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Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127994/maedi-visna-virus-persistence-antigenic-variation-and-latency
#1
Hallgrímur Arnarson, Arnar Pálsson, Margrét Gudnadóttir, Valgerdur Andrésdóttir
Maedi-visna virus (MVV), a lentivirus of sheep, shares with other lentiviruses the ability to establish a lifelong infection. In this study five sheep were infected intravenously with MVV and housed together with a number of uninfected sheep for natural transmission. All virus isolates from ten sheep that had been infected naturally had multiple mutations in the principal neutralization domain in Env and were antigenic variants, while three of four isolates from the carrier sheep had identical sequences to the infecting strain and were not antigenic variants...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127993/molecular-prevalence-risk-factors-assessment-and-haemato-biochemical-alterations-in-hepatozoonosis-in-dogs-from-punjab-india
#2
Kaushlendra Singh, Harkirat Singh, Nirbhay Kumar Singh, Neeraj Kashyap, Naresh Kumar Sood, Shitanshu Shekar Rath
Hepatozoonosis caused by Hepatozoon canis is an important tick-borne disease of dogs in tropical and sub-tropical regions throughout the world. In the present study evaluation of blood samples collected from 225 dogs presented at Small Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab (India) was done for the presence of H. canis by PCR based assay targeting a portion of 18S rRNA gene. Of the total samples subjected to PCR, an amplicon of 666bp was detected in 13.78% samples whereas, routine blood smear examination revealed gamonts in 5...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127992/leishmania-infantum-exerts-immunomodulation-in-canine-kupffer-cells-reverted-by-meglumine-antimoniate
#3
A Rodrigues, D Santos-Mateus, G Alexandre-Pires, A Valério-Bolas, M Rafael-Fernandes, M A Pereira, D Ligeiro, J de Jesus, R Alves-Azevedo, S Lopes-Ventura, M Santos, A M Tomás, I Pereira da Fonseca, G Santos-Gomes
Kupffer cells (KC) are the liver macrophage population that resides in the hepatic sinusoids and efficiently phagocyte pathogens by establishing an intimate contact with circulating blood. KC constitute the liver host cells in Leishmania infection, nevertheless little is described about their role, apart from their notable contribution in granulomatous inflammation. The present study aims to investigate how canine KC sense and react to the presence of Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes by evaluating the gene expression of specific innate immune cell receptors and cytokines, as well as the induction of nitric oxide and urea production...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127991/arthropod-borne-agents-in-wild-orinoco-geese-neochen-jubata-in-brazil
#4
Karin Werther, Mayara de Cássia Luzzi, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Juliana Paula de Oliveira, José Roberto Ferreira Alves Junior, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Although Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) is an anatid species widely distributed in South America, scarce are the reports on the occurrence of arthropod-borne pathogens in this avian species. The present work aimed to verify, by serological and molecular methods, the occurrence of haemosporida piroplasmids and Anaplasmataceae agents in wild Orinoco geese captured in Brazil. Between 2010 and 2014, 62 blood samples were collected from free-living geese captured in the Araguaia River, Goiás State, Brazil. Six geese (10%) were seropositive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, showing titers ranging from 40 and 80...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127990/bartonella-bats-and-bugs-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Matthew J Stuckey, Bruno B Chomel, Eloi Claret de Fleurieu, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Chao-Chin Chang
Ecological, immunological, and epidemiological factors enable bats to transmit an increasingly recognized spectrum of zoonotic agents, and bartonellae are among those emerging pathogens identified in bats and their arthropod ectoparasites. Current data reveal a multifaceted disease ecology where diverse host species distributed around the world interact with a number of Bartonella spp. and several potential vectors. This review summarizes the methods and findings of studies conducted since 2005 to illustrate that Bartonella bacteremia varies by bat species, location, and other potential variables, such as diet with a very high prevalence in hematophagous bats...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127989/antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-the-reproductive-tract-microbiota-of-cows-and-sows
#6
Andrea Torres Luque, Candelaria Gonzalez Moreno, Sergio E Pasteris, José A Orden, Ricardo de la Fuente, María C Otero
Escherichia coli is a natural colonizer of the urogenital mucosa of healthy females; however it is one of the pathogens associated to reproductive failures in cows and sows. A better knowledge about the characteristics of native E. coli will allow us to differentiate them from pathogenic strains. Ninety autochthonous isolates from the reproductive tract of sows and cows were characterized to determine the phylogenetic profile, antibiotic resistance and virulence factors; also, comparisons between different breeding systems were performed...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127988/mycoplasma-ovis-infection-in-goat-farms-from-northeastern-brazil
#7
Carolina A L Machado, Odilon Vidotto, Francisco O Conrado, Nelson J R Santos, Jessica D M Valente, Iago C Barbosa, Patrícia W S Trindade, João L Garcia, Alexander W Biondo, Thállitha S W J Vieira, Rafael F C Vieira
Although Mycoplasma ovis (formerly Eperythrozoon ovis) has been described in small ruminants worldwide, data on M. ovis in goats remain scarce. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to i) determine the prevalence of hemoplasmas in goats, ii) identify the tick species parasitizing the animals, and iii) determine factors associated with infection in five dairy and three beef goat farms from the Paraíba State, northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 402 goats. Samples were screened for hemoplasmas using a pan-hemoplasma PCR...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916003/genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-wild-boars
#8
D Seinige, A Von Altrock, C Kehrenberg
We here report the occurrence of S. aureus in wild boars and characterize isolates genotypically and phenotypically in order to get knowledge about the occurrence of clonal lineages and genotypes in free-living wild animals. Forty-one S. aureus isolates obtained from 111 wild boars hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany, were investigated and compared to human and livestock isolates. The S. aureus belonged to multilocus sequence types ST1, ST7, ST30, ST133, ST425, ST804, ST890 and to the new ST3237, ST3238, ST3255 and ST3369...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916002/characterization-of-immune-response-in-staphylococcus-aureus-chronically-infected-bovine-mammary-glands-during-active-involution
#9
Carolina S Andreotti, Celina Baravalle, Sofía C Sacco, Melisa Lovato, Elizabet A L Pereyra, María S Renna, Hugo H Ortega, Luis F Calvinho, Bibiana E Dallard
The aim of this study was to characterize the immune response in Staphylococcus aureus chronically infected bovine mammary glands during active involution. Twenty-one Holstein non-pregnant cows in late lactation either uninfected or with chronic naturally acquired S. aureus intramammary infections (IMI) were included in this study. Cows were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 21 d after cessation of milking and samples for immunohistochemical analysis were taken. Protein expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 was significantly higher in S...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916001/giardia-and-cryptosporidium-infections-in-neonatal-reindeer-calves-relation-to-the-acute-phase-response
#10
Tarmo Niine, Kristel Peetsalu, Mauri Nieminen, Antti Oksanen, Timo Soveri, Toomas Orro
This longitudinal observational study was conducted to investigate the spontaneous effect of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections on acute phase response (APR) in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Finnish Lapland. Serum (n=609) and faecal samples (n=366) were collected from 54 reindeer calves aged zero to 33days. The samples were analysed for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, acute phase proteins (APP) and γ-globulins. Linear regression models were used to investigate associations of early Giardia infection (before 12days of life) with the response of APPs and acquiring of passive immunity...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916000/development-phenotype-and-function-of-non-conventional-b-cells
#11
REVIEW
J M B Prieto, M J B Felippe
Three populations of B cells develop in fetal life: B1, B2 and marginal zone B cells. B1 cells play important roles in innate immunity in contrast to B2 cells that perform the conventional roles in adaptive immunity. B1 cells were first identified in mice based on their expression of CD5 and spontaneous secretion of IgM. B1 cells were subsequently found to have unique developmental, phenotype, tissue distribution, and functional characteristics that differ from B2 cells. These phenotypic and functional differences allow B1 cells to play important roles in immunity and homeostasis, but be implicated in autoimmune disease...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915999/oxidative-stress-in-dairy-cows-seropositives-for-neospora-caninum
#12
Patrícia Glombowsky, Nathieli B Bottari, Vanderlei Klauck, Juscivete F Fávero, Natan M Soldá, Matheus D Baldissera, Gessica Perin, Vera M Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro S Da Silva
Bovine neosporosis is caused by the protozoan Neospora caninum and is one of the major causes of abortion in cows. Cattle are intermediate hosts of this parasite and may have asymptomatic or symptomatic infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress marker reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARS) levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST), adenosine deaminase (ADA), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in dairy cows seropositives for N...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915998/predictors-of-humoral-response-to-recommended-vaccines-in-hiv-infected-adults
#13
Olga Tsachouridou, Eirini Christaki, Lemonia Skoura, Adamantini Georgiou, Sideris Nanoudis, Dimitra Vasdeki, Maria-Anna Ntziovara, Georgia Kotoreni, Evropi Forozidou, Paraskevi Tsoukra, Georgios Germanidis, Symeon Metallidis
Humoral response to vaccination has been found to be inadequate in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We retrospectively assessed antibody responses to three routinely recommended vaccines, against hepatitis B, hepatitis A and S. pneumoniae, in HIV-infected individuals. Data regarding age at HIV diagnosis, years of infection, sex, nationality, HIV mode of transmission, CD4 cell count, nadir CD4 count, plasma viral load, HIV stage, insurance status, educational level and treatment with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) were collected...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915997/outbreak-of-anaplasmosis-associated-with-novel-genetic-variants-of-anaplasma-marginale-in-a-dairy-cattle
#14
Munir Aktas, Sezayi Özübek
During early lactation, dairy cows may present a transient immunosuppressive state and develop anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale. In this study, clinical anaplasmosis in dairy cattle in the Thrace region of Turkey was investigated with respect to within-herd prevalence, vertical transmission, and genetic diversity. In March and September 2015, thirty lactating cows showed primary clinical signs of anaplasmosis, including fever, anaemia, decreased milk yield, anorexia, and laboured breathing. Symptoms disappeared in most cows after administration of long-acting oxytetracycline, but nine of them (30%) died...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915996/alternative-strategy-for-visceral-leishmaniosis-control-hisak70-salmonella-choleraesuis-pulsed-dendritic-cells
#15
Gustavo Domínguez-Bernal, Abel Martínez-Rodrigo, Alicia Mas, M Mar Blanco, José A Orden, Ricardo De La Fuente, Javier Carrión
Here, we describe a novel approach that exploits an attenuated mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis as carrier to deliver a plasmid encoding protein HisAK70. Subsequently, dendritic cells (DCs) were pulsed with this vaccine vector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the prepared HisAK70-S. Choleraesuis-pulsed DCs (HisAK70-SAL DCs) against visceral leishmaniosis (VL). In our ex vivo model of infection, the prepared formulations could decrease parasite growth by up to 80% by augmenting the production of IL-12p40 and by reducing arginase activity (ARG)...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915995/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-feline-hemoplasmas-in-wild-felid-species-in-iran-in-the-middle-east
#16
Fereshteh Ghazisaeedi, Nahid Atyabi, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Saeid Tabatabaei, Iraj Ashrafi Tamai, Iman Memarian, Séverine Tasker
Three feline hemoplasma species exist in felids: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. The aims of the study were to determine the presence of, and molecularly characterize, any hemoplasmas in wild felids, including the endangered Persian leopard in Iran, the Middle East. Blood samples were collected from 19 wild felids, including three Persian leopards. Using species-specific hemoplasma PCRs and ELISA serological testing for feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), two Persian leopards were found to be infected with 'Ca...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750869/probiotic-lactobacillus-acidophilus-bacteria-or-synthetic-tlr2-agonist-boost-the-growth-of-chicken-embryo-intestinal-organoids-in-cultures-comprising-epithelial-cells-and-myofibroblasts
#17
Malgorzata Pierzchalska, Malgorzata Panek, Malgorzata Czyrnek, Anna Gielicz, Barbara Mickowska, Maja Grabacka
The intestinal epithelial cells reside in close proximity to myofibroblasts and microbiota, which are supposed to have an impact on intestinal stem cells fate and to influence processes of tissue maturation and regeneration. Mechanism underlying these phenomena and their diversity among vertebrates can be studied in 3D organoid cultures. We investigated the growth of chicken embryo intestinal epithelial organoids in Matrigel with and without Toll-like receptors (TLRs) stimulation. The organoid cultures contained also some myofibroblasts with potential to promote intestinal stem cell survival...
August 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750868/effect-of-colostrum-quantity-and-quality-on-neonatal-calf-diarrhoea-due-to-cryptosporidium-spp-infection
#18
K Arsenopoulos, A Theodoridis, E Papadopoulos
This study was conducted to assess the effect of colostrum quality and quantity on Cryptosporidium spp. calf diarrhoea in an intensive dairy cattle farm in Greece. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dairy calves randomly selected and born during all 4 seasons (March 2015 to May 2016) of the year. In total, 71% of the selected calves were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The statistical analysis revealed influence of colostrum quality on faecal score. Linear regression showed that the colostrum quantity during the first day of life was negatively associated with the number of Cryptosporidium spp...
August 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750867/west-nile-virus-infection-in-horses-indian-ocean
#19
E Cardinale, C Bernard, S Lecollinet, V M Rakotoharinome, J Ravaomanana, M Roger, M M Olive, D Meenowa, M R Jaumally, J Melanie, J M Héraud, S Zientara, C Cêtre-Sossah
The circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in horses was investigated in the Southwest Indian ocean. In 2010, blood samples were collected from a total of 303 horses originating from Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Seychelles and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. An overall seroprevalence of 27.39% was detected in the Indian Ocean with the highest WNV antibody prevalence of 46.22% (95% CI: [37.4-55.2%]) in Madagascar. The age and origin of the horses were found to be associated with the WNV infection risk...
August 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750866/two-novel-ehrlichia-strains-detected-in-amblyomma-tigrinum-ticks-associated-to-dogs-in-peri-urban-areas-of-argentina
#20
Gabriel L Cicuttin, M Nazarena De Salvo, Santiago Nava
The aim of this work was to describe two novel strains of Ehrlichia associated to Amblyomma tigrinum from Argentina. Molecular detection of agents belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae was performed targeting three different loci: 16S rRNA gene, dsb gene and a fragment of groESL heat shock operon. The results have shown that two different strains of Ehrlichia sp. associated to A. tigrinum are circulating in peri-urban areas of Argentina. The Ehrlichia strain detected in ticks from San Luis Province, named as Ehrlichia sp...
August 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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