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Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413137/personal-ties-and-prejudice-a-meta-analysis-of-romantic-attachment-and-ambivalent-sexism
#1
Molly I Fisher, Matthew D Hammond
We examine how relational needs underlie sexism by conducting a meta-analysis ( k = 22; N = 4,860) on the links between adults' romantic attachment and endorsement of ambivalent sexism. Results across two random-effects meta-analytic methods supported that men's and women's attachment anxiety predicted stronger endorsement of both benevolent sexism and hostile sexism. Simultaneously, men's attachment avoidance predicted lower endorsement of benevolent sexism, and for men in relationships (vs. single men), stronger endorsement of hostile sexism...
November 9, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413132/the-temporal-dimension-of-system-justification-gender-ideology-over-the-course-of-the-2016-election
#2
Andrea L Miller, Eugene Borgida
Although psychological science has documented individual and situational factors that affect the process of system justification, the temporal dimension of system justification has not been systematically examined. This study used the 2016 U.S. presidential election as a naturalistic setting in which to test for the existence of a temporal dimension. We propose that the potential for a Clinton victory represented a system threat for individuals who supported traditional gender roles, and the approaching election provided a mechanism for measuring the effect of the temporal proximity of the system-threatening event...
November 9, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30404569/empowerment-through-difference-an-online-difference-education-intervention-closes-the-social-class-achievement-gap
#3
Sarah S M Townsend, Nicole M Stephens, Stephanie Smallets, MarYam G Hamedani
A growing body of work suggests that teaching college students a contextual understanding of difference-that students' different experiences in college are the result of participating in different contexts before college-can improve the academic performance of first-generation students (i.e., students whose parents do not have 4-year college degrees). However, only one empirical study, using an in-person panel format, has demonstrated the benefits of this intervention approach. In the present research, we conduct two studies to test the effectiveness of a new difference-education intervention administered online to individual students...
November 8, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400748/predictive-validity-of-thin-slice-nonverbal-behavior-from-social-interactions
#4
Nora A Murphy, Judith A Hall, Mollie A Ruben, Denise Frauendorfer, Marianne Schmid Mast, Kirsten E Johnson, Laurent Nguyen
We present five studies investigating the predictive validity of thin slices of nonverbal behavior (NVB). Predictive validity of thin slices refers to how well behavior slices excerpted from longer video predict other measured variables. Using six NVBs, we compared predictive validity of slices of different lengths with that obtained when coding is based on full-length (5-min) video, investigating the relative predictive validity of 1-min slices as well as of cumulative slices. Results indicate some loss in predictive validity with 1-min slices, but relatively little loss when Slices 1 and 2 were combined for five of the six NVBs...
November 7, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400747/aftereffects-of-self-control-on-positive-emotional-reactivity
#5
Anna J Finley, Brandon J Schmeichel
According to the process model of ego depletion, exercising self-control causes shifts in motivation and attention that may increase positive emotional reactivity. In an initial study and a preregistered replication, participants exercised self-control (or not) on a writing task before reporting their emotional responses to positive, negative, and neutral images. In Study 1 ( N = 256), we found that exercising (vs. not exercising) self-control increased positive emotional responses to positive images among more extroverted individuals...
November 7, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400746/the-short-and-longer-term-impacts-of-hate-crimes-experienced-directly-indirectly-and-through-the-media
#6
Jenny L Paterson, Rupert Brown, Mark A Walters
A longitudinal study ( N = 774) explored the short and longer term impacts of anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Trans (LGBT) hate crime experienced directly, indirectly, and through the media. In the short term, being a victim (direct) or personally knowing of a hate crime victim (indirect) was positively associated with vulnerability, emotional responses, and behavioral intentions after reading about a hate crime. Direct victims were also less empathic toward other victims and engaged in more victim-blaming...
November 7, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400745/age-attenuates-the-negativity-bias-in-reframing-effects
#7
Jehan Sparks, Alison Ledgerwood
A growing literature on reframing effects has identified a robust negativity bias: Under many circumstances, people's attitudes change less when framing switches from negative to positive (vs. positive to negative). Like other basic psychological biases, this one is often assumed to reflect a general human tendency, but there are theoretical reasons to expect boundary conditions on when and for whom it operates. In this article, we zero in on age as one important potential moderator, and test competing predictions from different perspectives...
November 7, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394858/cultural-collectivism-and-tightness-moderate-responses-to-norm-violators-effects-on-power-perception-moral-emotions-and-leader-support
#8
Eftychia Stamkou, Gerben A van Kleef, Astrid C Homan, Michele J Gelfand, Fons J R van de Vijver, Marieke C van Egmond, Diana Boer, Natasha Phiri, Nailah Ayub, Zoe Kinias, Katarzyna Cantarero, Dorit Efrat Treister, Ana Figueiredo, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Eva B Hofmann, Renata P Lima, I-Ching Lee
Responses to norm violators are poorly understood. On one hand, norm violators are perceived as powerful, which may help them to get ahead. On the other hand, norm violators evoke moral outrage, which may frustrate their upward social mobility. We addressed this paradox by considering the role of culture. Collectivistic cultures value group harmony and tight cultures value social order. We therefore hypothesized that collectivism and tightness moderate reactions to norm violators. We presented 2,369 participants in 19 countries with a norm violation or a norm adherence scenario...
November 3, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382769/exposure-to-the-2014-gaza-war-and-support-for-militancy-the-role-of-emotion-dysregulation
#9
Inbal Zipris, Ruthie Pliskin, Daphna Canetti, Eran Halperin
How do wars shape emotions and attitudes in intractable conflicts? In two studies conducted in the aftermath of the 2014 Gaza War in the Middle East, we tested a new theoretical model wherein the ability to regulate emotions is central in determining the influence of war exposure on emotions (i.e., group-based humiliation) and support for militancy, through posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS). Results supported our model: (a) higher exposure to the war predicted group-based humiliation in both studies and in Study 2 also greater support for militancy; in both studies, (b) higher exposure predicted more PSS only among participants high in emotion dysregulation, and, for them, (c) higher exposure predicted greater group-based humiliation, through increased levels of PSS...
November 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379120/shaping-responses-to-torture-what-you-call-it-matters
#10
Kimberly Rios, Dominik Mischkowski
Although torture is largely ineffective for gaining information from terrorism suspects, nearly half of Americans support its use. Building upon previous work examining predictors of responses to such tactics and willingness to label them as "torture," this research tested whether the "torture" label itself can influence attitudes. Across five experiments using two different populations, both politically liberal and conservative participants showed more negative attitudes toward "torture" than "enhanced interrogation," even given identical descriptions of the tactics...
October 31, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322351/psychological-distance-promotes-exploration-in-search-of-a-global-maximum
#11
Daniel A Yudkin, Rotem Pick, Elina Yewon Hur, Nira Liberman, Yaacov Trope
Agents must sometimes decide whether to exploit a known resource or search for potentially more profitable options. Here, we investigate the role of psychological distancing in promoting exploratory behavior. We argue that exploration dilemmas pit the value of a reward ("desirability") against the difficulty or uncertainty of obtaining it ("feasibility"). Based on construal level theory, which suggests that psychological distance increases the importance of rewards' desirability (vs. feasibility), we expect that psychological distance will increase exploration...
October 16, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319042/nostalgia-increases-financial-risk-taking
#12
Xi Zou, Margaret Lee, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides
We examined, in five studies, the relation between nostalgia and financial risk taking. We hypothesized that nostalgia increases risk taking by fostering perceptions of social support. In Study 1, we established the basic effect of nostalgia and increased risk taking. In Study 2, we used a measurement-of-mediation approach to specify the underlying mechanism. Perceived support from family members, rather than from significant others or friends, mediated the relation between nostalgia and risk taking. In Studies 3 to 4, we further specified the mediating mechanism (i...
October 14, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319028/does-stress-explain-the-effect-of-sleep-on-self-control-difficulties-a-month-long-daily-diary-study
#13
Garrett C Hisler, Zlatan Krizan, Tracy DeHart
Insufficient sleep is linked to increased stress and suboptimal self-control; however, no studies have examined stress as a reason for why sleep affects self-control. Moreover, it is unknown if there are individual differences that make people vulnerable to this dynamic. Daily diary entries from 212 university students across 30 days were used in a multilevel path model examining if stress explained how prior night sleep affected next-day self-control difficulties and exploring if individual differences in sleep duration, stress, or self-control qualified this effect...
October 14, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319021/what-cognitive-mechanisms-do-people-reflect-on-when-they-predict-iat-scores
#14
Andrew M Rivers, Adam Hahn
Research indicates that individuals can prospectively predict biases they will show on the implicit-association test (IAT). The present study uses the Quadruple process model to analyze data from Hahn, Judd, Hirsh, and Blair to investigate which cognitive mechanisms people reflect on when predicting their racial bias scores on the IAT. The Quadruple process model reveals that a combination of activated associations and self-regulatory control best explains what participants report when they predict their biases on the IAT...
October 14, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317925/whose-side-are-you-on-asian-americans-mistrust-of-asian-white-biracials-predicts-more-exclusion-from-the-ingroup
#15
Jacqueline M Chen, Nour S Kteily, Arnold K Ho
We investigated Asian Americans' perceptions of Asian-White biracials. Because the Asian/White boundary may be more permeable than other minority/White boundaries, we reasoned that Asian Americans are more likely than Black Americans to be skeptical of biracials, perceiving that biracials would prefer to identify as White and would be disloyal to Asians, consequently categorizing them as more outgroup. We further reasoned that Asian Americans' concerns about and exclusion of biracials would be predicted by greater perceived discrimination against Asian Americans, which increases the incentive for biracials to pass into the higher status racial group...
October 13, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317918/the-mturkification-of-social-and-personality-psychology
#16
Craig A Anderson, Johnie J Allen, Courtney Plante, Adele Quigley-McBride, Alison Lovett, Jeffrey N Rokkum
The potential role of brief online studies in changing the types of research and theories likely to evolve is examined in the context of earlier changes in theory and methods in social and personality psychology, changes that favored low-difficulty, high-volume studies. An evolutionary metaphor suggests that the current publication environment of social and personality psychology is a highly competitive one, and that academic survival and reproduction processes (getting a job, tenure/promotion, grants, awards, good graduate students) can result in the extinction of important research domains...
October 13, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317915/the-effect-of-ideological-identification-on-the-endorsement-of-moral-values-depends-on-the-target-group
#17
Jan G Voelkel, Mark J Brandt
Research suggests that liberals and conservatives use different moral foundations to reason about moral issues (moral divide hypothesis). An alternative prediction is that observed ideological differences in moral foundations are instead driven by ingroup-versus-outgroup categorizations of competing political groups (political group conflict hypothesis). In two preregistered experiments (total N = 958), using experimentally manipulated measures of moral foundations, we test strong versions of both hypotheses and find partial support for both...
October 13, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284500/life-in-the-balance-are-women-s-possible-selves-constrained-by-men-s-domestic-involvement
#18
Alyssa Croft, Toni Schmader, Katharina Block
Do young women's expectations about potential romantic partners' likelihood of adopting caregiving roles in the future contribute to whether they imagine themselves in nontraditional future roles? Meta-analyzed effect sizes of five experiments (total N = 645) supported this complementarity hypothesis. Women who were primed with family-focused (vs. career-focused) male exemplars (Preliminary Study) or information that men are rapidly (vs. slowly) assuming greater caregiving responsibilities (Studies 1-4) were more likely to envision becoming the primary economic provider and less likely to envision becoming the primary caregiver of their future families...
October 4, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270735/effect-of-threat-and-social-identity-on-reactions-to-ingroup-criticism-defensiveness-openness-and-a-remedy
#19
Levi Adelman, Nilanjana Dasgupta
Openness to criticism and dissenting opinions is enormously important to group decision-making. Past research has found that people are more persuaded by criticism of their group when it comes from fellow ingroup members rather than outgroup members. But this ingroup advantage is not boundless. Three experiments demonstrate that the ingroup advantage related to openness to criticism is erased when perceivers feel their group is under threat. The results further suggest that the psychological mechanism underlying defensive responses to criticism is attributional-Threat elicits greater suspicion of ingroup critics' motives, which eliminates the ingroup critic's advantage relative to outgroup critics...
September 29, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264659/lonely-alone-or-lonely-together-a-cultural-psychological-examination-of-individualism-collectivism-and-loneliness-in-five-european-countries
#20
Luzia C Heu, Martijn van Zomeren, Nina Hansen
Average levels of loneliness have been suggested to differ between collectivistic and individualistic countries. However, we know little about how individual-level collectivism (i.e., perceiving the self or one's social environment as collectivistic) is related to loneliness. As individualism and collectivism imply different ideals about how individuals should be embedded in social relationships, they may imply distinct risks for loneliness. Specifically, less demanding ideals in individualism should imply the risk of lower actual social embeddedness; more demanding ideals in collectivism should imply the risk of higher perceived discrepancies from such ideals...
September 28, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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