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Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406285/clarithromycin-suppresses-induction-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-and-improves-pathological-changes-in-the-lungs-and-heart-of-mice-infected-with-influenza-a-virus
#1
Etsuhisa Takahashi, Irene L Indalao, Takako Sawabuchi, Keiko Mizuno, Satoko Sakai, Takashi Kimoto, Hyejin Kim, Hiroshi Kido
The influenza A virus (IAV)-cytokine-trypsin/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cycle is one of the important mechanisms of multiple organ failure in severe influenza. Clarithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. We analyzed the effects of clarithromycin on the induction of chemokines, cytokines, MMP-9, trypsin, vascular hyper-permeability and inflammatory aggravation in mice with IAV infection. IAV/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1) infection increased the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokines in serum, and MMP-9 and trypsin in serum and/or the lungs and heart...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406284/isolation-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-bartonella-species-from-rusa-deer-rusa-timorensis-in-thailand
#2
Decha Pangjai, Santaya Intachinda, Soichi Maruyama, Sumalee Boonmar, Hidenori Kabeya, Shingo Sato, Wimol Petkanchanapong, Wattanapong Wootta, Piyada Wangroongsarb, Maskiet Boonyareth, Watcharee Saisongkorh, Poom Preedakoon, Panupong Mahaprom, Chonlada Meesub, Pathom Sawanpanyalert
The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in deer in Thailand and to characterize the isolates by biochemical, morphological and genetic analysis. A total of 247 blood samples were collected from Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis) in a livestock breeding facility in Thailand. Bartonella bacteria were isolated in 3.6% of the blood samples. Three out of 110 (2.7%) males and 6 of 137 (4.4%) females were positive for Bartonella. A higher prevalence of Bartonella was observed in young deer under 4 years of age compared to adults over 4 years of age, but no Bartonella was isolated from deer over 8 years of age...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406283/novel-reassortant-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-influenza-a-viruses-in-vietnamese-quail-outbreaks
#3
Hien Dang Thanh, Van Trung Tran, Duc Tan Nguyen, Vu-Khac Hung, Wonyong Kim
Avian influenza A H5N6 virus is a highly contagious infectious agent that affects domestic poultry and humans in South Asian countries. Vietnam may be an evolutionary hotspot for influenza viruses and therefore could serve as a source of pandemic strains. In 2015, two novel reassortant H5N6 influenza viruses designated as A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI01/2015 and A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI03/2015 were isolated from dead quails during avian influenza outbreaks in central Vietnam, and the whole genome sequences were analyzed...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406282/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-species-isolated-from-hiv-aids-patients-in-southwest-of-iran
#4
Reza Ghafari, Abdollah Rafiei, Mehdi Tavalla, Parastoo Moradi Choghakabodi, Rohangez Nashibi, Reza Rafiei
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium among HIV/AIDS patients in southwest of Iran. Two hundred fifty faecal samples from HIV patients were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts using a conventional coproscopic approach. Such oocysts were detected in 18 (7.2%) out of 250 faecal samples. Genomic DNAs from 250 samples were then subjected to a nested-PCR-RFLP technique targeting different loci of 18S rRNA gene for species identification. Out of 250 samples, 27 (10...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406281/q-fever-epidemic-in-cayenne-french-guiana-epidemiologically-linked-to-three-toed-sloth
#5
Vincent Pommier de Santi, Sébastien Briolant, Aba Mahamat, Carole Ilcinkas, Denis Blanchet, Benoit de Thoisy, Yann Reynaud, Georges Hyvert, Jean-Lou Marié, Sophie Edouard, Bernard Davoust, Didier Raoult
A Q fever epidemic occurred in 2013 in a small military residential area in Cayenne, French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify Q fever risk factors. Confirmed acute Q fever case was defined as positive serology (IgM ≥ 50 and phase II IgG ≥ 200) and/or positive qPCR on serum or blood. In addition, wild mammals were captured at the study site and tested by serology and real-time PCR performed on blood, vaginal swabs and ticks. The attack rate was 20 percent (11/54). All the cases were symptomatic with fever >38...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406280/absence-of-protection-from-west-nile-virus-disease-and-adverse-effects-in-red-legged-partridges-after-non-structural-ns1-protein-administration
#6
Belén Rebollo, Francisco Llorente, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Javier Sarraseca, Carmina Gallardo, María Ángeles Risalde, Ursula Höfle, Jordi Figuerola, Ramón C Soriguer, Ángel Venteo, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero
The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a competent host for West Nile virus (WNV) replication and highly susceptible to WNV disease. With the aim to assess in this species whether the inoculation of non-structural protein NS1 from WNV elicits a protective immune response against WNV infection, groups of partridges were inoculated with recombinant NS1 (NS1 group) or an unrelated recombinant protein (mock group), and challenged with infectious WNV. A third group received no inoculation prior to challenge (challenge group)...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406279/hemotropic-mycoplasmas-infection-in-water-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-from-northeastern-brazil
#7
Nelson J R Santos, Danilo R B Brito, Hugo L Abate, Sonália F Paixão, Eduardo D S Soares, Thállitha S W J Vieira, João L Garcia, Rafael F C Vieira, Odilon Vidotto
Two species of hemotropic mycoplasmas (HM) are known to infect large domestic ruminants, Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos'. Although HM has been described in cattle worldwide, data in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) remain scarce. Accordingly, the aim was to determine the occurrence of HM in water buffaloes from northeastern Brazil. A total of 101/290 (34.83%) buffaloes were positive for HM (16 M. wenyonii alone, 6 'Ca. M. haemobos' alone and 79 both). This was the first report of M...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406278/association-of-tnf-%C3%AE-il-10-and-il-6-promoter-polymorphisms-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-and-their-household-contacts-of-younger-age-group
#8
Lavanya Joshi, Lakshmi Kiran Chelluri, Vijayalakshmi Valluri, Sumanlatha Gaddam
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes have been found to be involved in the clinical outcome of Tuberculosis. The present study was aimed to identify the high risk genotypes in Tuberculosis patients and their household contacts. A total of 490 subjects were studied which includes 150 active pulmonary tuberculosis patients (APTB), 190 household contacts (HHC) and 150 healthy controls (HC). The SNPs of TNF-α (-308A/G), IL-10(-1082G/A) and IL-6(-174G/C) were performed by ARMs PCR. The IL-10 GA genotype showed significant association in APTB and HHC and was 2...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406277/parasitic-load-and-histological-aspects-in-different-regions-of-the-spleen-of-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#9
Naiara Carvalho Teixeira Bagues, Cristiane Garboggini Melo de Pinheiro, Leila Andrade Bastos, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Lain Carlos Pontes-de-Carvalho, Washington L C Dos-Santos, Geraldo Gileno de Sá Oliveira
Leishmania infantum causes from subclinical infection to severe disease in humans and dogs. The spleen is one of the organs most affected by the infection. Although evidence exists that the parasitic load distribution and histological alterations may not be homogeneous in the affected organs of naturally infected individuals, it has not been formally demonstrated using the current techniques used for studying the disease. In six dogs naturally infected with Leishmania, parasitic load and histological changes were compared in samples collected from the lower, middle and upper third of the spleen...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406276/acute-phase-proteins-response-in-cats-naturally-infected-by-hemotropic-mycoplasmas
#10
Hugo Vilhena, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, José J Cerón, M Ramiro Pastorinho, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Josep Pastor, Ana C Silvestre-Ferreira
Information about the acute phase proteins (APP) response in cats naturally infected with hemoplasmas and in cats co-infected with different species of hemoplasmas is lacking. This study evaluated serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and albumin in 48 cats naturally infected with hemoplasmas, including 25 with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum and 23 co-infected with different hemoplasmas agents; and in 10 healthy control cats. Infected cats had significantly higher Hp and lower albumin than controls. Symptomatic cats had significantly higher SAA and Hp, and lower albumin than asymptomatic animals, and also than controls...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127994/maedi-visna-virus-persistence-antigenic-variation-and-latency
#11
Hallgrímur Arnarson, Arnar Pálsson, Margrét Gudnadóttir, Valgerdur Andrésdóttir
Maedi-visna virus (MVV), a lentivirus of sheep, shares with other lentiviruses the ability to establish a lifelong infection. In this study five sheep were infected intravenously with MVV and housed together with a number of uninfected sheep for natural transmission. All virus isolates from ten sheep that had been infected naturally had multiple mutations in the principal neutralization domain in Env and were antigenic variants, while three of four isolates from the carrier sheep had identical sequences to the infecting strain and were not antigenic variants...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127993/molecular-prevalence-risk-factors-assessment-and-haemato-biochemical-alterations-in-hepatozoonosis-in-dogs-from-punjab-india
#12
Kaushlendra Singh, Harkirat Singh, Nirbhay Kumar Singh, Neeraj Kashyap, Naresh Kumar Sood, Shitanshu Shekar Rath
Hepatozoonosis caused by Hepatozoon canis is an important tick-borne disease of dogs in tropical and sub-tropical regions throughout the world. In the present study evaluation of blood samples collected from 225 dogs presented at Small Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab (India) was done for the presence of H. canis by PCR based assay targeting a portion of 18S rRNA gene. Of the total samples subjected to PCR, an amplicon of 666bp was detected in 13.78% samples whereas, routine blood smear examination revealed gamonts in 5...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127992/leishmania-infantum-exerts-immunomodulation-in-canine-kupffer-cells-reverted-by-meglumine-antimoniate
#13
A Rodrigues, D Santos-Mateus, G Alexandre-Pires, A Valério-Bolas, M Rafael-Fernandes, M A Pereira, D Ligeiro, J de Jesus, R Alves-Azevedo, S Lopes-Ventura, M Santos, A M Tomás, I Pereira da Fonseca, G Santos-Gomes
Kupffer cells (KC) are the liver macrophage population that resides in the hepatic sinusoids and efficiently phagocyte pathogens by establishing an intimate contact with circulating blood. KC constitute the liver host cells in Leishmania infection, nevertheless little is described about their role, apart from their notable contribution in granulomatous inflammation. The present study aims to investigate how canine KC sense and react to the presence of Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes by evaluating the gene expression of specific innate immune cell receptors and cytokines, as well as the induction of nitric oxide and urea production...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127991/arthropod-borne-agents-in-wild-orinoco-geese-neochen-jubata-in-brazil
#14
Karin Werther, Mayara de Cássia Luzzi, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Juliana Paula de Oliveira, José Roberto Ferreira Alves Junior, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Although Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) is an anatid species widely distributed in South America, scarce are the reports on the occurrence of arthropod-borne pathogens in this avian species. The present work aimed to verify, by serological and molecular methods, the occurrence of haemosporida piroplasmids and Anaplasmataceae agents in wild Orinoco geese captured in Brazil. Between 2010 and 2014, 62 blood samples were collected from free-living geese captured in the Araguaia River, Goiás State, Brazil. Six geese (10%) were seropositive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, showing titers ranging from 40 and 80...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127990/bartonella-bats-and-bugs-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Matthew J Stuckey, Bruno B Chomel, Eloi Claret de Fleurieu, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Chao-Chin Chang
Ecological, immunological, and epidemiological factors enable bats to transmit an increasingly recognized spectrum of zoonotic agents, and bartonellae are among those emerging pathogens identified in bats and their arthropod ectoparasites. Current data reveal a multifaceted disease ecology where diverse host species distributed around the world interact with a number of Bartonella spp. and several potential vectors. This review summarizes the methods and findings of studies conducted since 2005 to illustrate that Bartonella bacteremia varies by bat species, location, and other potential variables, such as diet with a very high prevalence in hematophagous bats...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127989/antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-the-reproductive-tract-microbiota-of-cows-and-sows
#16
Andrea Torres Luque, Candelaria Gonzalez Moreno, Sergio E Pasteris, José A Orden, Ricardo de la Fuente, María C Otero
Escherichia coli is a natural colonizer of the urogenital mucosa of healthy females; however it is one of the pathogens associated to reproductive failures in cows and sows. A better knowledge about the characteristics of native E. coli will allow us to differentiate them from pathogenic strains. Ninety autochthonous isolates from the reproductive tract of sows and cows were characterized to determine the phylogenetic profile, antibiotic resistance and virulence factors; also, comparisons between different breeding systems were performed...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127988/mycoplasma-ovis-infection-in-goat-farms-from-northeastern-brazil
#17
Carolina A L Machado, Odilon Vidotto, Francisco O Conrado, Nelson J R Santos, Jessica D M Valente, Iago C Barbosa, Patrícia W S Trindade, João L Garcia, Alexander W Biondo, Thállitha S W J Vieira, Rafael F C Vieira
Although Mycoplasma ovis (formerly Eperythrozoon ovis) has been described in small ruminants worldwide, data on M. ovis in goats remain scarce. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to i) determine the prevalence of hemoplasmas in goats, ii) identify the tick species parasitizing the animals, and iii) determine factors associated with infection in five dairy and three beef goat farms from the Paraíba State, northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 402 goats. Samples were screened for hemoplasmas using a pan-hemoplasma PCR...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916003/genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-wild-boars
#18
D Seinige, A Von Altrock, C Kehrenberg
We here report the occurrence of S. aureus in wild boars and characterize isolates genotypically and phenotypically in order to get knowledge about the occurrence of clonal lineages and genotypes in free-living wild animals. Forty-one S. aureus isolates obtained from 111 wild boars hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany, were investigated and compared to human and livestock isolates. The S. aureus belonged to multilocus sequence types ST1, ST7, ST30, ST133, ST425, ST804, ST890 and to the new ST3237, ST3238, ST3255 and ST3369...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916002/characterization-of-immune-response-in-staphylococcus-aureus-chronically-infected-bovine-mammary-glands-during-active-involution
#19
Carolina S Andreotti, Celina Baravalle, Sofía C Sacco, Melisa Lovato, Elizabet A L Pereyra, María S Renna, Hugo H Ortega, Luis F Calvinho, Bibiana E Dallard
The aim of this study was to characterize the immune response in Staphylococcus aureus chronically infected bovine mammary glands during active involution. Twenty-one Holstein non-pregnant cows in late lactation either uninfected or with chronic naturally acquired S. aureus intramammary infections (IMI) were included in this study. Cows were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 21 d after cessation of milking and samples for immunohistochemical analysis were taken. Protein expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 was significantly higher in S...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916001/giardia-and-cryptosporidium-infections-in-neonatal-reindeer-calves-relation-to-the-acute-phase-response
#20
Tarmo Niine, Kristel Peetsalu, Mauri Nieminen, Antti Oksanen, Timo Soveri, Toomas Orro
This longitudinal observational study was conducted to investigate the spontaneous effect of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections on acute phase response (APR) in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Finnish Lapland. Serum (n=609) and faecal samples (n=366) were collected from 54 reindeer calves aged zero to 33days. The samples were analysed for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, acute phase proteins (APP) and γ-globulins. Linear regression models were used to investigate associations of early Giardia infection (before 12days of life) with the response of APPs and acquiring of passive immunity...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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