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Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Daniel E Rensetti, Maia S Marin, Pedro E Morán, Anselmo C Odeón, Andrea E Verna, Sandra E Pérez
Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) types 1 and 5 are neuroinvasive. Cases of BoHV-1-induced encephalitis are not as frequent as those caused by BoHV-5. In this study, the capability of BoHV-5 to induce apoptosis in cell cultures and in the trigeminal ganglion during acute infection of experimentally-infected cattle was analyzed. Apoptotic changes in cell cultures agree with the ability of the viral strains to replicate in each cell line. Marked differences were observed between the in vitro induction of apoptosis by BoHV-1Cooper and BoHV-5 97/613 strains...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Mahmoud M Elnaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, Martina Sester, Samy A Khaliel, Mahavir Singh, Helmy A Torky, William C Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Amir Abdoli, Mohsen Arbabi, Majid Pirestani, Mehran Mirzaghavami, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Javid Sadraei
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two closely related protozoan parasites that have been detected from various species of bird hosts. However, little is known about the prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in crows. Hence, we examined the molecular frequency of N. caninum and T. gondii in the brain samples of hooded crows (Corvus cornix) that collected from different public parks of Tehran, Iran by nested-PCR method. We used the primers targeting the Nc5 and GRA6 genes for detection of N. caninum and T...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Nikola Hulinova Stromerova, Martin Faldyna
Mycobacterial infections in pigs are caused particularly by the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and these infections lead to great economic losses mainly within the countries with high pork meat production. The importance of the MAC infections in humans is rising because of its higher prevalence and also higher mortality rates particularly in advanced countries. In addition, treatment of the MAC infections in humans tends to be complicated because of its increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents. Several studies across Europe have documented the MAC occurrence in the slaughtered pigs - not only in their lymph nodes and tonsils, which are the most frequent, but also in the diaphragmas, other organs and not least in meat...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Lidia Gómez-Gascón, Inmaculada Luque, Carmen Tarradas, Alfonso Olaya-Abril, Rafael J Astorga, Belén Huerta, Manuel J Rodríguez-Ortega
Streptococcus suis is a major Gram-positive swine pathogen associated with a wide variety of diseases in pigs. The efforts made to develop vaccines against this pathogen have failed because of lack of common cross-reactive antigens against different serotypes. Nowadays the interest has moved to surface and secreted proteins, as they have the highest chances to raise an effective immune response because they are in direct contact with host cells and are really exposed and accessible to antibodies. In this work, we have performed a comparative immunosecretomic approach to identify a set of immunoreactive secreted proteins common to the most prevalent serotypes of S...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
M Rahal, D Tahir, C Eldin, I Bitam, D Raoult, P Parola
Coxiella burnetii, is an obligate intracellular bacterium which is present throughout the world. In humans, C. burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In cattle, the infection is suspected to cause stillbirths, retained fetal membranes, metritis and infertility. The birth products of ruminants shed huge amounts of bacteria, and are considered a major source for human infection. The present study was designed to search for the presence of C. burnetii in placental tissues collected from aborted and normal calving dairy cows in Algeria, using molecular tools...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Mehdi Boucheikhchoukh, Maureen Laroche, Atef Aouadi, Loubna Dib, Ahmed Benakhla, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
Recent studies have reported the reliability of MALDI-TOF MS for arthropod identification, including fresh or alcohol-preserved ticks based on leg-derived mass spectra. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of alcohol-preserved Algerian ticks collected from different domestic and wild hosts. Secondly, we conducted a molecular survey to detect the presence of bacterial DNA in all ticks that were previously subjected to MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 2635 ixodid and 1401 argasid ticks belonging to 9 distinct species were collected in nine different regions of northeastern Algeria...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Wei Yee Chan, Elizabeth E Hickey, Manouchehr Khazandi, Stephen W Page, Darren J Trott, Peter B Hill
Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial stewardship are of ever-increasing importance in veterinary medicine. Multidrug-resistant infections of the canine skin and ear continue to emerge, but the use of antibiotic classes of critical importance to human medicine may not represent good antimicrobial stewardship. Repurposing of old drugs that are not used in human medicine is one approach that addresses both these issues. In this study, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of monensin for 111 bacterial and yeast canine otitis isolates was determined using microdilution methodology according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Joshua Kamani, Shimon Harrus, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Harold Salant, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Gad Baneth
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of pathogenic and endosymbiont apicomplexans in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) infesting 185 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel using PCR assay and sequencing approach. Two pathogens, Hepatozoon felis and Babesia vogeli and an endosymbiont Steinina ctenocephali were detected in 1.9%, 0.2% and 5.8% of 685 C. felis evaluated respectively. There was a significant association (p < 0.05) between the prevalence of H. felis and the sex of cats hosting the fleas as well as the season of sampling but not for age or health status of the cats or sex of the fleas tested...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Joycy F S Dos Santos, Saulo R Tintino, Thiago S de Freitas, Fábia F Campina, Irwin R de A Menezes, José P Siqueira-Júnior, Henrique D M Coutinho, Francisco A B Cunha
Staphylococcus aureus has been reported as one of the most difficult to treat. In the search for new treatment alternatives, isolated plant substances such as phenolic compounds, have demonstrated the ability to reverse bacterial resistance. The present study aims to evaluate the inhibitory action of caffeic acid and gallic acid on efflux pumps from S. aureus resistant strains. The broth microdilution assay was carried out to obtain the MICs of caffeic acid and gallic acid while the efflux pump inhibition test was assessed through the reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration of the antibiotic and ethidium bromide...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Mohamed Barkallah, Yaakoub Gharbi, Mariem Hmani, Zouhir Mallek, Michel Gautier, Radhouane Gdoura, Imen Fendri
In this study, we conducted an investigation to determine the true prevalence of coxiellosis in sheep in central-eastern Tunisia. A total of 492 veterinary samples taken from 110 flocks were screened for coxiellosis using IS1111-based real-time PCR assay. Sheep sera were tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on molecular and serological results, the true adjusted animal and herd-level prevalence of coxiellosis were 11.8% and 20.21%, respectively. Bacterial excretion was observed in 17 flocks, and 19 females showed evidence of Coxiella burnetii shedding (100%)...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Cleber Costa de Martini, Jéssica Thomé de Andrade, Stéfani Karin Martiniano de Almeida, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira Silva, Flavia de Rezende Eugenio, Paulo Sergio Patto Dos Santos, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the death of the Leishmania parasite and regulation of apoptosis. We quantified the frequency of cells producing NO and its levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), leukocytes from spleen in Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) symptomatic dogs and correlated NO levels with apoptosis and parasite load in the spleen. The percentage of NO+ cells and CD14+/NO+ was higher in PBMC and spleen cells in infected dogs than in controls. The levels of NO+ and CD14+/NO+ cells was higher in PBMC, but lower spleen of dogs infected than compared to control...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Mustapha Dahmani, Bernard Davoust, Mohamed Seghir Benterki, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Etsuhisa Takahashi, Irene L Indalao, Takako Sawabuchi, Keiko Mizuno, Satoko Sakai, Takashi Kimoto, Hyejin Kim, Hiroshi Kido
The influenza A virus (IAV)-cytokine-trypsin/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cycle is one of the important mechanisms of multiple organ failure in severe influenza. Clarithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. We analyzed the effects of clarithromycin on the induction of chemokines, cytokines, MMP-9, trypsin, vascular hyper-permeability and inflammatory aggravation in mice with IAV infection. IAV/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1) infection increased the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokines in serum, and MMP-9 and trypsin in serum and/or the lungs and heart...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Decha Pangjai, Santaya Intachinda, Soichi Maruyama, Sumalee Boonmar, Hidenori Kabeya, Shingo Sato, Wimol Petkanchanapong, Wattanapong Wootta, Piyada Wangroongsarb, Maskiet Boonyareth, Watcharee Saisongkorh, Poom Preedakoon, Panupong Mahaprom, Chonlada Meesub, Pathom Sawanpanyalert
The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in deer in Thailand and to characterize the isolates by biochemical, morphological and genetic analysis. A total of 247 blood samples were collected from Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis) in a livestock breeding facility in Thailand. Bartonella bacteria were isolated in 3.6% of the blood samples. Three out of 110 (2.7%) males and 6 of 137 (4.4%) females were positive for Bartonella. A higher prevalence of Bartonella was observed in young deer under 4 years of age compared to adults over 4 years of age, but no Bartonella was isolated from deer over 8 years of age...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Hien Dang Thanh, Van Trung Tran, Duc Tan Nguyen, Vu-Khac Hung, Wonyong Kim
Avian influenza A H5N6 virus is a highly contagious infectious agent that affects domestic poultry and humans in South Asian countries. Vietnam may be an evolutionary hotspot for influenza viruses and therefore could serve as a source of pandemic strains. In 2015, two novel reassortant H5N6 influenza viruses designated as A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI01/2015 and A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI03/2015 were isolated from dead quails during avian influenza outbreaks in central Vietnam, and the whole genome sequences were analyzed...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Reza Ghafari, Abdollah Rafiei, Mehdi Tavalla, Parastoo Moradi Choghakabodi, Rohangez Nashibi, Reza Rafiei
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium among HIV/AIDS patients in southwest of Iran. Two hundred fifty faecal samples from HIV patients were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts using a conventional coproscopic approach. Such oocysts were detected in 18 (7.2%) out of 250 faecal samples. Genomic DNAs from 250 samples were then subjected to a nested-PCR-RFLP technique targeting different loci of 18S rRNA gene for species identification. Out of 250 samples, 27 (10...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Vincent Pommier de Santi, Sébastien Briolant, Aba Mahamat, Carole Ilcinkas, Denis Blanchet, Benoit de Thoisy, Yann Reynaud, Georges Hyvert, Jean-Lou Marié, Sophie Edouard, Bernard Davoust, Didier Raoult
A Q fever epidemic occurred in 2013 in a small military residential area in Cayenne, French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify Q fever risk factors. Confirmed acute Q fever case was defined as positive serology (IgM ≥ 50 and phase II IgG ≥ 200) and/or positive qPCR on serum or blood. In addition, wild mammals were captured at the study site and tested by serology and real-time PCR performed on blood, vaginal swabs and ticks. The attack rate was 20 percent (11/54). All the cases were symptomatic with fever >38...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Belén Rebollo, Francisco Llorente, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Javier Sarraseca, Carmina Gallardo, María Ángeles Risalde, Ursula Höfle, Jordi Figuerola, Ramón C Soriguer, Ángel Venteo, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero
The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a competent host for West Nile virus (WNV) replication and highly susceptible to WNV disease. With the aim to assess in this species whether the inoculation of non-structural protein NS1 from WNV elicits a protective immune response against WNV infection, groups of partridges were inoculated with recombinant NS1 (NS1 group) or an unrelated recombinant protein (mock group), and challenged with infectious WNV. A third group received no inoculation prior to challenge (challenge group)...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Nelson J R Santos, Danilo R B Brito, Hugo L Abate, Sonália F Paixão, Eduardo D S Soares, Thállitha S W J Vieira, João L Garcia, Rafael F C Vieira, Odilon Vidotto
Two species of hemotropic mycoplasmas (HM) are known to infect large domestic ruminants, Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos'. Although HM has been described in cattle worldwide, data in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) remain scarce. Accordingly, the aim was to determine the occurrence of HM in water buffaloes from northeastern Brazil. A total of 101/290 (34.83%) buffaloes were positive for HM (16 M. wenyonii alone, 6 'Ca. M. haemobos' alone and 79 both). This was the first report of M...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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