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Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

Julian W Fernando, Nicholas Burden, Adam Ferguson, Léan V O'Brien, Madeline Judge, Yoshihisa Kashima
Images of ideal societies, utopias, are all around us; yet, little is known of how utopian visions affect ordinary people's engagement with their societies. As goals for society, utopias may elicit processes of collective self-regulation, in which citizens are critical of, or take action to change, the societies they live in. In three studies, we investigated the psychological function of utopian thinking. In Study 1, measured utopianism was correlated with the activation of three utopian functions: change, critique, and compensation...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Guy Itzchakov, Kenneth G DeMarree, Avraham N Kluger, Yaara Turjeman-Levi
We examined how merely sharing attitudes with a good listener shapes speakers' attitudes. We predicted that high-quality (i.e., empathic, attentive, and nonjudgmental) listening reduces speakers' social anxiety and leads them to delve deeper into their attitude-relevant knowledge (greater self-awareness). This, subsequently, differentially affects two components of speaker's attitude certainty by increasing attitude clarity, but not attitude correctness. In addition, we predicted that this increased clarity is followed by increased attitude- expression intentions, but not attitude- persuasion intentions...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Thomas Talhelm
This study tests whether liberals and conservatives within the same society think as if they were from different cultures. I tested this by measuring the cultural thought style of social liberals and conservatives in Hong Kong (Study 1). Liberals tended to think more analytically (more "WEIRD"), and conservatives tended to think more holistically (more common in East Asia). In Study 2, I trained people to think analytically or holistically before they read articles on political issues. Analytic thought caused people to form more liberal opinions, and holistic thought caused people to form more conservative opinions...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jasper Van Assche, Frank Asbrock, Arne Roets, Mathias Kauff
Positive neighborhood norms, such as strong local networks, are critical to people's satisfaction with, perceived disadvantage of, and intentions to stay in their neighborhood. At the same time, local ethnic diversity is said to be detrimental for these community outcomes. Integrating both frameworks, we tested whether the negative consequences of diversity occur even when perceived social norms are positive. Study 1 ( N = 1,760 German adults) showed that perceptions of positive neighborhood norms buffered against the effects of perceived diversity on moving intentions via neighborhood satisfaction and perceived neighborhood disadvantage...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Asher Koriat, Shiri Adiv-Mashinsky, Monika Undorf, Norbert Schwarz
Majority views are reported with greater confidence and fluency than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. This Prototypical Majority Effect (PME) was attributed generally to conformity pressure, but Koriat et al. showed that it can arise from the processes underlying decision and confidence independent of social influence. Here we examined the PME under conditions that differ in social influence. In Experiment 1, a robust PME emerged in the absence of information about the majority views, but the provision sof that information increased the choice of the majority view and magnified the PME...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Chris Crandall, Colin Wayne Leach, Michael Robinson, Tessa West
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Grant E Donnelly, Tianyi Zheng, Emily Haisley, Michael I Norton
Two samples of more than 4,000 millionaires reveal two primary findings: First, only at high levels of wealth-in excess of US$8 million (Study 1) and US$10 million (Study 2)-are wealthier millionaires happier than millionaires with lower levels of wealth, though these differences are modest in magnitude. Second, controlling for total wealth, millionaires who have earned their wealth are moderately happier than those who inherited it. Taken together, these results suggest that, among millionaires, wealth may be likely to pay off in greater happiness only at very high levels of wealth, and when that wealth was earned rather than inherited...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Vanessa Sawicki, Duane T Wegener
"Strong" attitudes often have greater impact than "weak" attitudes. However, emerging research suggests that weak (uncertain) attitudes can substantially influence thinking or behavior. We propose metacognitive reflection as a moderator between traditional strength patterns and these emerging attitude bolstering patterns. Across six studies, research participants encountered a target person who agreed or disagreed with participants' attitudes. When focused on evaluating the target, attitudes predicted target evaluations better when the attitude was held with certainty (Study 1A), or after certainty had been primed (Studies 2A and 3; strength effects)...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Sarah J Ward, Laura A King
Why do men view morally questionable behaviors as more permissible than women do? Five studies investigated emotional factors as explanations for gender differences in moral decision-making. In Study 1 ( N = 324), gender differences in perceptions of moral wrongness were explained by guilt and shame proneness. Studies 2a and 2b (combined N = 562) demonstrated that instructions to adopt an unemotional perspective (vs. standard instructions) led women to have higher immoral intentions, no longer lower than men's, as they were in the control group...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
John E Pachankis, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Katie Wang, Charles L Burton, Forrest W Crawford, Jo C Phelan, Bruce G Link
Most individuals are stigmatized at some point. However, research often examines stigmas separately, thus underestimating the overall impact of stigma and precluding comparisons across stigmatized identities and conditions. In their classic text, Social Stigma: The Psychology of Marked Relationships, Edward Jones and colleagues laid the groundwork for unifying the study of different stigmas by considering the shared dimensional features of stigmas: aesthetics, concealability, course, disruptiveness, origin, peril...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Gul Gunaydin, Emre Selcuk, Cansu Yilmaz, Cindy Hazan
Decades of research indicate that individuals adhere to existing states ("status quo bias") and value them more ("endowment effect"). The present work is the first to investigate status quo preference within the context of trade-offs in mate choice. Across seven studies (total N = 1,567), participants indicated whether they would prefer remaining with a current partner possessing a particular set of traits (e.g., high trustworthiness, low attractiveness) or switching to an alternative partner possessing opposite traits...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jens Lange, Delroy L Paulhus, Jan Crusius
Researchers have recently drawn a contrast between two forms of envy: benign and malicious envy. In three studies (total N = 3,123), we challenge the assumption that malicious envy is destructive, whereas benign envy is entirely constructive. Instead, both forms have links with the Dark Triad of personality. Benign envy is associated with Machiavellian behaviors, whereas malicious envy is associated with both Machiavellian and psychopathic behaviors. In Study 1, this pattern emerged from meta-analyzed trait correlations...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jude Cassidy, Jessica A Stern, Mario Mikulincer, David R Martin, Philip R Shaver
Research indicates that dispositional attachment security fosters empathy, and that short-term increases in security ("security priming") increase empathy and willingness to help others. In two experiments, we examined effects of recalling one's own vulnerability ( feeling hurt by a relationship partner) and security priming on empathy for a recipient in need. In Study 1, the recipient was a middle-aged homeless woman (low similarity to participants); in Study 2, the recipient was a college-aged woman whose boyfriend had been unfaithful (high similarity to participants)...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Anthony M Evans, Philippe P F M van de Calseyde
The present research examines the reputational consequences of generalized trust. High-trust individuals are seen as moral and sociable, but not necessarily competent. When controlling for other traits, there is a negative relationship between trust and perceived competence (Studies 1 and 2). Compared with optimism, generalized trust has stronger effects on morality and sociability (Study 2). Furthermore, people judge those who do not discriminate between trustworthy and untrustworthy groups (unconditional trustors) more negatively than those who only trust groups that are, in fact, trustworthy (conditional trustors)...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Emile Bruneau, Nour Kteily, Emily Falk
Collectively blaming groups for the actions of individuals can license vicarious retribution. Acts of terrorism by Muslim extremists against innocents, and the spikes in anti-Muslim hate crimes against innocent Muslims that follow, suggest that reciprocal bouts of collective blame can spark cycles of violence. How can this cycle be short-circuited? After establishing a link between collective blame of Muslims and anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior, we used an "interventions tournament" to identify a successful intervention (among many that failed)...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Ryan P Brown, Kiersten Baughman, Mauricio Carvallo
Prior research has connected the cultural ideology of honor to intrasexual violence between men and to attitudes supporting intersexual aggression in response to perceived honor violations by female romantic partners. We extend this research to show that honor ideology is also associated with an increased likelihood of men actually engaging in violent and sexually coercive behaviors toward women. Extending previous research on honor-based schemas and scripts linked to relationship violence, comparisons between honor states and non-honor states in the United States show that official rape and domestic homicide rates by White male perpetrators (Study 1) and experiences of rape and violence in relationships anonymously reported by White female teenagers (Study 2) were higher in honor states, controlling for a variety of potential confounds...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Anna Giesen, Gerald Echterhoff
It has been argued that "we feel the pain of others' ostracism as our own". However, it is unknown whether observed ostracism is as distressing as self-experienced ostracism. We conducted two studies to address this lacuna. In Study 1, participants played or observed an online ball-tossing game, in which they or a stranger were ostracized or included by others. In Study 2, participants imagined themselves or someone else being ostracized or included. Across both studies, self-experienced and observed ostracism had the same negative effect on mood...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Sophie von Stumm
The investment theory of adult intelligence posits that individual differences in knowledge attainment result from people's differences in cognitive ability and their propensity to apply and invest that ability, which is referred to as investment personality traits. Here, we differentiated intellectual (i.e., intellectual curiosity) and nonintellectual investment (i.e., openness to experience), and we tested their respective predictive validity for knowledge attainment in four independent lab-based studies (overall N = 649)...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Clare A M Sutherland, Xizi Liu, Lingshan Zhang, Yingtung Chu, Julian A Oldmeadow, Andrew W Young
People form first impressions from facial appearance rapidly, and these impressions can have considerable social and economic consequences. Three dimensions can explain Western perceivers' impressions of Caucasian faces: approachability, youthful-attractiveness, and dominance. Impressions along these dimensions are theorized to be based on adaptive cues to threat detection or sexual selection, making it likely that they are universal. We tested whether the same dimensions of facial impressions emerge across culture by building data-driven models of first impressions of Asian and Caucasian faces derived from Chinese and British perceivers' unconstrained judgments...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Lauren M Ministero, Michael J Poulin, Anneke E K Buffone, Shane DeLury
When do people experience versus regulate responses to compassion-evoking stimuli? We hypothesized that compassionate responding is composed of two factors-empathic concern and the desire to help-and that these would be differentially affected by perspective taking and self-affirmation. Exploratory (Study 1) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated that a compassion measure consisted of two factors corresponding to empathic concern and the desire to help. In Study 1 ( N = 237), participants with high emotion regulation ability reported less empathic concern for multiple children than for one, but perspective taking prevented this effect...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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