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Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Sandrine Lesellier
Mycobacterium bovis is the main cause of bovine tuberculosis and its eradication is proving difficult in many countries because of wildlife reservoirs, including European badgers (Meles meles) in the UK Ireland. Following the development of badger specific immunological reagents, many studies have shown that some aspects of the cellular and serological immune responses of badgers to virulent M. bovis and the attenuated M. bovis BCG (Bacille of Calmette and Guérin) strain are similar to those seen in other animal hosts infected with M...
December 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Clémence Nadal, Jérémy Béguin, Ghita Benchekroun, Delphine Le Roux
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are key players in immunosuppression mechanisms that lead to tumor escape and metastasis formation. Studies on these cells in many cancer types using human patients and murine models, have greatly increased since their discovery in 1980s. MDSCs are now defined as different subpopulations with specific phenotypes in mice and humans with clear immunosuppressive capacities, which are summarized in this review. Current knowledge on these cells have allowed comparative studies and MDSCs have also recently been identified in dogs...
December 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Zary Nokhodian, Awat Feizi, Mohammad Khalili, Behrooz Ataei, Abdolreza Moradi
This study evaluated the prevalence of C. burnetii DNA in blood samples of the high-risk population in central Iran. In spring 2015, a nested PCR was applied to detect C. burnetii DNA in 173 blood samples from seropositive high-risk individuals in Isfahan County. A checklist was used for extracting data. Univariate tests and multivariable binary logistic regression were performed to analyze the data and P values < 0.05 were considered significant. In total, 9.83% of the samples were positive and an association was found between the prevalence of C...
December 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
K A Abdel-Moein, D A Hamza
Q fever is a zoonosis with a mounting public health concern throughout the world. Rodents have been assumed to be a potential reservoir for Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium which causes Q fever. The current study was carried out to investigate the possible role of rats in the epidemiology of such disease. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from 75 rats (55 Rattus norvegicus and 20 Rattus rattus) trapped from Giza governorate, Egypt. DNAs were extracted and samples were examined for the presence of C...
December 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Mary Rose D Uy, Jeffrey L Cruz, Michelle A Miguel, Marvin Bryan S Salinas, Jonathan V Lazaro, Claro N Mingala
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease and a possible cause of Crohn's disease in humans. A total of 70 blood and fecal samples were collected from water buffaloes in selected municipalities of Nueva Ecija for ELISA and qPCR assay. Results revealed presence of antibodies of MAP in 3 serum samples for ELISA. The qPCR assay was carried out using standard curve method targeting the MAP specific insertion element IS900. Results revealed that 10 of the samples were positive for MAP DNA in qPCR...
December 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Konstantinos Arsenopoulos, Eleftherios Triantafillou, George Filioussis, Elias Papadopoulos
The aim of this study was to assess the possible effect of the fly repellent deltamethrin on the full microbiological profile of the intramammary infections as well as on the somatic cell count in one Greek dairy cattle farm under intensive management, during peak fly season. Fifty five multiparous cows, stabled in the same farm, were randomly divided in three groups; cows of Group A were dressed on their back with deltamethrin, cows of Group B remained untreated within the same pen and cows of Group C remained untreated in a separate pen...
December 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
M Johnson, P Maharaja, S Murugesan, N Janakiraman, I R A Menezes, J G M da Costa, C R S Barbosa, H D M Coutinho
OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed to find the larvicidal activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts of Dichanthium foveolatum (Del.) Roberty, Leptochloa uniflora Hochst, Pancratium triflorum Roxb and Molineria trichocarpa (Wight) N.P.Balakr against Culex quinquefasciatus. METHODS: The larvicidal potential of selected plant extracts were determined against 4th instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus with various concentrations viz...
December 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Radhakrishna Sahu, Satyajit B Kale, Jess Vergis, Pankaj Dhaka, Manesh Kumar, Mamta Choudhary, Lata Jain, Binod Kumar Choudhary, Deepak B Rawool, Sandeep P Chaudhari, Nitin V Kurkure, S V S Malik, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe
Coxiella burnetii is one of the most contagious pathogen associated with Q fever in humans, while, ruminants act as important source of infection for humans. In the present cross sectional study, a total of 464 samples were collected from 218 goats comprising of 218 sera, 218 blood and 28 milk from various parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha region, India. Besides, environmental (33; soil- 4, faecal- 10, feed-6, drainage water- 6, drinking water- 7) and rodent (38) samples were also collected from the premises of the animals...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Azzurra Santoro, Fabrizia Veronesi, Emanuela Olivieri, Luca Villa, Emanuele Lubian, Silvia Lovati, Fulvio Bottura, Sara Epis, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite infecting a wide range of intermediate hosts, including birds. Nevertheless, scant information on the spread of infection in wild bird populations is available to date. With the aim of updating information on T. gondii infection in birds of prey and possible risk factors associated with the infection, a serosurvey was planned on both wild and captive raptors. An overall of 93 raptors from Northern Italy were tested for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies with a commercial modified agglutination test (MAT)...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Gamal A Elmowalid, Adel Attia M Ahmad, Muhammad N Hassan, Norhan K Abd El-Aziz, Ashraf M Abdelwahab, Shymaa I Elwan
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens was reported worldwide. Herein, SHV extended-spectrum β-lactamase (SHV-ESBL) variants detection was investigated in MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from human subjects (n = 144), one day-old chicks (n = 36) and broiler clinical samples (n = 90). All examined samples were positive for E. coli (n = 246/270; 91.11%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 24/270; 8.89%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on E. coli and K...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Álvaro Roy, María A Risalde, Javier Bezos, Carmen Casal, Beatriz Romero, Iker Sevilla, Alberto Díez-Guerrier, Antonio Rodríguez-Bertos, Mercedes Domínguez, Joseba Garrido, Christian Gortázar, Lucas Domínguez
Caprine TB causes chronic disease with severe economic and health consequences. We assessed the effect of intramuscularly administered heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) on 20 kid goats (10 vaccinated, 10 controls), naturally exposed to M. caprae through close contact with infected goats. At necropsy, visible TB-compatible lesions were recorded in all animals with the exception of 1 control and 2 vaccinated goats. The median of the total lesion score was 9 (IQR 3-13.5) and 5 (IQR 3-6.75) in control and vaccinated goats, respectively (median lesion reduction 44...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
K H Haji Mohammadi, M Heidarpour, H Borji
Plant-based anthelmintics suggest an alternative treatment for cystic echinococcosis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract (ME) of A. sativum (garlic) on the treatment of hydatid cysts in the murine model. After gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of prepared ME, sixty laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1500 viable protoscoleces. Five months after infection, the infected mice were allocated into six treatment groups, 1- Albendazole (100 mg/kg); 2- Allium sativum ME (10 mL/L); 3- A...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Pierre Lafaye, Tengfei Li
Camelids produce both conventional heterotetrameric antibodies and homodimeric heavy-chain only antibodies. The antigen-binding region of such homodimeric heavy-chain only antibodies consists of one single domain, called VHH. VHHs provide many advantages over conventional full-sized antibodies and currently used antibody-based fragments (Fab, scFv), including high specificity, stability and solubility, and small size, allowing them to recognize unusual antigenic sites and deeply penetrate tissues. Since their discovery, VHHs have been used extensively in diagnostics and therapy...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Javier Millán, Roser Velarde, Verónica Delicado, Nieves Negre, Alexis Ribas, Álvaro Oleaga, Luis Llaneza, Fernando Esperón
Two-hundred and thirty-one wild carnivores belonging to 10 species of in Spain were analyzed for the presence of DNA of hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) by means of a universal real-time PCR targeting a 16S rRNA gene fragment. Positive reactions were found for wolf (Canis lupus: 6/37), fox (Vulpes vulpes: 1/41), Eurasian badger (Meles meles: 49/85), pine marten (Martes martes: 11/23), stone marten (Martes foina: 6/9), least weasel (Mustela nivalis: 4/4), European wildcat (Felis s. silvestris: 1/2) and common genet (Genetta genetta: 7/27)...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Lorena Franco-Martínez, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Anita Horvatić, Nicolas Guillemin, José Joaquín Cerón, Damián Escribano, David Eckersall, Meriç Kocatürk, Zeki Yilmaz, Elsa Lamy, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Vladimir Mrljak
The present study evaluated the changes in salivary proteome in parvoviral enteritis (PVE) in dogs through a high-throughput quantitative proteomic analysis. Saliva samples from healthy dogs and dogs with severe parvovirosis that survived or perished due to the disease were analysed and compared by Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) analysis. Proteomic analysis quantified 1516 peptides, and 287 (corresponding to 190 proteins) showed significantly different abundances between studied groups. Ten proteins were observed to change significantly between dogs that survived or perished due to PVE...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
J Filipe, G Curone, V Bronzo, G Pisoni, P Cremonesi, C Pollera, L Turin, D Vigo, P Roccabianca, M Caniatti, P Moroni, F Riva
Pentraxin 3 is the prototypic long pentraxin and is produced by different cell populations (dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts) after pro-inflammatory stimulation. Different studies demonstrated the up-regulation of PTX3 during mastitis in ruminants, but its role is still unknown. We first investigated the conservation of PTX3 sequence among different species and its pattern of expression in a wide panel of organs from healthy goats. We studied the modulation of PTX3 during natural and experimental mammary infection, comparing its expression in blood, milk and mammary tissues from healthy and Staphylococcus aureus infected animals...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Alba Llibre, Darragh Duffy
Biomarkers are increasingly utilised in biological research and clinical practice for diagnosis of disease, monitoring of therapeutic prognosis, or as end points in clinical studies. Cytokines are small molecules that orchestrate immune responses and as such have great potential as biomarkers for both human and veterinary fields. Given the ease of sampling in the blood, and their high prevalence in clinical applications we will focus on protein detection as an area for biomarker discovery. This is facilitated by new technological developments such as digital ELISA that have led to significant increases in sensitivity...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Yaghob Azadi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Hamed Hamishehkar, Ahmad Daryani, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Aleksandra Barac, Saba Rajabi, Paria Alizadeh, Mahbobeh Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Although almost 1/3 of the world's population are seropositive, there is no effective vaccine against toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the development of an effective vaccine for control of toxoplasmosis is one of major concerns in parasitology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nano-liposomal excretory-secretory antigens (NLESA) in BALB/c mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) was obtained from tachyzoites, encapsulated in the liposome and studied by scanning electron microscope...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Sezayi Ozubek, Munir Aktas
Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a protozoon disease caused by Babesia caballi and Theileria equi transmitted by ticks from the Ixodidae family. This study investigated the genetic heterogeneity and diversity of piroplasm genotypes using the Reverse Line Blotting (RLB) technique for piroplasm species in equids in Turkey. A total of 233 blood samples from 142 horses and 91 donkeys were collected in Şanlıurfa, Tunceli, and Iğdır. The RLB assay was performed for simultaneous detection of piroplasm species. The prevalence of piroplasm infection was 33...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Vincenza Romano, Vincenzo Pasquale, Ludovic Lemee, Imane El Meouche, Martine Pestel-Caron, Federico Capuano, Pasqualina Buono, Stefano Dumontet
One hundred and thirty-eight C. difficile isolates from different sources (66 from the environment, 36 from animals, 9 from food and 27 from humans) were ribotyped by capillary electrophoresis PCR ribotyping (CE-PCR). A multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was carried out on a sample subset. The most frequently isolated PCR ribotypes were 126 (15.9%), 078 (14.5%), 011/018 (11.6%), 014/020/077 (10.1%), and 010 (2.8%). In particular, strains of PCR ribotype 011/018 were isolated from human, raw milk and environmental samples...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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