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Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Silvana Ornelas Santos, Jonathan L M Fontes, Daniela F Laranjeira, José Vassallo, Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo, Washington L C Dos-Santos
Severe forms of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) are associated with disruption of the spleen structure. However, the study of spleen histology requires splenectomy or necropsy. In this work, we present a minimally invasive cell-block technique for studying spleen tissue histology in dogs with ZVL. We examined 13 dogs with and seven dogs without Leishmania infantum infection. The dogs with Leishmania infection had a lower frequency of lymphoid follicles (2/13, Fisher's test, P<0.02) and a higher density of plasma cells (score 3, Fisher's test, P<0...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Luciene Airy Nagashima, Ayako Sano, Eduardo José de Almeida Araújo, Paula Leonello Álvares E Silva, João Paulo Assolini, Eiko Nakagawa Itano
Arthrographis kalrae is occasionally described as an opportunistic human pathogen. This study investigated the immune response to A. kalrae during murine experimental infection (7, 14, 28 and 56 days post infection). The fungal load was higher in the early phase and mice presented with neurological syndrome over the course of the infection. There was a gradual increase in the level of anti-A. kalrae IgG and increased levels of DTH at 14 days. There was decreased IFN-γ (14-56 days) and an increase in IL-4 (7 and 56 days)...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
S Martínez-Martínez, E F Rodríguez-Ferri, R Frandoloso, J J Garrido-Pavón, S Zaldívar-López, C Barreiro, C B Gutiérrez-Martín
The molecular analysis of pigs vaccinated with a mutant transferrin-binding protein B (Y167A) from Haemophilus parasuis was compared with that performed for unvaccinated challenged (UNCH) and unvaccinated unchallenged (UNUN) pigs. Microarray analysis revealed that UNCH group showed the most distinct expression profile for immune response genes, mainly for those genes involved in inflammation or immune cell trafficking. This fact was confirmed by real-time PCR, in which the greatest level of differential expression from this group were CD14, CD163, IL-8 and IL-12...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Niranjan Mishra, Rohit Kumar Khetan, Vijendra Pal Singh
Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Anja Sipka, Brianna Pomeroy, Suzanne Klaessig, Ynte Schukken
Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46(+)/CD3(-)) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escherichia (E.) coli. A small number of NK cells was detected in milk from quarters before and during an E. coli challenge. In vitro cultures of primary bovine mammary gland epithelial cells stimulated with UV irradiated E. coli induced significant migration of peripheral blood NK cells (pbNK) within 2h...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Juscivete F Fávero, Claiton I Schwertz, Pedro H Doleski, Daniela B R Leal, Gustavo Machado, Alessandra G Manzoni, Ester S da Silva, Mateus E Gabriel, Fernanda A Stedille, Ricardo Christ, Lenita M Stefani, Ricardo E Mendes, Aleksandro S da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate seric NTPDase and 5'nucleotidase activities of cattle naturally infected by Eurytrema coelomanticum, as well as to correlate them to histopathological lesions in the pancreas and the degree of parasitism. Blood samples and pancreas of 51 bovines were collected on a slaughterhouse in Southern Brazil: 33 from cattle naturally infected by E. coelomanticum (the Group A), and 18 from uninfected animals (the Group B). Infected animals showed an average of 532 parasites per pancreas...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Filomena Fiorito, Antonietta Cantiello, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Luigi Navas, Carmine Diffidenti, Luisa De Martino, Veeramani Maharajan, Fabio Olivieri, Ugo Pagnini, Giuseppe Iovane
Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) is a widespread cat pathogen inducing rhinitis, conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers. To alleviate acute FHV-1-induced disease, antiviral agents are used often with antibiotics. But sometimes, these treatments, as well as conventional doses of cytokines have moderate efficacy and/or collateral effects. Herein we have investigated the effects of low dose interleukin (IL)-12 plus interferon (IFN)-gamma, prepared by Sequential Kinetic Activated (SKA), on the treatment of FHV-1 infection...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Asako Ando, Atsuko Shigenari, Chihiro Kojima-Shibata, Mitsuru Nakajoh, Keiichi Suzuki, Hitoshi Kitagawa, Takashi Shiina, Hidetoshi Inoko, Hirohide Uenishi
By selective breeding for five generations, a Landrace line has been recently established to improve resistance to mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS), daily gain (DG), back fat thickness (BF), and plasma cortisol concentrations (COR). To clarify the involvement of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) polymorphisms in the selection process, we investigated possible associations of 11 SLA-class II haplotypes with selected traits or immune parameters. Pigs with the low-resolution SLA haplotype Lr-0.23 or Lr-0.13, which increased in frequency with the passage of generations, had less severe pathological lesions of MPS, increased leukocyte phagocytic activity, and higher white blood cell counts...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Jin Hyoung Kim, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf Hossain, Ajit Mahadev Patil, Jin Young Choi, Seong Bum Kim, Erdenebelig Uyangaa, Sang-Youel Park, John-Hwa Lee, Bumseok Kim, Koanhoi Kim, Seong Kug Eo
Japanese encephalitis (JE), characterized by extensive neuroinflammation following infection with neurotropic JE virus (JEV), is becoming a leading cause of viral encephalitis due to rapid changes in climate and demography. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in restricting neuroinvasion of peripheral leukocytes and virus, thereby regulating the progression of viral encephalitis. In this study, we explored the role of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating BBB integrity and JE progression using a conditional depletion model of CD11c(hi) DCs...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
E Jurado-Tarifa, A Torralbo, C Borge, M Cerdà-Cuéllar, T Ayats, A Carbonero, I García-Bocanegra
Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Dae Ho Kim, Yeon Soo Chung, Young Kyung Park, Soo-Jin Yang, Suk Kyung Lim, Yong Ho Park, Kun Taek Park
Antimicrobial-resistant (AR) enterococci have emerged as leading nosocomial pathogens. Transmission of AR Enterococci from animals to humans has been demonstrated. However, there is limited information on the transmission of enterococci from horses to humans. To address this issue, we characterized 260 enterococci isolated from horse-associated samples in Korea in 2013 based on their AR profiles and virulence traits. AR profiling revealed an average ratio of AR enterococci of 23.8%. Seven isolates (2.7%) were multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Thállitha S Vieira, Rafael F Vieira, Felipe S Krawczak, Herbert S Soares, Ana M Guimarães, Ivan R Barros-Filho, Mary Marcondes, Marcelo B Labruna, Alexander W Biondo, Odilon Vidotto
Although well established in dogs, Ehrlichia sp. infection has been scarcely reported in horses. The aim was to perform a comprehensive serological and molecular survey for the detection of Ehrlichia spp. in carthorses from Southern Brazil. Blood samples from 190 carthorses from Paraná State were sampled. Horses were also tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies were detected by a commercial rapid ELISA, and immunofluorescence antibody assays (IFA) with E...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Valentina Virginia Ebani, Guido Rocchigiani, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Simona Nardoni, Alessandro Leoni, Sandro Nicoloso, Francesca Mancianti
To estimate the prevalence of some zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in red deer (Cervus elaphus) living in Italian areas with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 60 red deer were tested by PCR for A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and piroplasms. Thirty-four (56.67%) animals resulted positive for one or more pathogens. In particular, 24 (40%) red deer were positive for A. phagocytophilum, 16 (26.67%) for Babesia divergens, 6 (10%) for C. burnetii, 2 (3...
August 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Edlainne P Ferreira, Odilon Vidotto, Jonatas C Almeida, Luana P S Ribeiro, Marcos V Borges, Walter H C Pequeno, Danilo T Stipp, Celso J B de Oliveira, Alexander W Biondo, Thállitha S W J Vieira, Rafael F C Vieira
Theileriosis is a worldwide protozoal tick-borne disease caused by Theileria equi, which may produce a variety of clinical signs and turn infected horses into lifetime carriers. This study has aimed to perform a serological and molecular detection of T. equi and associated factors in sports horses from six areas of northeastern Brazil. In overall, 59.6% horses were positive by indirect immunofluorescence assay and 50.4% by polymerase chain reaction. No significant association was found when presence of ticks, age, gender, anemia or total plasma proteins was analyzed with seropositivity and molecular techniques...
August 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Mohamed El-Azizi, Noha Farag, Nancy Khardori
The efficacy and use of biocides to eliminate pathogens in the health care environment are based on their testing against planktonic bacteria. In the environment, bacteria exist in biofilms, as they do on medical devices, and as planktonic or viable non-culturable forms as well. This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of four biocides against the biofilm and planktonic phases of nine common nosocomial bacteria. The bactericidal activity of the biocides against bacteria in the planktonic form was assessed using a broth microdilution technique...
August 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Lidia Gómez-Gascón, Fernando Cardoso-Toset, Carmen Tarradas, Jaime Gómez-Laguna, Alfonso Maldonado, Jens Nielsen, Alfonso Olaya-Abril, Manuel J Rodríguez-Ortega, Inmaculada Luque
The efforts made to develop vaccines against Streptococcus suis have failed because of lack of common antigens cross-reactive against different serotypes of this species. The cell wall-anchored proteins can be good vaccine candidates due to their high expression and accessibility to antibodies, among these, a cell-wall protein, DNA-nuclease (SsnA), present in most of the S. suis serotypes and clinical isolates collected from infected pigs, was selected. An experimental challenge against S. suis serotype 2 in a pig model was used to validate the efficacy of recombinant SsnA combined with aluminium hydroxide plus Quil A as adjuvants, previously tested in mice by our research group with good results...
August 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Jan Schinköthe, Heike Köhler, Elisabeth M Liebler-Tenorio
Oral infection of goats with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) resulted in a large variety of granulomas in organized gut-associated lymphatic tissues and intestinal lymph nodes. To characterize the cellular composition of granulomas, CD4(+), CD8(+), γδ, B lymphocytes and plasma, CD25(+), CD68(+), MHC-II(+), Ki67(+) and endothelial cells were labeled in consecutive frozen sections by immunohistochemistry and acid fast bacilli (AFB) by Kinyoun stain. Granulomas with extensive necrosis, little mineralization and variable numbers of AFB surrounded by many CD4(+) T cells, but only few epitheloid macrophages were observed in severely sick goats at 2-3mpi...
August 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Miao Zeng, Shun Chen, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng
Interferon (IFN)-induced myxovirus resistance (Mx) GTPases belong to the family of dynamin-like GTPases and control a diverse range of viruses. In this study, the identified goose Mx (goMx) mRNA is 2009bp long, shares partially conserved exons with other homologues, and shares highly conserved domains in its primary structure. The amino acid position 629 (629aa) of the goMx protein was identified as serine (Ser), in contrast to the Ser located at 631aa in chicken Mx, which is considered to be responsible for the lack of chicken Mx antiviral activity...
August 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Aline Aparecida Silva Barbosa, Alice Freitas Versiani, Larissa Fonseca da Cunha Sousa, Aline Silva de Miranda, Marcela Ribeiro Gasparini, Fátima Brant, Daniele Gonçalves Silva, Iracema Luisa Quintino-de-Carvalho, Frederico Marianetti Soriani, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Anilton César Vasconcelos, Lucíola da Silva Barcelos, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira, Fabiana Simão Machado, Edel Figueiredo Barbosa-Stancioli, Milene Alvarenga Rachid
The role of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in meningoencephalitis caused by Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) was evaluated by intracranial infection in C57BL/6 wild-type mice (WT) and SOCS2 deficient mice (SOCS2(-/-)). Both infected groups presented weight loss, ruffled fur and hunched posture. Additionally, infected SOCS2(-/-) mice showed swollen chamfer and progressive depression. Infected WT animals developed mild meningitis, characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells. Moreover, viral DNA was detected in liver and lung from infected WT group...
August 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
H Khaled, K Sidi-Boumedine, S Merdja, P Dufour, A Dahmani, R Thiéry, E Rousset, A Bouyoucef
Q fever, a commonly reported zoonosis worldwide, is caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium. The infection is often asymptomatic in ruminants, but it can lead to reproductive disorders with bacterial shedding into the environment. Between 2011 and 2013, a study was undertaken in small ruminant flocks in different regions of Algeria. A total of 35 flocks were visited and 227 sera and 267 genital swabs were collected from females after abortions or the lambing period to investigate Q fever infection...
August 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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