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Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Radhakrishna Sahu, Satyajit B Kale, Jess Vergis, Pankaj Dhaka, Manesh Kumar, Mamta Choudhary, Lata Jain, Binod Kumar Choudhary, Deepak B Rawool, Sandeep P Chaudhari, Nitin V Kurkure, S V S Malik, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe
Coxiella burnetii is one of the most contagious pathogen associated with Q fever in humans, while, ruminants act as important source of infection for humans. In the present cross sectional study, a total of 464 samples were collected from 218 goats comprising of 218 sera, 218 blood and 28 milk from various parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha region, India. Besides, environmental (33; soil- 4, faecal- 10, feed-6, drainage water- 6, drinking water- 7) and rodent (38) samples were also collected from the premises of the animals...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Azzurra Santoro, Fabrizia Veronesi, Emanuela Olivieri, Luca Villa, Emanuele Lubian, Silvia Lovati, Fulvio Bottura, Sara Epis, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite infecting a wide range of intermediate hosts, including birds. Nevertheless, scant information on the spread of infection in wild bird populations is available to date. With the aim of updating information on T. gondii infection in birds of prey and possible risk factors associated with the infection, a serosurvey was planned on both wild and captive raptors. An overall of 93 raptors from Northern Italy were tested for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies with a commercial modified agglutination test (MAT)...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Gamal A Elmowalid, Adel Attia M Ahmad, Muhammad N Hassan, Norhan K Abd El-Aziz, Ashraf M Abdelwahab, Shymaa I Elwan
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens was reported worldwide. Herein, SHV extended-spectrum β-lactamase (SHV-ESBL) variants detection was investigated in MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from human subjects (n = 144), one day-old chicks (n = 36) and broiler clinical samples (n = 90). All examined samples were positive for E. coli (n = 246/270; 91.11%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 24/270; 8.89%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on E. coli and K...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Álvaro Roy, María A Risalde, Javier Bezos, Carmen Casal, Beatriz Romero, Iker Sevilla, Alberto Díez-Guerrier, Antonio Rodríguez-Bertos, Mercedes Domínguez, Joseba Garrido, Christian Gortázar, Lucas Domínguez
Caprine TB causes chronic disease with severe economic and health consequences. We assessed the effect of intramuscularly administered heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) on 20 kid goats (10 vaccinated, 10 controls), naturally exposed to M. caprae through close contact with infected goats. At necropsy, visible TB-compatible lesions were recorded in all animals with the exception of 1 control and 2 vaccinated goats. The median of the total lesion score was 9 (IQR 3-13.5) and 5 (IQR 3-6.75) in control and vaccinated goats, respectively (median lesion reduction 44...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
K H Haji Mohammadi, M Heidarpour, H Borji
Plant-based anthelmintics suggest an alternative treatment for cystic echinococcosis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract (ME) of A. sativum (garlic) on the treatment of hydatid cysts in the murine model. After gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of prepared ME, sixty laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1500 viable protoscoleces. Five months after infection, the infected mice were allocated into six treatment groups, 1- Albendazole (100 mg/kg); 2- Allium sativum ME (10 mL/L); 3- A...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Pierre Lafaye, Tengfei Li
Camelids produce both conventional heterotetrameric antibodies and homodimeric heavy-chain only antibodies. The antigen-binding region of such homodimeric heavy-chain only antibodies consists of one single domain, called VHH. VHHs provide many advantages over conventional full-sized antibodies and currently used antibody-based fragments (Fab, scFv), including high specificity, stability and solubility, and small size, allowing them to recognize unusual antigenic sites and deeply penetrate tissues. Since their discovery, VHHs have been used extensively in diagnostics and therapy...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Javier Millán, Roser Velarde, Verónica Delicado, Nieves Negre, Alexis Ribas, Álvaro Oleaga, Luis Llaneza, Fernando Esperón
Two-hundred and thirty-one wild carnivores belonging to 10 species of in Spain were analyzed for the presence of DNA of hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) by means of a universal real-time PCR targeting a 16S rRNA gene fragment. Positive reactions were found for wolf (Canis lupus: 6/37), fox (Vulpes vulpes: 1/41), Eurasian badger (Meles meles: 49/85), pine marten (Martes martes: 11/23), stone marten (Martes foina: 6/9), least weasel (Mustela nivalis: 4/4), European wildcat (Felis s. silvestris: 1/2) and common genet (Genetta genetta: 7/27)...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Lorena Franco-Martínez, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Anita Horvatić, Nicolas Guillemin, José Joaquín Cerón, Damián Escribano, David Eckersall, Meriç Kocatürk, Zeki Yilmaz, Elsa Lamy, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Vladimir Mrljak
The present study evaluated the changes in salivary proteome in parvoviral enteritis (PVE) in dogs through a high-throughput quantitative proteomic analysis. Saliva samples from healthy dogs and dogs with severe parvovirosis that survived or perished due to the disease were analysed and compared by Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) analysis. Proteomic analysis quantified 1516 peptides, and 287 (corresponding to 190 proteins) showed significantly different abundances between studied groups. Ten proteins were observed to change significantly between dogs that survived or perished due to PVE...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
J Filipe, G Curone, V Bronzo, G Pisoni, P Cremonesi, C Pollera, L Turin, D Vigo, P Roccabianca, M Caniatti, P Moroni, F Riva
Pentraxin 3 is the prototypic long pentraxin and is produced by different cell populations (dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts) after pro-inflammatory stimulation. Different studies demonstrated the up-regulation of PTX3 during mastitis in ruminants, but its role is still unknown. We first investigated the conservation of PTX3 sequence among different species and its pattern of expression in a wide panel of organs from healthy goats. We studied the modulation of PTX3 during natural and experimental mammary infection, comparing its expression in blood, milk and mammary tissues from healthy and Staphylococcus aureus infected animals...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Alba Llibre, Darragh Duffy
Biomarkers are increasingly utilised in biological research and clinical practice for diagnosis of disease, monitoring of therapeutic prognosis, or as end points in clinical studies. Cytokines are small molecules that orchestrate immune responses and as such have great potential as biomarkers for both human and veterinary fields. Given the ease of sampling in the blood, and their high prevalence in clinical applications we will focus on protein detection as an area for biomarker discovery. This is facilitated by new technological developments such as digital ELISA that have led to significant increases in sensitivity...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Yaghob Azadi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Hamed Hamishehkar, Ahmad Daryani, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Aleksandra Barac, Saba Rajabi, Paria Alizadeh, Mahbobeh Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Although almost 1/3 of the world's population are seropositive, there is no effective vaccine against toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the development of an effective vaccine for control of toxoplasmosis is one of major concerns in parasitology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nano-liposomal excretory-secretory antigens (NLESA) in BALB/c mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) was obtained from tachyzoites, encapsulated in the liposome and studied by scanning electron microscope...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Sezayi Ozubek, Munir Aktas
Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a protozoon disease caused by Babesia caballi and Theileria equi transmitted by ticks from the Ixodidae family. This study investigated the genetic heterogeneity and diversity of piroplasm genotypes using the Reverse Line Blotting (RLB) technique for piroplasm species in equids in Turkey. A total of 233 blood samples from 142 horses and 91 donkeys were collected in Şanlıurfa, Tunceli, and Iğdır. The RLB assay was performed for simultaneous detection of piroplasm species. The prevalence of piroplasm infection was 33...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Vincenza Romano, Vincenzo Pasquale, Ludovic Lemee, Imane El Meouche, Martine Pestel-Caron, Federico Capuano, Pasqualina Buono, Stefano Dumontet
One hundred and thirty-eight C. difficile isolates from different sources (66 from the environment, 36 from animals, 9 from food and 27 from humans) were ribotyped by capillary electrophoresis PCR ribotyping (CE-PCR). A multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was carried out on a sample subset. The most frequently isolated PCR ribotypes were 126 (15.9%), 078 (14.5%), 011/018 (11.6%), 014/020/077 (10.1%), and 010 (2.8%). In particular, strains of PCR ribotype 011/018 were isolated from human, raw milk and environmental samples...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Roghiyeh Faridnia, Ahmad Daryani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mehdi Sharif, Hamed Kalani
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan that infects a wide variety of vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aim of the current systematic review study is to clarify the latest status of studies in the literature regarding rhoptry-associated recombinant proteins or rhoptry-associated recombinant DNAs as potential vaccines against toxoplasmosis. The search was performed systematically in 8 databases, four in English and four in Persian, up to February 2017. Overall, ROP2 was the most commonly used ROPs in DNA vaccines (27...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Alai Shalitanati, Huan Yu, Dongliang Liu, Wan-Xiang Xu, Xihong Yue, Rong Guo, Yijie Li, Fei Deng, Jianhua Yang, Yujiang Zhang, Surong Sun
Glycoprotein (GP) is a major antigen of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), and binds to its receptor on the host cell and induces protective immunity in the host. The aim of this study is to identify all linear B cell epitopes (BCEs) on the N-terminal glycoprotein (Gn) of CCHFV using a modified overlapping peptide biosynthesis method. The eight fine BCEs (Gn-E1a, 543 RTQLV547 ; E1b, 553 EIH555 ; E1c, 554 IHEDSY559 ; E1d, 557 DSYG560 ; E2, 615 CKQGFC620 ; E3a, 657 GDILVD662 ; E3b, 662 DCSGGQQH669 , and E4, 678 LGCPNVPL685 ) were identified using the rabbit antisera, which all were recognized by serum from IgG-positive sheep CCHFV-infected naturally in Western blotting...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Ángel García-Barragán, José A Gutiérrez-Pabello, Edgar Alfonseca-Silva
Bovine tuberculosis, a re-emerging infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, can be transmitted to humans. Global prevalence of M. bovis in humans is underestimated and represents a serious public health risk in developing countries. In light of this situation, it is important to note that our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of human tuberculosis can be improved by studying this disease in the bovine model. Stimulation of the bovine innate immune system with calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) leads to an increase in bactericidal molecules involved in macrophage antimicrobial activity...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Hassan Noorbazargan, Seyed Alireza Nadji, Siamak Mirab Samiee, Mahdi Paryan, Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the analytical performance of an In-House HIV-1 viral load determination technique with three commercial kits including COBAS® AmpliPrep, RealStar® , and RTA® HIV-1 Real-Time PCR. RESULTS: A total of 100 HIV-1 suspicious plasma samples were tested by the In-House TaqMan® Real-Time PCR assay along with the above-mentioned kits. Comparative analysis between In-House and reference method (COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® HIV-1 Test version 2...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Nina Krešić, Tomislav Bedeković, Dragan Brnić, Ivana Šimić, Ivana Lojkić, Nenad Turk
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) represents an important causative agent of respiratory tract disease in cattle. This study describes the genetic diversity of BRSV strains detected in beef cattle herds in Croatia during four consecutive years, from the end of 2011 to April 2016. Genetic diversity of circulating Croatian strains is reflected in their clustering within three different genetic subgroups. Analysis of representative BRSV G gene sequences revealed that infections in Croatia were caused by BRSV strains belonging to two new subgroups (VII and VIII identified herein for the first time)...
June 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
Flagellin, a major structural component of bacteria flagella, is responsible for facilitating motility and invading host cells. The binding capacity of flagellin to toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and its trigger action for innate immunity make it an attractive vaccine adjuvant. In this work, we explored the efficacy of F18+ STEC flagellin as an adjuvant in a ghost vaccine candidate against porcine edema disease (ED). TLR5-stimulating activity and IL-8 cytokine expression produced via downstream signaling following ligand exposure was detected in HEK-Blue™-hTLR5 cells stimulated with flagellin expressed in the Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) ghost, JOL1485...
June 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Christian Diniz Beduschi Travassos Alves, Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski, Samuel Paulo Cibulski, Matheus Nunes Weber, Fabiana Quoos Mayer, Matheus Viezzer Bianchi, Bruna Zafalon-Silva, Guilherme Konradt, Mônica Slaviero, Luciana Sonne, David Driemeier, Marcelo Meller Alievi, Cláudio Wageck Canal
Astroviruses are a common cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide and can also cause infection in a range of domestic and wild animal species. Canine astrovirus (formally named as Mamastrovirus 5, MAstV5) has been reported worldwide, and its role as an enteric pathogen is still controversial. Herein, we describe the genomic characterization of a MAstV5 (strain crab-eating fox/2016/BRA) identified in a wild canid (Cerdocyon thous) diagnosed with canine distemper virus (CDV) as causa mortis. The nearly complete genome comprised 6579 nt in length and displayed the archetypal organization of astroviruses...
June 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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