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Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

Stephanie A Godleski, Rina D Eiden, Lorig Kachadourian, Joseph F Lucke
Rejection sensitivity is associated with social-emotional maladjustment in both childhood and adulthood. However, less is known about the etiology of rejection sensitivity. The present study tests an etiological model for rejection sensitivity using a high-risk sample ( N = 227) with prospective data from infancy (i.e., 12 months) to adolescence (i.e., eighth grade). Evidence for social learning and attachment theories was demonstrated. In particular, family and parenting factors, such as family conflict and maternal harshness, were predictive of rejection sensitivity in adolescence...
September 21, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Katie E Garrison, Anna J Finley, Brandon J Schmeichel
Two preregistered experiments with more than 1,000 participants in total found evidence of an ego depletion effect on attention control. Participants who exercised self-control on a writing task went on to make more errors on Stroop tasks (Experiment 1) and the Attention Network Test (Experiment 2) compared with participants who did not exercise self-control on the initial writing task. The depletion effect on response times was nonsignificant. A mini meta-analysis of the two experiments found a small ( d = 0...
September 21, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Carrie A Bredow, Nicole Hames
Although research on mate preferences has been built on the assumption that the criteria people report at one point in time should predict their future partnering behavior, little is known about the temporal stability of people's standards. Using survey data collected at four time points from 285 originally unmarried individuals, this study examined the rank-order, mean-level, individual-level and ipsative stability of people's mate criteria over 27 months. Overall, reported standards exhibited moderate to high baseline stability, with rank-order and ipsative estimates comparable to those reported for personality traits...
September 19, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Matthew Feinberg, Ray Fang, Shi Liu, Kaiping Peng
Research finds collectivists make external attributions for others' behavior, whereas individualists make internal attributions. By focusing on external causes, collectivists should be less punitive toward those who harm others. Yet, many collectivistic cultures are known for strict retributive justice systems. How can collectivists simultaneously make external attributions and punish so harshly? We hypothesized that unlike individualists whose analytic tendencies engender a focus on mental states where judgments of accountability stem from perceptions of a harm-doer's agency, collectivists' holistic cognitive tendencies engender a focus on social harmony where judgments of accountability stem from perceived social consequences of the harmful act...
September 18, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Abdiel J Flores, Tanya A Chavez, Niall Bolger, Bettina J Casad
This work examined the effects of socioeconomic status (SES)-based social identity threat on cardiovascular indexes of challenge and threat and self-regulatory strength. Participants ( N = 104) took an exam described as either diagnostic of intellectual ability (identity threat) or framed as a problem-solving task (control) while we recorded cardiovascular reactivity and assessed participants' physical self-control. Under identity threat, lower SES students exhibited impaired performance, reduced self-control, and cardiovascular threat reactivity...
September 18, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Samantha J Heintzelman, Laura A King
Previous research links the experience of meaning in life (MIL) with environmental structure and the coherence of external stimuli. The current studies directly test the association between one source of structure in everyday life-routines-and MIL. First, Study 1 ( N = 317) found a positive relationship between trait preference for routine and MIL. Study 2 expanded upon this cross-sectional finding with experience sampling data ( N = 85; 2,590 episodes) showing that the degree to which current, naturally occurring, behavior followed a typical routine positively related to participants' momentary feelings of MIL...
September 18, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Mazheruddin M Mulla, Tricia H Witte, Kyle Richardson, William Hart, Francesca L Kassing, Christopher A Coffey, Christine L Hackman, Ian M Sherwood
Across three studies, we develop a model of the direct and indirect paths through which the perceived prevalence (perceived descriptive norms [PDN]) of intimate partner violence (IPV) among peers may influence individuals' likelihood of engaging in IPV. Study 1 replicated and extended previous cross-sectional research by demonstrating a positive longitudinal association between PDN and subsequent IPV perpetration. Study 2 further showed the influence of PDN on IPV perpetration to be mediated through its relation to perceived peer acceptance of IPV (perceived injunctive norms [PIN]), which in turn predicted personal IPV acceptance...
September 18, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Henry Kin Shing Ng, Yee-Ling Hong, Tak Sang Chow, Angel Nga Man Leung
Humans become more prosocial after nature exposure. We proposed that the prosocial effect pertains to resource (e.g., food, water) and security (e.g., shelter, concealment) features in natural environments. Four studies tested the idea that prosociality changes with variations in environmental resource and security. Study 1 reported that urban greenspace, a resource feature to urban dwellers, predicted more volunteering in low-crime cities, but less so in high-crime cities. Studies 2 and 3 compared prosociality after exposure to natural sceneries in a Resource (high/low) × Security (high/low) design...
September 15, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Drew S Jacoby-Senghor, Stacey Sinclair, Colin Tucker Smith, Jeanine L M Skorinko
We test a novel framework for how ingroup members are perceived during intergroup interaction. Across three experiments, we found that, above and beyond egalitarian attitudes and motivations, White observers' automatic responses to Blacks (i.e., their implicit anti-Black bias) shaped their affiliation toward ingroup targets who appeared comfortable engaging in interracial versus same-race interaction. White observers' implicit anti-Black bias negatively correlated with liking of White targets who were comfortable with Blacks (Experiments 1-3)...
September 7, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Lindsey M Rodriguez, Jennifer Fillo, Benjamin W Hadden, Camilla S Øverup, Zachary G Baker, Angelo M DiBello
The present research examined how actor and partner attachment insecurity relates to biases in perceptions of partners' core relationship-relevant constructs. Across three dyadic studies ( Ncouples = 333, Nindividuals = 666), we examined attachment anxiety and avoidance as predictors of over- or underestimation of partners' relationship satisfaction, commitment, and responsiveness, using partners' own reports as the reference point for evaluating bias. Actors higher in avoidance and actors with partners higher in avoidance perceived their partners to be less satisfied and committed...
August 27, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Cai Xing, Yuqi Meng, Derek M Isaacowitz, Yue Wen, Zhongxin Lin
The present study examined the power of endings on risky decision making. With four experiments, the changes in the individuals' risk-taking tendencies were examined as the end of an investment decision task approached; the role of motivational shift toward emotional satisfaction in the ending effect was also explored. As predicted, participants who knew they were working on the last round of an investment task were more risk seeking than those who did not know (i.e., ending effect, Experiment 1). Experiments 2 through 4 examined the motivational mechanism of the ending effect...
August 25, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Hyewon Choi, Shigehiro Oishi, Jieun Shin, Eunkook M Suh
The present study examined cultural differences in the act of sharing positive events with others, called capitalization attempts. The first three studies tested whether capitalization attempts differ between two cultures using multiple methods: self-reports (Study 1), children's storybooks (Study 2), and Facebook (Study 3). We found that Koreans are less likely to share their positive events with others than European Americans. Study 4 further examined the antecedents and consequences of capitalization attempts...
August 24, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Christina Sagioglou, Matthias Forstmann, Tobias Greitemeyer
Comparing economically unfavorably with similar others has detrimental consequences for an individual, ultimately resulting in low physical health, delinquency, and hostility. In four studies ( N = 2,032), we examined whether believing in a mobile society-one offering fair chances and opportunity-mitigates hostile emotions resulting from disadvantaged social standing. We find that with increasing mobility belief, negative comparisons have gradually less impact on hostility. Specifically, measured (Studies 1 and 4) and manipulated (Studies 2 and 3) social mobility belief moderated the link between induced high versus low social status, experiencing relative deprivation, and hostile affect...
August 24, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Sarah J Gervais, Jill Allen, Abigail R Riemer, Marco Gullickson
In this work, we introduced and tested the balanced objectification hypothesis (BOH). Derived from an integration of balance theory and objectification research, the BOH suggests that people seek psychological balance during objectifying interactions with others. Corresponding with the BOH, men and women perceived objectification sources as higher in warmth and intended to approach the objectification source more when they experienced complimentary objectification in conjunction with positive body sentiment (vs...
August 21, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Kristi A Costabile, Stephanie Madon
Although research has given substantial attention to understanding the antecedents of dispositional inferences, less attention has been directed at the consequences of these inferences, such that evidence linking dispositional inferences to downstream effects is relatively scarce. The present investigation examined whether dispositional inferences formed during initial observations elicited confirmatory processing of subsequent information about observed targets. Because confirmation biases influence a variety of information processing strategies, four experiments examined the extent to which dispositional inferences guided memory of new information (Experiment 1), interpretation of ambiguous information (Experiment 2), and information-seeking behavior (Experiments 3 and 4)...
August 21, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Diana Orghian, Filipa de Almeida, Sofia Jacinto, Leonel Garcia-Marques, Ana Sofia Santos
In the present article, we investigate how a person's power affects the way we infer traits from their behavior. In Experiment 1, our results suggest that, when faced with behavioral descriptions about others, participants infer both positive and negative traits about powerless actors, whereas for powerful and control (power irrelevant) actors, only positive but no negative traits are inferred, an effect we call the benevolence bias. In the second experiment, (a) we replicate this effect, (b) we show that it does not depend on the specific traits used in Experiment 1, and (c) we show that it is also detected when an implicit measure of inferences is used...
August 21, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Gurit E Birnbaum, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Moran Mizrahi, May Recanati, Romy Orr
Research addressing the underlying functions of sexual fantasies has mainly focused on variables associated with frequency and content of fantasies. Relatively less is known about how sexual fantasizing affects the relationship. Four studies examined the contribution of fantasizing about one's partner ("dyadic fantasies") to relationship outcomes. In Studies 1 and 2, participants fantasized either about their partner or about someone else and rated their desire to engage in sex and other nonsexual relationship-promoting activities with their partner...
August 18, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Pieter Van Dessel, Gaëtan Mertens, Colin Tucker Smith, Jan De Houwer
The mere exposure (ME) effect refers to the well-established finding that people evaluate a stimulus more positively after repeated exposure to it. So far, the vast majority of studies on ME effects have examined changes in explicit stimulus evaluation. We describe the results of three large-scale studies (combined N = 3,623) that examined ME effects on implicit stimulus evaluation. We looked at three moderators of these effects: the implicit evaluation measure, the number of stimulus presentations, and memory for presentation frequency...
August 17, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Anatolia Batruch, Frédérique Autin, Fabienne Bataillard, Fabrizio Butera
Selection practices in education, such as tracking, may represent a structural obstacle that contributes to the social class achievement gap. We hypothesized that school's function of selection leads evaluators to reproduce social inequalities in tracking decisions, even when performance is equal. In two studies, participants (students playing the role of teachers, N = 99, or preservice and in-service teachers, N = 70) decided which school track was suitable for a pupil whose socioeconomic status (SES) was manipulated...
August 15, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Joshua J Guyer, Leandre R Fabrigar, Thomas I Vaughan-Johnston
Three experiments were designed to investigate the effects and psychological mechanisms of three vocal qualities on persuasion. Experiment 1 ( N = 394) employed a 2 (elaboration: high vs. low) × 2 (vocal speed: fast vs. slow) × 2 (vocal intonation: falling vs. rising) between-participants factorial design. As predicted, vocal speed and vocal intonation influenced global perceptions of speaker confidence. Under high-elaboration, vocal confidence biased thought-favorability, which influenced attitudes. Under low-elaboration, vocal confidence directly influenced attitudes as a peripheral cue...
August 7, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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