-to-which-people-perceive-and-desire-control
#12
Matthew J Hornsey, Katharine H Greenaway, Emily A Harris, Paul G Bain
In a seminal theory piece, Weisz and colleagues argued that control over one's environment was less attainable and desirable in Japan than in America. Subsequently, many scholars have extrapolated from this argument to claim broad-based cultural differences in control: that Western/individualist cultures perceive and desire more personal control over their environment than do Eastern/collectivist cultures. Yet surprisingly little empirical research has put this claim to the test. To test this notion, in Study 1 we examined perceived control over one's life in 38 nationally representative samples ( N = 48,951)...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911504/unconventional-consumption-methods-and-enjoying-things-consumed-recapturing-the-first-time-experience
#13
Ed O'Brien, Robert W Smith
People commonly lament the inability to re-experience familiar things as they were first experienced. Four experiments suggest that consuming familiar things in new ways can disrupt adaptation and revitalize enjoyment. Participants better enjoyed the same familiar food (Experiment 1), drink (Experiment 2), and video (Experiments 3a-3b) simply when re-experiencing the entity via unusual means (e.g., eating popcorn using chopsticks vs. hands). This occurs because unconventional methods invite an immersive "first-time" perspective on the consumption object: boosts in enjoyment were mediated by revitalized immersion into the consumption experience and were moderated by time such that they were strongest when using unconventional methods for the first time (Experiments 1-2); likewise, unconventional methods that actively disrupted immersion did not elicit the boost, despite being novel (Experiments 3a-3b)...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911500/muslim-immigration-critical-events-and-the-seeds-of-majority-members-support-for-radical-responses-an-interactionist-perspective
#14
Stefan Stürmer, Anette Rohmann, Laura Froehlich, Jolanda van der Noll
This article uses an interactionist perspective to understand the role of media framings of critical events in catalyzing Western citizens' support for radical responses to Muslim immigration (e.g., armed self-defense). A multi-method series of three studies tested this perspective in the context of the 2015/2016 Cologne New Year's Eve sexual assaults on women. Study 1, a content analysis of 163 online newspaper articles, revealed that mass media attributed the assaults to the suspects' Muslim culture. Study 2, a correlational study ( N = 487) conducted at the peak of the media coverage, confirmed that the degree to which participants accepted the veracity of the culture-focused media representation strengthened the relation between their feelings of symbolic threat as a result of Muslim immigration and their approval of radical responses...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882468/the-infectiousness-of-crowds-crowding-experiences-are-amplified-by-pathogen-threats
#15
Iris M Wang, Joshua M Ackerman
People sometimes perceive social environments as unpleasantly crowded. Previous work has linked these experiences to incidental factors such as being hungry or hot and to the relevance of the social environment for an individual's current goals. Here, we demonstrate that crowding perceptions and evaluations also depend on specific, active threats for perceivers. Eight studies test whether infectious disease threats, which are associated with crowded conditions, increase such reactions. Across studies, pathogen threat made dense social environments seem more crowded and generated more negative affect toward these environments...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877123/revealing-clothing-does-not-make-the-object-erp-evidences-that-cognitive-objectification-is-driven-by-posture-suggestiveness-not-by-revealing-clothing
#16
Philippe Bernard, Florence Hanoteau, Sarah Gervais, Lara Servais, Irene Bertolone, Paul Deltenre, Cécile Colin
Recent research found that sexualized bodies are visually processed similarly to objects. This article examines the effects of skin-to-clothing ratio and posture suggestiveness on cognitive objectification. Participants were presented images of upright versus inverted bodies while we recorded the N170. We used the N170 amplitude inversion effect (larger N170 amplitudes for inverted vs. upright stimuli) to assess cognitive objectification, with no N170 inversion effect indicating less configural processing and more cognitive objectification...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871551/exposure-to-biracial-faces-reduces-colorblindness
#17
Sarah E Gaither, Negin R Toosi, Laura G Babbitt, Samuel R Sommers
Across six studies, we demonstrate that exposure to biracial individuals significantly reduces endorsement of colorblindness as a racial ideology among White individuals. Real-world exposure to biracial individuals predicts lower levels of colorblindness compared with White and Black exposure (Study 1). Brief manipulated exposure to images of biracial faces reduces colorblindness compared with exposure to White faces, Black faces, a set of diverse monoracial faces, or abstract images (Studies 2-5). In addition, these effects occur only when a biracial label is paired with the face rather than resulting from the novelty of the mixed-race faces themselves (Study 4)...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862884/where-did-this-thought-come-from-a-self-validation-analysis-of-the-perceived-origin-of-thoughts
#18
Margarita Gascó, Pablo Briñol, David Santos, Richard E Petty, Javier Horcajo
Three experiments examined whether perceiving thoughts as coming from internal versus external origins are more impactful on attitudes. Participants generated either positive or negative thoughts about different attitude objects, including different diets, and plastic surgery. Then, participants were induced to think that their thoughts came from the self or from an external source. In Experiment 1, participants induced to believe their thoughts originated from the self versus an external source relied on them more to form their attitudes...
June 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877130/can-identity-conflicts-impede-the-success-of-ethnic-minority-students-consequences-of-discrepancies-between-ethnic-and-ideal-selves
#19
Régine Debrosse, Maya Rossignac-Milon, Donald M Taylor, Mesmin Destin
Because of stigma and underrepresentation, many ethnic minority students may find it difficult to align their ethnicities with their ideal selves. However, these difficulties and their potential consequences have been empirically neglected. To inform this gap in the literature, we propose that the novel concept of ethnic/ideal self-discrepancies (i.e., perceived mismatches between who a person aspires to be and this person's conception of their ethnic self) is associated with the academic outcomes of ethnic minority students...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855224/regulatory-focus-and-conspiratorial-perceptions-the-importance-of-personal-control
#20
Jennifer A Whitson, Joongseo Kim, Cynthia S Wang, Tanya Menon, Brian D Webster
We examine when and why people subscribe to conspiratorial beliefs, suggesting that promotion focus reduces conspiratorial perceptions by activating a sense of personal control. Study 1 established that individuals primed with promotion focus are less likely to perceive conspiracies than those in a baseline condition. However, individuals primed with prevention focus and those in a baseline condition did not differ in their levels of conspiratorial beliefs. Study 2 demonstrated that soldiers higher in promotion focus were less likely to endorse conspiracy theories because of their heightened sense of control; this relationship did not emerge for soldiers higher in prevention focus...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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