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Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131386/goats-are-susceptible-to-bubaline-alphaherpesvirus-1-infection-results-of-an-experimental-study
#1
M Camero, V Larocca, M Losurdo, E Lorusso, G Patruno, V N Staffa, V Martella, C Buonavoglia, M Tempesta
Herpesvirus infections are generally subjected to strong host species restriction, although virological and serological investigations have revealed the possibility of cross-species infections in closely related animal species. In this study we evaluated susceptibility of goats to infection by Bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1). Four goats were inoculated intra-nasally with BuHV-1 and monitored clinically, virologically and serologically for 42days. None of the goats displayed clinical signs although all the animals variably shed the virus by the nasal route during the first 12days after infection...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131385/comparison-of-three-feline-leukaemia-virus-felv-point-of-care-antigen-test-kits-using-blood-and-saliva
#2
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mark E Westman, Richard Malik, Evelyn Hall, Paul A Sheehy, Jacqueline M Norris
Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) can be a challenging infection to diagnose due to a complex feline host-pathogen relationship and occasionally unreliable test results. This study compared the accuracy of three point-of-care (PoC) FeLV p27 antigen test kits commonly used in Australia and available commercially worldwide (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV), using detection of FeLV provirus by an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay as the diagnostic gold standard...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131384/seroprevalence-of-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-equids-in-the-north-east-of-algeria-and-detection-of-virus-circulation-in-2014
#3
Ismail Lafri, Christine M Prat, Idir Bitam, Patrick Gravier, Mohamed Besbaci, Fayçal Zeroual, Meriem Hind Ben-Mahdi, Bernard Davoust, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart
West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral disease of wild birds transmitted by mosquitoes. Humans and equids can also be affected and suffer from meningoencephalitis. In Algeria, since the 1994 epidemic, no data on WNV circulation was available until 2012. In September 2012, a fatal human case of WNV neuro-invasive infection occurred in Jijel province. This study describes the first seroprevalence study of West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies conducted in the equine population in Algeria. During 2014, serum samples were collected from 293 equids (222 donkeys and 71 horses) asymptomatic and unvaccinated for WNV in three localities in Northeastern wetlands of Algeria...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131383/transcutaneous-immunization-of-streptococcus-suis-bacterin-using-dissolving-microneedles
#4
Kai-Jen Hsueh, Mei-Chin Chen, Li-Ting Cheng, Jai-Wei Lee, Wen-Bin Chung, Chun-Yen Chu
Vaccine delivery using microneedle (MN) patches is an easy, safe and painless alternative to traditional needle injections. In this study, we examined whether MN patches can enhance the efficacy of a Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) vaccine in a mouse model. Results showed that MNs can reach 200-250μm into the skin, a depth beneficial for targeted delivery of antigens to antigen-presenting cells in the epidermis and dermis. Vaccination with prime-boost of MN induced higher levels of IgG2a antibody titer, T cell proliferation, and TH1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) as compared to intramuscular (IM) injection...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131382/occurrence-of-canine-hemotropic-mycoplasmas-in-domestic-dogs-from-urban-and-rural-areas-of-the-valdivia-province-southern-chile
#5
Francisco Soto, Romina Walker, Maximiliano Sepulveda, Pedro Bittencourt, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Ananda Müller
This is the first study to investigate the occurrence, risk factors and hematological findings of hemoplasmas in dogs from Chile. Complete blood count and 16S rRNA conventional PCR for Mycoplasma spp. were performed in 278 blood samples from rural (n=139) and urban (n=139) dogs in Valdivia. Real time 16S rRNA PCR (qPCR) allowed species identification. Mycoplasma spp. occurrence was 24.8%. 'Candidatus M. haematoparvum' (CMhp) was identified in 12.2% and Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhc) in 11.9% dogs. It was not possible to identify species in two Mycoplasma spp...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131381/bartonella-bovis-and-candidatus-bartonella-davousti-in-cattle-from-senegal
#6
Mustapha Dahmani, Masse Sambou, Pierre Scandola, Didier Raoult, Florence Fenollar, Oleg Mediannikov
In Senegal, domestic ruminants play a vital role in the economy and agriculture and as a food source for people. Bartonellosis in animals is a neglected disease in the tropical regions, and little information is available about the occurrence of this disease in African ruminants. Human bartonellosis due to Bartonella quintana has been previously reported in Senegal. In this study, 199 domestic ruminants, including 104 cattle, 43 sheep, and 52 goats were sampled in villages from the Senegalese regions of Sine Saloum and Casamance...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131380/replication-of-neurovirulent-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-in-cd172a-monocytic-cells
#7
Kathlyn Laval, Jolien Van Cleemput, Katrien C Poelaert, Ivy K Brown, Hans J Nauwynck
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is responsible for respiratory disorders, abortion and myeloencephalopathy (EHM) in horses. Two pathotypes of EHV-1 strains are circulating in the field: neurovirulent (N) and non-neurovirulent (NN). For both strains, CD172a(+) monocytic cells are one of the main carrier cells of EHV-1 during primary infection, allowing the virus to invade the horse's body. Recently, we showed that EHV-1 NN strains showed a restricted and delayed replication in CD172a(+) cells. Here we characterize the in vitro replication kinetics of two EHV-1N strains in CD172a(+) cells and investigate if the replication of these strains is similarly silenced as shown for EHV-1 NN strains...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131379/encephalitozoon-cuniculi-in-rabbits-serological-screening-and-histopathological-findings
#8
Giovanni Maestrini, Emanuele Ricci, Carlo Cantile, Riccardo Mannella, Francesca Mancianti, Gisella Paci, Carlo D'Ascenzi, Stefania Perrucci
Serological prevalence of E. cuniculi infection was assessed in 183 rabbits from central Italy. In seropositive deceased rabbits, histopathological lesions were also evaluated. Sera from 118 rabbits from 6 intensive farms, 10 rabbits from 6 family farms, 16 rabbits from a zoo, 30 rabbits from 5 research laboratories and 9 pet rabbits from 9 different owners, were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were statistically analysed. Tissue samples from brain and kidney of 10 deceased rabbits were formalin-fixed and subsequently analysed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131378/multiplex-pcr-based-identification-of-streptococcus-canis-streptococcus-zooepidemicus-and-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-from-dogs
#9
M Moriconi, E Acke, D Petrelli, S Preziuso
Streptococcus canis (S. canis), Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies (S. dysgalactiae subspecies) are β-haemolytic Gram positive bacteria infecting animals and humans. S. canis and S. zooepidemicus are considered as two of the major zoonotic species of Streptococcus, while more research is needed on S. dysgalactiae subspecies bacteria. In this work, a multiplex-PCR protocol was tested on strains and clinical samples to detect S. canis, S. dysgalactiae subspecies and S...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131377/identification-of-otpr-regulated-srnas-in-brucella-melitensis-expressed-under-acidic-stress-and-their-roles-in-pathogenesis-and-metabolism
#10
Udayakumar S Vishnu, Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian, Paramasamy Gunasekaran, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are the small regulatory molecules that regulate various biological processes in bacteria. Though the functions of sRNAs are well documented, very little information is available on the sRNAs of Brucella spp. The otpR is the response regulator of a two-component regulatory system, which plays a significant role in Brucella virulence. In this study, we identified the sRNAs expressed in B. melitensis 16M and its otpR mutant under acidic stress from the RNAseq dataset. We identified 94 trans-encoded and 948 cis-encoded sRNAs in B...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131376/molecular-evidence-of-tick-borne-hemoprotozoan-parasites-theileria-ovis-and-babesia-ovis-and-bacteria-in-ticks-and-blood-from-small-ruminants-in-northern-algeria
#11
Atef Aouadi, Hamza Leulmi, Mehdi Boucheikhchoukh, Ahmed Benakhla, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
Using qPCR, standard PCR and/or sequencing, we investigated the presence of tick-associated microorganisms in ticks and blood from sheep and goats from Souk Ahras, Algeria. Borrelia theileri, was detected in (7/120, 5.8%) blood from sheep and (13/120, 10.8%) goats. Anaplasma ovis was screened in (38/73, 52%) Rhipicephalus bursa and (5/22, 22.7%) R. turanicus and in (74/120, 61.7%), (65/120, 54.2%) blood of sheep and goats respectively. Coxiella burnetii tested positive in R. bursa (4/73, 5.5%) and (7/120, 5...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131375/transmission-of-coxiella-burnetii-to-cage-mates-using-murine-animal-model
#12
Yassina Bechah, Didier Raoult
Aerosols from the products of abortions of infected animals with Coxiella burnetii were known to be the main source of infection in humans with this bacterium. However, little is known about the excretion of C. burnetii in the feces and urine of infected mice, or the dynamic of transmission between infected and healthy mice. To investigate whether C. burnetii can be excreted in the feces and urine of infected mice and whether transmission to uninfected cage mates occurs, male mice were inoculated with C. burnetii using a "whole body aerosol system" and feces and urine were collected different time points post-infection from these mice...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131374/salmonella-enteritidis-flagellar-mutants-have-a-colonization-benefit-in-the-chicken-oviduct
#13
Sofie Kilroy, Ruth Raspoet, An Martel, Leslie Bosseler, Corinne Appia-Ayme, Arthur Thompson, Freddy Haesebrouck, Richard Ducatelle, Filip Van Immerseel
Egg borne Salmonella Enteritidis is still a major cause of human food poisoning. Eggs can become internally contaminated following colonization of the hen's oviduct. In this paper we aimed to analyze the role of flagella of Salmonella Enteritidis in colonization of the hen's oviduct. Using a transposon library screen we showed that mutants lacking functional flagella are significantly more efficient in colonizing the hen's oviduct in vivo. A micro-array analysis proved that transcription of a number of flagellar genes is down-regulated inside chicken oviduct cells...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131373/molecular-epidemiological-investigation-of-brucella-melitensis-circulating-in-mongolia-by-mlva16
#14
Sung-Il Kang, Moon Her, Janchivdorj Erdenebaataar, Batbaatar Vanaabaatar, Hyorim Cho, So-Ra Sung, Jin Ju Lee, Suk Chan Jung, Yong Ho Park, Ji-Yeon Kim
Mongolia has a high incidence of brucellosis in human and animals due to livestock husbandry. To investigate the genetic characteristics of Mongolian B. melitensis, an MLVA (multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis)-16 assay was performed with 94 B. melitensis isolates. They were identified as B. melitensis biovar (bv.) 1 (67), 3 (10) and Rev. 1 vaccine strains (17) using a classical biotyping and multiplex PCR. In genotyping, three human isolates were grouped at 2 genotypes with sheep isolates, and it implies that B...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131372/diagnostic-accuracy-of-an-in-house-elisa-using-the-intermediate-species-leptospira-fainei-as-antigen-for-diagnosis-of-acute-leptospirosis-in-dogs
#15
Bruno Penna, Carla D Marassi, Hugo Libonati, Lorena Narduche, Walter Lilenbaum, Pascale Bourhy
Diagnosis of animal leptospirosis is still challenging. The microscopic agglutination test, is the current method for diagnosing leptospirosis. However, this technique requires specific equipment, highly trained staff and the maintenance of live cultures of several reference strains of Leptospira for use as antigens. Recently, an ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) employing a Leptospira fainei serovar Hurstbridge based antigen for the early diagnostic of human leptospirosis was developed. In this study we estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this test in identifying acute canine leptospirosis...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131371/two-years-of-surveillance-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-in-a-swine-herd-results-of-virological-serological-and-pathological-studies
#16
Javier Cappuccio, Marina Dibarbora, Inés Lozada, Alejandra Quiroga, Valeria Olivera, Marta Dángelo, Estefanía Pérez, Hernán Barrales, Carlos Perfumo, Ariel Pereda, Daniel R Pérez
Swine farms provide a dynamic environment for the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAVs). The present report shows the results of a surveillance effort of IAV infection in one commercial swine farm in Argentina. Two cross-sectional serological and virological studies (n=480) were carried out in 2011 and 2012. Virus shedding was detected in nasal samples from pigs from ages 7, 21 and 42-days old. More than 90% of sows and gilts but less than 40% of 21-days old piglets had antibodies against IAV. In addition, IAV was detected in 8/17 nasal swabs and 10/15 lung samples taken from necropsied pigs...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131370/detection-and-prevalence-of-four-different-hemotropic-mycoplasma-spp-in-eastern-north-carolina-american-black-bears-ursus-americanus
#17
Lori S H Westmoreland, Michael K Stoskopf, Ricardo G Maggi
Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are globally emerging, obligate parasitic, epierythrocytic bacteria that infect many vertebrates, including humans. Hemoplasma infection can cause acute life-threatening symptoms or lead to a chronic sub-clinical carrier state. Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. transmission, prevalence, and host specificity are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma species in blood from 68 free-ranging black bears from the eastern coast of North Carolina...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131369/neotropical-primary-bat-cell-lines-show-restricted-dengue-virus-replication
#18
Andrés Moreira-Soto, Claudio Soto-Garita, Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar
Dengue is the most widespread arboviral disease affecting humans. Bats are recognized carriers of emerging viral zoonoses and have been proposed as dengue reservoirs, since RNA/NS1 and/or antiviral antibodies have been detected. Yet, experimental inoculation of Artibeus bats failed to show virus replication. This conflicting results prevent drawing further conclusions of whether bats sustain dengue infection. To test bat cellular permissivity to dengue infection, we established primary bat embryonic cells from diverse organs and tissues of Artibeus jamaicensis, Molossus sinaloae, and Desmodus rotundus...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131368/a-live-attenuated-mutant-of-salmonella-montevideo-triggers-il-6-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-12-cytokines-that-co-related-with-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-required-for-reduction-of-challenge-bacterial-load-in-experimental-chickens
#19
Jonathan Lalsiamthara, John Hwa Lee
A live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo (SM) mutant JOL1599 was constructed by deletion of virulence-associated genes. The protective efficacy and immune response profiles of chickens immunized with JOL1599 were investigated. Immunized chickens demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG and lymphocyte proliferative responses (P≤0.05). Increased levels of IL-6, INF-γ, and IL-12 were also observed. Immunized birds strongly responded to infection by rapid stimulation of a CD4+ subset of T cells...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865272/proline-arginine-rich-pr-39-cathelicidin-structure-expression-and-functional-implication-in-intestinal-health
#20
REVIEW
Ravi Holani, Chaitanya Shah, Qahir Haji, G Douglas Inglis, Richard R E Uwiera, Eduardo R Cobo
Proline-Arginine-39 (PR-39) is a small cationic, proline and arginine rich, cathelicidin that plays an important role in the porcine innate immune system. Although PR-39 was first discovered in intestinal cell lysates of pigs, subsequent research has indicated that it is primarily expressed in bone marrow and other lymphoid tissues including the thymus and spleen, as well as in leukocytes. Mature PR-39 cathelicidin has anti-microbial activity against many gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria. PR-39 is also a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune system with recognized immunomodulatory, wound healing, anti-apoptotic, and pro-angiogenic functions...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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