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Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

Kimberly E Chaney, Diana T Sanchez
Previous work has found that individuals who have been confronted for discrimination demonstrate a reduction in explicit prejudice and use fewer stereotypes immediately after the confrontation. Although confronting prejudice has been touted as a tool for prejudice reduction, it is not known how these effects translate over time and what processes might account for their endurance. Across two studies, the present research finds that individuals used significantly fewer negative stereotypes 7 days after confrontation (Study 1) and engaged in behavioral inhibition to stereotypical cues on a probe task 1 week after confrontation...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Lydia F Emery, Wendi L Gardner, Eli J Finkel, Kathleen L Carswell
People often pursue self-change, and having a romantic partner who supports these changes increases relationship satisfaction. However, most existing research focuses only on the experience of the person who is changing. What predicts whether people support their partner's change? People with low self-concept clarity resist self-change, so we hypothesized that they would be unsupportive of their partner's changes. People with low self-concept clarity did not support their partner's change (Study 1a), because they thought they would have to change, too (Study 1b)...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Brett W Pelham, Mitsuru Shimizu, Jamie Arndt, Mauricio Carvallo, Sheldon Solomon, Jeff Greenberg
We tested predictions about religiosity and terror management processes in 16 nations. Specifically, we examined weekly variation in Google search volume in each nation for 12 years (all weeks for which data were available). In all 16 nations, higher than usual weekly Google search volume for life-threatening illnesses (cancer, diabetes, and hypertension) predicted increases in search volume for religious content (e.g., God, Jesus, prayer) in the following week. This effect held up after controlling for (a) recent past and annual variation in religious search volume, (b) increases in search volume associated with religious holidays, and (c) variation in searches for a non-life-threatening illness ("sore throat")...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Corina Berli, Niall Bolger, Patrick E Shrout, Gertraud Stadler, Urte Scholz
Little is known about how couples' social support facilitates the pursuit of important goals in daily life. Using an interpersonal perspective, we examined the effects of support provision and receipt on same-day physical activity, and studied the role of partners' joint engagement in activities. One hundred nineteen heterosexual couples reported on target persons' received and partners' provided support across 28 diary days, yielding 2,854 valid days. A dyadic report on couples' joint engagement was obtained from a subset of 88 couples...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Emmanuelle P Kleinlogel, Joerg Dietz, John Antonakis
Despite substantial research on cheating, how and when individual predispositions figure into cheating behavior remains unclear. In Study 1, we investigated to what extent Honesty-Humility predicted cheating behavior. As expected, individuals high on Honesty-Humility were less likely to cheat than were individuals low on this trait. In Study 2, integrating arguments from personality research about traits with arguments from behavioral ethics about moral primes, we examined how Honesty-Humility and situational primes interacted to affect cheating...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jonas R Kunst, John F Dovidio, Ron Dotsch
White Americans generally equate "being American" with "being White." In six studies, we demonstrate that White Americans perceive immigrants who adopt American mainstream culture as racially White and, reciprocally, perceive White-looking immigrants as assimilating more. In Studies 1 and 2, participants visually represented immigrants who adopted U.S. culture by acculturating to mainstream American culture or by holding a common or dual identity as more phenotypically White and less stereotypic in appearance...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Madelyn H Labella, William F Johnson, Jodi Martin, Sarah K Ruiz, Jessica L Shankman, Michelle M Englund, W Andrew Collins, Glenn I Roisman, Jeffry A Simpson
The present study used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (MLSRA) to investigate how multiple dimensions of childhood abuse and neglect predict romantic relationship functioning in adulthood. Several dimensions of abuse and neglect (any experience, type, chronicity, co-occurrence, and perpetrator) were rated prospectively from birth through age 17.5 years. Multimethod assessments of relational competence and violence in romantic relationships were conducted repeatedly from ages 20 to 32 years...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Steven M Almaraz, Kurt Hugenberg, Steven G Young
In six studies, we investigated how ascribing humanlike versus animallike minds to targets influences how easily targets are individuated. Across the studies, participants learned to discriminate among a variety of "aliens" (actually Greebles). Our initial study showed that participants' ability to learn to individuate targets was related to beliefs that targets had sophisticated minds. Investigating the directionality of this relationship, we found that learning to better recognize the targets did not affect perceptions of mind (Study 2)...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Daniel Conroy-Beam
Three studies tested the hypothesis that human mate choice psychology uses a Euclidean algorithm to integrate mate preferences into estimates of mate value. In Study 1, a series of agent-based models identify a pattern of results relatively unique to mating markets where individuals high in Euclidean mate value experience greater power of choice: strong preference fulfillment overall and correlations between mate value and (a) preference fulfillment, (b) ideal standards, and (c) partner mate value. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that this pattern of results that emerges in human romantic relationships, is specific to mate value as a long-term partner, and is not accounted for by participant biases...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Thuy-Vy T Nguyen, Richard M Ryan, Edward L Deci
In this research, we showed that solitude generally has a deactivation effect on people's affective experiences, decreasing both positive and negative high-arousal affects. In Study 1, we found that the deactivation effect occurred when people were alone, but not when they were with another person. Study 2 showed that this deactivation effect did not depend on whether or not the person was engaged in an activity such as reading when alone. In Study 3, high-arousal positive affect did not drop in a solitude condition in which participants specifically engaged in positive thinking or when they actively chose what to think about...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Boaz Hameiri, Eden Nabet, Daniel Bar-Tal, Eran Halperin
Conflict-resolution interventions based on the paradoxical thinking principles, that is, expressing amplified, exaggerated, or even absurd ideas that are congruent with the held conflict-supporting societal beliefs, have been shown to be an effective avenue of intervention, especially among individuals who are adamant in their views. However, the question as to why these interventions have been effective has remained unanswered. In the present research, we have examined possible underlying psychological mechanisms, focusing on identity threat, surprise, and general disagreement...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Leanne Ten Brinke, Aimee Kish, Dacher Keltner
It is widely assumed that psychopathic personality traits promote success in high-powered, competitive contexts such as financial investment. By contrast, empirical studies find that psychopathic leaders can be charming and persuasive, but poor performers who mismanage, bully, and engage in unethical behavior. By coding nonverbal behaviors displayed in semistructured interviews, we identified the psychopathic, Machiavellian, and narcissistic tendencies in 101 hedge fund managers, and examined whether these traits were associated with financial performance over the course of 10 diverse years of economic volatility (2005-2015)...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Natsumi Sawada, Emilie Auger, John E Lydon
Evolutionary psychologists propose that humans evolved a first line of defense against pathogens: the behavioral immune system (BIS). The BIS is thought to be functionally flexible such that the likelihood and magnitude of BIS activation depends on the individual's perceived vulnerability to disease (PVD). Because conspecifics are sources of infection, the BIS has implications for affiliation. By priming and measuring chronic levels of PVD, we examined PVD's relation to affiliation in zero-acquaintance situations in the laboratory, online, and during speed-dating events...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Seunghoo Chung, Robert B Lount, Hee Man Park, Ernest S Park
The current article examines if, and under which conditions, there exists a positive relationship between working with friends and group performance. To do so, using data from 1,016 groups obtained from 26 studies, we meta-analyzed comparisons of the performance of friendship groups versus acquaintance groups. Results show that friendship has a significant positive effect on group task performance (Cohen's d = 0.31). Furthermore, this relationship was moderated by group size (i.e., the positive effect of friendship on performance increased with group size) and task focus (i...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Samantha Stronge, Petar Milojev, Chris G Sibley
It is a common conception that entitlement is increasing among younger generations over time. However, although there is some evidence for this trend, other findings are less conclusive. The current research investigated change in psychological entitlement across the adult lifespan for men and women (ages 19-74), using six annual waves of data (2009-2014) from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study ( N = 10,412). We employed Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Modeling to assess mean-level change in entitlement...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Ali Mashuri, Esther van Leeuwen
The current research examined two fundamental motives that could lie at the root of separatist groups' desire to be independent from the nonseparatist majority: the need to maintain the own subgroup identity and the need to preserve power vis-à-vis the majority. These motives were examined in two studies through surveys among samples of indigenous people in West Papua ( N = 201 and N = 248), where separatist movements are actively striving for secession from the Republic of Indonesia. As expected, identity threat increased perceptions of injustice in both studies, whereas power threat increased the need for subgroup empowerment...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Mitch Brown, Donald F Sacco
Limbal rings are dark annuli encircling the iris that fluctuate in visibility based on health and age. Research also indicates their presence augments facial attractiveness. Given individuals' prioritization of health cues in short-term mates, those with limbal rings may be implicated as ideal short-term mates. Three studies tested whether limbal rings serve as veridical health cues, specifically the extent to which this cue enhances a person's value as a short-term mating partner. In Study 1, targets with limbal rings were rated as healthier, an effect that was stronger for female participants and male targets...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Rael J Dawtry, Mitchell J Callan, Annelie J Harvey, James M Olson
Drawing on just-world theory and research into the suppression and justification of prejudice, we propose that the use of relative compared with absolute measures of an innocent victim's character enables observers to derogate the victim without transparently violating social norms or values proscribing derogation. In Study 1, we found that positive feelings expressed toward victims mirrored social norms proscribing negative reactions toward them. In Studies 2a, 2b, and 3, innocent victims were evaluated more negatively when ratings were made using relative (i...
September 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Andrew J Ritchey, R Barry Ruback
From 1882 to 1926, lynch mobs in Georgia killed 514 victims in 410 separate events. Based on a new comprehensive dataset, this study examined characteristics of the mobs related to the level of the atrocity of the violence in the lynchings. Consistent with prior research, the size of the crowd was a stable predictor of level of atrocity. However, in contrast to two prior studies, results did not uniformly support the self-attention perspective. Instead, the findings were more consistent with the concept that situational norms were the important mechanism behind collective violence, particularly because the violence used in a lynching event reflected the violence used in nearby lynchings...
September 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
L Alison Phillips, Melissa A Johnson
Self-determination theory (SDT) is used to predict individual differences in goal-directed behavior. A fundamental tenet of SDT is that autonomously regulated behavior is more likely to be engaged in and sustained than externally controlled behavior. Unidimensional treatment of regulation is suboptimal. The current study utilizes a multidimensional approach-polynomial regression-to evaluate the interdependent effects of autonomous and controlled regulation on physical activity. Results from three samples of healthy, younger adults demonstrate a mostly positive influence of autonomous regulation but a curvilinear effect of controlled regulation on behavior such that greater activity was associated with moderate levels of controlled regulation-an effect that cannot be identified with "unidimensional" methods...
September 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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